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# Module 6.

Fault Current

Calculation

## Power system Review

Fault Currents
Symmetrical Fault
Asymmetrical fault

## Power System Review

Fault Analysis
Analysis Type
Power Flow: normal operating conditions

## Faults: abnormal operating conditions

Fault Types
Balanced or Symmetrical Fault
Three Phase Short Circuit
Unbalanced or Unsymmetrical Faults
Single line-to-ground
Double line-to-ground
Line-to-line
What are the results used for?
o Determining the circuit breaker rating
o Protective Relaying settings

## Various Types of Faults

a)Symmetrical Fault
a

VF
ISymmetrical-fault(3 )
Z1 Zfault

b)Unsymmetrical Fault

a

## double line - to - ground Fault

c
Ifault(line - to - line)

a
b

j 3VF
Z1 Z2 Zfault

## line - to - ground Fault

a
b
c

Ifault(Line - to - ground)

3VF
Z1 Z2 ( Z0 3Zn) 3Zfault

Asymmetrical
Fault Calculation

## R-L Circuit Transients

R

e(t ) 2 V sin( wt )

+
-

SW Closed @
t 0

di(t )
Ri (t ) 2V sin(t ) t 0
dt
t

V
Solution : i(t ) iac(t ) idc(t ) 2 [sin(t ) sin( )e T ]
Z
forced Solution natural Solution
Equation : L

## Symmetrical Fault / Steady State Fault Current( forced ) :

iac(t ) 2

V
sin(t ) amp
Z
Z

R2 X 2

R 2 (l ) 2

X
1 wl
tg

R
R
L
X
X
T

R R 2fR

tg 1

dc Offset Current(transient ) :
t

V
T
idc(t ) 2 sin( )e
Z

Asymmetrical fault

V
i(t ) iac(t ) idc(t ) 2 [sin(t ) sin( )e T ]
Z

## Dc offset Magnitude depends on angle :

(

0 dc offset 2 Iac

V
Z

## In order to get the largest fault current:

Set : ( )
2

i (t ) i (t ) i (t ) 2 I [sin(t ) e T ]
2
ac

dc

ac

Asymmetrical fault
Note: i(t) is not completely periodic. So, how do we

## get the rms value of i(t) ?

Assume : e C (constant)
Now calculate the RMS Asymmetrical Fault Current:

t
T

t
T 2

## irms(t ) ( Iac) 2 ( Idc) 2 [ Iac]2 [ 2 Idce ] Iac 1 2e

X
Note : T

L
X
X

R
R R 2fR

&

irms(t ) Iac 1 2e

2t
T

2t
T

Amp

Iac 1 2e

2
X

f
2fR

Iac 1 2e

4
( X / R)

4
( X / R)

Amp

Per Unit

## Asymmetrical Fault Calculation

Example: In the following Circuit, V=2.4kV, L=8mH,

## R=0.4, and =260 rad/sec. Determine (a) the rms

symmetrical fault current; (b) the rms asymmetrical fault
current; (c) the rms asymmetrical fault current for .1 cycle
& 3 cycle after the switch closes, assuming the maximum
dc offset.
L 20mH
R 4
e(t ) 2 2400 sin( wt )

+
-

SW Closed @ t 0

Solution:

Z Z 3.04282.4

Iac

V 2400volts

788.95A
Z
3.042

## b) @ t 0; Irms(0) Iack (0) 788.95 1 2 1366.46 A

X
3.016
c) ( Ratio )
7.54
R
0.4
k ( 0.1cycle ) 1 2e
k ( 3cycle ) 1 2e

4 ( 0.1)
7.54

4 ( 3 )
7.54

R 4

+
-

L 20mH

SW Closed @
t 0

1 1.693 1.641

## Irms ( 0.1cycle ) Iac k (0.1cycle ) x1.641 1,294.69 A

Irms ( 3cycle ) Iac k (3cycle ) 788.95 A

Synchronous Machine
Three Stages: Subtransient, Transient, and Steady State
i (t ) iac(t ) idc(t )

Instantaneous Current

'
1
1 T "d
1
1
1

## iac(t ) 2 Eg[( " ' )e

( '
)e T d ] sin(t )
X d Xd
Xd X d
Xd
2
d-axis
Eg
idc(t ) 2 " e t / TA 2 I "e t / TA M aximum dc offset
N
X d
Where :
t

"

X 'd

"

Eg / X

"

q-axis

## X d direct axix Synchronous Reactance/SteadyStateReactance

TA armature time constant

S
d axis direct axis

## Note : M anufactureres provide :

X "d , X ' d , X

Time Constants

T"d , T ' d , T

Stator

Rotor

I Eg / Xd

M achine Reactances

Uniform air-gap

Rotor winding

I ' Eg / X ' d

## direct axix Transient Reactance

Stator winding

&

Synchronous Machine
Asymmetrical Fault Envelopes
Asymmetry Sources: (1) Open Phase and (2) SLG Fault

iac(t )
Subtransient fault Current

2I

"
'

## Eg Transient fault Current 2I

I "
Xd
Eg
I' '
S.S fault Current
Xd
Eg
I
Xd
"

AC current envelopes
t

2 Eg TtA
"
TA
idc - MAX(t)
e

2
I
e
X "d

2I

I"

I'

Eg
X "d

Eg
X 'd
Eg
Xd

2I

"

2I "

## Stages of Asymmetrical Fault near Generator

Subtransient

2I '
Transient

dc offset

2I '
Asymmetrical Fault

Fault Current
Calculation

## Fault Current Analysis

Four methods to calculate the fault current:
1.Ohmic Method (not preferred)
2.Infinite Bus Method (Convenient & Easy)
3.Per Unit Method (Most Common)
4.MVA Method (Quick & Easy)
Note: This course will focus on PU & MVA Methods

Ohmic Method

## Power System Review

Ohmic Method
This Method Requires:
Transferring all impedances to high/low
voltage side of transformer using square
of XFMR turn ratio NN OR NN
2

## Using your AC circuit theory knowledge

Voltage & Current dividers
Thevenin & Norton equivalents
Kramers Rule, etc
Power System Review

## Infinite Bus Calculation

Infinite Bus calculation is a convenient way to
estimate the maximum 3 fault current flow on the sec
side of the transformer
The following steps are necessary to calculate the ISC
Step1: Calculate Ztotal( pu) Zutility Ztransformer
1.0 pu
Step2 : Calculate ISC
Zpu
KVA 3
Step3 : Calculate IBase
Ztotal
3 x kVLL
Step4 : ISC actual IBsae x ISC

## Note1: If Utility Short Circuit is Known

Ztotal( pu) Zutility Ztransformer
where;
MVAbase
Z%
Zutility
& Ztransformer
MVASC
100
Note2 : If Utility Short Circuit is Unknown
Ztotal Ztransformer
where;
Z%
Ztransformer
pu & Zutility 0
100

## Infinite Bus Calculation

Unknown Utility SC Data
Example1: Calculate the maximum 3 fault current on 5000 KVA
Transformers secondary bus.
VS

Z% 7.5
Step1: Calculate Zpu

## 0.075 pu No Source Data 5000KVA

100 100
13.8kV/4.16kV
Z 7.5%
1.0 pu 1.0
Step2 : Calculate ISC

13.333
Zpu .075
KVA 3
5000
Step3 : Calculate IBase

693.95 A
3 x kVLL
3 x 4.16kV
Step4 : ISC actual IBsae x ISC 13.333 x 693.95 9252.4 A

## Infinite Bus Calculation

with Known Utility SC Data
Example2: Calculate the maximum 3 fault current on 5000 KVA
Transformers secondary bus.
VS
Calculate

Zutility
Ztransformer

## Ztoal Zutility Ztransformer

M BAbase 150
Zutility

1 pu
M VASC 150
2
2
kVold SbaseNew
4.16 5
ZUtility New ZpuOld
1x

.033 pu
kVnew SbaseOld
4.16 150

SC 150MVA

5000KVA
13.8kV/4.16kV
Z 7.5%

## Ztotal 0.075 0.033 0.108 pu

Z % 7.5

0.075 pu
100 100

Calculatio n Steps : Step1: Calculate Ztotal Zutility Ztransformer 0.033 .075 0.108 pu
1.0 pu
1.0

9.26
Ztotal( pu) 0.108
KVA 3
5000
Step3 : Calculate IBase

693.95 A
3 x kVLL
3 x 4.16kV
Step4 : ISC actual IBsae x ISC 9.26 x 693.95 6426 A
Step2 : Calculate ISC

Per-Unit Method

## Fault Current Analysis:

Per-Unit Method
PU analysis is used for both symmetrical &
unsymmetrical fault calculations.
All components are defined in PU system.
Analysis is performed using equivalent per phase
circuit modeling.
Requires knowledge of symmetrical components
Requires selecting two system bases for
calculating all base & PU quantities:
kVBase & MVAbase
Power System Review

## Fault Current Analysis:

Per-Unit Method
This Method requires:
Knowledge of symmetrical components
Positive sequence (+ SEQ)
Negative sequence(-SEQ)
Zero sequence (0 SEQ)

## Interconnecting positive, negative, and

zero networks for calculating the various
unsymmetrical faults(LG, LL/LLG, and 3)
Power System Review

Symmetrical Components
Steps involved:
1. Draw a single-line diagram of the desired
power system(equivalent per phase)
2. Define zones using transformation point as
a point of demarcation
3. Select a common MVAbase for all zones
4. Select a kVBase for one zone & Calculate
a. kVBase for other zones
b. Zbase, and Ibase for all zones
Power System Review

Symmetrical Components..cont
6. Replace each component with its
equivalent reactance in per-unit
7. Draw sequence networks(+, -, 0)
8. Use (+)SEQ network for Symmetrical
Fault analysis
9. Combine appropriate networks for
calculating various Unsymmetrical
Fault analysis
Power System Review

Symmetrical
Fault Calculation

## 3 Symmetrical Fault Analysis

(PU Method)
Symmetrical Fault refers to a balanced 3

## fault, in a balanced 3 system operating in

steady state, which is either :
Bolted fault: LLLG fault with Zfault=0
Non-Bolted fault: LLLG fault with Zfault0

## Only the (+)SEQ network exists.

(0)SEQ & (-)SEQ currents are equal to Zero.
Power System Review

## Symmetrical Fault Modeling

for a Bolted Fault (PU Method)
I1

Z1 eq

I0 0

+
VF
_

Ia

SEQ

I2 0

V1=0
_

Ic

Vf ( PU )
I 1 fault( PU )
Z 1eq ( PU )

() SEQ

Ib

+
Vb
Vc
_ _

Va
_
g

Z0 eq

I0=0

Z2 eq

I2=0

+
Vo=0

(0) SEQ

Phase
Ib = -Ia = Ic = ISC

V2=0

() SEQ

## Practice Example (PU Method):

In the following power system Calculate(a)3 Symmetrical

Size @ Bus 3
500MVA

750MVA

13.8kV / 115kV

115kV / 13.8 kV

XT1"

500MVA

Bus1
0.15PU

G1

XT13 2

13.8kV

Bus 2

XT1 6

XT23 4

XT2 "

0.18PU
750MVA
G2

13.2kV

"

X 0.15 PU

"

Sbase 750MVA

Sbase 750MVA

Kvbase 13.8kV

Kvbase 115kV

Kvbase 13.8kV

Zbase .254

Zbase 17.63

Zbase .254

Bus3

## SBase 750 MVA

Sbase 750MVA

X 0.20 PU

Breaker Selection
Modern Circuit Breaker standards are designed based on

## ISymmetrical. The following steps are required to determine an

appropriate breaker size:
1. Use E/X method to calculate the minimum ISymmetrical.
2. Calculate X/R ratio:
1. If X/R <15
Use ISymmetrical
2. If X/R>15
It means the dc offset has not decayed
to an acceptable level. Thus, calculate IAsymmetrical.
3. Calculate IAsymmetrical at calculated fault location.
4. Breaker Interrupting Capability should be 20% greater
than the calculated fault current.

## Breaker Selection Criterion

Generator/ Synchronous Motor/Large Induction motors

Breakers:
Use subtransient Reactance Xd to calculate ISymmetrical.
Use 2 cycle Breaker
Transmission Breakers:
Use 3 cycle Breakers if X/R>15
Use 5 cycle Breaker if X/R<15
Distribution Breakers:
Use 3 cycle or 5 cycle Breakers
If X/R ratio is unknown Use:
X
ISymmetrical
Unknown IBreaker Interrupting Capability
R
0.8

500MVA

750MVA

13.8kV / 115kV

115kV / 13.8 kV

Bus1

XT1" 0.15PU

500MVA

G1

Bus 2

XT1 6

XT13 2 XT23 4

13.8kV

## XT2 " 0.18PU

G2

13.2kV

"

X 0.15 PU

Breaker Selection :

750MVA

"

Sbase 750MVA

Sbase 750MVA

Kvbase 13.8kV

Kvbase 115kV

Kvbase 13.8kV

Zbase .254

Zbase 17.63

Zbase .254

Bus3

Sbase 750MVA

X 0.20 PU

## Breaker Voltage Class :115 kV

Breaker Cycle :3 cycle

ISymmetrical 13,291.2 A
13,291.2
IBreaker Interrupting Capability
16,614.2 A
0.8

## Symmetrical Fault Current

AnalysisMVA-Method

MVA Method

## Fault Current Calculation-MVA Method

This method follows a four steps process:
1. Calculate the Admittance of every component in its own

infinite bus.

100
Z%

## series & parallel rules:

b) Series M VAs :
a) Parallel M VAs :
1
1
1
1
MVAtotal MVA1 MVA2 ........MVAn

........
MVAtotal MVA1 MVA2
MVAn

## 4. Convert MVAs to Symmetrical fault current

MVAsc (Total )
Isymmetrical
3 x kVll
Power System Review

## MVA Equivalent Network

Series M VAs :
1
1
1
1

........
MVAtotal MVA1 MVA2
MVAn

MVA1

MVA2

MVA3

MVATotal

Parallel M VAs :
MVAtotal MVA1 MVA2 ........MVAn

MVA1

MVA2

1
1
1
1

MVA3

MVATotal

## Why Use the MVA Method?

This method is internationally used and accepted by most

protection engineers.
The network set up is easier than Ohmic or PU method.
You can calculate Ifault in a shorter time period.
This method makes it easier to see the fault contributions
@ every point in the system.
Calculation accuracy is within 3% to 5% compared to PU &
Ohmic method.

X
1. 10
R

## Symmetrical Fault Current

Analysis...MVA-Method
Formulas:

kVll 2
Cable : MVAfault
Z ()

## Generator / Sycnhroonous Motor : MVAfault MVA x

100
Transformer : MVAfault MVA x
Zxfmr %
Note: Impedances (Z) are steady state values

100
Xd "Gen%

## Symmetrical Fault Current

Analysis...MVA-Method
Motor :

## Motor : MVAfault MVAmotor x

100
Xd "Gen%

Ilocked rotor
Induction Motor : MVAfault MVAmotor x
Where: Xd=direct-axis Subtransient Reactance
Xd= I Full-load amp/I Locked Rotor amp

## Symmetrical Fault Current

Analysis...MVA-Method
Summary:

## MVA parallel total MVA1 MVA2 MVAn

1
MVA series total
[(1/ MVA1) (1/ MVA2) (1/ MVAn)]

MVA total
I fault ( KA)
3 x kVLL
Power System Review

## Example1:Fault Calculation(MVA method)

In the following Power System, Calculate the fault current @ Bus2 & fault current
contributions from both Gen & Motor?
Utility Source
13.8kV, 15KA fault current

Bus 1 13.8kV
Transformer
7MVA
13.8kV/4.16kV
Z=9%

Generator
1.5MVA Y
4.16kV
Xd=0.15pu

Z=0.2

Bus 2 4.16kV
Motor
2MVA Y
4.16kV
Xd=0.25pu

## Step1:Network Modeling(MVA Method)

Utility Source
13.8kV, 15KA fault current

## MVAsource 3 x (13.8kv) x(15kA) 358.5MVA

Bus1 13.8kV
Transformer
7MVA
13.8kV/4.16kV
Z=9%

MVAtransformer MVA x

Generator

MVAGenerator MVA x

100
7 x100

77.77 MVA
Zxfmr %
9

MVALine

86.53

10

kV
(4.16)

86.53MVA
Zline
0.2

Bus2 4.16kV
Motor
2MVA Y
4.16kV
Xd=0.25

MVAMotor MVA x
M

77.77

1
1
1.5 x
10MVA
"
Xd
0.15

Z=0.2

1.5MVA Y
4.16kV
Xd=0.15

358.52

1
1

2
x
8MVA
Xd "
0.25

358.52
77.77

86.53

10

Series M VAs :
1
1
1
1

MVAtotal

1
36.76
1
1
1

## 358.52 77.77 86.53

36.76

10

Fault MVA

54.76
8

8
Parallel MVAs :
MVAtotal MVA1 MVA2 MVA3
MVAtotal 10 36.76 8 54.76

## Step 3:Fault MVA Conversion to Ifault

Bus 2 Quantities :
MVAfault 54.76
kVll 4.16kV
Bus2 Fault Current:

MVAfault(3 )
54.76
Ifault(kA)

7.6003
3x(4.16kVLL)
3x(4.16kVLL)

## Example1:Fault Analysis(PU Method)

In the following Power System, Calculate the fault current @ Bus2 & fault current
contributions from both Gen & Motor using PU Method?
Utility Source
13.8kV, 15KA fault current

Bus1 13.8kV
Transformer
7MVA
13.8kV/4.16kV
Z=9%

Generator
1.5MVA
Y
4.16kV
Xd=0.15

Zutility
Vf 1.0 pu

## 3-500McM cables, 2000 ft

Z=0.2

Bus2 4.16kV
Motor
2MVA Y
4.16kV
M
Xd=0.25

ZXfmr

ZGen

Zmotor

ZLine
()SEQ Network for Bus 2

## Example 1: Symmetrical Fault Current

Calculation Comparison between
PU & MVA Methods
MVA method calculatio n :

## Ifault @ Bus2 Ifault( pu) xIbase 0.548x13,879 A 7,605.7 A

Per Unit Method calculatio n :

## Ex1: Motor/Gen Fault Contribution

(MVA Method)
Utility Contributi on :
Ifault

36.76MVA 36.76

5,102 A
3 x 4.16kV 7.205

## MVA(Utility Xfmr Line)

MVAGen

Generator Contributi on :

10

36.76

Ifault Gen

Motor Contributi on :

MVAMotor

Ifault motor

Ifault If

motor

10MVA
1,387.9 A
3 x 4.16kV

If

utility

If

Gen

8MVA
1,110.3 A
3x 4.16kV

## Ex1:Symmetrical Fault Current Analysis

PU & MVA Methods Comparison
MVA method calculatio n :

If

motor

1,110.3 Amp

If-motor 1,110 A

## Symmetrical Fault Current Calculation

MVA Method
Example2: Calculate the Symmetrical fault current @ Bus2 using the MVA Method
MVAfault 3 x 22.86 kVLLx15kA 593.903
kV 2 (22.86kV ) 2
MVAfault
2,903.22
Zline
0.18

MVAXfmr
20

222.222
Z
%
0
.09

100
MVAXfmr 3.5
MVAfault

50
Z % 0.07

100

Utility Source
22.86kV, 15KA fault current

Generator

Z=.18

MVAfault

MVA
5

41.667 MVA
Z % 0.12

100
MVA
2
MVAfault(G 2)

14.286 MVA
Z % 0.14

100

Transformer
20MVA Delta-Yn
22.86/4.16kV
Z=9%

Generator

5MVA
4.16kV
Z=12%

MVAfault(G1)

MVA
2

13.333 MVA
Z
%

0.15

100
MVA
1.5
MVAfault(G 2)

9.375 MVA
Z % 0.16

100
MVAfault( M 1)

BUS 1
Transformer
3.5MVA Delta-Yn
4.16kV/480V
Z=7%

Motor
2MVA Y
4.16kV
Z=15%

BUS 2
Generator
2MVA
480 V
Z=14%

Bolted Fault

Motor
1.5MVA Y
480V
Z=16%

## Solution to Example2 (MVA method):

22.86 kV Utility Source:

## MVAfault 3 x 22.86 kVLLx15kA 593.903

Line:

kV 2 (22.86kV ) 2
MVAfault
2,903.22
Zline
0.18

Transformers:

MVAXfmr
20
MVAfault

222.222
Z % 0.09

100

MVAXfmr 3.5
MVAfault

50
Z % 0.07

100
Power System Review

## Solution to Example2 (MVA method):

Generators:

MVA
5

41.667 MVA
Z % 0.12

100
MVA
2
MVAfault(G 2)

14.286 MVA
Z % 0.14

100

MVAfault(G1)

Motors:

MVA
2
MVAfault( M 1)

13.333 MVA
Z % 0.15

100
MVA
1.5
MVAfault(G 2)

9.375 MVA
Z % 0.16

100
Power System Review

## Example 2:Symmetrical Fault Current

Calculation (MVA-method)
Step1: Network Modeling

593.903
MVA

2903.220
MVA
41.667
MVA

222.222
MVA

BUS 1
50 MVA

13.333
MVA

BUS 2

14.286
MVA

9.375
MVA

## Symmetrical Fault Current

AnalysisMVA-Method
Step2 : Network MVA Reduction
Series MVAs:

1
MVA series total
[(1/ MVA1) (1/ MVA2) (1/ MVAn)]
Parallel MVAs:

## Example2: Symmetrical Fault Current

AnalysisMVA-Method
Step2 : Network MVA Reduction
MVA series:

MVA=1/[(1/593.903)+(1/2,903.220)+(1/222.222)]
MVA=1/[(.0017)+(.0003)+(.0045)]=153.846
Bus1 (parallel)=153.846+41.667+13.333=208.846
208.846MVA

## MVA series @Bus2:

50 MVA

MVA=1/[(1/208.846)+(1/50)]
MVA=1/[(.0048)+(.0200)]=40.323

BUS 2

14.286
MVA

9.375
MVA

## @ Bus 2(MVA method)

Step3 : Fault MVA Calculatio n
MVA series total

153.846
MVA

1
153.846
[(1 / 593.903) (1 / 2,903.22) (1 / 222.22)]
41.667
MVA

208.846
MVA

BUS 1
50
MVA

13.333
MVA

50
MVA

BUS 2
BUS 2
14.286
MVA

9.375
MVA

14.286
MVA

9.375
MVA

## @ Bus 2(MVA method)

MVA series

1
40.323
[(1 / 208.846) (1 / 50)]

40.323
MVA

BUS 2
14.286
MVA

9.375
MVA

MVA

fault

## Example2: Symmetrical Fault

Current AnalysisMVA-Method
Bus2 (total) = 40.323+14.286+9.375=63.984 MVA

## Available Fault Current @Bus 2:

Ifault=63.984 MVA/[

3 x 0.48kV]=76,963 A

## Ex2:Calculate Short Circuit MVA@ Bus1

(MVA method)
MVA parallel 153.846 41.667 195.531MVA
41.667
MVA

153.864
MVA

BUS 1
50 MVA

13.333
MVA

13.333
MVA

50
MVA

BUS 2

14.286
MVA

BUS 1

195.531
MVA

9.375+14.286=23.661
MVA

9.375
MVA

208.864+16.051=224.915 MVA

208.864= 195.531+13.333
MVA

BUS 1
1/[(1/50)+(1/23.661)]=1/.0623=16.051
MVA

BUS 1

## Ex2: Calculate Short Circuit MVA

@ Bus 1 (MVA method)
S.C or Fault MVA @ Bus1:
S.C or Fault MVA= 224.915

## Available Fault Current at Bus 1:

I fault @Bus1=31,216 A

## Example 3: Symmetrical Fault Analysis

Calculate the symmetrical fault current at the secondary terminals of a 10 MVA XFMR
using both the PU-Method & the MVA Method. Use 15 MVA & 69 kV base values for
the transmission line.

1500 MVA
Fault

10 MVA
69kV /-n 13.8kV
X=8.5%

69 kV

X=2.8

Source

13.82
Z Base2
12.7
15
S Base
IBase2
627.57 A
3 x kVBase1

kV 2 Base1 692

317.4
SBase1
15

SBase 15 MVA

13.2 kV
X=0.2

VlL-Base2 13.8 kV

VlL-Base1 69 kV
Z Base1

5 MVA -n

Zone 1

## Example3: Symmetrical Fault

Analysis(MVA-method)
Source

Line

Transformer

1500
MVA

1
1
1
1

1700.36
MVA

102.52
MVA

## MVA Fault= 102.52+27.32

= 129.84

117.65
MVA

27.32
MVA

Motor

27.32
MVA

Ifault= 129.84/(1.732x13.8)
= 5,432.3 Amps

5 MVA_____ =27.32
(13.2/13.8)x0.2
Power System Review

Example 3:
Symmetrical Fault Calculation
Comparison Between PU & MVA
Methods
PU method :

MVA method : I

fault =

5,432.3 Amp

## Power System Review

References
1. J.D. Golver, M.S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and design,
4th ed., (Thomson Crop, 2008).
2. M.S. Sarma, Electric Machines, 2nd ed., (West Publishing Company,
1985).
3. A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, and S. Umans, Electric
Machinery, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983).
4. P.M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power systems(Ames, IA: Iowa
Satate university Press, 1973).
5.W.D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th
ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982).

Solution
Break
Time !!!!!