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INDIAN HIGHWAYS

A REVIEW OF ROAD AND ROAD TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT


Volume 42

Number 1

January 2014

Contents

ISSN 0376-7256

Page
2-3
4

From the Editors Desk - Roads as a Means to Manage Food Inflation


Important Announcement-74th Annual Session to be
Held at Guwahati from 18th to 22nd January 2014

Short Panelled Concrete Pavement in Built-Up Area


Rajib Chattaraj and B.B. Pandey

13

Distresses in Concrete Pavement : A Case Study of Indore Byepass


Vandana Tare and Akanksha Asati

20

Feasibility of providing A Skywalk for Pedestrian in Chandni Chowk, Delhi


Purnima Parida, Jiten Shah and S. Gangopadhyay

30

Assessing Liquefaction Potential by CPT/Shear Wave Velocity Method and Evaluating Effect of
Liquefied Soil on Foundation Design
Bharat Katkar and Poonam Pendhari

44

Effect of Pedestrian Cross - Flow on Capacity of Urban Arterials


Satish Chandra, G. Srinivasa Rao and Ashish Dhamaniya

52

Optimum Maintenance Predictions and Derivation of Transition Probability Matrices for Bridge Deterioration Modeling
S.R. Katkar and Prashant P. Nagrale

66

Road Safety Audit and Safety Impact Assessment


S.K. Chaudhary

76-80

Circular Issued by MORT&H

81

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow

82

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Kanpur

83

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow

84

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Madurai

85

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Tirunelveli

86

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Lucknow

87-88

IRC Membership Form

The Indian Roads Congress


E-mail: secretarygen@irc.org.in/indianhighways@irc.org.in

Founded : December 1934


IRC Website: www.irc.org.in

Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road,


New Delhi - 110 011
Tel : Secretary General: +91 (11) 2338 6486
Sectt. : (11) 2338 5395, 2338 7140, 2338 4543, 2338 6274
Fax : +91 (11) 2338 1649

Kama Koti Marg, Sector 6, R.K. Puram


New Delhi - 110 022
Tel : Secretary General : +91 (11) 2618 5303
Sectt. : (11) 2618 5273, 2617 1548, 2671 6778,
2618 5315, 2618 5319, Fax : +91 (11) 2618 3669

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
Edited and Published by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi. The responsibility of the
contents and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author/s concerned. IRC and the Editor disclaim responsibility
and liability for any statement or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the authors. The opinions expressed in the
papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IRC.

From the Editors Desk

ROADS AS A MEANS TO Manage FOOD INFLATION


Dear Readers,
First of all, I wish A Very Happy & Prosperous New Year 2014 to all the esteem readers of
Indian Highways.
Do the good roads and efficient road connectivity have a bearing on supply chain management?
It may be a debatable issue for some and to some it may be more like a statement. One fact which
remains undisputed is that the road is the basic transportation means and its efficiency to a larger
extent influences the economic activities and development of the region.
Over the last few years, the country is facing the vagaries of high fluctuations in the prices of
food commodity including the perishable items like fruits & vegetables. This year the impact
has been remarkably visible. The food commodity is the basic essential need of the mankind and
high inflation in this segment severely affects the majority of the population and destabilizes the
economic growth, which means the other economic activities gets impacted-some to a major extent
and some to a lesser extent. What role and to what extend the road sector can & should play its
imperative role? Not much thought has been given to it but time has come when a serious thought
is required to be given to this aspect.
The roads lead to spread of civilization. The spread of civilization means more production required
for various segments of commodities. The demand & supply governs the pricing and simultaneously
the economic viability of the producer/producing entity. However, one segment of the commodity
i.e. food segment is witnessing a continuous increase in demand because of not only spread of
civilization but also because of increasing aspirations & related demand creation. The road perhaps
provides the easiest and the cheapest means of connecting the producing/production areas with the
consuming/consumer areas. Some may argue that railway is the cheapest mode of transportation
of commodities but it cannot compete with the flexibility and the better linkage connectivity of the
roads. The cost factor to a greater degree can be accommodated if the road connectivity is made
more efficient coupled with sustainability. The inclusiveness, which the road provides, cannot be
provided by any other mode of transport. Therefore, it is preferable and also high time that the road
development programmes are given special impetus and the due dedicated attention. The sector
also requires conceptualization with due diligence. The delivery system requires a revisit to ensure
that the projects are delivered not only in the prescribed time schedule but at the shortest possible
time span. There have been some instances where on the one hand farmers of the producing areas
are facing huge oversupply of the fruit/vegetable resulting in highly depressed prices and on the
other hand at the same time in the consuming areas/cities, the consumers (the people) are suffering
2

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

EDITORIAL
from high prices of the same fruit/vegetable due to poor arrival of the produce. Dont you think that
better road connectivity and road transportation system would have helped in creating a win-win
situation for both the farmers (the producers) and the people in the cities (the consumers)? It is not
limited to one or two instances but if deeply evaluated the repeated instance of mismatch happening
between demand and supply of the food articles which perceptibly can be addressed in a better
manner if an efficient and dependable road transportation system is in place.
The worlds biggest rural road programme i.e. PMGSY is bearing its good result in the rural areas in
the country and the high growth rate being experienced by consumers good industry is a testimony
of the same. The rural areas are being provided with good roads but their proper integration and
inter linkages with the higher category of roads need attention as the same may help to a greater
extend the fastest movement of agricultural produce to the consumer areas. This all the more
necessitates that the stalled/delayed road sector schemes/projects are completed at the earliest. No
one may dispute that the slowness in the road sector has a cascading impact on other schemes &
sector of economy. In addition to arresting the slowness in this sector, the changing scenario also
demands for revisiting the inter linkages of the road sector development programmes with other
sector development programmes especially the one related to creation of storage including cold
storage facilities, etc. If the same are created along the arterial road routes, it may perhaps bring
the cheers and smile on the faces of all and may also perhaps help in better management of food
inflation.
Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will
Mahatama Gandhi
Father of the Nation

Place: New Delhi 


Dated: 19th December, 2013

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Vishnu Shankar Prasad


Secretary General

Important Announcement
74th ANNUAL SESSION TO BE HELD AT GUWAHATI
from 18th to 22nd JANUARY 2014
On the invitation of Government of Assam, the 74th Annual Session of the Indian Roads Congress will be
held at Guwahati (Assam) from 18th to 22nd January, 2014. The Invitation Booklet containing the Tentative
Programme, Registration Form, Accommodation Form etc. has already been sent to all the members and the
same is also available in our website www.irc.org.in. Accommodation is available on first come first serve
basis.
It is expected that more than 3000 Highway Engineers from all over the country and abroad will attend this
Session. During the Annual Session of IRC, there has been a practice for various firms/organizations to
make Technical Presentations on their products/technologies & case studies (with innovative construction
methods or technologies or having special problems requiring out of the box thinking and special solutions).
The presenters will get an opportunity to address a large gathering of highway professionals from Private
Sector as well as decision makers in the Govt. Sector. These presentations evoke lively interactions among
the participants.
A time slot of about 15 minutes is normally allocated for each Technical Presentation to be made through
Power Point. Time is also given for floor interventions. Audio-visual equipment is made available at the
venue for these Presentations. During such Technical Presentation Session no other meetings will be
held parallel so as to ensure maximum attendance during the Technical Presentation Session. The
stakeholders are, therefore, requested to participate in the event and book the slots at the earliest.
Interested Organizations may write to IRC conveying their willingness for participation and send the topic
of their Technical Presentation by E-mail at journal@irc.org.in or through Speed Post alongwith a Demand
Draft for Rs.50,000/- (Rupees Fifty Thousand only) drawn in favour of Secretary General, Indian Roads
Congress, New Delhi latest by 5th January, 2014 so that necessary arrangements can be made by IRC.
Requests received after 5th January, 2014 will not be entertained. Since the time slot available is limited, the
interested firms/organizations may reserve the slots at the earliest instead of waiting for the last date.

Attention Invited
For any enquiry about the 74th Annual Session like Registration, Membership etc. please address to
Secretary General, (Kind Attn. Shri D. Sam Singh, Under Secretary) Indian Roads Congress,
Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022. Phone + 91 11 26185273, 26185315, 26185319,
E-mail: secretarygen@irc.org.in, or contact the following officers:
Registration

Membership

Technical Presentation

Accommodation and Technical


Exhibition

Shri S.K. Chadha


Under Secretary (I/C)
Phone: + 91 11 2338 7140
E-mail: annualsession@irc.org.in,
ircannualsession@gmail.com

Shri Mukesh Dubey


Section Officer
Phone: + 91 11 2338 7759
E-mail: membership@irc.org.in

Shri S.C. Pant


Section Officer
Phone: + 91 11 2618 5273
E-mail: journal@irc.org.in

Shri Suryya Kr. Baruah


Local Organizing Secretary &
SE, Building Circle -I, Highways,
Guwahati- 641 018 (Assam)
Phone: 0361-266 9873
M.: +91-98640 33268
E-mail: 74thircguwahati@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Short panelled Concrete pavement in Built-Up Area


Rajib Chattaraj* and B.B. Pandey**

ABSTRACT
Bituminous roads in built up areas are damaged in monsoon due
to poor drainage. Cement concrete pavements become the obvious
choice in such locations. Short panelled Concrete pavements
develop much lower wheel load stresses than the conventional
ones and require lower thickness. The paper describes construction
of short panelled concrete pavements over stone set pavements in
a built up area in Burdwan district, West Bengal. Stress analysis
by Finite Element shows that such a pavement may have a long
life due to much lower stresses. The cost of the pavement is a
little higher than the bituminous pavements but far lower than
the conventional concrete pavements whereas the durability is
expected to be much higher than bituminous pavement, and can
be same as that of conventional concrete pavement.

INTRODUCTION

Bituminous pavements in built up areas are usually


subjected to adverse moisture conditions due to
inadequate and clogged drainage resulting in heavy
damage during every monsoon though the proportion
of traffic carrying heavy loads is not high. Concrete
pavements constructed in different cities in India
with inadequate drainage have performed well but the
initial cost of the conventional concrete pavement is
quite high because of higher thickness. A new type
of thinner concrete pavement with shorter panel
size similar to the white topping over bituminous
pavements as per IRC:SP:76-2008(1) can be used in
the construction of concrete pavements for village
roads and city streets because of low flexural stresses
caused by shorter panel sizes.
Such pavements may be termed as Panelled concrete
pavement. Thinner concrete pavements in the form of
short slabs of dimensions 0.5 m 0.5 m to 2.0 m
2.0 m formed by creating weakness by saw cutting
to one third depths can be a low cost option for a
durable pavement. White topping with short panels

has been used as overlay over damaged bituminous


pavements after necessary repair at many locations
in Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore etc. and these
measures have been a success. Indian Roads Congress
has brought out a guideline IRC:SP:76-2008(1) for
thickness design.
Using similar concept, concrete slab with short panels
formed by saw cutting to one third the depth of slab
thickness can be laid over the granular or cement
treated sub base or any other non-conventional type
like stone brick pavement for the construction of road
pavements at a lower cost than a conventional concrete
pavement. Type of subbase should depend upon the
traffic they carry. Cemented subbases are necessary for
heavy traffic condition. Cement concrete pavements
constructed in cities over water bound macadam have
performed well even under poor drainage condition.
The present paper describes the design aspect and
construction of a short panelled concrete pavement
over a road crust consisting of stone bricks as well
as premix carpet over granular layers with poor
drainage condition for a street in a small town in
Burdwan district of West Bengal. Though heavy
traffic is not heavy, the drainage condition is poor
and bituminous surfacing was getting damaged
frequently. It is expected that a pavement made up of
short panelled concrete pavement would last much
longer in spite of poor drainage condition due to low
proportion of heavy vehicles. The new type of concrete
pavement termed as Panelled Concrete Pavement is of
size 1.0 m 1.0 m similar to white topping(1) was
used in the construction in the project. Construction
details and checks for the safety of pavements against
cracking due to wheel load have been examined. The

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., West Bengal, E-mail: chattarajrajib@gmail.com

**

Advisor, Sponsored Research and Industrial Consultancy and Former Professor and Head, Civil Engineering Dept.,
IIT Kharagpur, E-mail: bbpandey40@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
constructed pavement completed in March 2012, has
been performing well during the last two years in spite
of two heavy monsoons after the construction.
2

Review of literature

Examples of panelled pavements over granular


or cementitious bases are limited. Most concrete
pavements with short slabs are laid as overlays over
milled bituminous pavements and the overlay is
generally assumed(1) to be bonded to the bituminous
base. A number of concrete pavements (2-9) with
panels of size 0.5 m x 0.5 m to 1.5 m x 1.5 m
with thickness from 50 mm to 150 mm have been
constructed in USA including India. Such pavements
laid as overlays over damaged bituminous pavements
after necessary repair are known as white topping.
Bonding of concrete slab with the milled bituminous
surface was considered in the analysis. No analytical
design method is available currently. An approximate
design method is suggested in IRC:SP:76-2008(1).
There is plenty of gap in the knowledge about the
values of flexural stresses caused by wheel loads that
may develop in the slab due to wheel load.
3 Analysis
3.1 If a pavement is made of small concrete blocks
as shown in Fig. 3.1, there is only compressive stress
at the bottom.

If the size of the slab is increased, tensile stresses are


caused in the slab due to the bending moment from
the overhanging part of the slab beyond the wheel
contact area caused by the reaction from the soil/
foundation. For wall or column, the foundation slab
is thick and the deflection caused by loads is nearly
constant implying nearly uniform reaction from the
foundation soil. Since the deflection of the pavement
slab is larger near the points of load application and
decreases with distance from the loaded area, the
reactive pressure that is proportional to the deflection
is not constant. Three dimensional finite element
method is the only method of stress analysis in such
slabs of finite dimension. The foundation is considered
as a Winkler foundation, also known as Dense Liquid
foundation, and the pressure at a point is proportional
to the deflection caused by the slab and is given as
p = k 

... 1

Where,

p = pressure on the slab from the soil, MPa

k = modulus of subgrade reaction, MPa/m

= deflection of the slab, m

3.2 Fig. 3.3 shows a 4.0 m 4.0 m pavement


consisting of sixteen panels each a metre in length and
width with one third depth from the surface saw cut to
create a plane of weakness to induce full depth cracks
to form interlocking panels due to zigzag cracks.

Fig. 3.1 Compressive Pressure at the Bottom

Fig. 3.2 Tensile Stresses in Slab due to Bending


Moment in a Large Bottom

Fig. 3.3 4.0 m 4.0 m pavement with 1.0 m 1.0 m Panels


formed by Saw Cutting to one third depth of the
Slab Saw Cut

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Stress is analysed by placing a dual wheel carrying a
load of 50 kN at a tyre pressure of 0.8 MPa tangential
to an edge as shown in Fig. 3.3. The other dual wheel
assembly of the concerned axle would be about 2.00 m
away from the centre of the dual wheel causing little
interference in stresses caused by the loaded panel
shown in Fig. 3.3. The slabs may have load transfer
at the weakened saw cut joints over a long period of
time because of lower panel size. If there are plenty
of overloaded vehicles, the interlocking behaviour of
joints may decrease with time and load transfer may
become negligible across a joint towards the terminal
stage of the pavement life. It is, therefore, safer to
compute stresses considering that there is no load
transfer through the joints. If a pavement is laid over a
cemented subbase, bonding may be weak, particularly
when the concrete slab is cast after curing of the
cemented subbase. ANSYs Finite Element Software
has been used for stress analysis. Each panel of size
1.0 m 1.0 m and depth 150 mm is divided into fine
mesh of size 80 mm size in each direction. The corner
and edge springs of the Winkler foundation have their
stiffnesses one fourth and half of those of interior ones
respectively. Solid 45 element and combino 14 spring
element of ANSY12 were used for the analysis.

loaded vehicles are also expected. Axle load data is


not available. Cross sections of the two road sections
are shown in Figs. 4.1 (a) and (b).

Photo 1 Dilapidated Condition of the road during


Rainy Season.

4 Site details
4.1 The site is located in Mankar town, Burdwan
district of West Bengal, 140 km westwards from
Kolkata. The work of short panelled concrete
pavement was done on a 600 meter long stretch of
very bad conditioned road. The first 400 meter stretch
of the road was constructed with 150 mm thick jhama
brick consolidation, 150 mm thick base course (WBM)
and 75 mm thick stone brick on top and the rest
200 meter length of road was topped with thin premix
carpet and seal coat with the same under layers. It
is located in a built up area which is subjected to
water logging during the monsoon bringing about
damage and depression on the stone brick surface
and large ditches to the premix carpeted surface
(Photo 1, 2 & 3). The road carries traffic of about
428 Commercial Vehicles per day and some heavily

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Photo 2 Pre work Condition of the Pavement with Poor


Drainage.

Photo 3 Stone Brick Set Pavement with Damaged Spots

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 4.1 Cross Sections of two Stretches of Existing Road


Overlaid with 100 mm of M 10 Lean Concrete and 150 mm of
Panelled M-40 Grade PQC

4.2 It was decided to construct a concrete pavement


of 4.50 m wide with 150 mm depth PQC of M-40
grade with panel size of 1 m 1 m formed by sawing
to a depth of about 50 mm. There was no scope of
greater width because of built up area on either side of
the road. A lean concrete base of an average thickness
of 100 mm with M-10 grade was done to provide
a uniform support as a levelling course below the
panelled concrete pavement.
5
Construction of concrete pavement
5.1 Both M-10 and M-40 Grade Concrete was
done as Ready Mix Concrete. (Photo-4 & 5).

Photo 4 RMC Plant Site

Photo 5 RMC Plant and Transit Mixer

The source of coarse aggregate was Panchami variety,


Dist: Birbhum (W.B). 50% of 20 mm down and
50% of 10 mm down stone aggregates were mixed
to achieve 20 mm graded aggregate of nominal size
as per Table-1 of IRC:44 and Table-2 of IS:383. The
fine aggregate was Damodar river sand of Zone-III
as per Table-2 of IRC:44 and Table-4 of IS:383. The
cement used was OPC-43 grade. Super plasticizer
was used as chemical admixture. The design mix of
M-40 grade concrete was done as per IRC:44-2008
read along with IS:10262-2009. The mix proportion
of M-40 concrete stood per m3 of concrete as 450 kg
cement, 644 kg sand, 649 kg 20 mm down stone chips,
649 kg 10 mm down stone chips, 162 kg free water
and 5.4 kg of super plasticizer. The mix proportion
of M-10 has been designed as per m3 of concrete
cement 280 kg, sand 777 kg, 20 mm down stone chips
637 kg, 10 mm down stone chips 637 kg, free water
168 kg and chemical admixture (super lasticizer)
3.36 kg. Since laying of concrete of even M-10 grade
was done by pumping operation, chemical admixture
was required to be added which resulted the finish
product with higher strength than the requirement of
M-10 grade of concrete. This was done with no extra
cost than the rate of M-10 grade of concrete as per
S.O.R.
5.2 Quality control measures for concreting work
was taken both at RMC plant site (Photo-6 & 7) and
the construction site (Photo-8 & 9). Concrete cubes
from every batch were taken both for M-10 and M-40
concrete. Concrete cubes were taken at construction
site also. Slump was set at plant site as 100-125 mm.
The slump obtained at the construction site was in
the range of 70-80 mm. Work was done during the
month of March when the ambient temperature was
around 38C. Thus, the drop in slump value was
quite expected, in fact, due to this reason the initial
slump at plant site was kept at a bit higher side. The
characteristic compressive strength of concrete cubes
were tested at 28 days, some were tested on 7 days.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
On an average, compressive strength of lean concrete
after 28 days was obtained as 23 MPa and that of PQC
was 48 MPa.

Photo 9 Taking of Concrete Cubes at Site

Photo 6 Taking of Concrete Cubes and Slump at Plant Site

Photo 7 Testing of Characteristic Compressive Strength of


Concrete Cubes

Photo 8 Slump Testing at Site

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

5.3 The laying of concrete was done manually. The


undulation of the stone brick pavement was levelled
with 100 mm average thick of lean concrete (M-10).
Also the correction of camber had been made in this
layer. Over the stretch on which M-10 lean concrete
was laid in a days work, say 100 to 120 meter, on
the very next day the PQC of 150 mm M-40 grade
concrete was laid on the same stretch. Camber was
maintained as 2%. (Photo-10 & 11).
5.4 Creating a discontinuity on the top one third
depth of the concrete pavement became a challenging
problem. Alternative to saw cutting was examined.
Measures like putting metal and plastic strips and
coated plywood (Photo-12) were also explored.
After the initial hardening of the concrete, even the
coated plywood was difficult to be detached to get a
distinct groove of 3 mm. Since there was little time
for experimentation with different alternatives, the
conventional method of construction of joint cutting
with a diamond saw to one third the depth of the slab
was adopted (Photo-13). Grooving with diamond
cutter up one third depth was done immediately on the
next day morning of the previous days execution of
M-40 grade concrete. The appropriate time for cutting
the groove is very important in the sense of making a
distinct as well as easily cut able groove with diamond
cutter.
9

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Photo 13 Making 3 mm Groove by Diamond Cutter

Photo 10 Laying of Concrete from Transit Mixer

5.5 Immediately after making groove with saw


cutting, curing was started. Curing was done with
water ponding for at least 28 days (Photo-14 & 15).
For the long period of curing as well as the concreting
work, the road was blocked for 50 days. Local block
administration and district administration extended
their co-operation to arrange for a diverted route.

Photo 11 Laying of Lean Concrete as Levelling Course


Phot 14 Curing of Concrete by Total Ponding

Photo 12 Making Discontinuity with Coated Plywood Strip

10

Photo 15 Curing of Concrete with Water Spray After Initial


Setting

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
6 Modulus of subgrade reaction
and stress computation
6.1 The subgrade has a CBR of 5 and the
corresponding k value is 42 MPa/m as per
Table 2 of IRC:58-2011. Considering Tables 3 and
4 of IRC:58-2011, the effective k value over 100 mm
lean concrete base is about 230 MPa/m. It may be
mentioned that only fourth root of k value matters in
flexural stress computation and a little variation in its
value has negligible effect on flexural stresses. A value
of 200 MPa/m is used in the analysis of stresses.
6.2 For the loading condition shown in Fig. 3.3
assuming no load transfer across the joints, the
computed stress for the dual wheel load of 50 kN
corresponding to the legal axle load limit of 100
kN (10.2 Tons) having a tyre pressure of 0.8 MPa is
found as 1.70 MPa which is well below the 28 day
modulus of rupture of 4.4 MPa for M40 concrete
pavement. Curling stress due to temperature gradient
is very low(10) and may be neglected all together. Since
occasional overloading due to construction traffic is
very common for most roads, the pavement will be
safe even if the axle load is 200 kN since the computed
stress value for this load is 3.40 MPa. Repeated action
of traffic also will not be able to cause early damage
due to low stresses. Load transfer at the joints and slight
bonding with the lean concrete will impart additional
strength. Temperature stress is ignored because they
are negligible as clearly stated in the recently council
approved draft of IRC:SP:62. Lean concrete was laid
and got set before laying of PQC, hence full bonding
between PQC and Lean concrete cannot be ensured.
Therefore, long term bonding action between the two
layers has not been taken into consideration. Concept
of IRC:58-2011 for bonded layers can be used if the
two layers are laid just one after another before the
concrete of both the layers are set.
It may be noted that for the same dual wheel load of 50
kN, pavement width -3.75 m, transverse joint spacing
- 4.0 m, the flexural stress due to load and temperature
differential as per IRC:SP:62:200411 is found as
4.66 MPa for West Bengal which higher than the
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

28 day flexural strength of 4.4 MPa. A much higher


thickness is needed if fatigue is also considered.
7

Cost comparison

7.1 Cost of this short panelled concrete pavement


of 150 mm M-40 grade PQC along with 100 mm
lean concrete with allied items had come to about
Rs. 1500/- per sq. meter. Cost would have come even
lower, had there been no lean concrete as levelling
course. In comparison to this type of pavement,
the other alternatives which are generally adopted
on roads with poor and clogged drainage such as
short lived 50 mm thick Bituminous Macadam and
25 mm Mastic Asphalt had been estimated as
Rs. 1000/- per sq. meter and conventional rigid
pavement of 250 mm PQC and allied items were
estimated as Rs. 3300/- per sq. meter. Since composite
action of the two layers is doubtful for long term
performance, the method adopted in the paper for
computation of stress gives a safer design.
8

Conclusions

1.

Panelled concrete pavements can be a good


alternative for reducing the cost of concrete
pavements for built up areas, rural roads, bus
bays etc.

2.

Stresses are reduced drastically in concrete


pavements with panels of size 1.0 m 1.0 m.

3.

If alternative route can be arranged, this type of


pavement is very easy to construct with much
higher durability than Mastic Asphalt surfaced
bituminous pavement; and the serviceability
is expected to be same as conventional rigid
pavement at much lower cost.

4.

This technology can emerge as a good longterm solution to the perpetual maintenance
problem of the roads with poor drainage.

Gratitude : The authors gratefully acknowledge the


permission granted by Sri Bibek Raha, the then Chief
Engineer, PWD, Govt. of West Bengal, to execute this
new technology for the first time on a problematic
road of West Bengal.
11

TECHNICAL PAPERS
References
1.

2.

IRC:SP:76-2008. Tentative Guidelines for Conventional,


Thin and Ultra - Thin White topping, Indian Roads
Congress, New Delhi.
Jundhare, D.R. et al. (March 2011). Edge Stresses and
Deflections of Unbonded Conventional White Topping
Overlay, The Indian Concrete Journal, pp. 35-44.

3.

Rasmussen, R.O. and Rozycki, D.K. (2004). Thin and


Ultra-Thin White Topping-A Synthesis of Highway
Practice. NCHRP Synthesis 338, Transportation research
Board, Washington, D.C.

4.

Speakman, J. and Scott III, H.N.(1996) Ultra-Thin, FiberReinforced Concrete Overlays for Urban Intersections,
Transportation Research Record 1532, Transportation
Research Board, National Research Council, Washington,
D.C., pp. 1520.

5.

12

Armaghani, J. and Tu, D.(1999) Rehabilitation of


Ellaville Weigh Station with Ultra-Thin Whitetopping,
Transportation Research Record 1654, Transportation
Research Board, National Research Council, Washington,
D.C., pp. 311.

6.

Cole, L.W. and Mohsen, J.P.(1993) Ultrathin Concrete


Overlays on Asphalt, Presented at the TAC Annual
Conference, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

7.

Lahue, S.P. and Risser, R.J. (Sep. 1992) Jr., Ultra-Thin


Concrete Overlay Supports Truck Loads, Concrete
Construction, Sep. 1992, pp. 664667.

8.

Cole, L.W.(1997), Pavement Condition Surveys of


Ultra-Thin White Topping Projects, Proceedings of the
6th International Purdue Conference on Concrete
Pavement Design and Materials for High Performance,
Vol. 2, Indianapolis, Ind., pp. 175187.

9.

Wen, Haifang., Li, Xiaojun. and Martono, Wilfung.


(2010) Performance Assessment of Wisconsins White
Topping and Ultra-thin White Topping Projects. WHRP,
Transportation Research Board.

10.

IRC:SP:62-2013 (Revised Draft Approved by Council),


Guidelines for Design and Construction of Cement
Concrete Pavement for Rural Roads, Indian Roads
Congress, New Delhi.

11.

IRC:SP:62-2004, Guidelines for Design and Construction


of Cement Concrete Pavement for Rural Roads, Indian
Roads Congress, New Delhi.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

DISTRESSES IN CONCRETE PAVEMENT : A CASE STUDY


OF INDORE BYEPASS
Vandana Tare* and Akanksha Asati**

INTRODUCTION

2 ABOUT INDORE BYEPASS

India is a developing country and succeeding towards


developed nation. To achieve this goal infrastructure
development is necessary. Development of highways
and expressways are the part of it. For construction of
high performance pavement, modern equipments and
technologies are needed. Since last decade, India also
adopts these techniques for construction of concrete
pavement in highways e.g. Delhi-Mathura road,
Mumbai-Pune expressway and Indore byepass etc.
Concrete pavements have a relatively long service life
(30-40 year), provided these are properly designed,
constructed and maintained. With mega projects like
National Highway Development Project (NHDP) and
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) the
pace of concrete pavement construction has increase
recently. This is because concrete pavement known
to perform better with minimum maintenance. For
the better performance many precautions should be
taken during construction of concrete pavement. If it
is not done properly then the problem of uncontrolled
cracking of concrete slab arises. In most of the panels
various types of distresses are observed at Indore
byepass. A distress survey was carried out over the
entire byepass to assess type and extent of distresses.
Distresses observed at Indore byepass are longitudinal
cracks, transverse cracks, corner cracks, spalling at
cracks/joints, shoulder drop-off and shrinkage cracks.
It is also observed that some of the cracks are extended
upto partial and full depth of the pavement.
This paper includes the study of various types of
cracks which occurred at Indore byepass, to find out
their cause and to suggest remedial measures and
techniques for crack repair.

Professor, E-mail: vtare@rediffmail.com

**

M.E. Student, E-mail: akanksha.asati@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Indore byepass is a part of National Highway-3.


NH-3 is one of the most important arterial routes of
India. It connects the historical, tourist town of Agra
to Mumbai, the hub of India. The total length of
NH-3 from Agra to Mumbai is 1208 km.
Indore byepass is a completely new alignment around
Indore city constructed under World Bank aided project
in the year 2001 and has rigid unreinforced concrete
pavement in both carriageways from Manglia to Rau.
The byepass is four lane carriageways with 10 m wide
unpaved median and 1.5 m wide paved bituminous
shoulder at outer side. Fig. 1 shows location of
byepass and Fig. 2 shows the crust composition below
the cement concrete pavement surface.
The salient features of Indore byepass are as under:

Land width = 60 m

Carriageways width = 2 nos. 8 m each

Size of panels at outer lane =3.5 m x 5m


at inner lane = 4.5 m x 5 m

Formation width = 2 nos. 10.5 m each

Median width = 10 m

Road length = 32.20 km

Adjacent land use: forms on both sides.

Crust Composition

Selected soil = 500 mm

Granular sub- base = 150 mm

Cement concrete (DLC) M-10 =125 mm

Cement concrete (PQC) M-40 = 340 mm

Transportation Engg., Department of Civil Engg. and


Applied Mechanics, SGSITS, Indore (M.P.).

13

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 1 Road Map of Indore City with Indore Byepass

1.5 mm) and wide cracks (width more than 1.5 mm).
These cracks should be repaired by re-sealing and full/
partial depth repair and replacement of complete slabs.
Satander Kumar(2004) described the types of defects in
cement concrete pavement, in which it is found out
that defects may occurred due to design deficiency,
improper joint spacing, over loading or environment
factors etc. Regarding the remedial measure, all major
patches may preferably be full depths, skewed and
dowelled and sometimes by repair material like epoxy,
hot sulpher, high performance concrete, conventional
concrete etc. Binod Kumar et.al.(2004) dealt with early
cracks like random or uncontrolled cracks in concrete
pavement. It affects the structural integrity and ride
ability of the concrete pavement. To regain these
problems of the concrete pavement, CPR (Concrete
Pavement Restoration) techniques are used.
4

DISTRESSES INDENTIFICATION

Distresses in concrete pavements are either structural


or functional. Structural distresses primarily affect
the pavements ability to carry traffic load. Functional
distresses mainly affect the riding quality and safety
of the traffic.
The following distresses have been observed at Indore
byepass:
4.1 Longitudinal Cracks

Fig. 2 Crust Details of Indore Byepass

3 LITRETURE REVIEW
Binod Kumar et.al.(2011) described the typical
distresses that have occurred on Delhi-Mathura
NH-2 due to different causes and gave their remedial
measures by full depth and partial depth repairs
techniques. R.K. Jain and Sangal(2004) described
different types of defects, such as minor cracks (width
less than 0.5 mm), medium cracks (width 0.5 mm 14

Fig. 3 shows longitudinal crack in middle of the


inner lane at Indore byepass. Longitudinal cracking
is cracking that runs predominantly parallel to the
centerline of the pavement near the longitudinal joint,
at mid-slab locations, or in the wheel paths. At Indore
byepass, most of the cracks are longitudinal, occurred
near the median lane. Liquid limit and plastic limit
tests were conducted on the different layers of soil
sub-grade and medians material. Results show that
the plasticity index of those materials is greater than
6 affecting the drainage of underlying layers. Due to
permeable 10 m wide median, water is percolated
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
under the layer and partial removal of the soil support
occurred. Due to this bending stresses developed
causing longitudinal cracks at the surface of the
pavement. The infuriation of water, which is caused
loss of support and damage, may be prevented by
providing lining median with impervious material.
Indore byepass is also cracked due to improperly
treated black cotton swelling soils with high plasticity
index and inadequate compaction of the sub-base.
Swelling soils will cause upward movement of the
pavement. This upward movement will create tensile
bending stresses throughout the thickness of the slabs,
therefore, the longitudinal cracks initiated on the top
surface. Due to heavy traffic load these longitudinal
cracks are stretched upto full depth of PQC like
tearing of cloth. Moreover, longitudinal joints are
provided at single lane that is 3.5 m as specified but
here longitudinal joints are provided at 4.5 m which
is more than specified, and added the problem of
longitudinal cracking.

Table No. 1 Repair Techniques for Cracked Panels by


Longitudinal Cracks
Severity
Level

Description

No. of
Cracked
Panels

Suggested
Repair
Technique

Low

Crack widths
< 3 mm, no
spalling, and
no measurable
faulting; or well
sealed.

110

Seal with
epoxy

Moderate

Crack widths
3 mm -13 mm,
or with spalling
< 75 mm, or
faulting up to
13 mm.

300

Stitched
crack repair

High

Crack widths
> = 13 mm, or
with spalling
> 75 mm, or
faulting upto
13 mm

850

Full depth
repair or bay
replacement
repair

4.2

Transverse Cracks

Transverse cracks are cracks that run perpendicular to


center line, resulting in a panel that is broken into two
or more pieces. Transverse cracking is a common type
of structural distress in concrete pavements.

Fig. 3 Longitudinal Crack

There are various severity levels according to size


that is width, length and depth of cracks. Narrow and
medium cracks should be remedied by means of a
stitched crack repair. Wide cracks should be remedied
either by a longitudinal full depth repair or by means
of a bay replacement repair.
Table 1 shows the severity level, of longitudinal
cracks, number of cracked panels at Indore byepass
and suggested repair techniques.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Fig. 4 shows the transverse crack at outer lane


of the byepass caused by poor joint load transfer,
non-uniform base support, excessive slab curling,
inadequate sawing and excessive spacing between
joints (distance between joints is 5 m while specified is
4.5 m). Propagation and widening of transverse cracks
was occurred due to traffic loading and environmental
changes, leading sometimes to spalling and faulting.
There are also various severity levels according to
size of cracks. Narrow and medium cracks should be
remedied by joint or crack sealing repair. Wide cracks
should be remedied either by a transverse full depth
repair or by means of a bay replacement repair.

15

TECHNICAL PAPERS
to repeated loading on the slab corner, combined with
a lack of sub-grade support. In this, water entered
the lower layers through the transverse joint or the
poorly maintained shoulder joint. Partial or full depth
concrete patching or full depth joint replacement may
be necessary when corner cracking is extensive.

Fig. 4 Transverse Crack

Table 2 gives the severity level of transverse cracks,


number of cracked panels and their remedial measures
by which these cracks can be minimized.
Table No. 2 Repair Techniques for Cracked Panels by
Transverse Cracks
Severity
Level

Description

No. of
Cracked
Panels

Suggested
Repair
Technique

Low

Crack widths < 3 mm,


no spalling, and no
measurable faulting;
or well-sealed

40

Seal with epoxy

Moderate Crack widths


3 mm-6 mm, or with
spalling < 75 mm, or
faulting up to 6 mm

30

High

4.3

Crack widths
> 6 mm, or with
spalling > 75 mm, or
faulting > 6 mm

Table 3 shows details about the corner crack at Indore


byepass.
Table No. 3 Repair Techniques for Cracked Panels by
Corner Cracks.

50

Crack and joint


seal/fill or Partial/
full depth slab
repair
Thin hot
mix overlay
or Full bay
reconstruction

Corner Cracks

Fig. 5 shows corner crack in a slab. Corner crack


is a portion of the slab separated by a crack which
intersects the adjacent transverse and longitudinal
joints, describing approximately 45 angle with the
direction of traffic. They range in length from 0.3 m
to half the total slab length or width. They may begin
as hairline cracks and some corner cracks extend
upto the full depth of the slab. At site some corner
cracks are also observed. The reason for this is due
16

Fig. 5 Corner Cracks

Severity
Level

Description

Low

Crack is not spalled < 10%


of length; no faulting; and
corner piece is not broken
into two and has no loss of
material.

20

Seal
with low
viscosity
epoxy

Moderate Crack is spalled > 10% of


its total length, faulting of
crack or joint is < 13 mm and
corner piece is not broken
into two or more pieces.

50

Partial
depth
repair

90

Full depth
repair

High

Crack is spalled at moderate


to high severity for more
than 10% of its total length,
faulting of crack or joint
is > = 13 mm, corner piece
is broken into two or more
pieces.

No. of Suggested
Cracked Repair
Panels Technique

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
4.4 Spalling

4.5 Shoulder Drop off

Fig. 6 shows the spalling at joints and cracks. Joint


spalling is the chipping of the concrete slab at the
edges of longitudinal or transverse joints. Mostly,
spalling of cracks and joints are occurred at the site
along the whole length due to a combination of traffic
action and thermal expansion. The riding quality of
the pavement is reduced due to joint spalling.

Fig. 7 shows the shoulder drop-off at the site. Shoulder


drop-offs are normally associated with the use of a
flexible shoulder on pavements where the main lanes
are of concrete. Large differences in elevation of the
main lanes versus the shoulder can be safety problems
and should be addressed by maintenance forces.
Frequently, the edge/shoulder joint has deteriorated
and is now open. Water entered in this joint and it
is the cause of erosion of the layers supporting the
concrete. This is a gradual deterioration process.
To temporary repair, joint/crack sealing repair is
used and patching with asphalt concrete can be done
to level the edge shoulder drop off, if traffic is not
driving over this joint. But in severe cases the existing
shoulder will need to be completely removed, if traffic
will drive over the shoulder joint.

Fig. 6 Spalling

Spalling less than 75 mm from the crack face should


generally be repaired with a partial-depth patch. If
its greater than 75 mm from the crack face should be
repaired with a full-depth patch.
Table 4 shows number of cracked panels with
spalling at joints and cracks and repair methods
according to their severity levels.
Table No. 4 Repair Techniques for
Cracked Panels by Spalling
Severity
Level

Description

No. of
Suggested
Cracked
Repair
Panels Technique
Low
Spalls < 75 mm wide,
85
Partialmeasured to the face of the
depth patch
joint, with no loss of material
and no patching.
Moderate Spalls 75 mm to 150 mm
300
Full-depth
patch
wide, measured to the face
of the joint, with loss of
material.
High
Spalls > 150 mm wide
200
Full-depth
measured to the face of the
patch
joint, with loss of material
or are broken into two or
more pieces.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Fig. 7 Shoulder Drop off

4.6

Plastic Shrinkage Crack

Fig. 8 shows plastic shrinkage crack at Indore byepass.


In some slabs, plastic shrinkage cracks are also found.
These cracks are like a hairline cracks formed during
PCC setting and curing. Usually, they do not extend
through the entire depth of the slab. Shrinkage cracks
are considered a distress if they occur in an uncontrolled
manner. Reasons for these cracks are that construction
might have taken place in hot weather and contraction
joints sawed too late.
17

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 9 Joint Seal Damage

Fig. 8 Plastic Shrinkage Crack

To minimize the shrinkage cracking loss of water


from the surface of the concrete must be minimized.
One option is to moist cure the surface of the concrete
immediately after placement, and to continue to do so
for at least 24 hours. The most effective method is to
keep the surface of the pavement wet. Other options
are to erect wind barriers around the pavement or to
erect sunshades to protect the surface from heat. In
mild to moderate severity situations, the shrinkage
cracks can be sealed and the slab should perform
adequately. In severe situations, the entire slab may
need replacement.
4.7

Joint Seal Damage

Fig. 9 shows loss of joint sealant material from the


joints. Joint seal damage enables incompressible
material or a significant amount of water to infiltrate the
joint from the surface. At Indore byepass, transverse as
well as longitudinal seal damage is observed. This is
occurred due to improper joint construction and high
thermal expansion of the joint. Traffic actions pull the
sealant from the joint. Due to this, cracks are reached
upto different severity level more or less than 25%
of total length of joint. These joints are repaired by
resealing of joint which is short term repair technique
to improve the service life of the pavement.

18

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1)

At Indore byepass longitudinal cracks,


transverse cracks, corner cracks, spalling
at joints/cracks, lane to shoulder dropoff and plastic shrinkage cracks are
observed.

2)

Causes of failure of Indore byepass are

Loss of sub-grade support.

Layers material
plasticity index.

Improper construction of joint.

Width of panel and spacing between


joint is greater than specified.

Poor joint load transfer.

Slab curling.

3)

having

high

There is a wide range of concrete repair


and restoration techniques which can
be used as corrective, preventive and
corrective and preventive measure.
Although concrete repair and restoration
does not necessarily increase structural
capacity of a pavement, it only does
extend the pavements service life. At
Indore byepass maximum cracks are
extended upto partial or full depth of
pavement, so, they should be repaired only
with partial/full depth repair techniques.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
If longitudinal and transverse cracks of
width upto 13mm occurred then stitching
and joint sealing materials can be used to
repair respectively.

3.

Binod Kumar, Sharma, S.D. and Mathur Renu (2011),


Distresses in Concrete Pavement: A Case Study of
Delhi-Mathura National Highway. Indian Highways,
Vol. 39, No. 10.

4.

Satander Kumar (2004), Causes of Distressed, Repair


and Maintenance of Concrete Roads. Seminar on Design,
Construction and Maintenance of Cement Concrete
Pavements, 8-10 October, New Delhi, pp IV-1 to IV-14.

5.

IRC:SP:83-2008, Guidelines for Maintenance, Repair


and Rehabilitation of Cement Concrete Pavements,
Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

6.

William Yeadon Bellinger and Richard Ben Rogers


(1993), Distress Identification Manual for the LongTerm Pavement Performance Project, Strategic
Highway Research Program, National Research Council,
Washington, p-338.

REFERENCES
1.

2.

Jain, R.K. and Sangal, M.M. (2004), Maintenance and


Repair of Concrete Pavement. Seminar on Design,
Construction and Maintenance of Cement Concrete
Pavements, 8-10 October, New Delhi, pp IV-87 to IV-99.
Binod Kumar, Gupta, Saroj. and Sood V.K. (2004),
Restoration Techniques for Distressed Concrete
Pavement. Seminar on Design, Construction and
Maintenance of Cement Concrete Pavements,
8-10 October, New Delhi, pp IV-101 to IV-110.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

19

FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING A SKYWALK FOR


PEDESTRIAN IN CHANDNI CHOWK, DELHI
Purnima Parida*, Jiten Shah** and S. Gangopadhyay***

ABSTRACT
In urban areas a significant proportion of trips up to 1-2 kms in
length are performed on foot. Moreover, every journey necessarily
starts and ends as a walk trip. Little attention has been devoted to
study the pedestrian behavior, flow characteristics, etc. and to use
such data in the integrated design of transport infrastructure with
due consideration to walking as a mode of transport. Provision of
grade separated facilities will ensure the movement of pedestrian
safe, comfortable and also reduces the travel time. A study was
conducted in Chandni Chowk area of Delhi to assess the feasibility
of providing a grade separated facility (skywalk) for a distance of
1305 meters. The study results are presented in this paper.

INTRODUCTION

Walking is still a major mode of transport in cities


of India. The pedestrian traffic has large share in
metro as well as in mid size cities of India despite
of fast growing number of vehicle. However there is
a negligence towards study of pedestrian behavior,
flow characteristics, capacity of pedestrian facilities
etc. and use of such data in the integrated design of
transport infrastructure with due consideration to
walking as a mode of transport. Due to inadequate
facilities provided for the pedestrian movement,
there exists a constant conflict between pedestrian
and motor vehicles in sharing the limited space of the
road, resulting in pedestrian being involved or being
the cause of most of the road accidents.
2

NEED OF PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

The transportation studies conducted in various cities


like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Bangalore, Jamshedpur
etc. have revealed that exclusive walk trips constitute
30-40 percent of the total trips. Further, walk trips are
considerable for journeys to education and shopping

especially when the distance of the trip is less than


1 km. In urban areas, people should be able to walk
with reasonable comfort and safety, as walking is
an essential part of a wide variety of activities. The
freedom with which a person can walk about and
look around is a guide to the civilized quality of an
urban area. It is distressing that the pedestrian traffic
has not received adequate attention in providing the
facilities such as walkways, sidewalks and pedestrian
crossings.
Due to the absence of appropriate facilities, pedestrian
are left to find space for themselves on urban streets,
and Delhi is no exception to this. The share of walk
mode is decreasing over a period of time and to arrest
this declining share is the need of the hour. Table 1
presents the decrease in share of walk trip in some
Indian cities.
Declining share of walk trips, increasing number of
road accidents where about 50% involve pedestrians
necessitate the demand to study pedestrian flow
characteristics in a scientific manner and incorporate
the results in planning, designing and upgrading the
various pedestrian transport infrastructure/facilities.
Table 1 Decrease in Share of Walk Trip in Some Cities
City

Year

Share (%)

Year

Share(%)

Bangalore

1984

44.00

2007

8.33

Chennai

2002

47.00

2008

22.00

Delhi

2002

39.00

2008

21.00

Source : ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series,


No.17, February 2011

Head, Transportation Planning Division, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, E-mail: punam31@gmail.com

**

Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Deptt., SVNIT Surat, E-mail: jitenshah_civil@yahoo.co.in

*** Director, CSIR - Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, E-mail: director.crri@nic.in

20

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

4 STUDY AREA

A study was undertaken with a view to understand the


pedestrian flow characteristics and its travel pattern
in study stretch of Chandni Chowk area of Delhi
exhibiting heavy pedestrian traffic with varying trip
length, purpose of trip and socio economic diversity.
On the basis of study, skywalk facility is proposed by
evaluating its economic viability. The objectives of
the study are as

Chandni Chowk in Delhi, built by Shahjahan


(Moghul Emperor), was the widest avenue (22 meter
carriageway) with 3 meter of side walk on either side.
This formed the commercial axis during Moghul
times. The glory of yesteryears has been now reduced
to totally congested corridor of mixed traffic. The
carriageway is not fully available to vehicles because
of encroachment and parked vehicles. Sidewalks
are occupied by informal sector making pedestrian
journey difficult as well as unsafe, as they are forced
to share the carriageway with vehicles.

To Study the traffic characteristics of


main stretch of Chandni Chowk from
Jain Temple to Fateh Puri. (1.3 Km).

To study socio-economic characteristic


& travel pattern of pedestrians.

To examine the feasibility of a skywalk


facility on the basis of magnitude of
pedestrian problems.

Economic analysis of the proposed


skywalk facility.

For the purpose of understanding the pedestrian


movement, entire stretch of Chandni Chowk was
divided into four sections namely Lal Quila to
Nai Sarak, Nai Sarak to Fateh Puri and fro movement.
Fig. 1 shows the study area and the survey locations.
The five points selected for conducting surveys are
Lal Quila, Guru Dwara, Metro Station, Nai Sarak and
Fateh Puri Chowk.

Fig. 1 Layout of Chandni Chowk and Location of Survey Points

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

21

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Based on pilot survey, five survey locations were
selected in such a way that, its having own attraction
and different characteristics in surrounding areas.
Pedestrian volume count and questionnaire based
survey were carried out to determine the pedestrian
flow characteristic. Total 315 pedestrians were

randomly selected for interview. The pedestrian


were asked about their socio-economic profile, travel
pattern and also willingness to use the proposed
skywalk facility. A physical inventory was also done
to ascertain the availability of space to construct a
skywalk (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2 Existing Road Layout and Cross Section of Study Stretch

A pedestrian travel time survey was also conducted


to observe the time taken in traversing the distance
between origin and destination under free flow and
congested state conditions. From the pilot survey,
it was observed that, friction to pedestrian flow was
significant throughout the entire stretch of Chandni
Chawk i.e From Lal Quila to Fatehpuri Mosque, hence
for the proposed skywalk facility, the entire stretch of
1.3 km was considered for design purpose.
Fig. 3 Vehicle Composition

5 SURVEY RESULTS
5.1

Vehicular Traffic Volume

The bidirectional traffic volume of 65,532 vehicles


was observed for the duration of 10 hour (10:00 am
to 8:00 pm) on a normal working day and composition
is as shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen from the figure
that about 33% two wheelers, 25% cycle rickshaw
(passenger and goods), 21% 3-wheelers, 19% cars and
2% minibus constitute the vehicle composition.

22

5.2

Hourly Pedestrian Flow

The hourly variation of pedestrian flow for same


duration of 10 hour passing through study stretch is
presented in Figs. 4 & 5. Total number of pedestrians
from Lal Quila to Nai Sarak was 33,627 and from
Nai Sarak to Lal Quila was 31,519. Evening peak
flow is found more prominent than the morning
peak flow in both directions, the highest peak flow of
3,962 was observed between 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
5.3

Composition of Traffic

The composition of traffic observed on this road


as shown in Fig. 6 indicate that the share of walk
mode is very high compared to other motorized and
non motorized modes. The percentage contribution
to walk mode in total modal composition remains
highest throughout the day. The share of trips by walk
is 47% followed by Cycle Rickshaws 13% , minibus
11%, 3-W 11%, two wheelers 10% and cars only 8%.
Fig. 4 Hourly Pedestrian Variations at Lal Quila

Fig. 6 Share of Person Trip by Various Modes


Fig. 5 Hourly Pedestrian Variations at Fatehpuri

From Fatehpuri Chowk pedestrian move towards Sadar


Bazaar, Khari Baoli, and Katra Bariyan road and at
this section movement of pedestrian is also high. The
total number of pedestrian was observed to be 55,054
per day (10 hr) in both the direction, the pedestrian
flow from Fatehpuri to Nai Sarak was 28,026 and from
Nai Sarak to Fatehpuri was 27,028. Evening peak
flow is more prominent in this section and observed
highest peak hour volume of 3,395 during 6:00 pm to
7:00 pm (Fig. 5). The section wise pedestrian volume
as well as peak hour volume is given in Table 2.
Table 2 Pedestrian Volume at Identified Sections
Location

Total Volume

Peak Hour
Volume

Lal Quila to Nai Sarak

33627

3746

Nai Sarak to Fatehpuri

27028

3395

Fatehpuri to Nai Sarak

28026

3379

Nai Sarak to Lal Quila

31519

3962

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

5.4 Analysis of Pedestrian Response


The pedestrian walking on the study stretch were asked
a set of questions to understand their socio economic
characteristics, trip purpose, frequency and willingness
to use the proposed skywalk facility. The needs and
perception varies with age and gender, keeping this in
view, care was taken to select respondents to represent
these parameters. Out of total sample size 64 percent
males and 36 percent females were interviewed with
age ranges from 15 to >50 years. In that 36% of the
respondents were from 31- 40 years, 33% of 21-30
years of age, 14% in 41-50 years of age, and 17%
more than 50 years.
The profession wise distribution of pedestrian shows
that 35% of total pedestrians are in private service,
24 percent students, 18% House wife, 15% in own
business and other 8% from government sector
and retired person. The Figs. 7 & 8 shows Age and
Profession wise distribution of pedestrian.
23

TECHNICAL PAPERS
to walk.Skywalk was a welcome alternative to 91
percent of pedestrians. Figs. 9 & 10 shows the trip
purpose wise distribution and distribution regarding
willingness to use proposed skywalk.

Fig. 7 Age Wise Distribution

Fig. 9 Trip Purpose wise Distribution of Pedestrian

Fig. 8 Profession Wise Distribution

There can be many purposes for a walk trip. But for


the sake of objectivity they are broadly classified in
to work, education, shopping, home, recreation etc.
Chandni Chowk being a wholesale market, the trip
purpose for shopping is predominant. Distribution
of the trip for shopping, work, recreation, home,
educational, and other are 48%, 21%, 19%, 6%, 3%,
and 3% respectively.
The query pertaining to frequency of walk trip revealed
that occasional walk trips on the study stretch were
40% of the total trips, 31% of the trip were weekly
and 21% daily, while 8% of the trips were either many
times a day or alternate day. In Chandni Chowk area
due to heavy vehicular traffic and encroachment on
available sidewalk facility it becomes very difficult
24

Fig. 10 Distribution of Pedestrian by Willingness to use


Skywalk

5.5 Origin and Destination Pattern


The OriginDestination pattern of pedestrian formed
the basis for estimating the number of pedestrian who
will be using the proposed skywalk facility. The study
area was divided into 12 zones for ascertaining the
O-D pattern of pedestrian. Fig. 11 shows the travel
pattern of pedestrian in study area. About 1,20,200
walking trips/day were performed on typical working
day on study corridor.

Majority of the trips were concentrated


between zones 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 11 and 12
which are in close proximity of the study
area.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Most of the pedestrian trips are in range


of 4000 to 10000 as observed from Lal
Quila to Fateh Puri and Fateh Puri to
Metro station and vice versa .The demand
to access grade separated structure at
metro station is taken into account.

The survey results showed that


pedestrian were willing to use grade
separated structure constructed parallel
to the road, with descending and
ascending facilities in between.

Fig. 11 Desired Line Diagram for Pedestrian Trips

5.6 Analysis of Pedestrian Flow Parameters


Pedestrian travel time study conducted during peak
and off-peak hours at the stretch starting from Lal
Quila to Fatehpuri Chowk revealed that it takes 24.00
minutes to cover a distance of 1.3 kilometers during
morning peak hour and 26.30 minutes during afternoon
and 30.34 minutes during evening peak hours. It is
apparent from the survey results that throughout the

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

day there is not much change in travel time. Pedestrian


free speed was carried out at study corridor and other
two identified locations for a length of 1.3 km equal
to the study stretch distance namely Kalka Mode
and Ashram Chowk having same characteristics, the
purpose being to have average pedestrian walking
speed under freeflow conditions. Table 3 and 4
shows travel time and speed of pedestrian at identified

25

TECHNICAL PAPERS
locations and delays experienced by pedestrian on
study corridor. In free flow conditions, a pedestrian
take 1091 seconds to cover a distance of 1.3 km, but
in congested state conditions it takes 1591 seconds to
travel the same distance. In a distance of 1.3 km, a
delay of 500 seconds (8.33 minutes) is experienced by
the pedestrian, which is a time loss to them.

Table 3 Travel Time in Free Flow Conditions


Location

Time Taken
(sec)

Speed
(m/sec)

1098

1.18

Chandni Chowk
Kalka Mode

1109

1.17

Ashram Chowk

1065

1.23

Average Walking Time & Speed

1091

1.19

Table 4 Travel Time in Congested State Condition

Time
10:00 1:00
12:00 1:00
3:00 4:00
5:00 6:00
Average
6

Length in
Km.
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

Starting
Time
0 .0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0:00

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF SKYWALK

For the purpose of economic evaluation cost benefit


analysis has been carried out and Economic Internal
Rate of Return (EIRR) has been calculated in order
to assess the economic viability of the project. In this
analysis components of cost and benefits are; Cost of
construction and maintenance of Skywalk and benefits
accrued due to saving in time cost to pedestrians.
Though there are other tangible benefits also like
reduction in delays to vehicles (as pedestrians tend to
share the main carriageway), which will save fuel loss
and time loss to the occupants of the vehicles.
For estimating the construction cost, the width of the
skywalk was ascertained on the basis of available
codes. To estimate the width of skywalk, the peak
hour pedestrian flow was taken. The average annual
exponential growth rate of population of Delhi during
2001-2011 has been recorded as 1.92%. (Source:
Statistical Abstract of Delhi, 2012: Directorate of
Economics and Statistics) for a period of 20 years
was taken for pedestrian. It was estimated that in the
horizon year 2029 the peak hour flow of pedestrian
will be 5887 (Table 5). As per the Guidelines for
Pedestrian Facilities IRC:103-2012 and Highway
26

End Time
(min)
24:00
26:30
25:00
30:34
26:31

Journey Time
(sec)
1440
1590
1500
1834
1591

Journey Speed
(m/sec)
0.90
0.82
0.87
0.71
0.82

Capacity Manual (HCM) for high intensity commercial


areas 4 meter width of side walk is required and same
width for pedestrian volume in horizon year. This
width corresponds to level of service C.
Table 5 Recommended Value for Various Width of
Sidewalk

Year
2009
2014
2019
2024
2029

Peak hour Desirable width (in Meter)


Flow rate
IRC
HCM
3962
3.5
2.5
4374
3.5
2.5
4830
4.0
2.5
5332
4.0
3.0
5887
4.0
4.0

Source : IRC:103-2012 & HCM (2010)

6.1

Project Cost

The capital cost of the project consists of cost incurred


during the construction period. The total estimated
construction cost will be Rs. 13.63 crores considering
three intermediate stairways. Based on O-D survey
the access from FOB is given at maximum distance
of 300m at Guru Dwara, Metro station and Nai Sarak
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
and its ascending/descending through 1.8 m wide
stairway (minimum width of stairway as per Ministry
of Railways, India) on the sidewalk. The cost of sky
walk was worked out as per cost of construction of
Skywalk at Bandra Mumbai. It is assumed that the
proposed Skywalk will be operational in the year
2011. From the year 2011 onwards, maintenance costs
will be incurred. Maintenance costs are recurring
costs, comprising of routine and periodic maintenance
components. The routine maintenance, involving
day to day repairs (1% of cost of construction) and
periodic maintenance, aimed at maintenance of
structure periodically (2.5% of cost of construction),
condition of the structure components is proposed to
be undertaken in years 2015, 2020 and 2025 i.e. after
every five years of opening of traffic.
6.2

Project Benefits

The project benefit is worked out mainly from the


travel time saving to the pedestrians and it will be
reduced by means of provision of new pedestrian
facility. For consideration of project benefit per capita
income was used to convert time saving by pedestrian
traversing a distance of 1.3 km into monetary terms.
The time saving of user is worked out from the
pedestrian travel time survey results. Average time

saved for pedestrian was worked out to be 8.33 minutes


(0.139 hr). Per capita income of pedestrian is obtained
from the Economic Survey of Delhi, 2007-2008 as
Rs. 77,405/- per annum at constant prices, and in
view of that, time saving per pedestrian per day is
Rs. 2.94/- by considering per capita income with
average 10 normal working hours per day, i.e. [{77405/
(365*10) =21.20}*0.139= Rs. 2.94 Rs./day].
6.3 Economic Analysis
The results of direct interview showed that about
91% of the respondents were willing to use the grade
separated facility. But with a view not to exaggerate the
benefits, three scenarios have been taken, considering
variation in pedestrian volume using the proposed
skywalk facility and also with variation in time saving
i.e. Scenario-1 considered 70%, Scenario-2 with 50%
and Scenaro-3 with 30% of the total pedestrian volume
with average time saving of 8.33, 6 and 5 minutes
respectively. These pedestrian are those who make
direct trip to the destination having weekly, daily and
frequent trip on this corridor. Table 6 presents annual
time savings for pedestrians considering different
scenario in view of variation in pedestrian volume and
saving in travel time.

Table 6 Annual Time Saving by Pedestrian Considering Different Scenario


Scenarios

Considered
% of Total
Pedestrian
Volume

Average
Time
Saving in
Minutes

Average
Per Capita
Working
Hourly
Time Saving Income (Rs/ hrs. Per Day Per Capita
(hr/day)
Annum)
Income (Rs)

Value
of Time
Saving/Ped/
Day (Rs)

Total Time
Saving
Per Day
(Rs)

Annually
Time Saving
(Rs)

70% (84140)

8.33

0.139

77415

10

21

2.94

247646

90390957

II

50% (60100)

0.100

77405

10

21

2.12

127412

46505380

II

30% (36060)

0.083

77405

10

21

1.77

63706

23252690

In various scenarios, cost of construction, annual and


periodic maintenance cost is same. In scenario-I and
II the total time saving is more than the scenario-III.
Considering most pessimistic approach, scenario-III
having 30% of total volume with lowest time saving
of 5 minutes (0.083hr) and also considering lower
growth rate of 0.5%. As shown in Table 6, considering
per capita income is Rs. 21/- for 10 hr. and value
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

of time saving per pedestrian per day is Rs. 1.77/-.


From above consideration, total time saving per day
is 63,706/- and annual time saving is estimated to be
2,32,52,690/-, which gives least benefits than other
two.
In scenario I, II and III the EIRR value obtained
66%, 33% and 12% respectively, shown in Table 7.
The result of scenario-III, the year wise projected
27

TECHNICAL PAPERS
pedestrian traffic which is going to be benefited in
term of saving in time is presented in Table 8. The
EIRR value of 12% was obtained in this case; the
benefits were squeezed both in terms of number of
pedestrian using the skywalk and saving in travel
time. This is equal to the required rate of 12%
prescribed by the World Bank and other funding
agencies. Thus with this consideration the provision
of pedestrian Skywalk is economically justified. The
EIRR is estimated taking into account the only the

time savings to the pedestrian to walk a known


distance without considering other tangible and
non tangible benefits; like increased availability
of carriageway widths for vehicular movements
culminating in fuel savings, in vehicle time saving
of occupants and safety for both vehicular and
pedestrian traffic at intersection as well as mid block.
If these benefits are also included into the benefit
string then the economic rate of return would have
been much higher.

Table 7 Comparative values of EIRR for Different Scenarios

Scenarios
I
II
III

Considered % of Total
Average Time
Average Time
Pedestrian Volume
Saving in Minutes Saving (hr/day)
70% (84140)
50% (60100)
30% (36060)

8.33
6
5

0.139
0.100
0.083

Growth
Rate

EIRR

0.5
0.5
0.5

66%
33%
12%

Table 8 Economic Viability Analysis

Year

Time Cost

2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029

23252690
23368953
23485798
23603227
23721243
23839850
23959049
24078844
24199238
24320234
24441836
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045
24564045

Capital +
Maintenance cost

Cumulative
cost

136300000
1363000
1363000
1363000
1363000
3407500
1363000
1363000
1363000
1363000
3407500
1363000
1363000
1363000
1363000
3407500
1363000
1363000
1363000
1363000

136300000
137663000
139026000
140389000
141752000
145159500
146522500
147885500
149248500
150611500
154019000
155382000
156745000
158108000
159471000
162878500
164241500
165604500
166967500
168330500

Cumulative
Benefit

23485798
47089025
70810269
94650118
118609167
142688011
166887249
191207484
215649320
240213364
264777409
289341454
313905499
338469544
363033588
387597633
412161678
436725723
461289768

Benefit

-136300000
-114177202
-91936975
-69578731
-47101882
-26550333
-3834489
19001749
41958984
65037820
86194364
109395409
132596454
155797499
178998544
200155088
223356133
246557178
269758223
292959268
EIRR = 12%

28

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
7

CONCLUSIONS

This study takes into account the time savings to the


pedestrian and has successfully demonstrated that the
projects for pedestrian are also economically viable.
Besides tangible benefits there are other non tangible
benefits also, like comfort safety and security which
also has to be considered while providing any facility
for pedestrian. The provision of skywalk facilities in
congested areas will provide a safe and comfortable
journey to the pedestrian.
In this study only the benefits accrued to pedestrians in
terms of time savings has been taken into account. Due
to encroachment on sidewalks and heavy bidirectional
movements of pedestrians, the pedestrians tend to
share the carriageway and cause delays to vehicles as
well as its a safety hazard to them. By providing a
skywalk facility the vehicular delays will be reduced
and the pedestrians will be able to move safely. If
the benefits in terms of, fuel savings, time savings to
vehicles and its occupants is also taken into account
the EIRR will be much higher.
The transport planning should be aimed at moving
people and not vehicles. The pedestrian are human
beings therefore the facilities for movement across

and along the carriageway should not be planned and


provided the way they are done for vehicles. Besides
Level of Service the Quality of Service is also an
important aspect which is totally ignored.
REFERENCES
1.

Directorate of Economics and


Statistical Abstract of Delhi.

Statistics,

2.

Economic Survey of Delhi, 2007-2008.

3.

Fruin, J. J., (1971), Designing for Pedestrian A Level of


Service Concept, Highway Research Record No. 355.

4.

Highway Capacity Manual


Research Board, USA.

5.

Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities, IRC:103-2012,


Indian Roads Congress.

6.

Jiten Shah (2010), Evaluation of Feasibility of Skywalk


for Pedestrian in Chandni Chowk Delhi unpublished
M.Tech thesis, M.S. University of Baroda.

7.

Ministry of Railways (2009). Manual for Standards and


Specifications for Railway Stations. Railway Board,
Government of India, Volume 1 of 2, 1-260.

8.

Tanaboriboon, Y., and Gayano, J.A. (1991), Analysis


of Pedestrian Movements in Bangkok, Transportation
Research Record 1252, 52-56.

9.

Website: www.mmrdamumbai.org

10.

Website: www.mmrda@Giarbmol.vsnl.nel.in

(2000),

(2012):

Transportation

OBITUARY
The Indian Roads Congress express their profound sorrow on the sad demise of Shri S.N. Pradhan,
resident of Pradhans Cottage, 77, Convent Road, Darjeeling; Shri K.L. Kapoor, resident of H.No. 294,
Sector-10-A, Chandigarh; Shri Inder Mohan, resident of 4/15, Raghubir Kunj, behind Deewani, Agra and
Shri J.P. Das, resident of Neel Kamal, Bariatu Road, Ranchi. They were very active members of the Indian
Roads Congress.
May their soul rest in peace.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

29

Assessing liquefaction potential by CPT/Shear wave


velocity method and evaluating effect of
liquefied soil on foundation design
Bharat Katkar* and Poonam Pendhari**
ABSTRACT
The assessment of liquefaction potential based on SPT N values
has been extensively used over the years. However, reliability of
SPT data depends on numerous factors that are difficult to control
in practice. In this paper, a time-tested approach of assessment of
liquefaction potential based on more reliable CPT and Shear wave
velocity method are presented with an exemplary study. Estimation
of lateral spread of overlaying soil layer due to liquefaction
occurring in deeper sand deposit, in context of structures lying
nearby shoreline is also presented. Estimate of land displacement
and its significance on bridge design is covered. Also effect of
cementation of sands due to ageing process on estimation of
liquefaction potential is explained. Appropriate correction factor
for aged sands is referred and presented. For assessment of
structural stability in event of liquefaction, a method to estimate
forces exerted by liquefied sand on foundation is described. From
extensive review of various standards of practice, reduction in
strength parameters of soil during a dynamic event have also
been presented. Various checks and estimates for soil strength in
event of liquefaction are provided. Inculcation of these checks
in common engineering practice will be fruitful as well as help
in avoiding misdemeanor caused due to negligence of minor but
significant issues in foundation design.

INTRODUCTION

Bridges are strategically categorized as buildings


of national importance. Urban needs have created a
requirement to establish foundations on sites previously
avoided by consultants, such as sites with liquefiable
sand deposits. Rejection of such sites, by realigning
to different locations or adopting deep foundations is
sometimes impractical as well leads to loss of time
and money (IS1893)(6) To solve this problem, it is a
common practice to apply expertise of Geotechnical
consultant, who by implementing various methods of
ground improvement provides a solution, which helps
in adapting the site for the purpose intended. Limited
amount of field tests prove unsatisfactory to provide
a clear mapping of soil strata for application of

Assistant Geotechnical Engineer

**

Senior Design Engineer, E-mail: info@spectrumworld.net

30

geotechnical solutions. Hence, development of semiempirical solution had made their way in practice.
To provide a reliable and time-tested solution, many
practitioners and researchers have relied on empirical
formulas derived from monitored input data obtained
from various field tests and case studies. The allegiance
of such empirical equations though provide an overtly
safe solution, experience based on these findings have
proven economical in application compared to the
conventional solutions. Assessment of liquefaction
potential is also based on such empirical correlation
extracted from observed data. Though Indian standard
codes prohibit establishing any important project
on liquefiable land, many foreign codes allow for
remediation as well as include forces exerted on the
structure by liquefied soil layer. The American code
published by National Co-operative Highway Research
Program (NCHRP 12-49)(3) provide comprehensive
specifications for seismic design of bridges and refers
to use simplified process for liquefaction assessment
discussed in NCEER workshop, provided in Youd
et al. 2001(13). Eurocode(5) 8 part 5 has also provided
assessment procedure for liquefaction potential on
similar lines. TRANSIT(10) New Zealands bridge
manual for design also prescribes use of procedure given
in Youd et al. 2001(13) for liquefaction assessment. The
Japanese code for design specifications for highways
JRA(4) has went further and added consideration for
quantification of loading on pile foundations due to
liquefied soil deposit. The details of which are provided
in subsequent sections.
The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into
aspects related to the liquefaction phenomenon and
demonstrate methods to estimate various outcomes
caused and resulting from the same. Simple equations

Spectrum Techno Solution Private Limited, Navi-Mumbai

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
and procedures to evaluate the liquefaction potential
are explained lucidly with due addition of up-to-date
literature on the subject. In continuation of efforts to
increase awareness in liquefaction potential assessment
initiated by Singh and Bhowmick, 2012(9), the present
paper focuses on adding latest developments in the
field, with reference to various international codes of
practise. Firstly, assessment of liquefaction potential
is explained based on Cone Penetration Test data
(CPT) and by Shear wave velocity method. A sample
problem is demonstrated to encourage and make aware
the practitioner on input parameters required for the
assessment. Though CPT and Shear wave velocity
methods are scarcely used in arena of consultants in
India and are generally put to selective use for very
important structures such as strategic bridges, nuclear
power plants etc. Indian standard code IS 4968(7) and
IS 13372(8) provide the details of conducting and
recording Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Shear
wave velocity test. The basic parameter of Sleeve
resistance (fs) and tip resistance (qcA) are obtained
from CPT, whereas Cross-Hole Seismic Test (CHST)
provides with the parameter of Shear wave velocity
(Vs). CPT test utilises a standard equipment for
driving the CPT probe, the tip and sleeve resistance
readings are recorded via electronic equipments.
For CHST the dynamic pulse generating charge is
lowered at the required location in one borehole,
whereas the receptor sensors (geophones) are placed
at variable depths depending upon soil stratification
and site limits. The data is recorded through a series
of sophisticated electronic circuits.
The data obtained from CPT and Shear wave velocity
test is more reliable in terms of repeatability than
conventional Standard Penetration Test (SPT), though
exact profiling is difficult to obtain. Attaining a core
log from site turns out to be very helpful in assessment
of gradation of particles in soil layers. Empirical
equations concerning lateral spread of soil present over
a liquefied sand layer are then explained to have an
estimate of horizontal soil movement. This estimate is
useful to define the lateral movement occurring in the
land mass near shore or on banks of rivers that might

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

affect the alignment of abutments of bridge located


within the proximity.
The issue of additional resistance offered by soil due to
ageing of sand layers on penetration resistance value is
addressed consequently which is based on penetration
resistance value. The correction to be applied to
account for ageing of soil is also explained in latter
sections of paper. Indian geological stratification
indicates formation of soil layers due to deposition
and weathering of rocks formed by magmatic spread
in prehistoric age. Seismically stable Indian peninsular
region has vast deposits of layered sands and sand
lenses present below surficial deposit of alluvium.
From structural stability point of view, it is necessary
to check stability of foundation against liquefaction
occurring in shallow liquefiable soil deposit. The
magnitude of force due to liquefied soil deposit acting
on foundation can be estimated. This force estimation
will help bridge designer to make structure earthquake
resistant as well as liquefaction resistant.
2 LIQUEFACTION ASSESSMENT
The term liquefaction should not be confused with
other phenomenon like sand boil or quicksand because
the forces triggering these situations are not related
to short-term dynamic loading. Though liquefaction
may yield such situation. The mechanisms by which
these phenomenon occur are different and are slightly
related to each other. Mostly they are associated with
the hydraulic conditions created in soil sub-surface.
Effects of liquefaction include occurrence of excessive
vertical settlements and lateral displacements of
overlaying soil mass. The simplified liquefaction
assessment procedure based on SPT, CPT and Shear
wave velocity method only stand correct for depths
less than or equal to 15 m from ground level, for
evaluation of liquefaction resistance in greater depths,
the simplified procedure provided here does not
yield proper results (Youd et al., 2001(13)), for such
situations the evaluation should be done by more
reliable method available at discretion of Geotechnical
Engineer. To make simplified procedure applicable to
31

TECHNICAL PAPERS
depths greater than 15 m, some correction factors are
suggested, which are elaborated in section 2.3.

Step II : Correction for thin soil layer in cone


penetration resistance

2.1 Assessment of Liquefaction Potential Based


on Cone Penetration Test (CPT) (Youd et al.,
2001(13)) (Depth 15 m)

This correction is applied to modify resistance to


penetration of cone into the ground due to presence
of thin layer of soil with same properties as that of
present above or below itself, but of reduced stiffness
caused as a result of change in gradation of soil. This
correction is necessary to avoid apparent reduction
in penetration resistance due to presence of thin soil
layer. The correction is to be applied as follows,

Cone penetration test provides a continuous profile


of stratigraphy and is more consistent with greater
repeatability of test. It is assumed that index properties
of soil layers are known or are established empirically.
Normalized value of tip resistance along-with clean
sand correction and thin soil layer correction is applied
to dimensionless value of resistance, which is then
employed to assess liquefaction potential. Following
procedure from Youd et al., 2001(13), one can assess
liquefaction potential of soil. Resistance to liquefaction
is provided by Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) of soil,
whereas potential of liquefaction is created by the
Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR). The procedure to evaluate
CSR is independent of method of soil testing.

K = 0.25 H

H
17 d c
where,
K H

= Factor for thin layer

d c

= Diameter of cone used for CPT testing


(mm)

= Thickness of interbedded (Thin) layer


(mm)

The correction can be applied as,

CSR = 0.65 amax v 0 rd 


g vo
where,
amax =


V0

V0 = Effective
(kN/m2)

r d

= Total overburden pressure (kN/m )


overburden

pressure

= Stress
reduction
coefficient
(Calculated as given below)

(1 0.4113 z 0.5 + 0.04052 z + 0.001753 z 1.5 )



(1 0.4177 z 0.5 + 0.05729 z 0.006205 z 1.5 + 0.001210 z 2 )

... (2.2)

= Depth below ground surface (m)

For evaluation of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR), a


4-step procedure is provided below.
32

qCA

= Measured cone resistance in field test


(kN/m2)

q C

= Corrected cone resistance (kN/m2)

Step III : Normalize cone penetration resistance


It was observed that penetration resistance is affected
by the changes in relative density of soil, overburden
stress, lateral stress and prior stress-strain history. In
order to account for this effect the normalization for
cone penetration resistance is required. The procedure
to evaluate it is as follows,

qc1N = CQ qc 

... (2.4)

Pa

where,

qc = KH qCA
where,

= Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

rd =

... (2.1)

Peak horizontal acceleration at ground


surface due to an dynamic event
(m/s2) (refer IS 1893-Part 1 (2002),
Table 2)(6)

... (2.3)

Step I : Evaluation of CSR


1.77 + 1.0

Where,
Pa
CQ =
......................... 1.7 
'v 0

... (2.5)

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
And,
qc1N =

Normalized cone penetration resistance,

C Q

Normalizing factor for cone penetration


resistance (kN/m2), Pa = Atmospheric
pressure (kN/m2) (1 atm), n = Exponent
that varies with the soil type, V0 =
Effective overburden pressure (kN/m2)

To arrive at appropriate value of n in absence of soil


data, following equations should be used or the value
can empirically assumed as 0.5 for clean sand and 1.0
for clayey soil.
2
2
Ic = (3.47 log Q ) + (1.22 + log F )

0.5

 ... (2.6)

where,

(q v 0 ) Pa
Q= c


Pa

'v 0

... (2.7)

fs
F =
100% 
(qc v 0 )

... (2.8)

Step IV : Evaluate Clean-sand Equivalent Normalized


Cone Penetration Resistance

And,

I c

= Soil behaviour type index

q c

= Cone tip resistance corrected for thin


layer (kN/m2)

f s

= Cone sleeve resistance (kN/m2)

V0

= Total overburden pressure (kN/m2)

For ease of evaluating equations 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8,


Fig. 1 should be referred. Here Ic serves as a limiting
value, which can be used to decide an appropriate
value of n. If value of Ic is greater than 2.6, the soil
is considered as non-liquefiable and for verification
purpose the soil gradation should be carried out for
that particular soil layer. For smaller values of Ic the
value of n is appropriately chosen from the procedure
described in Fig. 1.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Fig. 1 Flowchart for Calculation of Correction for


Normalized Cone Resistance

This correction is required to correct penetration


value obtained in silty soil for that observed in pure
sand with no silts i.e. clean sand. This correction is
required to be included as the data points used to
obtain these empirical equations were based on sites
having stratum with no silt content. Hence, to gain
equivalence, the following equations were suggested
by Youd et al(13).

(qc/1N)cs = Kc qc1n 

... (2.9)

where,

qc1N =


Normalized
cone
penetration
resistance (kN/m2), Kc = Correction
factor for grain characteristics as
follows,

For Ic > 1.64 use Kc = 1.0


For Ic < 1.64 use
Kc = 0.403I4c + 5.581I3c 21.63I2c + 33.5Ic 17.88 ...(2.10)

* The value of Ic used in equation (2.10) is obtained


from the analysis of flowchart given in Fig. 1.
33

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 2 Typical Computation for Evaluation of
Liquefaction Potential by Cone Penetration Test

Step V : Calculation of Cyclic Resistance Ratio


(CRR)
Now to evaluate liquefaction resisting component
(CRR), following equations are used and the CRR
value is corrected for appropriate magnitude of
earthquake. Value of (qc1N)cs is as obtained from step
IV above.

Depth (m)

12

15

25

qcA
(kN/m2)

1000

3500

2500

4000

fs (kN/m2)

20

35

25

40

qc (kN/m2)

1782

6240

4457

7131

If (qc1N)cs < 50, then

b (kN/m3)

18.0

17.5

18.5

19.0

20.0

20.0

v0
(kN/m2)

144.0 214.0 269.5 459.5

659.5

859.5

'v0
(kN/m2)

94.0

124.0 149.5 239.5

339.5

439.5

1.22

0.58

0.60

0.60

0.58

0.57

Ic

2.58

2.04

2.25

2.26

2.02

1.85

(qc1N )cs
CRR7.5 = 0.833
+ 0.05 
1000

... (2.11)

If 50 < (qc1N)cs < 160, then


(qc1N )cs
CRR7.5 = 93
+ 0.08 
1000
3

... (2.12)

Calculated value of CRR is based on the moment


magnitude of earthquake equal to 7.5, to convert it to
earthquake of different moment magnitude values of
CRR7.5 should be multiplied with Magnitude Scaling
Factor (MSF) to be chosen from Table 1,

CRRM = CRR7.5 MSF

... (2.13)

Table 1 Values of Magnitude Scaling Factor

Moment Magnitude of
Earthquake (M)

Magnitude Scaling
Factor (MSF)

5.5

1.43

6.0

1.32

6.5

1.19

7.0

1.08

7.5

1.00

8.0

0.94

8.5

0.89

CSR 
CRR

... (2.14)

If FOS > 1, then soil is non-liquefiable.


For FOS < 1, remedial measures for mitigation of
liquefaction are suggested to be referred.
34

10000 20000
100

200

17829 35659

CQ

1.06

0.81

0.67

0.42

0.29

0.23

18.9

50.3

29.8

29.7

52.5

81.1

Kc

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.00

(qc1n)cs

18.9

50.3

29.8

29.7

52.5

81.1

CRR7.5

0.07

0.09

0.07

0.07

0.09

0.13

rd

0.94

0.86

0.76

0.54

0.47

0.44

CSR

0.22

0.23

0.21

0.16

0.14

0.13

FOS

3.40

2.51

2.85

2.16

1.54

1.03

NL*

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

* NL = Non-liquefied layer

The Factor of Safety (FOS) against liquefaction can


be calculated as,

FOS =

45

qc1N

Result

Step VI : Computation of Factor of Safety (FOS)

35

Note :

Values are assumed as follows:

H = 3000 mm, dc = 36 mm, Pa = 100 kN/m2,

Depth of water table = 3 m,

Peak horizontal acceleration at ground surface


= 2.35 m/s2

2.2 Assessment of Liquefaction Potential Based


on Shear Wave Velocity Method (Youd et al.,
2001(13)) (Depth 15 m)
Evaluation of liquefaction potential using shear
wave velocity method is important for sites where,
penetration tests are difficult to conduct because of
adverse site conditions such as hard soils, gravelly
soils or inaccessible sites where boring is not possible.
Procedure for liquefaction assessment is simple and is
completed in two steps.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Step 1 : Calculate Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR)

1
1
V
CRR7.5 = 0.022 s1 + 2.8 *
*  ... (2.15)
100
Vs1 Vs1 Vs1

where,

Vs1

V*s1 = Limiting value of shear wave velocity


(m/s) as obtained from interpolation
between the following,

= Measured shear wave velocity (m/s)

V*s1 = 200 for FC 35%

V*s1 = 215 for FC 5%

And

where,

FC

= Fines content (%)

It can be observed that as fines content (FC) increase,


the shear wave velocity through that soil layer
decreases, hence to limit the lower bound value
of wave velocity, the value of V*s1 beyond FC of
35% is taken equal to 200 m/s. The estimation of
fines content should be applied with appropriate field
tests.
Step 2 : Correct CRR7.5 for Design moment magnitude
as per equation 2.13 and Table 1 for CPT test.
Step 3 : Calculate Factor of Safety (FOS) as given in
equation 2.14.
Hence for problem explained in Table 2, if the
measured shear wave velocity depth 12 m with fines
content of 18 % was 335 m/s, then calculated CRR
value from equation 2.15 would be 0.211, giving a
factor of safety of 1.09.
Limitation of liquefaction potential evaluation by
Shear wave velocity method is that, liquefaction is
associated with large-strain shear modulus, whereas
small-strain shear modulus is evaluated by current
method. This discrepancy may lead misrepresentation
of liquefaction assessment. Advantage associated with
this test is that it provides with an estimate to evaluate
cementation caused because of ageing of sands, as
described in section 4.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

2.3 Assessment of Liquefaction Potential for


Soil Depth Greater than 15 m (Youd et al.,
2001(13))
For depth greater than 15 m, the effect of overburden
and static shear stress condition are required to be
incorporated in formulation. It was observed that the
value of CRR increases non-linearly with increase in
overburden stress. To make the simplified procedure
(explained above) applicable for greater depth of soil,
following correction in CRR values were suggested.
For static shear stress observed in sloping ground,
there is a absence of convergence in observed data,
hence it is not recommended to use it in routine
engineering practice and is not covered here.
FOS =

CSR
K 
CRR

... (2.16)

where,

And,


K = v0
Pa
v0 =

Pa =
f
=

( f 1)

... (2.17)

Effective
overburden
pressure
(kN/m2)
Atmospheric pressure (kN/m2)
Exponent based on site condition,
given as,

Relative density (Rd)


40% to 60%
60% to 80%

f
0.7 to 0.8
0.6 to 0.7

* Values beyond this range of relative density in sand are not


covered in present literature

2.4

Design Charts for Estimation of liquefaction


Potential (Youd et al., 2001(13))
The equations and calculation process explained
above in sections 2.1 to 2.3 culminate into the visual
representation in the charts below. The corrected values
of in-situ test results are plotted on the abscissa and
the CRR values are place on the ordinate. Numerous
case histories of documented earthquake events at
various locations worldwide were analysed through
a rigours statistics and were plotted on the chart to
define a commonly agreed boundary of liquefiable
and non-liquefiable sites. These boundaries are
35

TECHNICAL PAPERS
mathematically represented in equations 2.11, 2.12
for CPT and equation 2.15 for Shear wave velocity
method. The curve represent in the Chart 1 for CPT is
strictly applicable for earthquake moment magnitude
of 7.5. As well as Chart 2 for Shear wave velocity test
is applicable for earthquake moment magnitude range
of 5.9 to 8.3 only. The readers should be cautious
about direct use of these charts; a sound consideration
should always be given to the earthquake moment
magnitude while using the chart.

Chart 1 Recommended Curve for Calculation of CRR from CPT


Data. (After Youd et al., 2001(13))

CORRECTION FOR
POTENTIAL
FROM
DEPOSITS

LIQUEFACTION
AGED
SAND

Sand deposits existing at a site are prone to undergo


cementation effect due to wetting and drying
cycles. Cementation in soil particles is created due
to deposition of bonding material like lime, silica
etc., by virtue of groundwater flow, or by chemical
degradation in the soil itself, this bonding can also be
caused because of presence of clay or silt particles
in the soil skeleton. Cementation apparently affects
resistance to penetration for tests such as SPT and
CPT. Cementation in sand increases with its age, if
no disturbance has occurred in the deposit due to any
dynamic loading, hence older sand deposits provide an
apparent resistance, to penetration tests. Time period
to be calculated for evaluating cementation correction
factor depends on when an dynamic event have
occurred area, time is calculated from the time of last
disturbance that have occurred in soil. It is assumed
that ageing clock of cemented sands is reset when
a dynamic event occurs. It is normally difficult to
estimate age of sand deposit at a given site. Hence to
evaluate the age of deposit and have a correct estimate
of liquefaction potential, a procedure was devised by
Andrus et al. 2009(1), which correlates data of SPT,
CPT tests to the measured shear wave velocity (Vs)
at site. These correlations are used to evaluate the age
of the soil and are re-produced below for application
purpose. The procedure used is simple and requires
at least one of the test data either SPT or CPT to be
available alongwith shear wave velocity test (Vs) data
for the same site. Here for advantage of the reader,
both procedures for SPT as well as CPT are provided.
The step-by-step procedure is as follows,
Step 1 : Correct the values of SPT, CPT and Shear
wave velocity for clean sand

Chart 2 Recommended Curve for Calculation of CRR from


Shear Wave Velocity Test Data. (After Youd et al., 2001(13))

36

1.

For SPT :

(N1)60CS = + (N1)60

... (3.1)

Where, and are the coefficients determined from


Table 3, depending on the Fines Content (FC) in the
soil. (N1)60 = Corrected SPT N value for energy
correction.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
2.

For CPT :

It is same as step (IV) and equation 2.9 in procedure


for evaluation of liquefaction by CPT test.
3.

For Shear wave velocity (Vs)

P
(Vs1 )cs = K csVs a
r

0.25

... (3.2)

where,

Kcs is determined from Table 3

V s

v0 = Effective
(kN/m2)

P a

= Shear wave velocity measured in field


(m/s)
overburden

pressure

= Atmospheric pressure (kN/m2)

Table 3 Coefficients for Clean Sand Correction

FC 5%

5% < FC< 35%

FC 35%

0.0

1.0

(0.99 + FC1.5 )
1000

1.2

Kcs

1.0

1+(FC-5)T*

1+30T*

e(1.76 190 / FC

5.0

* T = 0.009 - 0.0109 (Vs/100) + 0.0038 (Vs/100)2

Step 2 : Calculate the estimated shear wave velocity


based on SPT/CPT test
1.

For SPT :

(Vs1)cs = 87.8 {(N1)60cs}0.253

2.

For CPT :

(Vs1)cs = 62.6[(qt1N)cs]0.231

... (3.3)

... (3.4)

Step 3 : Calculate the measure to estimated velocity


ratio (MEVR)
Divide equation (3.2) by (3.3) or (3.4) and from Table
4, lookup the value of t and Kdr.

Table 4 Determination of Deposit Resistance


Correction Factor
Time since
Measured to
Deposit
initial deposition
estimated shear
resistance
or critical
wave velocity ratio, correction
disturbance, t
(MEVR)
factor, KDR
(years)
0.1
0.85
0.66
1
0.94
0.83
10
1.02
1.00
100
1.10
1.17
1000
1.18
1.34
10,000
1.26
1.51
1,00,000
1.34
1.68
10,00,000
1.43
1.85
1,00,00,000
1.51
2.02

The reason to use shear wave velocity method is that


it is more sensitive to the cementation caused due to
ageing of sands as compared to SPT or CPT tests.
Without applying corrections to resistance value, the
calculated CRR values may involve higher degree of
error.
4 ASSESSMENT
OF
EFFECT
ON
FOUNDATIONS DUE TO LIQUEFACTION
One of the important aspects for Liquefaction
mitigation for bridge foundations is estimation of
effects caused by liquefaction. Two prominent effects
are felt on foundation due to liquefaction in subsoil layer. First being the loss of shear strength of
soil, whereas the other is movement of soil in lateral
direction i.e. lateral spread of soil. Both of these
effects are harmful for structural stability as well as
to maintain serviceability of structure. Estimation
of these parameters is of utmost importance for
proper liquefaction-resistant design of structure. The
tolerable limits for these effects should be evaluated in
order to make the structure liquefaction-proof. There
are various empirical relations given in literature, offwhich recent ones with their method of application are
discussed below.

Step 4 : Calculate the corrected CRR value


CRRK = CRR X KDR

... (3.5)

Where, CRR = Cyclic resistance ratio as obtained


from equation 2.13 and 2.15.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

4.1 Estimation of Lateral Spread Occurring Due


to Liquefaction
During and after occurrence of liquefaction in subsoil layer, the stable land present above liquefied zone
37

TECHNICAL PAPERS
is subject to lateral movements. This phenomenon
can be visualized equivalent to movement of tectonic
plates over the earths mantle, only the process being
momentary and rate of displacement being very high.
Generally effect of lateral spread can be prominently
seen at banks of river or protruding edges of land into
sea. This condition is termed as free face condition
of land. Whereas in general, the land in which nosuch condition exists is considered as sloping ground
condition. This concept can be visualized from
Figs. 2a-2b.

4.1.1 For Sloping Ground


Sloping ground condition is as shown in Fig. 2a. To
estimate displacement of ground for this condition,
the following formula is referred from Youd et al.
2002(12) and other researchers(2)(11).
log DH = 16.213 + 1.532 M 1.406log R * 0.012 R
+0.388log S + 0.540log T15 + 3.413log(100 F15 )

... (4.1)

0.795log( D5015 + 0.1mm)

And,

R* = R0 + R, R0 = 10(0.89M-5.64)

where,

(a) Sloping Ground Condition

D H

= Displacement of land (m)

= Moment magnitude of earthquake

R*

= Modified source distance value (km)

D5015 = Average mean grain size of soil in


T15(mm)

Mapped distance from site to seismic


energy source (km), S = Ground
slope (%), T15 = Cumulative thickness
of saturated granular layer (m), F15 =
Average fines content in T15 (%),

4.1.2 For free face condition


Free face condition can be visualized in Figure 2b.
Estimation for such condition might be required for
structures present near bank of river or near shoreline
or in other words vertical face of land beyond which
resistance to its lateral movement cannot be offered,
can be termed as free face. To include the free face
component into the formulae, a dimensionless ratio
(W) defined as height of free face (H) to distance from
base of free face to the site (L) expressed in precent is
included in formula.
log DH = 16.713 + 1.532 M 1.406log R * 0.012 R
+0.592log W + 0.540log T15 + 3.413log(100 F15 )
(b) Free Face Condition
Fig. 2 Schematic Diagram for Estimation of Lateral Spread of
Soil. (After Yi. F., 2010(11))

38

 ... (4.2)

0.795log( D5015 + 0.1mm)

where,

W = Free face ratio as defined earlier


INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
The displacement values obtained from these
equations can be used for checking the displacement
criteria of structures. For proper understanding of
above formulae, an example with assumed values is
provided below,
M

S
(%)

R
(km)

T15
(m)

F15
(%)

D5015
(mm)

L
(m)

H
(m)

DH
(mm)

7.5

100

12

24.60

7.5

100

12

400

6.77

some difference, which necessitates that liquefaction


assessment procedure to be explained separately.
4.2.1 Assessment of

Japanese Code

According to JRA(4), the design earthquake ground


motion is classified into two parts,
1)

Level 1 earthquake ground motion : Earthquake


with high probability of occurrence.

2) Level 2 earthquake ground motion :


Earthquake with less probability of occurrence,
but strong enough to cause critical damage to
structure. With is further classification as Type
1: Interplate earthquake with large magnitude
and Type 2: Inland near field type earthquake.
Evaluation needed to decide design earthquake motion
is cumbersome and requires number of parameters,
hence for sake of simplicity, procedures to arrive at
earthquake ground motions is not described here and
should be dealt with great care and accuracy.
Parameters used for estimation of forces on foundation
require assessment of liquefaction potential by
Japanese code. This procedure though synonymous
to the method provided in Youd et. al., 2001(13) has
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Potential

by

Before conducting an assessment for liquefaction


potential, Japanese code stipulates that following
conditions should be satisfied in order to classify a
soil as liquefiable,
i)

The ground water level should be present


above 10 m depth from ground surface and the
saturated soil layer should be present at less
than 20 m depth.

ii)

For liquefaction assessment the Fines content


(FC) in the soil should be less than 35% or for
soils with higher FC the plasticity index (Ip)
should be less than 15.

iii)

The soil layer to be assessed for liquefaction


should have mean grain diameter of less than
10 mm (i.e. D50 < 10mm) and D10 < 1 mm.

4.2 Estimation of Force Acting on Foundation


Due to Liquefaction
To consider load acting on foundation due to
liquefaction occurring in sub-soil layers, the procedure
provided by Japanese code, Design specification for
bridges, Part 5, 2002(4) is followed. Japanese code
divides the category of earthquake based on the ground
motion parameters, obtained from seismic response
spectra, which further depend on modification factors
based on the ground conditions give in seismic map
of Japan.

Liquefaction

When above conditions are satisfied completely, then


soil is categorized as liquefiable and assessment for
liquefaction potential can be carried out as given in
following steps below,
Step 1 : Calculate the modified SPT N value
Correction for overburden pressure
N1 =

170 N 
V' + 70

= Penetration value obtained from SPT


test

= effective overburden at that level


(kN/m2)

... (4.3)

where,

Correction for grain size


i)

For sandy soils

N a = c 1N 1 + c 2

... (4.4)

where, the values of c1 and c2 are obtained from


Table 5 and N1 as obtained in step 1.

39

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 5 Correction for Grain Size
0 % FC* <
10%

10% FC < 60%

60% FC

10% FC

c1

FC + 40
50

FC
1
20

c2

FC 10
18

For gravelly soil

D
N a = 1 0.36 log10 50
2

N1 

... (4.5)

D50 = Mean grain diameter (mm)

c w

0.0882

RL =

0.0882

(4.7)

= Cyclic triaxial shear stress ratio to be


obtained from SPT test. The values of
which can be determined as follows,
Na
........................................( N a < 14)
1.7

... (4.8)

Na
4.5
+ 1.6 106 (N a 14 ) .....(14 N a )
1.7

L = rd khg

v

V'

... (4.9)

where,

40

khg

... (4.10)

where,

= Depth from ground surface (m)

Fl =

R
L

... (4.11)

= Dynamic shear strength ratio

= Seismic shear stress ratio

After evaluation of liquefaction potential, if the soil


is found to be liquefiable, then loading on bridge
foundation due to liquefaction induced ground flow
can be obtained as given section 4.2.2.

Step 3 : Evaluate seismic shear stress ratio (L)

rd

rd = 1.0 0.015x

= Modification factor depending on


earthquake ground motion and RL.

Where value of Na is as calculate in step 2.

pressure

If value of Fl is greater than one then soil is termed as


non-liquefiable.

1.0.........................................................( RL 0.1)

 ...
cw = 3.5RL + 0.67.........................................(0.1 < RL 0.4)
2.0.........................................................( R < 0.4)
L

R L

overburden

... (4.6)

R = c wR L

where,

V0 = Effective
(kN/m2)

where,

Step 2 : Evaluate dynamic shear strength ratio (R)


= Total overburden pressure (kN/m2),

Step 4 : Calculate liquefaction resistance factor (FL)

where,

V0

The reduction factor can be calculated out as,

FC = Fine Content (Percentage of soil passing through


75 m, by weight)

ii)

= Reduction factor for seismic shear


stress ratio in terms of depth, as
provided in equation 4.10.
= Design horizontal seismic coefficient
at ground surface level,

4.2.2 Assessment of Force Acting on Foundation Due



to Liquefaction (JRA(4))
The following formulation is only applicable for sites
with free face, and the proximity of the structure is
within 100 m of the free face with minimum thickness
of liquefiable soil layer of 5 m and stratum is widely
distributed in the area near the site. The direction on
the force should be applied depending on existence
of free face of land, as shown in Fig.3. The forces
calculated are to be applied as uniformly varying loads
with zero at top of layer and increasing with depth.
Also lateral movement force and inertial force should
not be considered simultaneously.
Step 1 : Resisting force acted by the soil above the
liquefied zone
Here pile length deeper below the liquefied zone is
ignored to offer any resistance. Hence for calculation,
the depth above the liquefiable zone is considered for
lateral resistance.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
qNL = Cs CNL KpNLx

Table 7 Modification Factor for Lateral Movement in


Non-Liquefying Soil Layer

... (4.12)

where,
qNL

C s

= Lateral movement force acting on unit


area of structural member in non liquefied depth (kN/m2),

Modification factor
(CNL)

PL 50

0.0

5 < PL 20

0.2 PL - 1

20 < PL

1.0

= Modification factor based on


the distance from water front (Free
face) obtained from Table 6,

CNL =


Liquefaction index (PL) (m2)

Modification factor for lateral


movement force in non-liquefied layer
obtained from Table 7 and PL (Given
later in step),

This force acts on foundation in liquefied zone,


with minimum at the top of the liquefying layer and
maximum at the bottom.

K p

NL = Mean unit weight of non-liquefying


layer (kN/m3),

qL

= Force acting on unit area of structural


member in zone of liquefied soil
(kN/m2),

CL

= Modification factor for lateral


movement in liquefied zone = 0.3
(Can be safely assumed)

= Mean unit weight of liquefying layer


(kN/m3)

HNL = Thickness
layer (m)

= Passive earth pressure coefficient of


non-liquefied layer,

Step 2 : Force acting on foundation from liquefied


layer

= Depth to bottom of layer from ground


level (m)

qL = Cs CL { N L H NL + L ( x H NL )} 

where,

And,
20

PL =

(1 FL )(10 0.5 x)dx 

... (4.13)

where,

PL

= Liquefaction index (m2),

FL

= Liquefaction resistant factor calculated


in equation 4.3 (If, FL 1, take
FL = 1)

= Depth to bottom of layer from ground


level (m).

Table 6 Modification Factor for Distance


from Water-Front

Distance (s) from Water


front (m)
s 50
50 < s 100
100 < s

Modification
Factor (Cs)
1.0
0.5
0.0

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

... (4.14)

of

non-liquefying

To understand the usage of above procedure, an


example is provided here. The parameters are assumed
as given below.
Fl HNL (m) HL (m)
0.8

NL (kN/m3) L (kN/m3) s (m)


18

17.5

78

Uniformly varying load acting on the pile can be


evaluated from equations 4.11, 4.12 and 4.13 as in
Table 8 and are to be applied to the structure as shown
in Fig. 3.

41

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 3 Schematic Diagram for Considering Lateral Forces on the Piles. (JRA(4))

Table 8 Forces Acting on Pile Due to Liquefaction in


Sub-Surface Layer
x=0

x = HNL

qNL (kN/m )

67.5

qL (kN/m2)

13.5

31.87

4.3

Distance
R 0.3
0.3 < R
from
Earthquake ground Earthquake ground
ground
motion
motion
surface (x)

x = HL

Reduction in Strength of Soil Due to


Liquefaction

In order to gain residual strength in soil geotechnical


parameters such as strength and shear modulus can
be reduced of a soil found to be liquefaction prone
with (FL < 1). It will be appropriate to say that for soil
stratum assessed to be prone for liquefaction, does
not necessarily liquefy in every dynamic event. For
phenomenon of liquefaction to take place, there are
numerous factors which should be favourable. Hence
to offset this probability of occurrence, the Japanese
code(4) suggests considering reduced soil strength for
design of structures on liquefiable stratum. Japanese
code provides with Table 9 based on dynamic shear
strength ratio and level of earthquake ground motion.
The values obtained from Table 9 are to be multiplied
with strength parameters, in order to obtain reduced
strength.
42

Table 9 Reduction Factor for Geotechnical


Parameters (JRA(4))

FL
0.333
0.333<
FL
0.666
0.666 <
FL 1.0

Level 1

Level 2

Level 1

Level 2

0 x 10

0.166

0.333

0.166

10 < x 20

0.666

0.333

0.666

0.333

0 x 10

0.666

0.333

0.666

10 < x 20

0.666

0.666

0 x 10

0.666

10 < x 20

* Soil layer with reduced or zero geotechnical parameters shall


be assumed to act as overburden in calculations.

where,

= Dynamic shear strength ratio (From


step 3 section 4.2.1),

FL

= Liquefaction resistance factor (From


step 1 section 4.2.1),

= Depth from ground surface (m)


INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
5

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper a summary of latest methods to evaluate


various mechanisms associated with liquefaction
phenomenon are explained. The procedures to evaluate
them are provided along-with solved examples.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The assessment of liquefaction potential has


been extended to cover Cone Penetration Test
(CPT) and Shear wave velocity method.
To apply correction factor for cementation
effect in sands, a procedure has been described
based on shear wave velocity test. An accurate
estimate of age of sand deposit can be evaluated
by this procedure.
Quantification of lateral movement of soil
occurring on land surface due to liquefaction
occurring in sub-soil layer is elaborated.
Method to obtain force acting on pile foundation
of bridge structure has been described as per
Japanese code. The estimated forces can be
used in current practice of structural design.
Consideration for reduction in strength
parameters in soil deposit with possibility of
liquefaction is reviewed from Japanese code.

2.

Barlett S. F. and Youd T. L. Empirical Prediction of


Liquefaction-Inducted Lateral Spread (1995). Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering, 121(4), pp. 316-331.

3.

Comprehensive Specifications for the Seismic Design of


Bridges (2001), NCHRP 12-49.

4.

Design Specification for Highway Bridges, Part 5, Seismic


Design (2002), Japan Road Association (JRA).

5.

Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake


Resistance - Part 5: Foundations, Retaining Structures and
Geotechnical Aspects

6.

Indian Standard Code 1893 Criteria for Earthquake


Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1 General Provisions
and Buildings, 5th Revision (2002), Bureau of Indian
Standards (BIS), New Delhi.

7.

Indian Standard Code 4968, Method for Subsurface


Sounding for Soil, Part 3 Static Cone Penetration Test,
1st Revision (1997), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS),
New Delhi.

8.

Indian Standard Code 13372 Seismic Testing of Rock


Mass - Code of Practice, Part 2 Between the Boreholes,
(1996), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi.

9.

Singh H. and Bhowmick A. Assessment of


Liquefaction Potential for Bridge Design (2012). Indian
Highways, Indian Roads Congress, September 2012,
pp. 17-28.

10.

TRANSIT New Zealand, Part of New Zealand Transport


Agency, Bridge Manual, ISBN 0-478-04132-2.

11.

Yi F. Procedure to Evaluate Liquefaction-Induced


Lateral Spreading Based on Shear Wave Velocity (2010).
Proceedings of Fifth Conference on Recent Advances in
Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics,
San Diego, California. Paper no. 1.57a, pp. 1-10.

12.

Youd T. L., Hansen C. M. and Bartlett S. F. Revised


Multilinear Regression Equations for Prediction of Lateral
Spread Displacement (2002). Journal of Geotechnical
and
Geoenvironmental
Engineering,
128(12),
pp. 1007-1017.

13.

Youd T. L., Idriss I. M., Andrus R. D., Arango I., Castro


G., Christian J. T., Sobry R., Finn W. D. L., Harder
L.F. Jr., Hynes M. E., Ishihara K., Koester J. P., Liao
S. S. C, Marcuson W. F. III., Martin G. R., Mitchell J.
K., Moriwaki Y., Power M. S., Robertson P. K., Seed
R. B. and Stokoe K. H II. Liquefaction Resistance of
Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998
NCEER/NSF Workshops on Evaluation of Liquefaction
Resistance of Soils (2001). Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(10), pp. 817-833.

7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful for the comments and
suggestions provided by experts from IRC. Their
reviews in improving the quality of paper are
acknowledged. The authors also wish their gratitude
to the management of Spectrum Techno-Consultants
Pvt. Ltd. for providing an opportunity to work on the
subject.
REFERENCES
1.

Andrus R. D., Hayati H. and Mohanan N. P. Correcting


Liquefaction Resistance of Aged Sands Using Measured to
Estimated Velocity Ratio (2009). Journal of Geotechnical
and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(6), pp. 735-744.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

43

EFFECT OF PEDESTRIAN CROSS - FLOW ON


CAPACITY OF URBAN ARTERIALS
Satish Chandra*, G. Srinivasa Rao** and Ashish Dhamaniya***

ABSTRACT
Pedestrians crossing a road at mid block section reduce the traffic
stream speed and thus the capacity of the road. These crossings
may be at designated places where pedestrian markings are made
or at undesignated places where no such markings are present. The
pedestrians crossing an urban road at undesignated places are not
uncommon and they force the motor vehicles to provide suitable
gaps for their crossing. The present study demonstrates the effect
of such crossings on capacity of an urban arterial road. Data are
collected on six sections of urban arterial roads in New Delhi,
Jaipur and Chandigarh. Three sections were selected without any
side friction to estimate the base value of capacity. Remaining three
sections were with pedestrian flow across the road at undesignated
crossing. Speed and flow were measured in field and these data
were used to estimate the capacity of a section. The capacity of
6-lane divided urban road in New Delhi is estimated as 2065 pcu/
hour/lane. It reduces to almost half when pedestrian cross-flow is
1360 ped/hr. A mathematical relation is suggested for reduction in
road capacity with volume of pedestrian cross-flow.

INTRODUCTION

In recent times, many cities have seen a large increase


in road traffic and transport demand, which has
consequently led to deterioration in capacity and
inefficient performance of traffic systems. Capacity
analysis is necessary to have periodic evaluation of
the existing facility and to arrive at number of lanes to
be provided in a new facility. The factors affecting the
capacity of highway are physical conditions, traffic
conditions, control conditions and environmental
conditions. These conditions include geometry of the
road, heterogeneity of traffic stream, time of the day,
weather conditions and type of control exercised.
The main characteristic of traffic on Indian urban
roads is its heterogeneous nature and loose structure

of regulatory system. It requires an elaborate analysis


procedure to arrive at number of lanes at desired level
of service by considering all factors affecting highway
capacity. Activities at the road side and on the carriage
way are always expected to affect the capacity of any
road and the speed at which it operates. On urban
roads, which are also subjected to heterogeneous
traffic conditions, the amount of disturbance to traffic
flow from side friction is often considerable and the
number of sources of friction is also large. They
include but not limited to pedestrians, non motorised
vehicles, parked and stopping vehicles, bus stop, bus
bays and commercial activities along the road. In many
developing Asian countries, the range and intensity
of such side friction is so great that these activities
need to be incorporated explicitly into procedures
for calculation of speed and capacity of road links
(Bang, 1995)1.
The present study was taken up with an objective
of evaluating the effect of pedestrians crossing on
capacity of 6 lane divided urban arterials in India.
2 BACKGROUND LITERATURE
Literature on pedestrian cross-flow with reference to
capacity of an urban road is extremely scant. Kiec and
Bak (2012)9 studied the influence of various types of
mid-block pedestrian crossings on road capacity. They
built a simulation model in VISSIM and calibrated on
the basis of research results on drivers and pedestrians
behaviour. The results show a relevant impact of
willingness to give a right of way on urban streets

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Email: satisfce@iitr.ernet.in

**

Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Gitam Institute of Technology, Gitam University, Visakhapatnam.

*** Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee & Asst. Prof. SVNIT,

Surat. Email: adhamaniya@ced.svnit.ac.in

44

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
with capacity reduction and delays. Some other
studies on factors affecting capacity of urban roads
are also summarized here. Farouki and Nixon (1976)7
studied effect of the carriageway width on speeds of
cars in the special case of free flow conditions in suburban roads at Belfast. It was found that the mean free
speed of cars in suburban area increases linearly with
the carriageway width over certain range of width
(5.2m to 11.3m). Yagar and Van Aerde (1983)15 found
that speed changes exponentially with change in lane
width. Chandra et al. (1995)2 made a comprehensive
study on capacity of urban roads. They observed that
the PCU for a vehicle type decreases with increase
in its own proportion in the traffic stream; which in
turn will reduce the capacity of highway. Van Aerde
(1995)14 presented a generic speed-flow-density
relationship, which was successfully applied and
calibrated for both freeways and arterials in both
the micro and the macro domains. Parker (1996)13
observed that traffic composition plays an important
role in determining capacity. It was found that the
percentage of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) within
a traffic stream has a major effect on capacity due to
length, limited manoeuvrability, lower desired speed
and engine power to weight ratio. Lum et al. (1998)10
observed traffic volume and travel time data at a
number of arterial roads in Singapore to analyse the
speed-flow relationships for radial and ring arterial
roads. Christopher and Mason (2000)6 presented a
statistical approach to define the variables having
significant effects on operating speed. Marwah and
Singh (2000)12 presented level of service classification
of urban heterogeneous traffic. They considered
journey speeds of cars and motorised two wheelers,
concentration, and road occupancy to define LOS.
Fitzpatrick et al. (2001)8 investigated geometric,
roadside, and traffic control device variables that
may affect driver behaviour on four-lane suburban
arterials. Maitra et al. (2003)11 observed that because
of the encroachment of abutting land and/or nonavailability of land, in many situations roads are
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

widened partially and these roads do not follow


standard lane dimensions, which affect the capacity
adversely. Chandra and Prasad (2004)4 estimated
that capacity of an urban road section increases by
approximately 9 percent for every 10 percent increase
in the proportion of 2-wheeler. The capacity of a
section with side friction is approximately 12 percent
lower as compared to a section with no side friction.
Chiguma (2007)5 adopted an empirical method to
determine the effect of side friction factors on traffic
performance measures on urban roads in Dar-essalaam city in Tanzania. The results showed that side
friction can have considerable effects on speed and
capacity like other commonly used factors in capacity
analysis.
3

DATA COLLECTION

Data on six sections of 6-lane divided urban arterial


roads were collected in New Delhi, Jaipur and
Chandigarh. The present study is mainly focused on
evaluating the effect of pedestrians cross flow on
capacity of urban roads. In order to quantify this effect,
it is required to estimate capacity of an urban arterial
without any influencing factor. Therefore, 3 sections
were chosen without any side friction. All sections
were at midblock of urban arterial roads sufficiently
away from the influence of intersection and any other
side friction like parking, bus stop etc. Video recording
technique was used for data collection. It gives real
time information and provides facility to replay the
cassette as many times as needed for data extraction.
A trap of about 50 m length was made on the section
using white self adhesive tape for measurement of
speed. Video camera was mounted at a reasonable
height so as to have the clear view of the section and
field data were collected for 4 to 6 hours on a section.
Pedestrians crossing the road were also covered in the
video so that their numbers can also be counted later.
Table 1 provides details of site conditions at each of
the six sections selected for the present study and time
of data collection.
45

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 1 Name of Road and Site Conditions

Section
Number
I

Name of the Road

Time Duration of Field


Survey
8 AM to 12 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM
8 AM to 12 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM
9 AM to 11 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM
8 AM to 12 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM
8 AM to 12 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM
9 AM to 11 PM and
4 PM to 6 PM

Swaminagar, New Delhi

II

Haus khaz, New Delhi

III

JLN Marg, Jaipur

IV

AIIMS, New Delhi

Cannught Place, New Delhi

VI

Sector-17, Chandigarh

The video recorded data were used to extract the


information on classified traffic volume count and
speed of individual vehicles. All vehicles are divided
in to 5 categories as shown in Table 2. The standard
car in the present study is taken as a passenger car
having length 3.98 m and width 1.54 m and engine

Site Condition
No side friction
No side friction
No side friction
Pedestrian cross - flow
Pedestrian cross - flow
Pedestrian cross - flow

power of 1400 cc. Tata Indigo, Indica, Hyundai Getz,


Toyota Corolla, Honda city etc. were considered as
standard cars. The big car is taken as a passenger car
having length 4.58 m, width 1.77 m and engine power
2500 cc. Toyota Innova, Tata Sumo, Ford Endeavour
etc. were considered as big cars.

Table 2 Vehicle Categories and their Average Dimensions

Class of Vehicle

Average Dimensions
Length (m)

Width (m)

Projected Rectangular Plan


Area (m2)

Standard Car

3.72

1.44

5.39

Big Car

4.58

1.77

8.11

Bus

10.10

2.43

24.74

Three-wheeler

3.20

1.40

4.48

Two-wheeler

1.87

0.64

1.20

The classified volume count of all vehicles passing


through a specified point, say first line of the trap,
during a fixed period of 5 minute provided the
measurement for composition and flow. The average
time taken by each category of vehicle to cover the
trap length was recorded using a digital stop watch
of 0.01 second accuracy. The precaution was taken to
46

consider only those periods during which there was


continuous flow of the vehicles with representation
of each category. For the purpose of speed
measurement of a vehicle type, 6-8 vehicles of
that category were randomly picked up during the
flow and average of their speeds was taken for the
analysis.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
4 ANALYSIS OF DATA
The data on classified volume count and average speed
of each vehicle category on the selected mid block
were extracted from the video film in the manner
as explained in the previous section. The data were

analyzed to obtain the composition of traffic stream,


hourly traffic volume and speed (km/hr) of each
type of vehicle on different mid block sections. The
composition of traffic stream at different sections is
given in Table 3.

Table 3 Traffic Composition (%) at Different Sections

Section
I
II
III
IV
V
VI

Standard Car
46.49
46.54
26.50
47.20
47.55
29.00

Big Car
7.55
7.11
3.96
5.78
6.40
3.47

4.1 Estimation of PCU Values


Traffic on Indian roads is of heterogeneous character
with wide variation in the static and dynamic
characteristics of different types of vehicles. One
class of vehicles cannot be considered equal to any
other vehicle class as there is considerable difference
in their physical and flow characteristics. One way of
accounting this non-uniformity in static and dynamic
characteristics of vehicles is to convert all vehicles
in to a common unit and the most accepted unit for
this purpose is passenger car unit (PCU). PCU is a
complex parameter and depends upon all factors of
geometry and traffic operation. Many researchers have
developed methods to estimate PCU for a vehicle type
and there exists a large variation in PCU values being
adopted in different parts of world.
PCU is a measure of relative interaction caused by
a vehicle to the traffic stream compared to passenger
car under a specified set of roadway, traffic and other
conditions. This interaction will depend on traffic,
roadway and environmental conditions. For a given
facility, roadway and environmental conditions
remain almost unchanged during field observation
time, and therefore, traffic characteristics like
traffic composition, traffic volume, speed and size
of each category of vehicle must be able to explain
all variations in PCU values for a vehicle type. The
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Heavy Vehicle
3.64
1.65
1.53
2.32
0.40
2.23

3-Wheeler
12.70
16.63
10.48
19.09
20.41
13.26

2-Wheeler
29.61
28.06
57.53
25.60
25.23
52.04

composition accounts for any change in the traffic


and changing degree of damaging effect at different
volume levels. The vehicular interaction and all other
geometric influences culminate in the speed of the
vehicle, and physical size of a vehicle is supposed to
indicate maneuverability, acceleration or deceleration
capability and space occupancy on the road which are
crucial in the measurement of density. Considering all
these factors, Chandra and Kumar (2003)3 proposed
the following equation to determine PCU for a
vehicle type.
PCU i =

V c Vi

Ac Ai

... (1)

where,

PCUi = Equivalent passenger car unit of


vehicle i,

V c

= Speed of car (km/hr),

Vi

= Speed of vehicle i (km/hr),

A c

= Projected rectangular plan area of


car (m2),

A i

= Projected rectangular plan area of


vehicle i (m2).

The PCU values calculated for different types of


vehicles at different sections are given in Table 4.
47

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 4 Average PCU Values of Vehicles at Different Sections

Section
I
II
III
IV
V
VI

Standard Car
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Big Car
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.5

Heavy Vehicle
5.6
6.3
5.5
5.9
5.2
6.2

4.2 Speed - Volume Relationship


Three basic parameters of traffic flow, speed,
volume and density are used for estimation of traffic
carrying capacity of a road. Since the measurement
of traffic density in mixed traffic situation is difficult,
attempts have made always been to concentrate on
speed volume relationship. For determination of
speed-volume relationship in heterogeneous traffic
condition, the volume calculated by total vehicles
recorded for each counting period were converted into
equivalent number of PCUs using values obtained in
Section 4.1.
In a mixed traffic situation, large variation exists in
speeds of slow moving and fast moving vehicles.
Therefore, spot speed or space mean speed cannot be
considered for mixed traffic. It needs to be modified
to suit the heterogeneous traffic conditions. For this
purpose many researchers suggested use of mean
stream speed. Mean stream speed or weighted space
mean speed as given by Equation 2 is used in the
present study.

Vm
where,

nV
i =1 i i
N

... (2)

n
i =1 i

V m

= mean stream speed (km/hr),

n i

= number of vehicles of category i,

Vi

= Speed of vehicles of category i


(km/hr),

= Total number of categories of vehicles


in traffic stream.

48

3-Wheeler
0.9
1.0
1.1
0.9
1.1
1.1

2-Wheeler
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3

The average stream speed calculated by above equation


is plotted against hourly traffic volume to estimate the
capacity.
4.3

Capacity of 6-Lane Divided Urban Arterials

The speed volume data for section I is used to plot


speed flow relationship. The complete shape of speed
- flow diagram is difficult to obtain from field data
as it would require flow to be observed from free
flow to forced flow conditions. Therefore, speed-flow
data were converted to speed-density data using the
fundamental relation between the flow (Q), density
(K) and speed (V) as given in Equation 3.
K = Q 

... (3)

The speed density curve for section I is shown in


Fig. 1. The data points follow a straight line trend
(Greenshield model) and it was used to develop
theoretical speed flow curve as shown in Fig. 2. The
capacity of this section is obtained as 6075 pcu/hr for
one direction of traffic flow.
Similar curves were drawn at sections II and III also
and capacity values were estimated. FFS of standard
car observed on mid block sections of six-lane urban
arterial roads are used to fit a statistical distribution.
The speed distribution curves at section I are shown
in Figs. 3 and 4. This resembles the shape of a normal
distribution. The calculated and critical values of
chi-square were 0.65 and 7.81 respectively at 3 degree
of freedom and 5 percent level of significance. The
capacity values and 85th percentile FFS of passenger
car, which is considered as the operating speed, for
these sections are given in Table 5.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 1 Speed-Density Relationship at Section-I

Fig. 4 Cumulative Frequency Distribution of FFS of


Car at Section I

Table 5 Capacity and Free Flow Speed at


6-Lane Roads

Fig. 2 Speed-Flow Relationship at Section-I

Section

Total Capacity
in One Direction
(pcu/hr)

Capacity
(pcu/hr/
Lane)

85th
Percentile
FFS (kmph)

6075

2025

80.80

II

6314

2104

86.60

III

4955

1652

70.41

The capacity of section III is less than that of other two


sections. This section is located in Jaipur and influence
of city size might have caused reduction in capacity.
Further, the FFS in Jaipur is around 70 kmph, which
is 80 percent of operating speed observed on Delhi
roads. This is also a reason for low capacity value of
section III.
4.4 Effect of Pedestrian Cross-Flow

Fig. 3 Frequency Distribution of FFS of Car at Section I

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

The speeddensity curve for section IV is shown in


Fig. 5. The data points follow a straight line trend
and it was used to develop theoretical speed flow
curve as shown in Fig. 6. The capacity of this section
is obtained as 4739 pcu/hr for one direction of traffic
flow. Similar curves were drawn at sections V and VI
also and capacity value was estimated. The capacity
values and pedestrian flow as observed for these
sections are given in Table 6.
49

TECHNICAL PAPERS
presence of pedestrian cross-flow reduces the capacity
of sections IV, V and VI by 23, 16 and 49.6 percent
respectively. Fig. 7 shows the variation in percent
reduction in capacity with pedestrian cross-flow. It is
given by Equation 4.

% Reduction in Capacity = 0.035 * Pedestrian


Volume.
... (4)

It suggests that a pedestrian volume of 100 ped/hr


crossing the road will reduce its capacity by
3.52 percent.

Fig. 5 Speed-Density Relationship at Section- IV

Fig. 7 Percent Reduction in Capacity due to Pedestrian CrossFlow

Fig. 6 Speed-Flow Relationship at Section-IV

Table 6 Capacity and Pedestrian Flow at


Different Sections
Section

Total Capacity In
One Direction
(pcu/hr)

Capacity
(pcu/hr/
lane)

Pedestrian
Flow (ped/
hr)

IV

4739

1580

682

5200

1733

508

VI

3120

1040

1360

The effect of pedestrian crossing on the traffic


stream is to reduce the stream speed and capacity of
the section. Similar trend is observed in the present
study also. Considering lane capacity of a 6 lane
urban arterial as 2065 (average of section I & II), the

50

CONCLUSION

IRC:106-1990 suggests capacity of a six lane urban


arterial road as 3857 pcu/hr (1285 pcu/hr/lane). The
capacity of 6-lane divided urban arterial roads in
present study is estimated at 2065 pcu/hr/lane for no
side friction condition. It is almost 60 percent higher
than that reported in the IRC code, which was drafted
more than 20 years back. The vehicle and road making
technology in these years have improved considerably
and these have resulted in higher capacity values.
The pedestrians crossing a road will interact with
vehicular traffic and thus reduce the capacity of the
road. Reduction in capacity will however, depend on
pedestrian cross flow. The present study shows that
capacity of a 6 lane urban road reduces to almost half

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
(49.6% reduction at section VI) when pedestrian crossflow is 1360 peds/hr. This reduction is only 15% for a
pedestrian cross-flow of 508 peds/hr. A mathematical
equation is developed between the percent reduction
in capacity and pedestrian cross-volume. It suggests
that a pedestrian volume of 100 peds/hr crossing the
road will reduce its capacity by 3.52 percent.
The present study is based on limited data and hence
validity of straight line relation between reduction
in capacity and pedestrian cross-flow needs to be
checked in future studies by taking data on some
more sections. Further, use of speed-density curve as
obtained from speed-flow data has been made in this
paper. It will be worthwhile to investigate any error
caused by this calibration in estimation under mixed
traffic condition.

Along Low-Speed Urban Streets, Transportation


Research Record 1737, TRB, National Research Council,
Washington, D.C., pp. 18-25.
7.

Farouki, O.T. and Nixon, W.J. (1976), The Effect of


Width of Sub-Urban Roads on the Mean Free Speeds of
Cars, Traffic Engineering Control, Vol. 17 (12), London,
pp. 518-519.

8.

Fitzpatrick, K., Carlson,P., Brewer, M. and Wooldridge,


M. (2001), Design Factors that Affect Driver Speed on
Suburban Streets, Transportation Research Record 1751,
TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,
pp. 18-25.

Kiec, M. and Bak, R. (2012), Influence of Various


Types of Mid-Block Pedestrian Crossings on Urban
Street Capacity, Transportation Research Board Annual
Meeting 2012, Paper No 12-3818.

10.

Lum, K. M., Fan, H.S.L., Lam, S. H. and Olszewski,


P. (1998), Speed-Flow Modeling of Arterial Roads
in Singapore, Journal of Transportation Engineering,
ASCE, Vol.124, pp. 213-222.

11.

Maitra, B., Sikdar, P.K. and Dhingra, S.L. (2003),


Effect of Road Width on Traffic Congestion and Level
of Service, Highway Research Bulletin No. 68, Indian
Roads Congress, New Delhi, pp. 123-132.

12.

Marwah, B. R. and Singh, B. (2000). Level of Service


Classification for Urban Heterogeneous Traffic: A Case
Study of Kanpur Metropolis. Transportation Research
Circular E- C018: 4th International Symposium on
Highway Capacity, Maui, Hawaii, 271-286.

13.

Parker, M.T. (1996), The Effect of Heavy Goods


Vehicles and Following Behavior on Capacity at Motorway
Sites, Traffic Engg. and Control, Vol. 37(9), London,
pp. 524-532.

14.

Van Aerde, M. (1995), Single Regime Speed-FlowDensity Relationship for Congested and Uncongested
Highways, 74th TRB Annual Meeting, Washington,
D.C., Paper No. 950802.

15.

Yagar, S. and Van Aerde, M. (1983), Geometric and


Environmental Effects on Speeds of Two Lane Highways,
Transportation Research, Vol. 17A, No. 4, pp. 315-325.

REFERENCES
1.

2.

Bang, K.L. (1995), Impact of Side Friction on SpeedFlow Relationships for Rural and Urban Highways,
HDM 4 Project Report, SWEROAD Indonesia, pp. 1-27.
Chandra S., Kumar, V., and Sikdar, P.K. (1995), Dynamic
PCU and Estimation of Capacity of Urban Roads,
Indian Highways, Indian Roads Congress, Vol. 23(4),
pp. 17 28.

3.

Chandra, S. and Kumar, U. (2003), Effect of Lane Width


on Capacity under Mixed Traffic Conditions in India,
Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 129(2),
pp. 155-160.

4.

Chandra, S. and Prasad, N.V. (2004), Capacity of


Multilane Urban Roads Under Mixed Traffic Conditions,
Highway Research Bulletin, Indian Roads Congress,
No. 75, New Delhi, pp. 97-103.

5.

6.

Chiguma Masatu L.M. (2007), Analysis of Side Friction


Impacts on Urban Road Links, Doctoral Thesis in
Traffic and Transportation Planning, Royal Institute of
Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Christopher M. P. and Mason, J.M. (2000), Analyzing
Influence of Geometric Design on Operating Speeds

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

51

OPTIMUM MAINTENANCE PREDICTIONS AND DERIVATION


OF TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES FOR BRIDGE
DETERIORATION MODELING
S. R. Katkar* And Prashant P. Nagrale**
ABSTRACT
The ideal Bridge Maintenance Management System (BMMS) is
the one which closely predicts the future condition of the structure.
The traditional reactive management has now been taken over by
proactive management. The study refereed to IRC:SP:35-1990,
Appendix 4, Inspection Proforma and masonry register maintained
by PWD Maharashtra. For this study, database of 20 number of
RCC three girder type bridges for past consecutive years from
their construction is quantified in 7 discrete condition states based
on the inspection proforma comments. The data base is analyzed
to test Markovian Property using Chi square test for inference
testing. As available sample database is limited, the same is
considered to develop database matrix. The model is generalized
to construct one step Transition Probability Matrix (TPM) using
Poissons distribution and is tested for goodness of fit using Chi
square test. From one step TPM, successive TPMs are derived.
Using deterministic approach, average condition state of bridge
network under study is calculated. Considering 100 new bridges,
probable number of bridges in each condition states in each year,
up to 60 years, is predicted by using excel programming. Bridge
deterioration process is presented in the form of curve. However,
improved database collection methodology helps to build more
accurate and complete Markov Decision Process (MDP) based
model.

INTRODUCTION

Goal of good BMMS provides an efficient method


for estimating replacement time, budgeting and
maintenance intervals. The ideal BMMS is the one
which could very closely predict the future condition
of the structure. If a proper and extensive record
of past performance of a structure is available, a
statistical model such Markovian model helps in
future predictions.
Bridges are vital elements in road network and
constitute a significant part of total construction cost
of network. A survey carried out in Maharashtra State
on State Roads has shown that there are 871 bridges
with deficient load carrying capacity needing repairs

and strengthening (Panel Discussion on Bridge


Management System, IRC, Dec. 1990). The BMMS
needs a strong data base which has got to have an
inventory of Bridge structures including the salient
features of materials used, type of structures and
locations, along with all the regards of past inspections,
assessments and strengthening carried out to date.
Now days, the bridge management is based on new
concepts. The traditional reactive management has
now been taken over by proactive management.
The BMMS in India is in its initial stage of
implementation, IRC:SP:35-1990 Guidelines for
Inspection and Maintenance of Bridges is the first
organized step in this direction. Data collection is
carried out based on the guidelines given in above
mentioned IRC code and masonry register maintained
by PWD. To design Maintenance Management System
(MMS) it is required to understand the deterioration
process of the bridge. To know extent of deterioration,
inspection data and its quantification in terms of
condition state is required.
Deterioration of any infrastructure facility system
invariably changes with time. The transition from
one condition state of system to another as a function
of time or its corresponding transition probability
depends on its prior condition states. However, if the
transition probability depends only on the current
state, the process of change may be modeled with
the Markov process. If the condition state space is
countable or finite set, then the process is called a
Markov chain. Moreover, if change can occur only
at discrete points of the parameters for example, at
discrete instants of time, the process is a discrete
parameter Markov chain. As mechanistic, empirical,

Research Scholar, E-mail: sujit.katkar@gmail.com

**

Associate Professor, E-mail: aditya_prashant2004@yahoo.co.in

52

Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Andheri (w), Mumbai

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TECHNICAL PAPERS
expert etc. maintenance management systems are
data centric, developing country like India where
data collection and maintenance community are one
and same which failed in inspection and collection
of extensive data base. And hence probabilistic
maintenance management systems are invariably
useful in such situation. Here in this study, Markovian
decision process (MDP) is used for probabilistic
analysis of bridge maintenance predictions.
2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The maintenance is the strategy essentially helps in


decision making and in prioritization of the defects
and improvement of the bridge network. Madanat and
Ibrahim (1995) have supported the applications of
Markovian transition probabilities for infrastructure
maintenance management system to provide forecast
of facilities conditions. It is identified that existing
approaches used to estimate Markovian transition
probabilities from inspection data are mostly
approximate and it has several statistical limitations.
It is concluded that the Poissons model may be
more effective model for prediction of infrastructure
forecasts. Prapannachari, and Kaistha, (1994), in their
paper have discussed the complete bridge maintenance
management system and primary activities associated
with BMMS in Indian scenario.
Allen et.al (1989) have highlighted the importance
of generation of funding for repair and rehabilitation
of road and bridges. It is further emphasized that
the efforts towards repair and maintenance must be
made for an effective allocation of the limited funds
and hence prioritizing the maintenance of existing
bridges to upgrade it for satisfactory level of service
is essential.
Scherer and Glagola, (1994), tested the Markovian
model for BMMS. The research indicates that the
MDP is a powerful and useful technique of BMMS
only when data collection for repairs and maintenance
history can be improved in order to build more accurate
and complete MDP based model. Abbas et.al (1994)
described the pavement maintenance predictions

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

and developed a model to priorities the repair policy


considering budget constraint. Yang (2004) reviewed
different mathematical models showing deterioration
behavior of various infrastructure facilities like roads
and bridges.
Study of different types of deterministic models such
as pure empirical model, mechanistic empirical
model, expert system model, probabilistic model
etc., he concluded that the probabilistic model i.e.
Markovian models are best suited for prediction of
exact deterioration behavior of any infrastructure
system. This fundamental finding is the base of the
current research work.
The method used for the data collection and its
quantification in terms of condition state is done by
using IRC:SP:35-1990 Guidelines for Inspection
and Maintenance of Bridges. Indian Highways
(1990 and 1992) are referred to understand the
historical development of BMMS in India. Further
guidelines about inspection of bridges are referred
from Technical Circular (1988) of Government
of Maharashtra, PWD. In the present study use of
Markov models for BMMS and its compliance with
the Markovian property is explored.
3 STUDY METHODOLOGY
The typical infrastructure maintenance decision
making environment involves multiple objectives
and uncertainty, and is dynamic. One of the most
commonly used infrastructure models is a Markov
decision process (MDP).
3.1 Markovian Property
Markov processes represent one of the best-known and
most useful classes of stochastic process. A stochastic
process is a Markov process if it satisfies the following
condition- given that the present (or most recent)
state is known, the conditional probability of the
next state is independent of states prior to the present
(or most recent) state.

53

TECHNICAL PAPERS

P (Xt+1 = xt+1 | X0 = x0, X1 = x1, Xt = xt)

= P (Xt+1 = xt+1 | Xt = xt)

By definition, the elements on P must satisfy the


following two properties,

where,

= 0, 1 , 2 t years;

X0, X1, , Xt are random variables and

x0, x1, ., xt are the corresponding condition


states.

0 Pij 1 for all i and j


n

Pij = 1,

i = 1, 2,......., n

j=1

3.3 Markov Chains

Because of the Markovian property, these processes


are often referring to as being memoryless.

A Markov chain is a stochastic process with the


following properties:

3.2

1.

Discrete state space,

2.

Markovian property, and

3.

One step transition probabilities that remains


constant over time.

Transition Probabilities

The conditional probability given by the right hand


side of eq. (1) represents a transition probability. Thus
a transition probability is defined as the conditional
probability that the process will be in a specific future
state given its most recent state. These probabilities
are also termed as one-step transition probabilities,
since they describe the system between t and t+1.
Similarly, we refer to k-step transition probability as
the conditional probability describing states in the
system between t and t + k.
A convenient representation of the one step transition
probability for the discrete state case is given by the
following transition matrix:

If additionally the discrete state space has finite


number of states, then it is termed as finite state
Markov chain. Markov chains constitute a
prominent class of Markov processes that have
desirable computational properties for real world
implementation. Markov chain is completely
determined once the transition matrix and the sets
of unconditional probabilities for initial states are
specified. Knowledge of these two sets of probabilities
allows the Probabilistic prediction of specific states at
future times.
If initial TPM at time t=1 (year) is known, i.e. P is
known, then to determine all conditional transitional
probabilities after 2 years, simply square the P as
follows

where,

54

Pij

= the number of exhaustive and


mutually exclusive condition states
and
= the transition probability of going
from the present (ith) state of the next
(jth) state.

P [2] = P * P

P [3] = P[2] * P ..

P [k] = P[k-1] * P

where,

P is one step transition matrix;

P [k] is condition state TPM after kth time


interval.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
3.4 Unconditional v/s Conditional Probabilities
In the preceding section, P[k] was defined as the kstep
TPM between states i and j, just as in the case of the
one step transition probability P, this probability is
the conditional probability because the probability of
state j after the Markov chain goes through transitions
is statistically dependent on the initial state i. If the
unconditional or absolute probability of state j after
k transitions (uj [k]) is desired, then the following
product must be determined:

u [k] = u [0] * P [k]

where,

u [k] = u1 [k], u2 [k], u3 [k], . , un [k] is the


row vector of unconditional probabilities for
all n states after k transitions, u[0] is the row
vector of initial unconditional probabilities,
and P is the one step transition matrix.

From IRC:SP:35-1990, Appendix 4, Inspection


Proforma is referred which includes the data to
be collected about Bridge structures including the
salient features of materials used, type of structures
and locations, past inspections, assessments and
strengthening carried out. to date. From this
Routine Inspection Proforma and masonry register
maintained by PWD divisions, one can understand
whether bridge requires minor/major repair or
minor/major rehabilitation. Accordingly available
inspection Proforma comments, data of 20 number
of RCC three girder type bridges for past consecutive
years from their construction is quantified. Condition
state description is defined according to Scherer
and Glagola (1994) and is shown in the Table 1.
In the absence of systematic and detailed data base
collection, condition state definition step is the
preliminary step towards efficient proactive
maintenance management system.

Table 1 Condition State Descriptions

Condition State
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Description
New condition.
Good condition: no repairs needed.
Generally good condition: potential exists for minor maintenance.
Fair condition: potential exists for major maintenance.
Generally fair condition: potential exists for minor rehabilitation.
Marginal condition: potential exists for major rehabilitation.
Poor condition: rehabilitation requires immediately.

3.5 Markov Chain Development


A critical component of utilizing the Markovian
probabilities modeling approach is generating
condition states that adhere to the Markovian
property. Often, the Markovian assumption is
made without verification, resulting in a model of
questionable quality. The Markovian property states
that the condition distribution of a transition from the
present state to any future state given the past state
is independent of any states and depends only on the
present state.

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The Markov chain development is the generation


of transition probabilities that define the potential
condition states of a bridge over time. Before the
transition probability generation can occur, the
classification hierarchy structure of the overall bridge
management network system must be established.
This involves classifying bridges according to its age,
traffic loading, environment, etc. This classification
structure reduces the overall bridge network to
workable local network. Transition probabilities must
be generated for each defined class. Once a one-step
transition matrix is generated from observed data base
55

TECHNICAL PAPERS
frequencies from which n-step transition matrices
can be generated by matrix multiplication to give
stochastic descriptions of future bridge states.
3.6 State Transition Sequences
The seven bridge condition states described earlier
represents seven possible condition ratings of a
particular classification of bridges. It must follow
that the deterioration probability of transition from
the present to future state is not dependent on past
states for the Markovian property to hold. Written in
probabilistic notation:
P (j, m | i) = the probability of going from state
j to state m, given state i occurred previously to
j (i j m).
If the Markov property holds then P (j, m | i ) = Pjm.
An exploratory analysis using available data is
developed in the following sections to illustrate the
verification of the Markovian property. Consider
collected data on each bridge every year and maintains
this information as a database. Therefore, the MDP
discrete time intervals for the illustrations are one
year:
Each of the cases described here involves an analysis
of two different three-state transition sequences.
A three-state transition sequence consists of three
condition states: past, present and future. These
three states correspond to three consecutive bridge
condition rating occurring over one year period. Two
possible transition sequences, with the same present
and future states but different past states are tracked
to determine if there is a difference in occurrence
dependent of past state history. A simple frequency
analysis of sequence occurrence is employed. If there
is no significant difference in frequency between
the sequences being tracked, this may indicate the
Markovian property satisfied. An inference analysis
using a Chi-square statistic is formulated to test the
significance of the Markovian property. Transition
sequences of the condition states most frequently
occurring in the database are assumed sufficient to
establish the Markovian property as it applies to the
entire deterioration model.
56

The following terminologies are required for the


informal analysis of state transition sequences based on
frequency probabilities that we describe as follows:

State transition sequence (STS): STS


refers to a particular three state sequence
of concern. This sequence incorporates
three consecutive condition ratings of a
bridge to establish past- present-future
identification.

State sequence occurrences (SSO): SSO


refers to the number of times a specified
STS appears in the available database.

Two-state occurrences (TSO): TSO


refers to the number a specified twostate sequence appears in the available
database. The two-state sequence involves
the past state and the present state.
Tracking these occurrences allow for the
generation of frequency probabilities as
will be described later for example two
possible STSs are:

1.

(6,6 | 7 ) past = 7, present = 6,


future = 6

2.

(6,6 | 6 ) past = 6, present = 6,


future = 6

The two-state sequence of concern for (6, 6 | 7 ) is the


transition from state 7 to state 6 while the two-state
sequence of concern for (6, 6 | 6) state 6 remaining
unchanged from the past to the present
Frequency probability : Frequency probability refers
to the ratio of SSO over TSO:
P(j, m, | i ) =

SSO
TSO

( j, m | i )occurrences
P ( j, m, | i ) =
(i, j)occurrences

This study is used to calculate future condition


states of bridges using data based on inventory and
quantification of inspection data sheet maintained in
the form of masonry register by Maharashtra PWD &
as per guidelines of IRC:SP:35-1990.

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TECHNICAL PAPERS
4

TESTING OF DATA BASE

Three cases of state transition sequences are analyzed


to identify Markovian compliance based on quantified
database. Table 2, shows the question of interest is
whether or not the transition from state 6 to state 6
(i.e., no change) is dependent on the previous state,
(in this example state 6 or state 7). If the Markovian
property holds, the probability of this transition should
be independent of previous state. There were 20 total
examples in the database of a bridges making the
transition from state 7 (termed past) to state 6 (present),
and in 14 of these cases the following transition
was to state 6 (future). Therefore, the probability
P (6, 6 | 7) = 0.70. Thus, there is a 70% chance of
maintaining state 6 if the previous state was 7.
Using 6 as the past state, we get P (6, 6 | 6) = 0.706.
Without noise in the data and with perfect Markovian
compliance, these numbers should be the same.
However, given these difficulties, the probabilities are
quite close, with a difference of 0.006.
Table 2 Frequency Probabilities to test Markovian
Properties

Case I Comparison of P (6, 6 | 7) Versus


P (6, 6 | 6 )
State
State
Two State
SSO
Transition Sequence Occurrence
TSO
Sequence Occurrence
(6, 6 | 7 )
14
20
0.70
(6, 6 | 6)

36

51

0.706

---

----

----

= 0.006

Case II - Comparison of P (5, 5 | 6)


Versus P (5, 5 | 5 )
State
State
Two State
SSO
Transition Sequence Occurrence
TSO
Sequence Occurrence
(5, 5 | 6 )
15
20
0.75
(5, 5 | 5)
53
68
0.775
-------- = 0.025

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Case III Comparison of P (5, 4 | 6)


Versus P (5,4 | 5 )
State
State
Two State
SSO
Transition Sequence Occurrence
TSO
Sequence Occurrence
(5, 4 | 6)
05
20
0.25
(5, 4 | 5 )
15
68
0.22
-------- = 0.030
There is no significant difference in the frequency
probabilities for all cases under study. A complete
analysis would require testing many more cases
for compliance. The results of this informal
analysis suggest the independence of state-tostate
deterioration transition from past state history. This
independence is the basis of the Markovian property.
To further verify the credibility of this informal
analysis Chi-square test for inference is conducted.
4.1

Chi-Square (2) Test

It is defined by W. A. Spar and C. P. Bonini as the


process by which the conclusion is drawn about some
measure of a population based on a sample value.
The measure might be a variable, such as the mean,
S.D. etc. The purpose of sampling is to estimate
some characteristics of the population from which the
sample is selected.
Chi-square (2 test) distribution is mainly used to

i)

test the goodness of fit,

ii)

to test the independence of attributes and

iii)

to test if the population has a specified


value of the variance 2.

The degree of freedom is the number of independent


variants which make up the statistic 2. The number of
degrees of freedom is also defined as the total number
of observations minus the number of independent
constraints imposed on the observations. For a
contingency table with r rows and c columns,
the degrees of freedom (d.f.) = (r-1) (c-1). E.g. if a
contingency Table 3 shows 2 rows and 2 columns,
corresponding degree of freedom = (2-1)*(2-1) = 1.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 3 Contingency Table Illustrating Inference
Testing of Data Base

Sequence

State
Non
Sequence
Sequence
Occurrence Occurrence
SSO

TSO

TSO SSO

1
a
b
a+b
2
c
d
c+d
Total
a+c
b+d
a+b+c+d
for case I for P( 6, 6 | 7) v/s P (6, 6 | 6)
1
14
6
20
2
36
15
51
Total
50
21
71
The informal analysis generates frequency
probabilities for comparison purposes. However, the
sample sizes of some of the generated frequencies
vary drastically due to lack of data for some of the
condition states. A closer examination of the frequency
results by inference tests is utilized to minimize any
discrepancies.
The general hypothesis in inference testing is that two
distributions are different. In this scenario, the null
hypothesis is that the generated frequency distributions
for a specified case are from the same distribution.
Verifying this null hypothesis based on Chi-squared
Statistics gives insight into the concept of accepting
the deterioration data shown in contingency Table 3.
The Chi-squared value is defined as:

(ad bc )2 (a + b + c + d )
=
(a + b )(c + d )(a + c )(b + d )

and is referenced to a Chi-square Table with one


degree of freedom to determine the corresponding
significance level (). Creating the contingency tables
for the three cases described previously, the following
Chi-square values are generated.
Case 1 Contingency table results for P( 6, 6 | 7)
v/s P (6, 6 | 6)

2
14 *15 6 *36 ) (14 + 6 + 36 + 15 )
(
=
= 0.00238
(14 + 6 )(36 + 15)(14 + 36 )(6 + 15)

58

from table = 0.9335


Similarly, values arrived for case II and caseIII,
2 = 0.0761,
From table = 0.8450. From these results, there is
no reason why the null hypothesis should be rejected.
The inference tests for each case indicate that the
frequencies are of the same distribution with high
significance levels. This inference test helps further
support the suggestion of independence of state
deterioration transition on previous states.
These results indicate, for the limited data reasonably
satisfies the Markovian property and can be used for
development of a performance prediction model. If an
MDP model is to be developed for a state BMMS, then
a similar more exhaustive procedure must be used to
verify the Markovian property. This data analysis is
a very positive sign, indicating that the Markovian
assumption may be appropriate for other BMMS.
5

FORMULATIONS
OF
ONE
STEP
TRANSITION PROBABILITY MATRICES

Once the Markovian property has been verified,


various statistical analysis procedures described in
the following can be utilized for the development of
probability transition matrices. This analysis offers
one technique for the generation of TPM for a given
bridge classification. The procedure consists of two
phases:

i)

Data quantification of bridge condition


data points;

ii)

Deterioration
modeling.

probability

distribution

The Bridge condition data from the available bridge


database must be appropriately organized according
to the defined condition states. One part of this data
quantification process is the classification of the
bridges. The second part involves the generation of
data matrices for each classification of bridges. The
data matrices display the actual number of bridge
deteriorating from one state to another with respect
to the initial condition states and class. These
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 5 Mean Calculation for First Row

database matrices are then used in the statistical


analysis procedures for the generation of probability
distributions for the deterioration prediction modeling
of the condition states.
5.1 Modeling for the Deterioration Prediction of
the Condition States
The deterioration distribution modeling methodology
consists of generating probability distribution for the
different rows of a particular data matrix. One row of
a data matrix indicates the possible future condition
states given an initial condition state. Different
deterioration modeling procedures are incorporated in
the development of the various transition matrices. The
procedure includes a formal probability distribution
modeling procedure.
As the sample size for a data matrix row is greater 30,
formal statistical analysis procedure is employed. One
such procedure is the utilization of formal probability
distributions. Since the data matrices once define
seven distinct condition states, discrete distributions
are used to model the probability that a bridge at a
particular state at the next decision epoch, given the
current bridge state. Such probability functions can be
selected using goodness of fit tests, from numerous
possible distributions. One discrete function that
provides very useful distribution is the Poissons
probability mass function. Table 4 shows the extract
of available data base used in the analysis.
Table 4 Extract of Available Data Base
Used in the Analysis

To
State

From
state

7
6
5
4
3
2
1

44
00
00
00
00
00
00

20
51
00
00
00
00
00

00
20
68
00
00
00
00

00
00
20
95
00
00
00

00
00
00
20
158
00
00

00
00
00
00
20
522
00

00
00
00
00
00
20
1

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

xi

fi

f ix i

44

00

20

20

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

N=64

fxi = 20

Therefore, mean (m) =

fx = 0.3125
N

Now, the above data checked for fitness of Poisson


distribution, for Ist row of above data- matrix, if
xi = condition state reduction per year. Table 5 shows
the calculation procedure of mean for Ist row of above
data- matrix and is found to be 0.3125.
The expected frequency of bridges by Poisson Law
can be calculated using following equation,

fx =

Ne m m x 64 * e 0.3125 * 0.3125 xi
=
xi !
xi !

xi = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, from above data,


f (0) = 46.82 f (1) = 14.63 f (2) = 2.29, f (3) = 0.24,
f (4) = 0.02, f (5)= 0.001 and f (6) = 0. Table 6 shows
the test of goodness of fit between observed and
Poissons distribution using Chisquare test for
first row of the data matrix. The results shows that,
the tabulated value of 2 at 5% level with 1 d. f. is
3.84 and calculated value is found to be 0.6324. Since
the calculated value of 2 less than the tabulated
value, we accept the Poisson distribution and
conclude that it fit to observed data. Similarly,
for other rows of data matrix, calculated
expected frequency and calculated value of 2
to test goodness of fit is evaluated and presented in
Table 7.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 6 Goodness of Fit Between Observed and Poissons Distribution Using 2 Test for 1st Row of Table 4

Oi

Ei

(Oi Ei)

(Oi Ei)2

(Oi Ei )2 / Ei

44

46.82

-2.82

7.9524

0.1698

20

14.63

+2.82

7.9467

0.4624

2.29

0.24

0.02

0.001

0
(Oi Ei) = 0

--

2 = 0.6324
Table value at 5% = 3.84

= 17.181

64

64

Table 7 Testing of Goodness of Fit and Evaluation of Transition Probabilities

First
Row
Second
Row
Third
Row
Fourth
Row
Fifth
Row
Sixth
Row

O. F.
E.F.
T. P.
O. F.
E.F.
T. P.
O. F.
E.F.
T. P.
O. F.
E.F.
T. P.
O. F.
E.F.

44
46.82
0.732
------------------------

20
14.63
0.229
51
53.57
0.755
-----------------

00
2.29
0.036
20
15.09
0.213
68
70.11
0.797
-----------

00
0.24
0.003
00
2.12
0.030
20
15.93
0.181
95
96.64
0.840
-----

00
0.02
00
00
0.20
0.002
00
1.81
0.021
20
16.81
0.146
158
159.082

00
0.001
00
00
0.01
00
00
0.14
0.001
00
1.46
0.013
20
17.874

00
00
00
00
0.0008
00
00
0.007
00
00
0.088
0.001
00
1.004

T. P.
O. F.
E.F.

-------

-------

-------

-------

0.894
-----

0.100
522
522.36

0.006
20
19.28

T. P.

---

---

---

---

---

0.964

0.036

2 = 0.6324

2 = 0.5050

2 = 0.3129

2 = 0.1745

2 = 0.0695

2 = 0.0271

O. F. Observer Frequency, E. F. Expected Frequency, T. P. Transition Probability

From Table 6 it can be concluded that given data is


fit for Poisson distribution. Similarly, testing
of goodness of fit and evaluation of transition
probabilities using Poissons distribution for all
60

rows of Table 4 is carried out. Results are


tabulated in Table 7. Transition probabilities arrived
from above calculations is arranged in matrix form as
below.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 7

P=

State
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

7
0.732
0
0
0
0
0
0

6
0.229
0.755
0
0
0
0
0

5
0.036
0.213
0.797
0
0
0
0

Poissons distribution is found accurate mode of


deterioration of bridge condition states. Once the
transition matrices are generated, the application of
matrix chains can be employed to predict deterioration
over time. In this analysis the generated transition
matrices represent the probability of an initial condition
state i deteriorating to a future condition state j
in a one-year period. Therefore, the time interval for
the Markov chain is one year. The multiplication of
the transition matrices allows for the probabilistic
predictions of future bridge conditions. As expected, if
no maintenance is performed, the bridge is eventually
deteriorated to State 1.
The generated transition matrices of the deterioration
model can, therefore, represent a probabilistic
prediction of future bridge conditions. The probabilistic
results indicate a range of possible condition states
with an associated probability. A deterministic
approach, compared to probabilistic results, yields
only one potential future value for a condition state.
Deterministic approaches may seem limited in the
realistic modeling of bridge deteriorations however,
they prove useful for comparisons.
The method of comparison is accomplished by
generating deterministic decay curves. These decay
curves represent expected condition values over time.
The expected values are determined from the transition
matrix P, and initial probability vector u0.
The initial probability vector u0, represents a
priori probabilistic condition of a Bridge. If, for
example, the bridge is new then it is in condition
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

4
0.003
0.030
0.181
0.840
0
0
0

3
0
0.002
0.021
0.146
0.894
0
0

2
0
0
0.001
0.013
0.100
0.964
0

1
0
0
0
0.001
0.006
0.036
1

state 7, yielding an initial probability vector {u0} =


{1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}. If the initial condition state is
described stochastically by having 50% chance of
being in state 7 and 50% chance of being in state
6 then, {u0} = {0.5, 0.5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}. This indicates
that for a particular class of bridges, at the time of
prediction, 50% of the bridges is in condition state 7
while remaining 50% satisfy condition state 6. The
initial probability vector is multiplied by the one step
transition matrix P, generating the vector uj. This
vector represents the probability of deteriorating to
condition state j, given initial probability vector u0, for
each j, uj can then be multiplied by the condition state
j, and summed over all j. This sum is the deterministic
expected value of the condition state. Formally, this
process proceeds as follows:

u j = {u0 } P

E(u 0 ) = j * {u 0 }j

where,

E(u0) is the expected state of a bridge in one year


given initial probability vector u0. In order to
generate the expected state of a bridge in future
years, the following generalization of Equation
and Table 8 shows the expected state values
for the calculated one step transition matrix-

E(state at year k | u 0 ) = [j * ({u 0 }* P k )j ]


j

Applying above formulae on one step transition


matrix P, it is possible to calculate successive
transition probability matrices. Results are tabulated
in Table 8.
61

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 8 Successive TPM, Average Condition Rating and Number of Bridges in Each Condition State for Year
1, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 60 Years

Year 1

Weighted C.S.
No. of bridges

7.000
0.732
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
5.124
73

6.000
0.229
0.755
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.374
23

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges


5.000
4.000
3.000
0.036
0.003
0.000
0.213
0.030
0.002
0.797
0.181
0.021
0.000
0.840
0.146
0.000
0.000
0.894
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.180
0.012
0.000
4
0
0

Using deterministic approach, one can get average


condition rating of corresponding bridge network of
same class which is under study and illustration of

Year 5

Weighted C.S.

7.000
0.210
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.471

6.000
0.350
0.245
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.100

No. of bridges

22

35

Year 10

Weighted C.S.

7.000
0.044
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.309

6.000
0.159
0.060
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.957

No. of bridges

16

62

12

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges


5.000
4.000
3.000
0.283
0.280
0.168
0.219
0.328
0.264
0.103
0.301
0.358
0.000
0.175
0.409
0.000
0.000
0.326
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.414
1.122
0.505
28

1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.006
0.036
1.000
0.000
0

6.690

deterioration of 100 new bridges by using P is shown


as below. Calculation explained above is carried out
by using excel programming. Table 8 continued...

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges


5.000
4.000
3.000
0.277
0.124
0.033
0.387
0.257
0.092
0.322
0.407
0.213
0.000
0.418
0.413
0.000
0.000
0.571
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.386
0.496
0.100
28

2.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.013
0.100
0.964
0.000
0.000
0

Average
Condition
State

28

17

2.000
0.005
0.017
0.053
0.150
0.373
0.833
0.000
0.010

1.000
0.000
0.002
0.005
0.019
0.055
0.167
1.000
0.00

2.000
0.057
0.112
0.202
0.342
0.524
0.693
0.000
0.114

1.000
0.008
0.017
0.035
0.074
0.150
0.307
1.000
0.008

Average
Condition
State

5.563

Average
Condition
State

4.429

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges

7.000

6.000

5.000

4.000

3.000

2.000

1.000

0.000

0.001

0.012

0.064

0.218

0.462

0.242

0.000

0.000

0.005

0.037

0.175

0.484

0.299

0.000

0.000

0.001

0.018

0.128

0.489

0.364

Year 30

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.005

0.079

0.472

0.443

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.035

0.426

0.539

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.333

0.667

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1.000

Weighted C.S.

0.001

0.008

0.061

0.255

0.654

0.924

0.242

No. of bridges

22

47

24

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges

7.000

6.000

5.000

4.000

3.000

2.000

1.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.003

0.040

0.377

0.580

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.002

0.027

0.347

0.624

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.001

0.018

0.313

0.669

Year 50

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.010

0.272

0.718

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.004

0.223

0.773

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.160

0.840

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1.000

Weighted C.S.

0.000

0.000

0.001

0.013

0.120

0.754

0.580

No. of bridges

38

58

Year 60

Weighted C.S.

7.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

6.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

No. of bridges

Condition State (C.S.) of Bridges


5.000
4.000
3.000
0.000
0.001
0.014
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.006
0.000
0.000
0.003
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.043
0

Predictions of condition ratings for bridge class


under study arrived from one step TPM are

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

2.000
0.283
0.255
0.226
0.193
0.157
0.111
0.000
0.567

1.000
0.701
0.735
0.767
0.803
0.842
0.889
1.000
0.701

28

71

Average
Condition
State

2.145

Average
Condition
State

1.467

Average
Condition
State

1.314

summarized in Table 9.

63

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 9 Year Wise Expected Deterioration Values
Calculated Using Deterministic Approach
Time
(Years)

Condition
Rating

Time
(Years)

Condition
Rating

35

1.90

this model helps to prioritize the repair/rehabilitation


policy for the bridges. According to the life span
of bridge milestone for repair/rehabilitation can be
decided based on deterioration curve.

5.56

40

1.72

CONCLUSION

10

4.43

45

1.58

1.

15

3.57

50

1.47

20

2.94

55

1.38

25

2.48

60

1.31

The Indian bridge construction industry is under


developed there is a need to develop the bridge
maintenance prediction and rehabilitation
methodologies in systems.

30

2.15

65

1.26

2.

The MDP model described for BMMS have


many critical issues such as development of
transition matrices. The Markovian assumption
is satisfactory for predicting the bridge
deterioration.

3.

The study shows that bridge data base satisfies


Markovian property hence MDP model is
appropriate to predict future condition states of
deteriorating bridges.

4.

It is observed that there is no significant


difference between actual frequency of data
base and Poissons distribution. It indicates
Poissons distribution can be used to generalize
transition probability matrices if there is lack of
data base.

5.

The Poissons distribution is found to be


appropriate for generalization of deterioration
of sample data base.

6.

The Markovian model presented used as a tool


for knowing aging process of bridge system.

7.

By using deterministic approach average


condition rating of a particular class of bridges
under study is obtained by summation of
weighted probabilities.

8.

Using deterministic approach


successive transition probability
can identify number of bridges
condition state for every year
Table 8.

9.

Condition rating of bridge system deteriorates


gradually from 7.0 to 1.26 in the age span of 65
years.

Graphical presentation of the bridge deterioration over


the age in years is shown in the Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Bridge Deterioration Curve

In the absence of detailed data base and appropriate


system required for comprehensive inspection by
dedicated staff/resource the authentic source of
database is the masonry register of PWD and proforma
given by IRC:SP:35. On the basis of comments made
by previously appointed field officials, one cant
describe condition state more than 7 as explained
in Table 1. Bridge structure has large number of
elements, its importance w.r.t. priority of repair and
life varies and hence the model developed by authors
considering 7 condition states cant accommodate
complexities involved in its deterioration process. In
absence of proper maintenance management system,
64

by knowing
matrices, one
in respective
as shown in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
10.

Bridge deterioration curve is very useful to set


milestones for repair/rehabilitation decisions
according to predicted condition states. Also it
is useful to prioritize bridge networks w.r.t. its
type and age.

REFERENCES
1.

2.

Allen, G. and Mc Keel, W. T. (1989), Development of


Performance and Deterioration Curves as a Rational
Basis for Structures Maintenance Management System,
Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville,
Va.
Butt, A. A., Shahin, M. Y., Carpenter S. H. and Carnahen,
J. V. (1994), Application of Markov Processes to
Pavement Management Systems at Network Level,
Third International Conference on Managing Pavements,
159 172.

3.

IRC:SP:35-1990, Guidelines For Inspection


Maintenance of Bridges, Indian Roads Congress.

4.

Madamat, S., and Ibrahim, W. (1995), Poisson Regression


Models of Infrastructure Transition Probabilities, ASCE
J. of Tran. Engg., 121 (3), 267- 272.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

5.

Panel Discussion (1990) on Bridge Management System,


Indian Roads Congress, Journal Vol. 51 (2), 387-402.

6.

Prapannachari, S. and Kaistha, S. K. (1994), Comparative


Study of Bridge Maintenance and Management System
Adopted by Various Country Councils in UK with Special
Reference to Their Applicability in India, Indian Roads
Congress, Journal Vol. 55(3), 519 561.

7.

Scherer, W. and Glagola, D. (1994),Markovian Models


for Pavement Maintenance Management. ASCE J. of
Tran. Engg., 120 (1), 37-51.

8.

Technical Circular for Inspection of Bridges (1988),


Government of Maharashtra, PWD.

9.

Text Book, Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning


and Design, Vol. 2 Decision, risk and reliability revised
Ed. John Willey & Sons, Singapore, By, Ang, A. and Tang,
W. (1984).

10.

Text Book, Probability, Statistics and Decision for Civil


Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, By,
Benjamin, J. and Cornell, A. (1970).

11.

Yang, J. (2004), Road Crack Condition Performance


Modeling Using Recurrent Markov Chains and Artificial
Neural Networks, Thesis and Dissertations, Paper 1310.

and

65

ROAD SAFETY AUDIT AND SAFETY IMPACT ASSESSMENT


S.K. Chaudhary*

INTRODUCTION

Road safety audit is a formal procedure for independent


assessment of the accident potential and likely safety
performance of a specific design for a road or traffic
scheme - whether new construction or an alteration to
an existing road.
Road safety impact assessment is a formal procedure
for independent assessment of the likely effects of
proposed road or traffic schemes, or indeed other
schemes that have substantial effects on road traffic,
upon accident occurrence throughout the road network
upon which traffic conditions may be affected by the
schemes.
These two procedures enable the skills of road safety
engineering and accident analysis to be used for the
prevention of accidents on new or modified roads.
They thus complement the use of these same skills to
reduce the occurrence of accidents on existing roads
by means of local safety schemes, in many cases in
the form of low-cost measures.
This review aims to describe and illustrate the use of
safety audits and safety impact assessment in helping
to design and build safe road and traffic schemes, and
at the planning stage in choosing which schemes to
progress from among a range of possibilities.
Generally, roads are designed with a large number of
criteria in mind, such as travel time, user comfort and
convenience, fuel consumption, construction costs,
environmental impact and objectives of urban or
regional planning. Safety is one of the criteria, but is
often implicitly assumed to be achieved by adhering
to prescribed standards of alignment and layout for
each element of the design. These standards are

66

indeed laid down with safety in mind, and some of


these include explicit safety checklists (e.g. FGSV,
1988), but experience shows that adherence to them
is not sufficient to ensure that a resulting design is
free from avoidable hazardous features. Formal safety
audit and safety impact assessment procedures ensure
that independent expertise is used to make explicit the
safety implications of an entire design and, in doing
so, lead to safer designs of both new and modified
roads.
Both procedures have strong contributions to make
to rational and effective decision-making when
considering alternative options, and safety audit
is important to the achievement of a safe design
for a chosen alternative. The two procedures are
complementary - the aim is similar and the difference
is in scope and timing.
The scope of safety audit is usually confined to an
individual road scheme, which may be a new road or
modification to an existing road. The basis for safety
audit is the application of safety principles to the
design of a new or a modified road section to prevent
future accidents occurring or to reduce their severity.
The procedure is usually carried out at one or all of
five stages in carrying out a scheme: feasibility study,
draft design, detailed design, pre-opening and a few
months after opening. An essential element of the
process is that it is carried out independently of the
design team. It should be undertaken by a team of
people who have experience and up-to-date expertise
in road safety engineering and accident investigation.
The scope of safety impact assessment is dependent
on the scale of the schemes being considered. For
small-scale schemes, the impact of change can usually

Assistant Engineer, Road Construction Deptt, Bihar Road Sub Division, Sakri, Darhanga, E-mail: skc123_1968@yahoo.co.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
be expected to be confined largely within the scheme
itself. In this situation safety impact assessment and
safety audit share many procedural characteristics.
For larger schemes, the impact on accident occurrence
can be expected to be felt over a larger part of the road
network. In that case, the impact may be estimated
using a scenario technique. By considering different
road types, the corresponding values of relevant safety
indicators and the forecast traffic volumes, the impact
on accident occurrence can be estimated for different
alternatives.
2

Road safety audits

Road safety audit is a formal procedure for independent


assessment of the accident potential and likely safety
performance of a specific design for a road or traffic
scheme, whether new construction or an alteration to
an existing road [Eugene M. Wilson]. The procedures
enable the skills of road safety engineering and accident
analysis to be used for the prevention of accidents on
new or modified roads. The internationally accepted
definition of an RSA as used from The Canadian Road
Safety Audit Guide [NCHRP] and is as follows: An
RSA is a formal and independent safety performance
review of a road transportation project by an
experienced team of safety specialists, addressing the
safety of all road users.

To enable all kinds of users of the new or


modified road to perceive clearly how to
use it safely.

Whatever the reason for the scheme, a safety audit


always begins with a road design. An audit is intended
to identify potential road safety problems by looking
at the scheme as if through the eyes of the potential
users of all kinds, and to make suggestions for solving
these problems by applying the principles of road
safety engineering. This means that an audit goes
much farther than just assessing whether or not the
relevant design standards are properly applied.
By minimizing at the design stage the risk of
accidents during the lifetime of a road scheme, there
is less likelihood of having to take accident remedial
measures later, and the whole-life cost of the scheme
can be reduced.
Road safety audit is an important means for paying
explicit attention to road safety during the design
of road schemes. This explicit attention should help
everyone involved in making decisions regarding
changes to road infrastructure to assess the safety
implications of the many choices that arise during
the design process, and thus increase the road safety
awareness of infrastructure planners, designers and
authorities.
3

RSA Methodology

In safety audits The main objective is to ensure


that all new highway schemes operate as safely
as is practicable. This means that safety should be
considered throughout the whole preparation and
construction of any project.

For carrying out RSA in a systematic and impartial


way, it is essential to follow a rigorous procedure
[Prof. P.K. Sikdar and Dr. Nishi Mittal]. The four key
elements which makes RSA most productive are:
I.

Selections of projects for audit

2.1

More Specific Aims Are

II.

Role of different organization in RSA

III.

Team selection

IV.

Audit organization

To minimise the number and severity of


accidents that will occur on the new or
modified road;
To avoid the possibility of the scheme
giving rise to accidents elsewhere in the
road network; and

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

I. Selections of Projects for Audit


Road safety audits are applicable to all types
of road projects, to all types of roads and to all
existingroads, with the possible exception of
67

TECHNICAL PAPERS
routine maintenance where the line marking is
not being altered. A projectas small as a new
school crossing or set of road humps, or as large
as a major new freeway can benefit from aroad
safety audit.

Road Safety Audit Can Be Conducted


on Road Projects As Diverse As

a)

New freeway.

b)

Major divided roads.

c)

Pedestrian and bicycle routes.

d)

Deviated local roads near major


projects.

e)

Local area traffic management


schemes and their component
parts.

f)

Signal upgrading.

II.

Role of Different Organization in RSA

RSA is based on the principal of an independent


review. The process reveals that three parties
will be involved in this process Client,
Designer and Auditor.

68

Role of Designer : Designer is


responsible for planning/designing the
project. Designer bears the responsibility
for ensuring that a road safety audit
is conducted and that the necessary
measures are agreed on the basis of the
auditor's recommendations and/or the
client's decisions. The designer is also
responsible for ensuring that the audit
input information is unambiguously
defined and that all circumstances
are described in an easily understood
manner.
Role of Client : Client is one who allots
the project to the designer and owns
the project. It is the task of the client to
arbitrate in cases where the designer and

auditor disagree. The role of the client


thus to:

Select an appropriate audit team

Provide all the relevant


necessary documents

Hold a commencement meeting


with auditor and designer

and

Role of Auditor : Auditors responsibility


is to carefully review the presented
project material in its entirely, in the
light best road safety expertise and from
the viewpoints of all relevant road users.
Auditor also indicates all circumstances
that cause misgivings concerning road
safety. Persons designated as road safety
auditors shall have experience of road
accident analysis. Auditors must be
familiar with road planning, designing
and construction work and must
undertake to keep their expertise up
to date. Auditors should work within
the terms of reference. They should
comment only on the safety implications
of schemes and provide constructive
recommendations as to how any potential
difficulties can be resolved

III. Team Selection


For large or significant projects, it is likely to


have at least two members in the audit team, but
not more than four members. For small projects
,single team member will be sufficient. One of
the team member should be nominated as RSA
manager. The one essential ingredient in RSA
team is road safety engineering experience. It is
also better to include local experienced people.

IV.

Audit Organization

Practically twooptions are there for conducting a road


safety audit:

Audit by specialist auditors.


INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Audit by those within the original design


team or by any other road designers.

The pre-opening stage - Immediately


before the opening, a new or modified
road should be driven, cycled and
walked. It is advisable to do this under
different conditions such as darkness and
bad weather.

Monitoring of the road in use - When


a new or improved road has been in
operation for a few months, it is possible
to assess whether it is being used as
intended and whether any adjustments to
the design are required in the light of the
actual behaviour of the users.

4 Stages In RSA
There are five stages at which a road safety audit can
be conducted, regardless of the size and nature of a
project. They are:

a)

The feasibility stage.

b)

The draft design stage.

c)

The detailed design stage.

d)

The pre-opening stage and

e)

An audit of an existing road

5 Organizing and carrying out an


audit
The process of safety audit as applied to an individual
road scheme can be seen as taking place at up to five
stages, some of which can be combined for smaller
schemes:

The feasibility stage - During this stage,


the nature and extent of the scheme are
assessed, and the starting points for
the actual design are determined, such
as route options, the relevant design
standards, the relationship of the scheme
to the existing road network, the number
and type of intersections, and whether
or not any new road is to be open to all
kinds of traffic.

The draft design stage - Horizontal


and vertical alignments and junction
layout are broadly determined. At the
completion of this stage, the design
should be well enough established so
that, if necessary, decisions can be made
about land acquisition.

The detailed design stage - Layout,


signing, marking, lighting, other
roadside equipment and landscaping are
determined.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

Checklists have been designed for use during each


stage of auditing. In practice, these checklists have
proved very useful as reminders for the auditors, but
there is also a risk that they are used too blindly as
recipes without sufficient consideration for individual
situations. What is required is a combination of
judgement, skill and systematic working.
The essence of road safety audit is that it is carried
out by auditors who are independent of the design
team, have expertise in both highway design and road
safety, and are properly trained and experienced in
carrying out audits. This means that not only must they
possess sufficient specialized professional knowledge
and have the required experience, but they must also
possess the communication skills necessary to present
audit results constructively and encourage a positive
response to them from the design team. Experience
has shown that it is preferable to hire a small auditing
team rather than a single auditor. The members of an
auditing team can jointly offer more skills than an
individual, and a team can operate its own system of
checks and balances and thus be less susceptible to its
assessments being swayed by personal preferences.
The results of audit should be documented and
reported at each stage to the design team and in
turn to the client for the scheme. They will usually
include recommendations for improvements to the
design. There is much to be said for linking a form
of certification to the entire auditing process, and
69

TECHNICAL PAPERS
having the audit results made public so that citizens,
prospective users of the new or modified road, and other
interested parties can make informed contributions to
further decision-making. Whether this can be done or
not depends greatly on the way in which the decisionmaking process relating to the scheme is organized. It
is therefore, impossible to give a generally applicable
rule in this regard.
The conduct of safety audits can sometimes lead to
tensions between the audit team, the design team and
the client for the scheme. What is necessary from
the start, therefore, is to create a sufficiently solid,
formal basis (whether or not anchored in law) that
enables safety audits to be carried out successfully
and the recommendations based on the audits to be
implemented. There also needs to be commitment to the
procedures on the part of the organizations involved.
The procedures should include arrangements for
dealing with situations in which the design team and
the audit team are nevertheless at odds about carrying
out the audit recommendations. What is required in
these cases is a decision by the client for the scheme,
and this may be assisted by some form of arbitration.
6 Safety audit and existing roads
The development of safety audit for road and traffic
schemes, and especially the fifth stage of monitoring
the operation of such schemes after they have been
open to traffic for some months, raises the question of
the role of safety audit or analogous safety checking
in respect of existing roads. There is a prima facie
case that an independent assessment of conditions on
an existing road would be likely to reveal deficiencies
indicating scope for cost-effective measures for
accident prevention additional to the accident
remedial measures that are routinely identified by
investigation of accident occurrence. Yet the task of
checking all existing roads is demanding in terms of
scarce resources of expertise.
This issue has been investigated in France by means
of a pilot study covering nearly 2,000 km of roads
ranging from motorways to local roads. The results

70

provide useful indications concerning complimentarily


between safety checking and accident analysis, the
range of deficiencies which it is practicable for the
checking to cover, and ways of putting road sections
of different kinds into an order of priority for checking
during the many years it is likely to take to cover the
whole network.
7

Road Safety Audit in India

In India, at present there is no formal requirement for


road safety audits to be undertaken. However, India
has also started realizing the importance of road safety
audits. It is because of Ministry of Road Transport and
Highways sponsored the project on Development
of Safety Audit Methodology for Existing Roadway
Sections to Central Road Research Institute in April
2002. The National Highway Authority of India
entrusted CRRI to carry out RSA of engineering design
for construction packages under TNHP(8 packages)
and GNTRIP (7 packages) on NH-2 . The total length
of these 15 packages was about 900 km which was the
longest road project for which RSA has been carried
out in the world. Also, first RSA was carried out again
by CRRI in 2000 on Indore Bypass. It is understood
that the entire NHDP will be subjected to RSA as part
of its implementation. However it is recognized that
RSA are to be under taken all types of roads.
On 11 May 2011, the Decade of Action for Road
Safety 2011-2020 was launched in more than 100
countries including India, with one goal: to prevent
five million road traffic deaths globally by 2020.
Moving from the Global Plan for the Decade to
national action, many countries have taken measures
towards improving road safety, either by developing
national plans for the Decade (e.g. Australia, Mexico,
the Philippines); introducing new laws (e.g. Chile,
China, France, Honduras); or increasing enforcement
of existing legislation (e.g. Brazil, Cambodia, the
Russian Federation), among other concrete actions.
The recent UN General Assembly resolution on global
road safety sponsored by more than 80 countries gives
further impetus to the Decade by calling on countries
to implement road safety activities in each of the five
pillars of the Global Plan.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
8

Costs of Conducting Road Safety


Audits

In the safety audit manual published by TNZ (1993),


the cost of audits was divided into three categories:
consultant fees, the clients time to manage the
audit, and costs associated with implementing
recommendations that are adopted. The clients time on
a project averaged about 1day per audit. It is important
to note that additional costs may result from changes
to a projects scope and schedule. RTA indicated that
a safety audit of a new facility cost approximately the
same as a geotechnical survey (FHWA Study Tour,
1997). Recent experience places the average cost of
a conventional audit for small to mid-sized projects
between $1,000 and $5,000 (Sabey,1993, Jordan, 1994,
Pieples, 1999). TNZ found that fees range from NZ
$ 1000 to $ 8000 (US $ 700 to $ 6000) with most falling
in the NZ $ 3000 to $ 5000 (US $ 2000 to $ 3600)
range (1993). The actual cost depends greatly on the
size and complexity of the project and composition of
the required audit team. Hamilton Associates estimate
that audits add approximately 5 to 10 percent to design
costs, or less than one-half of 1 percent to construction
expenses (1998). These estimates are slightly higher
than costs experienced to date for the MRDC project.
AUSTROADS approximates that audits will add 4 to
10 percent to the road design costs (1994).
As design costs are roughly 5 to 6 percent of the project
sum, the increase in total cost is usually quite small. On
smaller projects (traffic calming or retrofits), the costs
may be a higher percentage of the overall capital cost.
Costs of redesign/rectification should be considered
which will vary on a project-to-project basis. The cost
of rectifying deficiencies depends on how early in the
design process the problem is identified as well as the
amount of time required to redesign the area.
9

Road safety impact assessment

Being able to estimate explicitly the impact on


road safety that results from building new roads or
making substantial modifications to the existing road
infrastructure that alter the capacity of the road network

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

in a certain geographic area is of crucial importance


if road safety is not to suffer unintentionally from
such changes. The same applies to other schemes
and developments that have substantial effects on the
pattern of road traffic. The procedure that has been
designed for this purpose is known as road safety
impact assessment. This procedure is intended to
be applied at the planning stage, often proceeding
to a definite design for the scheme. Safety impact
assessment thus precedes and complements the
eventual safety audit of any specific design for the
scheme. A parallel to these two procedures can be seen
in the Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment
and the ordinary Environmental Impact Assessment.
The two procedures together first provide an estimate
of the impact of possible schemes on safety for an
entire geographic area at the strategic level and then
follow this with an audit of the safety of the specific
design of the chosen scheme. For smaller schemes,
the two procedures can be combined by extending
the feasibility stage of the safety audit to include the
likely effects of the scheme on accident occurrence in
the surrounding network.
The results of safety impact assessment should be
considered in the planning process alongside other
information relevant to decision-making about which
schemes should be implemented, and thus improve
the quality of such decision making.
10

Carrying out a safety impact


assessment

A scenario method is used to carry out a safety impact


assessment. The starting point is the existing road
network, the current pattern of traffic on that network,
and the level of reported road accidents there. It is
helpful, though not essential, to have the information
in a digital form within a geographic information
system (GIS), as in the German system Euska . This
information relates to a road network which is made
up of roads of a number of types that have different
road safety characteristics. Each road consists of
junctions and stretches of road between the junctions,
with associated traffic volumes, and numbers of
71

TECHNICAL PAPERS
accidents and casualties. Alternative scenarios to
this current situation are the possible changes being
studied in respect of the physical infrastructure and
the associated traffic volumes in the road network in
the future. If, for example, a new road is to be added to
the existing network, the traffic and transport models
can be used to estimate what this will mean for the
traffic volumes throughout the network in the future.
The central step is to interpret these changes in
terms of the impacts they will have on the numbers
of accidents and casualties. To accomplish this, what
are needed are quantitative indicators of risk (such as
casualty rates per million vehicle-km) for each type
of road, supplemented if possible by corresponding
indicators for each main type of junction. One way
of obtaining such indicators is to estimate them at a
national level and adjust those if necessary using data
for the area in question. In addition, thought should be
given to any expected changes over time in the level
of risk for each type of road or junction. These kinds
of information enable safety impacts to be estimated.
If the various data are accessible from a computer,
calculations of safety impacts for a range of scenarios
and comparisons between impacts of different
scenarios can be made quite readily. The procedure can
be adapted in order to help to identify what changes
are needed in a given scenario in order to bring its
safety impact within some target range.
When implementing this scenario technique it is
important to bear in mind the quality of the information
being used. It is also important for the information
to be accessible in such a way that calculations for
a range of scenarios can be elaborated at relatively
modest costs within a short period of time. For this
purpose, the traffic and transport models should be set
up in such a way that a road safety impact assessment
module to apply the relevant indicators of risk for
future years can be linked up with them readily.
11

Cost-effectiveness

The cost-effectiveness of road safety audits and safety


impact assessments are at present difficult to quantify
72

rigorously. Both techniques are relatively recent, and


it is difficult to find well documented cases in which
both the benefits and the costs of the procedures have
been established, but there is nevertheless useful
evidence of the cost-effectiveness of safety audit.
Whereas it is not too difficult to assess the costs of
carrying out either procedure, estimating the benefits
requires an estimate to be made of difference in the
accident costs occurring on schemes which have been
subject to impact assessment and/or audit, compared
with the costs on similar schemes which have not.
The main immediate benefits of the procedures will
be accident savings. In principle however, there are
other longer term and more broadly based potential
benefits; these include not just the immediate accident
savings on the schemes subjected to the procedures,
but more generally, improvements to the management
of design and construction, reduced whole-life cost
of road schemes, the development of good safety
engineering practice, the explicit recognition of the
safety needs of road users, and the improvement of
design standards for safety.
12

International
Scenario
of
quantification of road safety
benefits

As regards the quantification of the immediate road


safety benefits, there has been some experience in the
UK, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand, which can
give a broad indication of the value of road safety.
In 1994 a study was undertaken in an English county
in which two groups of matched schemes, one group
having been audited and the other not, were compared.
This study estimated that the audited schemes showed
a saving of about 1 accident per site per year compared
with the schemes which were not audited - a saving
which represents an accident cost saving per scheme
well in excess of the cost of auditing the schemes.
Estimates have also been made of the benefits to a local
highway authority of applying road safety audits to
all of its road schemes. The Lothian Regional Council
(a former local highway authority in Scotland) which
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
had about 3,000 injury accident per year, estimated
that the consistent application of road safety audits
would give a 1 per cent accident saving, and that such
a saving would represent a benefit to cost ratio of
about 14:1. In New Zealand a potential benefit to cost
ratio of 20 has been estimated for the application of
road safety audit procedures (Transit New Zealand,
1993).
One way of forming a judgement about the likely
cost-effectiveness of road safety audits in the absence
of objective accident savings data, is to compare the
costs of carrying out an audit with the economic cost
of a single injury accident. It then becomes apparent
how large an accident saving would be needed to cover
the audit costs. A review of road safety audit practice
estimated that an average of 25 hours of the time of
professional road safety engineers was required to
complete an audit; 21 per cent of schemes took less
that 10 hours and 7 per cent took more than 40 hours.
Audit costs were estimated to be in the range of from
100 to 6,000 (at 1993 prices). In the UK, the 1994
value of preventing an injury accident was 55,650 ,
so the actual cost of carrying out a relatively extensive
audit is a fraction of the value of preventing a single
injury accident. In Australia, each stage of an audit
of a scheme typically costs between AUS $ 1,000 to
AUS $ 4,000 depending on the size of the scheme.
It has to be borne in mind however, that the actual
costs of safety audit are not only the costs involved in
completing the audit itself. Having audited the scheme,
it is necessary in those cases where a design change
is recommended, to make the appropriate design
changes. The extent of such changes depends upon
the quality of the original design. In view mentioned
above, some redesign was required in about half of the
schemes audited. Although the actual cost of redesign
varied considerably from scheme to scheme, it was
estimated that redesign costs ranged from about 0.5
per cent of the cost for the larger schemes to about 3
per cent of the cost for the smaller schemes. Australian
and New Zealand experience suggests that safety audit
adds about 4 per cent to road design costs.
Even including the costs of both the audit and any
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

subsequent redesign, it is clear from these figures


that the saving of only one injury accident will more
than repay the cost of the audit and its redesign
consequences. Both the actual costs of the audit
process and the redesign costs were included in a
study conducted in Denmark in which the usefulness
of safety audits was assessed in cost-benefit terms by
a panel of experts. To assess the safety benefits of the
audit process, the auditors estimated to the satisfaction
of the panel the number of accidents which would
be expected on the schemes with and without the
changes in design recommended by the audit. The
total reduction on the 13 schemes was estimated to be
34.5 accidents per year involving 21.3 casualties. The
time costs involved for those carrying out the audits
and for the resulting redesign amounted to about 0.5
per cent of the scheme costs the proportion being
rather larger for the small schemes and considerably
smaller for the larger schemes. Construction costs
were estimated to increase by about 1 per cent as a
result of the audit. The study therefore concluded that
safety audit is very effective in cost-benefit terms.
13

Comparative Analysis of Road


Safety and Road Safety Impact
Assessment

Road safety is a quality aspect of road traffic and


this aspect has to be balanced with aspects like: level
of service, access for destinations, environmental
impact, costs etc., when it comes to decisions in
what infrastructures projects to invest. The scope of
safety audit is usually confined to an individual road
project, which may be a new road or rehabilitation
of an existing road. The basis for safety audit is the
application of safety principles to the design of a new
or a rehabilitated road section, to prevent frequent
occurrence of accidents or to reduce their severity. The
procedure is usually carried out at some or all the five
stages namely, feasibility study, preliminary design,
detailed design, pre-opening and a few months after
opening. An essential element of the safety audit is
that it is carried out independently of the design team.
It should be undertaken by a team of people who have

73

TECHNICAL PAPERS
experience and up-to-date expertise in road safety
engineering and accident investigation. It is, thus, a
valuable process that gives an unbiased view of safety
issues with support from safety experts.
The scope of safety impact assessment is dependent
on the scale of the projects being considered. For
small-scale projects, the impact of change can usually
be expected to be confined largely within the project
itself. In this situation, safety impact assessment and
safety audit share many procedural characteristics.
For larger projects, the impact on accident occurrence
can be expected to be felt over a larger part of the road
network. In that case, the impact may be estimated
using a scenario technique. RIAs can be made on a
more strategic level and on an individual project
or scheme level. For both levels different tools are
developed.
14

Conclusions

1.

The road safety implications of planning


decisions and infrastructure projects need
to be taken explicitly into account in general
policy-making at Community, national and
local levels. The purpose is to avoid the cost
of any unnecessary future accident and casualty
problems.

as safely as is practicable by identifying and


recommending any necessary changes to the
design.
5.

For both safety impact assessment and safety


audit, the application of safety principles is
achieved through formal audit procedures
carried out by expertise independent of the
planning or road infrastructure project design
team. Literature shows that audit work is
best carried out as a team task with the team
having specialist expertise in the road safety
engineering and accident investigation and
prevention fields.

6.

Mandatory and cost-beneficial safety audit


procedures programmed at well defined stages
during the planning, design and construction
of road schemes have been used in the UK,
Denmark, Australia and New Zealand for
several years and have contributed to identifiable
improvements in road safety. Experience has
shown that on most schemes it is necessary
to prevent only one injury accident to more
than repay the cost of the audit itself and any
consequential design changes.

The benefits of safety audits and safety impact


assessment are in:

2.

The RSA has been recognized as an important


preventive tool for improving road safety in
many developed countries and its potential
benefits.

minimising the risk of accidents occurring


in the future as a result of planning
decisions on new transport infrastructure
schemes;

3.

Road safety impact assessment procedures


are designed to assess the likely effects of
the scheme or transport planning decision on
accident occurrence, injury and damage over
the whole of the road network which will be
affected.

reducing the risk of accidents occurring


in the future as a result of unintended
effects of the design of road schemes;

Reducing the long-term costs associated


with a planning decision or a road
scheme;

Enhancing the awareness of road safety


needs among policy-makers and scheme
designers.

4.

74

Safety audit of a specific design for a new or


modified road assesses the accident potential
and likely safety performance of the design
with a view to enabling the scheme to operate

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
15 Suggestions
1.

2.

The RSA should be undertaken by an


independent safety specialist and this could
either be a suitably qualified individual from
the road safety unit within the roads authority
or a consultant with relevant expertise.
Opportunities exist for including of road safety
interventions at various stages of the project
cycle and the planning, design, and construction
process.

3.

Establish a road safety unit within the road and


highway planning division to carry out traffic
crash prevention and reduction activities.

4.

Raise awareness of the socioeconomic costs of


road accidents in country and sector operations
reports and studies.

5.

Include road safety in major documents prepared


during the project preparation, processing, and
implementation phases.

References
1.

AUSTROADS (1994) Road Safety Audit. Sydney:


AUSTROADS National Office.

2.

CEC (1997) Promoting Road Safety in the EU: The


Programme for 1997-2001, COM(97)131 Final, Brussels:
Commission of the European Communities.

3.

CRAFER, A. (1995) Review of Road Safety Audit


Procedures. Occasional Paper. London: Institution of
Highways and Transportation.

4.

Danish Road Directorate (1993) Safety Audit Handbook.


Copenhagen: Danish Road Directorate.

5.

EEC (1985) Council Directive on Assessment of the


Effects of Certain Public Andprivate Projects on the
Environment, (85/337/EEC), Official Journal of the
European Communities , L 175,40.

6.

ETSC (1996) Low-Cost Road and Traffic Engineering


Measures for Casualty Reduction, Brussels: European
Transport Safety Council.

7.

European Parliament and Council of the European Union


(1996) Community Guidelines for the Development of the
Trans-European Transport Network. Decision No. 692/96/
EC, Official Journal of the European Communities,
L 228, 39.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

8.

FGSV (1988) Richtlinienfur Die Anlage Von Strassen,


Teil Knotenpunkte, Abschnitt1 (RAS-K-1), Koln: For
schungsgesellschaftfur Strassenunde Verkehrswesen.

9.

GDV (1997) Euska, Zeitgemasse Verkehrssicherheitsarbeit.


Bonn: Institutfur Strassenverkehr - Gesamtverband der
Deutscher Versicherungswirtschafte.

10.

IHT (1996) Guidelines for Road Safety Audit. London:


Institution of Highways and Transportation.

11.

ITE (1994) Informational Report: Road Safety Audit.


Committee 4S-7, July 1994.Washington DC: Institute of
Transportation Engineers.

12.

JORDAN, P.W. (1994) Road Safety Audit: the


AUSTROADS Approach. Road and Transport Research
3(1), 4-11.

13.

MACHU, C. (1996) A New Approach to Improved


Road Safety: Safety Checking of Road Infrastructure
in Proceedings of the FERSI International Conference
Road Safety in Europe, Birmingham, September 1996.
VTI Konferens7A(4), 19-28.

14.

OECD (1994) Environmental Impact Assessment of


Roads. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development.

15.

OGDEN, K.W., JORDAN, P.W. (1993) Road Safety


Audit: an Overview. In the proceedings of the Pacific Rim
Transport Technology Conference, Seattle, July1993.

16.

SCHELLING, A. (1995) Road Safety Audit, the Danish


Experience. In the Proceedings of the FERSI International
Conference Road Safety in Europe and Strategic Highway
Research Program, Prague, September 1995. VTI
Konferens 4A(4), 1-8.

17.

Surrey County Council (1994) Road Safety Audit: an


Investigation Intocasualty Savings. Kingston upon
Thames: Surrey County Council.

18.

Transit New Zealand (1992) Accident Countermeasures:


Literature Review.

19.

TNZ Research Report Number 10. Wellington: Transit


New Zealand.

20.

Wegman, F.C.M., Roszbach, R., Mulder, J.A.G., Schoon,


C.C., Poppe, F. (1994) Road Safety Impact Assessment:
RIA. Report R-94-20. Leidschendam: SWOVInstitute for
Road Safety Research.

21.

Wrisberg, J., Nilsson, P.K. (1996) Safety Audit in Denmark


- a Cost-Effective Activity. Copenhagen: Danish Road
Directorate.

75

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80

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84

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014

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Years
Rs.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
21
17000
35
14000
49
9600
22
17000
36
14000
50
9600
23
17000
37
13400
51
8800
24
17000
38
13400
52
8800
25
16000
39
12800
53
8000
26
16000
40
12800
54
8000
27
15600
41
12200
55
7200
28
15600
42
12200
56
7200
29
15200
43
11600
57
6600
30
15200
44
11600
58
6600
31
14800
45
11000
59
6000
32
14800
46
11000
60
6000
33
14400
47
10400
and over
34
14400
48
10400
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Demand Draft/Cheque, may be drawn in favour of Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress payable at New Delhi.

88

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, January 2014