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Aplikasi dan Pemrosesan

Keramik
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
Bagaimanakah mengklasifikasikan keramik?
Bagaimanakah aplikasi dari keramik?
Bagaimanakah pemrosesan dari material keramik?

Keramik
Senyawa logam atau bukan logam yang
mempunyai ikatan atom ionik dan kovalen
Ikatan ionik dan kovalen menyebabkan
keramik mempunyai titik lebur tinggi dan
bersifat isolator
Keramik terdiri dari
Keramik tradisional, disusun oleh tanah liat,
silika dan feldspar. Cth. bata, ubin, genteng
dan porselen
Keramik murni atau teknik, disusun oleh
senyawa murni.

Klasifikasi keramics
Ceramic Materials
Glasses

Clay Refractories
products

Abrasives Cements

Advanced
ceramics

-optical
-composites -engine
- structural -bata tahan api - cutting
(furnaces) -polishing -structural
-komposite
- valves
yang diperkuat
- bearings
-wadah/
-sensors
Adapted from Fig. 13.1 and discussion in
Bahan rumah tangga Section 13.2-8, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Aplikasi Keramik: Die Blanks


Die blanks:
-- membutuhkan material tahan aus!

Die surface:

die
Ao

-- 4 mm partikel berlian polikristal yang


telah disintering pada substrate
tungsten cabida.
-- berlian polikristal memberikan
keseragaman kekerasan dalam semua
arah untuk mengurangi efek

die

Ad

tensile
force

Adapted from Fig. 11.8(d),


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Courtesy Martin Deakins, GE


Superabrasives, Worthington,
OH. Used with permission.
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Aplikasi Keramik:
Alat pemotong
Tools:
-- untuk grinding glass, tungsten,
carbide, ceramics
-- untuk pemotong Si wafer
-- untuk pengeboran minyak

Materials:

oil drill bits

-- diproduksi dalam berlian single crystal


atau polycrystalline
pada logam atau matriks resin.
-- berlian polycrystalline yang
dibentuk ulang melalui
pemotongan bid. kristal

blades
Single crystal
diamonds

polycrystalline
diamonds in a resin
matrix.

Aplikasi Keramik: Sensor


Example: ZrO2 sebagai sensor oksigen
Prinsip: meningkatkan laju difusi oksigen

Ca 2+

untuk menghasilkan respon yang cepat dari


sensor signal untuk mengubah konsentrasi
oksigen

Approach:

A substituting Ca2+ ion


removes a Zr 4+ ion and
an O2- ion.

Add Ca impurity to ZrO2:


-- meningkatkan O2- vacancies
-- meningkatkan O2- diffusion rate

Operation:

-- beda potensialdihasilkan ketika ion

sensor
gas with an

reference
O2- ions terdifusi dari permukaan luar unknown, higher
gas at fixed
O2menuju ke permukaan gas referense. oxygen content
oxygen content
diffusion
-- beda potensial
beda tekanan parsial gas oksigen antara dua
permukaan
+
voltage difference produced!

Refractories
Materials yang digunakan pada temperatur tinggi (e.g., in
high temperature furnaces).
Campuran refraktori: sistem Silica (SiO2) - Alumina
(Al2O3)
Silica refractories - silica rich penambahan sedikit
alumina menurunkan melting temperature.

Advanced Ceramics:
Materials for Automobile Engines
Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Dapat dioperasikan pada


temp tinggi high
efficiencies
Rendah gesekan
Tanpa memerlukan
pendingin
Lebih ringan

Bersifat brittle
Adanya void atau rongga
yang sulit dihilangkan
(melemahkan structure)
Sulit difabrikasi

Potential candidate materials: Si3N4, SiC, & ZrO2


Possible engine parts: engine block & piston coatings
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Ceramic Fabrication Methods (i)


PARTICULATE
CEMENTATION
GLASS
FORMING
FORMING
Blowing of Glass Bottles:
Pressing: plates, cheap glasses
Gob

Pressing
operation

Parison
mold

-- glass formed by application of


pressure
-- mold is steel with graphite
lining

Fiber drawing:
Compressed
air
Suspended
parison
Finishing
mold

wind up
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Sheet Glass Forming


Sheet forming continuous casting
sheets are formed by floating the molten glass on a pool of
molten tin

Adapted from Fig. 13.9,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
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Glass Properties
Specific volume (1/r) vs Temperature (T):

Crystalline materials:
Specific volume
Liquid
(disordered)

Supercooled
Liquid

Glasses:

Glass
(amorphous solid)
Crystalline
(i.e., ordered)

Tg

-- crystallize at melting temp, Tm


-- have abrupt change in spec.
vol. at Tm

Tm

Adapted from Fig. 13.6,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

solid

-- do not crystallize
-- change in slope in spec. vol. curve at
glass transition temperature, Tg
-- transparent - no grain boundaries to
scatter light

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Glass Properties: Viscosity


Viscosity, h:
-- relates shear stress () and velocity gradient (dv/dy):

dy

glass

dv

dv
dy

h
dv / dy

velocity gradient

h has units of (Pa-s)

12

Log Glass Viscosity vs. Temperature


Viscosity menurun dengan
T

soda-lime glass: 70% SiO2


balance Na2O (soda) & CaO (lime)
borosilicate (Pyrex):
13% B2O3, 3.5% Na2O, 2.5% Al2O3
Vycor: 96% SiO2, 4% B2O3

Viscosity [Pa-s]

fused silica: > 99.5 wt% SiO2

10 14

10 10
10 6
10 2
1
200

strain point
annealing point

Working range:
glass-forming carried out

Tmelt
600 1000 1400 1800 T(C)

Adapted from Fig. 13.7, Callister & Rethwisch


8e. (Fig. 13.7 is from E.B. Shand,
Engineering Glass, Modern Materials, Vol. 6,
Academic Press, New York, 1968, p. 262.)
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Heat Treating Glass


Annealing:
-- removes internal stresses caused by uneven cooling.

Tempering:
-- puts surface of glass part into compression
-- suppresses growth of cracks from surface scratches.
-- sequence:
before cooling

hot

initial cooling

at room temp.

cooler
hot
cooler

compression
tension
compression

-- Result: surface crack growth is suppressed.

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Ceramic Fabrication Methods (iia)


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Hydroplastic forming:
Mill (grind) and screen constituents: desired particle size
Extrude this mass (e.g., into a brick)
Ao
force

container

ram

billet

container

die holder
extrusion

die

Ad

Adapted from
Fig. 12.8(c),
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

Dry and fire the formed piece


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Ceramic Fabrication Methods (iia)


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Slip casting:
Mill (grind) and screen constituents: desired particle size
Mix with water and other constituents to form slip
Slip casting operation
pour slip
into mold

absorb water
into mold
green
ceramic

solid component

pour slip
into mold

drain
mold

green
ceramic

Adapted from Fig.


13.12, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e. (Fig.
13.12 is from W.D.
Kingery, Introduction
to Ceramics, John
Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1960.)

hollow component

Dry and fire the cast piece

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Typical Porcelain Composition


(50%) 1. Clay
(25%) 2. Filler e.g. quartz (finely ground)
(25%) 3. Fluxing agent (Feldspar)
-- aluminosilicates plus K+, Na+, Ca+
-- upon firing - forms low-melting-temp. glass

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Drying and Firing


Drying: as water is removed - interparticle spacings decrease
shrinkage .
Adapted from Fig.
13.13, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e. (Fig.
13.13 is from W.D.
Kingery, Introduction
to Ceramics, John
Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1960.)

wet body

partially dry

completely dry

Firing:
-- heat treatment between
900-1400C
-- vitrification: liquid glass forms
from clay and flux flows
between SiO2 particles. (Flux
lowers melting temperature).

micrograph of porcelain

Drying too fast causes sample to warp or crack due to non-uniform shrinkage
Si02 particle
(quartz)
glass formed
around
the particle

70 mm

Adapted from Fig. 13.14, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


(Fig. 13.14 is courtesy H.G. Brinkies, Swinburne
University of Technology, Hawthorn Campus,
Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.)

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Ceramic Fabrication Methods (iib)


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Powder Pressing: used for both clay and non-clay compositions.


Powder (plus binder) compacted by pressure in a mold
-- Uniaxial compression - compacted in single direction
-- Isostatic (hydrostatic) compression - pressure applied by
fluid - powder in rubber envelope
-- Hot pressing - pressure + heat (

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Sintering
Sintering occurs during firing of a piece that has
been powder pressed
-- powder particles coalesce and reduction of pore size

Adapted from Fig. 13.16,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Aluminum oxide powder:


-- sintered at 1700C
for 6 minutes.

Adapted from Fig. 13.17, Callister


& Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 13.17 is from
W.D. Kingery, H.K. Bowen, and
D.R. Uhlmann, Introduction to
Ceramics, 2nd ed., John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1976, p. 483.)

15 mm

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Tape Casting
Thin sheets of green ceramic cast as flexible tape
Used for integrated circuits and capacitors
Slip = suspended ceramic particles + organic liquid
(contains binders, plasticizers)

Fig. 13.18, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e.

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Ceramic Fabrication Methods (iii)


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Hardening of a paste paste formed by mixing cement


material with water
Formation of rigid structures having varied and complex
shapes
Hardening process hydration (complex chemical
reactions involving water and cement particles)
Portland cement production of:
-- mix clay and lime-bearing minerals
-- calcine (heat to 1400C)
-- grind into fine powder
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Soal
Jelaskan pembagian dari material keramik serta
jelaskan perbedaannya dari masing-masing bahan
tersebut?
jelaskan perbedaan konsep antara tradisional
keramik dan advance keramik?
Sebutkan tipe glass komersial serta jelaskan
komposisi serta sifatnya?
Sebutkan tipe clay serta jelaskan komposisi serta
sifatnya?
Jelaskan tujuan dari proses annealing dan glass
tempering pada proses pembuatan glass?

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