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The act of drawing or the state of being drawn i.e. the propulsion of vehicle is called
the Traction and the system of traction involving the use of electricity is called
Electric Traction System. There are various systems of traction prevailing in the
world such as steam engine drive, internal combustion engine drive, diesel electric
drive, battery electric drive, straight electric drive and the most recent trend of hybrid
electric drive. These systems of traction may be classified broadly into two main
groups namely(i) The traction systems which do not involve the use of electricity at any
stage and called non-electric traction system such as steam engine drive, internal
combustion engine drive etc.
(ii) The traction systems which involve the use of electricity at some stage or
the other and called electric traction system such as diesel electric drive, straight
electric drive, battery driven drive etc.
System of electric traction can further be divided into two main groups(i) The group consisting of vehicles which receive power from a distribution
network fed at suitable points from either a central power station or substations
suitably spaced such as tramways, trolley bus, electric railways etc.
(ii) The group consisting of self contained locomotives such as diesel electric
trains, ships, petrol electric trucks and Lorries, battery driven road vehicles.



Electric drives are more reliable, flexible and suitable for traction purpose rather than
conventional engine driven vehicle. But storage of electrical energy is the main
obstruction in this technology as batteries stores a much less amount of energy
compare to the energy stored in fuels. Therefore the mileage of an electric vehicle is

much less than conventional vehicle. The problem can be solved by increasing the
capacity of the batteries, which is not a good solution considering the both technical
and economical viability. One possible solution can be obtained by reducing the
power consumption of the traction motor. To reduce the power rating of the motor
with a given vehicle performance and energy storage, the motor is required to have a
long constant power range to meet the load torque and demand [1]
The ideal characteristic of an electric motor drive for traction application are high
torque at low speed region for fault acceleration, hill climbing and obstacle
negotiation and low torque at high speed for normal driving. To minimize the power
of the motor as well as the energy storage power rating as a given vehicle
performance, the motor drive is required to have long constant power rage
application [1]. The essential requirements for electric traction are

Traction equipment should be robust and sturdy enough to withstand

continuous vibrations, dust and humid environment.

Power to weight ratio of the traction motor should be high so that it occupies
less space.

High tractive effort at starting,

It should be possible to overload the motor for a short period.

Ability of traction motors to apply regenerative braking during descent.

Coefficient of adhesion should be high.

The traction motors must be capable of withstanding voltage fluctuations and

interruptions of power supply.

The motors should be amenable to simple speed control methods.

It is widely agreed that vehicles electrification will lead to revolutionary

improvements on vehicle performance, energy resource conservation and pollutant
emissions. Now a days research and development of vehicle electrification are
widely proceeding in civilian vehicle, military vehicle, construction vehicle, rail
vehicle farm vehicle etc. As the key component, electric motor drive and energy
storage system play the most vital role for developing good performance electric
drive train and rapid mass transport vehicles. Proper characteristics, optimal
parametric design and smart configuration and combination can yield in a compact,
reliable, high efficiency drive system.



As it has no smoke, electric traction is most suited for the underground

transportation system. At the same time, it is proven to be the most
environment friendly form of transportation system. A better safety margin
can be expected from this kind of system.

Due to high starting torque developed, it is possible to achieve high

acceleration rates 1.5 to 2.5 kmphps (i.e. 0-50 kmph in 10-12 Sec).

Electric drives for traction purpose are available in wide range of torque,
speed and power. Electric motors have high efficiency, low losses and
considerable amount of overloading capacity. They are adaptable to almost
any operating condition.

Electric drives can be used operate in all four quadrants of speed torque plane
which is very suitable for forward and backward movements of the vehicle as
well as braking.

Better flexibility in operation and less maintenance (about 50% less compare
to engine driven system) [6].

Saving in energy is another attractive feature for electric traction as almost

30-40% of energy can be saved by the unique distinctive feature of
regenerative braking.


The main disadvantage of any EV is the lack of ability to store sufficient amount of
energy to run the vehicle. Other than Main line urban and sub-urban locomotive
traction system where the drive receives its power from main line, any battery/fuel
cell operated EVs hold a very small amount of energy to run the motor as well as the
vehicle compare to any engine driven vehicle. This one single disadvantage is so
severe that, despite all the attractive features, the EVs are still lagging behind with
respect to engine driven vehicles for commercial and practical application. It is due
to the fact that, the energy density of any fuel is far greater than any electrical energy

storage system such as battery or recently developed fuel-cells. The following Table
1.1 can visualize a clear idea on this subject.


Name of the Fuel

Energy contain

Energy Contain






Natural gas











Battery (Lead-Acid)


Typical rechargeable Battery


Electrochemical Capacitor








Solar Thermal

900 Wh/day


Solar PV

500 Wh/day

The other limitations are

Small capacity of the battery and the necessity of frequent charging. the
charging time is more or less very long.

Speed range/mileage is limited.

Limited battery life. Needs to be replaced after 3-4 years at a regular interval.

Regular maintenance is required.

Batteries are costly and their frequent and regular replacement may not be
proven economically viable and cost effective.

Hazardous and harmful chemicals are present in batteries. Proper dumping

and recycling of these chemicals must be done properly. Otherwise severe
environmental pollution can be caused which is harmful for any living




Ideal profile of torque speed characterization of EV is divided into two parts i.e. the
constant torque region and the constant power region. The vehicle performance is
completely determined by the profile of tractive effect verses vehicle speed. For a
power source with a given power rating, the profile of tractive effort versus vehicle
speed should be constant power in the speed range that is the tractive effect drops
hyperbolically with the increase of the vehicle speed as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1. Traction Characteristic of an Electrical Motor. [1]

The detailed design of EV and HEV in [5]. The electric motor in its normal mode of
operation can provide constant rated torque up to its base speed. At this speed the
motor reaches its maximum power limit. The operation beyond the base speed up to
the maximum speed is limited to this constant power region (Fig.1). The range of
constant power operation depends primarily on the particular motor types and its
control strategy. However, some electric motors deviate from the constant power
operation, beyond certain speed and enter the natural mode before reaching the
maximum speed. The maximum available torque in the natural mode of operation
decreases inversely with the square of the speed. Although machine torque in the
natural mode decreases inversely with the square of the speed, for some extremely
high speed motors the natural mode of operation is an appreciable part of its torque
speed profile. Inclusion of this natural mode for such motors may result in a
reduction of the total power requirement [2]. However power electronic controls

allow the motor to operate at any point in the torque-speed plane. It is the profile of
this envelops which determines the drive selection criteria and design.
A typical traction load characteristic curve is shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2. A Typical Characteristic of a Vehicle (Traction Load)

By analyzing the characteristics of a traction load or a vehicle as shown in Fig.2 one
can conclude that, the required torque or tractive effort decreases with increase in
vehicle speed but again increases after a certain value where the resistance forces
acting upon the vehicle become more dominant at high speed. The detail traction
load characteristics will be analyzed and modeled in the upcoming chapters.
The overall characteristic curve of the traction motor along with traction load is
shown in Figure 1.3 to explain the acceleration and operating point (load matching)
of both the drive and the load.

Figure 1.3. Acceleration and Final Speed (Balancing Speed) of electric vehicle. The
point of balancing speed is the operating speed of the motor which determines the
final speed of the vehicle. [12]


The primary requirements of electric motors used for traction purpose are1.3.1

A traction motor must be robust and capable to withstand continuous
vibrations since service conditions are extremely severe.

The weight of a traction motor should be minimum in order to increase the

payload capacity of the vehicle. This is achieved by using high speed motors,
upper limit being fixed by excessive centrifugal stresses.

The traction motor is located underneath a motor coach. The space

underneath a motor is limited by the size of driving wheels and the track
gauge. The traction motor, therefore, must be small in overall dimensions
specially in its overall diameter.

The traction motor must be totally enclosed type, particularly when mounted
beneath the locomotive or the motor coach, to provide protection against
ingress of dirt, dust, water and mud etc.

For magnetic circuit of traction motor cast iron, which cannot suitable
continuous vibration, is not suitable. Use of cast steel or fabricated steel,
which gives more mechanical strength, is made in place of cast iron. Those
parts of the motor, which are not highly stressed, must be made of pressed or
fabricated steel plates and light alloys.



High starting torque. A traction motor must be capable of developing high

starting torque, specially when the train is to be accelerated at a reasonably
high rates such as in case of urban and sub-urban services.

Simple speed control The traction motor must be amenable to simple speed
control as the an electric train or vehicle have to be started and stopped very

Self relieving property The speed-torque characteristic of the motor should be

such that the speed may fall with the increase in load. The motors having such
characteristics are self protective against excessive overloading as power
output of a motor is proportional to the product of torque-speed.

Possibility of Dynamic and Regenerative braking The traction motor should

be amenable to easy and simple methods of dynamic and regenerative braking
along with mechanical braking.

Overload capacity Traction motors should be capable of taking excessive

loads as it is subjected to very arduous and heavy duties.

Parallel running In traction work, usually more than one motor (two or four
motors per car) are required. Traction motors, therefore, should be of such
speed-torque and current-torque characteristics that, when they are operated
in parallel and mechanically coupled, they share the loads almost equally.

No such motors meet the all the requirements mentioned above. Most suitable
motors for DC traction systems are series and compound motors whereas for ac
traction systems single phase series and three phase induction motors are



An electric propulsion system is comprised of three main elements: power electronic

converter, motor and its controller. Traditionally, DC motors drives have the proper
characteristics for traction application, and were popularly used couple of decades
ago. They offer the provision of extended speed range operation through field
weakening under the constant power operating region. However, DC motor drives
have bulky construction, low efficiency, need of maintenance and low reliability,
mainly due to the presence of mechanical commutator and brush. With the coming
era of power electronics and advanced microprocessor control technology, other
advanced motor drives are mature to replace DC motor drive in traction application.
At present permanent magnet brushless DC motors (BLDC), Induction motors and
Switch Reluctance motors are considered to be the most potential candidates for the
vehicle propulsion application.
For traction application, the torque density is the most important criterion of the
electric motors, which reflects the volume and weight of machines at given demand.
Table 1.2 lists the typical torque density values for different motor types. [1].


Permanent Magnet

T/Volume envelop

T/Cu mass

Induction motor



Switch Reluctance



Machine Type

Table 1.2 shows that the PM machines provide the highest torque density and
therefore will potentially have the lowest weight for given torque and power rating.
However, the fixed flux limits its extended speed range as the feature of field
weakening like brushed DC motors are not available. The induction motor and switch
reluctance motor have the similar torque densities.

It is obvious that, in case of DC machines with separate field winding would

certainly exhibit more torque density than PM motors. But at the same time, due to
its bulky constructional features (as it is fitted with commutator, brush assembly and
field winding), it will be heavier than PMDC motor. Most of the PMDC motors have
the brushless commutation technique using electronic circuitry. If the same brushless
commutation technique is introduced in the conventional DC motors fitted with
separate field winding, it may have been proven to be the best option for electric
traction system. But due to the presence of field winding (which is not present in case
of PMDC motor) the weight and size of this type of DC motor would be more
compare to PMDC motor; even if it has brushless commutation technique.
More Detail operating characteristics of several types of motors employed for electric
traction are discussed in brief in the following.

A. Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive

As mentioned above, since the magnetic field is excited by high-energy
permanent magnets (PMs), the overall weight and volume can be significantly
reduced for given output torque, resulting in higher torque density. Because of
the absence of rotor winding and rotor copper losses, their efficiency is
inherently higher than that of induction motors.
However, This motor inherently has a short constant power range due to its
rather limited field weakening capability, resulting from the presence of the PM
field, which can only be weakened through production of a stator field
component, which opposes the rotor magnetic field.
Recently, the use of additional field windings to extend the speed range of
PM brushless DC motors has been developed [7]. The key is to control the
field current such a way that the air-gap field provided by PMs can be weakened
during high-speed constant-power operation. Due to the presence of both PMs
and the field windings, these motors are so-called PM hybrid motors. The PM
hybrid motor can achieve a speed ratio of around 4. The optimal efficiency
profiles of a PM hybrid motor drive are shown in Fig. 9[7, 8].
However, the PM hybrid motors have the drawback of relative complex
structure. The speed ratio is still not enough to meet the vehicle performance


requirement, especially to off-road vehicle. Thus a multi-gear transmission is


B. Induction Motor (IM) Drive

Field orientation control (FOC) of induction motor can decouple its torque control
from filed control. This allows the motor to behave in the same manner as a
separately excited DC motor. Extended speed range operation with constant power
beyond base speed is accomplished by flux weakening. However, the presence of
breakdown torque limits its extended constant power operation. At the critical
speed, the breakdown torque is reached. Any attempt to operate the machine at
the maximum current beyond this speed will stall the machine.
Nevertheless, a properly design induction motor, e.g. spindle motor, with field
orientation control can achieve field weakened range of about 3-5 times its base
speed [9]. This approach, however, results in an increased breakdown torque,
and thereby resulting in over sizing of the motor. A special winding changeover
technique of a field orientation controlled induction motor is also reported





operation[ 10].

however, requires winding tap changing and contactors.

This approach,

A contactless control

scheme for extending the speed range of a four-pole induction motor was presented
in [9]. This scheme uses two inverters, each of half the rated power rating that, in
theory, can extend the constant power
Operating range to 4 times the base speed, for a motor, that would otherwise be
limited to 2 times the base speed. It may be mentioned here that the torque control in
induction motor is achieved through PWM control of the current. in order to retain
the current control capability in the extended speed constant power range, the
motor is required to enter the field weakening range before reaching the base
speed, so that it has adequate voltage margin to control the current[l2]. This would,
however, oversize the motor slightly. Current regulation with synchronous current
regulator [I31 may be preferred choice. It can regulate current with lower voltage
margin. The availability of a long field weakened range, obviously, makes the
induction very suitable for vehicle application.


C. Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) Drive

Switched reluctance motor (SRM) is gaining much interest as a candidate of
electric propulsion for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
because of its simple and rugged construction, simple control ability of extremely
high speed operation and hazard free operation. These prominent advantages are
more attractive for traction application than other kinds of machines

SRM can inherently operate with extremely long constant power range. The serial
design and simulation results, performed in the SRM research group at Texas
A&M University, show that the speed ratio can reach up to 6-8 times. This long
constant power range makes SRM highly favorable for vehicle traction application.


Electric motor driven small vehicles (Auto-Rickshaws) namely Easy bike or Polly
bike are extensively used in Bangladesh all over the country. They are three
wheeled vehicles providing the purpose of transportation. Although the vehicles are
not designed in Bangladesh and not even been tested to suit the environment of
Bangladesh, a detail study is needed to be carried out in this field as it seems to be an
emerging practice throughout the whole country.

Electric drives are more reliable, flexible and suitable for traction purpose rather than
conventional engine driven vehicles. But storage of electrical energy is the main
obstruction in this technology as batteries stores a much less amount of energy
compare to the energy stored in fuels. Therefore the mileage of an electric vehicle is
much less than conventional vehicle. The problem can be solved by increasing the
capacity of the batteries, which is not a good solution considering the both technical
and economical viability. One possible solution can be obtained by reducing the
power consumption of the traction motor. To reduce the power rating of the motor
with a given vehicle performance and energy storage, the motor is required to have a
long constant power range to meet the load torque and demand [1]. By analyzing the
different characteristics of different types of motors, it has been found that, DC series


motors are the most suitable type of motor for traction. But for a reliable operation
the motor rating must be increased to such a value which would increase the total
cost of the system. On the other hand DC motors has some disadvantages like field
control method is not flexible, speed of the motor is less than other types of up to a
certain region and finally, effective regenerative braking is not possible as the motor
becomes unstable during regenerative braking.

An optimum performance can be obtained by using a compound motor, where there

should be a provision of switching between the series and shunt winding. That
means, the motor is started as series motor with shunt connection being opened to get
a high starting torque. The motor will operate in series connection for the constant
torque region. After the period of acceleration that is, in the constant power region
the motor will be added with a shunt connection and gradually as the speed is
increased the series connection will be opened. As a result a smooth operation in the
field current control region (the constant power region) can be achieved and it has
been predicted that a higher final velocity, Vf can be gained, which indicates that the
vehicle would run at a final velocity compare to the previous condition.

The objective of the thesis will be to design a control circuit to verify the theory that
has been stated above. Only a few studies have been carried out in this topic by
several researchers. To strengthen the theory, the family of curves shown in figure 2
should be closely observed [1].

Fig.1.4 : Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with different speed
ratio, X [1]

Fig. 1.4 shows that with higher value of speed ratio (i.e. low base speed) the power
rating of the motor will be less. But the final speed of the vehicle will be very less
which implies that the vehicle will move with a very low speed. By observing the
Torque- Speed Characteristics of DC motors, it has been found that the speed of a
shunt motor will be much higher than the series motor within a particular region. As
the full load torque of a vehicle is much less than the starting torque the (the value of
the load torque changes hyperbolically), conversion of the motor from series to shunt
will match the load torque and the same time speed of the vehicle will be increased.
In addition to these, the final speed of the vehicle can be increased by 2-3 times
which will certainly be a great outcome from the project. Figure 1.5 shows the
relation between the power rating and speed ration of a traction motor.

Fig.1.5 : Tractive power versus speed ratio, X [1]

From figure 1.5 we can conclude the rating and size of the motor will be lowered for
high speed ratio, which will result in a lower vehicle speed. This speed can be
achieved by introducing a shunt winding with a provision of switching the field
winding from series to shunt as the motor accelerates. This will yield a high speed
performance along with improved gradeability of the vehicle.
As a whole as per several studies carried out in the field of EV and HEV design and
analysis, the ideal desirable characteristic from an electric vehicle when operated at
prolonged constant power range are


Longer constant power range operation of the motor effectively reduces the
motor power rating.

Reduced Power consumption.

Improved, fast and rapid acceleration.

Gradeability of the vehicle is improved.

Single and simple gear transmission.

Reduction in size and capacity of battery.

Design of the vehicle is compact, robust, highly efficient and reliable.

So, if any motor chosen and designed for the purpose of electric traction is capable of
prolonging its constant power range operation, it would suit most for the traction
application as its characteristics would exactly represent the characteristics expected
from a traction motor. A figure in terms of Power, Tractive Effort, Speed and
Traction load would provide a detail idea as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6. . Tractive effort along with Motor Power, base speed and final speed.


A Compound motor provided with winding change over facility should outdo the
performance of DC series motor. This will enable the motor to operate at three
different configurations Compound, Series and Shunt where later it would be
shown that, only two configurations are suffice to obtain the desirable performance,
i.e. the compound and shunt. This is due to the fact that, whatever the characteristics
desired from series configuration can very well be achieved from the compound

configuration. This would suit the traction characteristics more. Switching between
the windings will prolong the constant power range operation of the motor.
An experimental investigation on the Torque-speed characteristics would provide the
justification of the claim as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.7. . Different Torque-Speed Characteristics of a DC Machine of same power

rating (175W) with three separate configuration.
The torque and power characteristics of the machine due to different configurations
are shown in Figure 1.8. As seen from the figure, the compound motor would provide
the maximum amount of starting torque but it is capable to sustain that torque only
for a small base speed. For series configuration it provides smaller starting torque but
relatively higher base speed. Finally, for shunt configuration, as we all know it is a
constant speed motor that is completely different from the previous two
configurations, it would provide the largest base speed but there is a reduction in its
starting torque significantly. This switching of windings prolongs the constant power
operating range of the motor. This is due to the fact that inclusion of all the three
configurations of the DC Motor optimizes the performance and hence exhibits all
types of characteristics that can be obtained from several DC motors. In other word,
the winding change over techniques integrated all the three configurations available


for a self excited motor which includes all possible combination of the motor. Thus
the motor exhibit such characteristics which are highly expected for an ideal traction
motor and very much suitable for traction application.

Figure 1.8. . Power and Torque profile of a DC machine for three different

According to the traction load characteristic, it can be very easily obtained from
Figure 1.9 that, winding change over feature would enable the vehicle to operate at a
higher final velocity. The overall speed, torque and power profile due to winding
change over are given in Figure.10.


Figure 1.9. . Torque and speed profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations to show the possibility of achieving a higher starting torque and
higher final vehicle speed if change over in configuration takes place.

Figure 1.10. Torque and Power profile of the motor as a function of speed due to
change in its configurations by the feature of winding change over.


It is to be noted that, the accelerating torque for acceleration is very high due to
compound configuration where as the winding change over enables the vehicle to
attain a relatively higher speed due to change over into shunt configuration.
A controller circuit will be needed to perform the switching action between the two
separate windings. The purpose of the controller circuit would be to sense the load
condition and depending on that, perform the switching action. At constant torque
region the motor should operate at in series connection. At the end of acceleration
period (as the required tractive effort will be much less compare to the starting
condition) the switching must be taken place to increase the speed of the motor as
well as the vehicle.




An Optimum performance would be obtained using a DC Compound motor

with winding change over technique

High starting Torque with Low speed

Due to winding change over a high final speed is attained with a drop in Load

Very smooth regenerative braking is possible as the machine will be

configured as Shunt Motor during the time of regenerative braking which is
very much stable for this kind of operation.

Reduced Power rating of the motor to achieve same performance.

Single gear transmission instead of Multi gear transmission system.

Reduced sizing of the on board energy storing device or conversely mileage

of the vehicle will be increased with the storage battery of same size and

Saving in energy is increased as the kinetic energy of the vehicle will be used
to charge the battery through regenerative braking which implies as almost
30-40% of energy can be saved by the system.



Chapter 1 describes the introduction of electric traction systems, types and different
features of it. General criteria of traction motor has been discussed from where it has
been found that, a motor with constant power range operation is certainly the best
choice for traction application. Finally a brief overview of the proposed method is
discussed and its applicability for electric traction is analyzed.
Chapter 2 describes the modeling, analysis and design of the compound motor that
will be used for traction purpose. Different characteristic equations have been
developed and simulated to predict the performance of the motor. The non-linear
model of the motor is developed and finally using the linearization technique, the
model is linearized and hence transfer function of the motor is obtained.
Chapter 3 describes in detail the dynamics of a traction load and hence the modeling
of the electric vehicle is done. From initial acceleration to final speed operation of the
vehicle had been calculated, simulated and presented along with all the necessary
mathematical calculation and analysis.
Chapter 4 discusses the modeling and Simulation of 2 quadrant Class C DC-DC
converter used for motor control. The novel integration of PWM voltage and
Hysteresis current controller is discussed in detail and simulated using LTSpice. All
the necessary controller circuit required for the operation of the vehicle along with
the winding change over controller, Speed Sensing, braking, speed controller and
others are designed, discussed and analyzed.
Chapter 5 provides the complete simulation of the entire electromechanical system
using Simulink. The response of the motor along with the vehicle is determined and
optimized. Finally, the obtained result is compared with the characteristics of a
conventional DC series motor to show the superiority and effectiveness of the
proposed method compare to any conventional vehicle traction system.
Chapter 6 concludes the overall thesis with some recommendations for future work.



DC drives are widely used in application requiring adjustable speed, good speed
regulation and frequent starting, braking and reversing. In case of traction application
DC series motors are dominating long since. But in this study it will be shown that, a
compound motor can be more efficient in traction purpose if it is modified and added
with some special features. Generally compound motors are of two typesCumulative and Differential compound motor where the Differential compound
motor is seldom used. For this particular thesis work where a compound motor is
chosen for vehicle propulsion system, it is obvious that, Cumulative compound motor
will be the best choice between these two types. Comparing to DC series motor a
compound motor can exhibit a more stable operation and also provides a finite and
safe no load speed (which is not possible in case of DC series motor as its no load
operation would produce a dangerously high speed due to very low value of field
flux) that depends on the strength of the shunt field. The slope of the Speed-Torque
characteristic depends upon the strength of the series field. Cumulative compound
motors are used in those applications where a dropping characteristic is similar to
that of a series motor and at the same time a no load speed is limited within a safe
value. The best application of such motor is loads with intermittent duty cycle where
load varies from almost no-load (constant speed operation of the vehicle at steady
state) to very heavy load (during starting). In these applications a fly wheel may be
mounted on the motor shaft for load equalization. Apart from load equalization, use
of compound motor permits the use of a motor with smaller size and less power