the axial force in truss member is calculated by various method i.e. method of section, method of equilibrium and Method of Tension Coefficients. with the use of this method one can able to solve the truss problem for axial force in truss member.

© All Rights Reserved

1.9K tayangan

the axial force in truss member is calculated by various method i.e. method of section, method of equilibrium and Method of Tension Coefficients. with the use of this method one can able to solve the truss problem for axial force in truss member.

© All Rights Reserved

- Technical-article-Comparative-evaluation-of-steel-profiles-in-roof-trusses.pdf
- Tension Coefficient Method
- To find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of a simple screw jack
- RCC-Conc Objective Questions
- Parte 1 Fundamentos Electromagneticos Con Matlab_Lonngren & Savov
- Architectual Structures(1)
- 3D Geometry in Geogebra - A Parametric Curve and Tangent Vector(1)
- Pro/ENGINEER Tutorial 4 - Simple Assembly
- PC Shifting Graphs
- UltimatUltimate Strength Formulation for Axially Loaded CHS Uniplanar Tjointe Strength Formulation for Axially Loaded CHS Uniplanar Tjoint
- Auto Plotter
- 4MCAD-EN Manual
- electrical computer application lesson 5
- quickreport3d
- HKDSE Practice Paper 2012 Mathematics_Module 2
- Evaluation of the gamma dose distribution comparison method.pdf
- autocad ppt
- 013391545X_section2.5-2.6
- ARE Structures Cheat Sheet
- 10.1.1.34.4002

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

93

Now taking moments about the point of intersection of FCF and FEF we have

FCD 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 4:5 3 4 4 3 1 5 0

(ii)

so that

FCD 5 216 kN

and is compressive.

Finally FEF is obtained by taking moments about C, thereby eliminating FCF and FCD from the

equation. Alternatively, we could resolve forces horizontally since FCF and FCD are now known; however,

this approach would involve a slightly lengthier calculation. Hence

FEF 3 1 4:5 3 3 2 3 1 5 0

(iii)

which gives

FEF 51 15:5 kN

the positive sign indicating tension.

Note that Eqs (i)(iii) each include just one of the unknown member forces so that it is immaterial which is calculated first. In some problems, however, a preliminary examination is worthwhile to

determine the optimum order of solution.

In Ex. 4.5 we see that there are just three possible equations of equilibrium so that we cannot solve

for more than three unknown forces. It follows that a section such as mm which must divide the frame

into two separate parts must also not cut through more than three members in which the forces are unknown.

For example, if we wished to determine the forces in CD, DF, FG and FH we would first calculate

FCD using the section mm as above and then determine FDF, FFG and FFH using the section nn.

Actually, in this particular example FDF may be seen to be zero by inspection (see Section 4.5) but the

principle holds.

An alternative form of the method of joints which is particularly useful in the analysis of space trusses

is the method of tension coefficients.

Consider the member AB, shown in Fig. 4.20, which connects two pinned joints A and B whose

coordinates, referred to arbitrary xy axes, are (xA, yA) and (xB, yB) respectively; the member carries a tensile

force, TAB, is of length LAB and is inclined at an angle to the x axis. The component of TAB parallel to

the x axis at A is given by

TAB cos 5 TAB

xB 2 xA TAB

5

xB 2 xA

LAB

LAB

TAB sin 5

TAB

yB 2 yA

LAB

94

B (xB, yB)

TAB

a

A (xA, yA)

FIGURE 4.20

x

We now define a tension coefficient tAB 5 TAB/LAB so that the above components of TAB become

parallel to the x axis: tAB xB

xA

(4.3)

yA

(4.4)

Equilibrium equations may be written down for each joint in turn in terms of tension coefficients and

joint coordinates referred to some convenient axis system. The solution of these equations gives tAB, etc,

whence TAB 5 tABLAB in which LAB, unless given, may be calculated using Pythagoras theorem,

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

i.e. LAB 5 xB 2xA 2 1 yB 2yA 2 : Again the initial assumption of tension in a member results in negative values corresponding to compression. Note the order of suffixes in Eqs (4.3) and (4.4).

EXAMPLE 4.6

Determine the forces in the members of the pin-jointed truss shown in Fig. 4.21.

The support reactions are first calculated and are as shown in Fig. 4.21.

The next step is to choose an xy axis system and then insert the joint coordinates in the diagram.

In Fig. 4.21 we shall choose the support point A as the origin of axes although, in fact, any joint

would suffice; the joint coordinates are then as shown.

Again, as in the method of joints, the solution can only begin at a joint where there are no

more than two unknown member forces, in this case joints A and E. Theoretically it is immaterial

at which of these joints the analysis begins but since A is the origin of axes we shall start at A.

Note that it is unnecessary to insert arrows to indicate the directions of the member forces since

the members are assumed to be in tension and the directions of the components of the member

forces are automatically specified when written in terms of tension coefficients and joint coordinates (Eqs (4.3) and (4.4)).

The equations of equilibrium at joint A are

x direction: tAB xB 2 xA 1 tAC xC 2 xA 2 RA;H 5 0

(i)

(ii)

Substituting the values of RA,H, RA,V and the joint coordinates in Eqs (i) and (ii) we obtain,

from Eq. (i),

tAB 0 2 0 1 tAC 1:5 2 0

350

y

5 kN

B(0, 1.5)

3 kN

95

D(1.5, 1.5)

F(3.0, 1.5)

1.5 m

3 kN

RA,H

A(0, 0)

RA,V

1 kN

C(1.5, 0)

1.5 m

1.5 m

E(3.0, 0) x

RE

4 kN

FIGURE 4.21

Analysis of a truss using tension coefficients (Ex. 4.6).

whence

tAC 51 2:0

and from Eq. (ii)

tAB 1:5 2 0 1 tAC 0 2 0 1 1 5 0

so that

tAB 5 2 0:67

We see from the derivation of Eqs (4.3) and (4.4) that the units of a tension coefficient are force/

unit length, in this case kN/m. Generally, however, we shall omit the units.

We can now proceed to joint B at which, since tBA (5tAB) has been calculated, there are two

unknowns

x direction: tAB xA 2 xB 1 tBC xC 2 xB 1 tBD xD ! xB 1 3 5 0

(iii)

(iv)

Substituting the values of the joint coordinates and tBA in Eqs (iii) and (iv) we have, from Eq. (iii)

20:67 0 2 0 1 tBC 1:5 2 0 1 tBD 1:5 2 0 1 3 5 0

which simplifies to

1:5tBC 1 1:5tBD 1 3 5 0

and from Eq. (iv)

20:67 0 2 1:5 1 tBC 0 2 1:5 1 tBD 1:5 2 1:5 5 0

whence

tBC 510:67

(v)

96

tBD 5 22:67

There are now just two unknown member forces at joint D. Hence, at D

x direction: tDB xB 2 xD 1 tDF xF 2 xD 1 tDC xC 2 xD 5 0

(vi)

(vii)

Substituting values of joint coordinates and the previously calculated value of tDB (5tBD) in Eqs (vi)

and (vii) we obtain, from Eq. (vi)

22:67 0 2 1:5 1 tDF 3:0 2 1:5 1 tDC 1:5 2 1:5 2 5 5 0

so that

tDF 5 !2:67

and from Eq. (vii)

22:671:5 2 1:5 1 tDF 1:5 2 1:5 1 tDC 0 2 1:5 5 0

from which

tDC 5 ! 3:33

The solution then proceeds to joint C to obtain tCF and tCE or to joint F to determine tFC and

tFE; joint F would be preferable since fewer members meet at F than at C. Finally, the remaining

unknown tension coefficient (tEC or tEF) is found by considering the equilibrium of joint E. Then

tFC 51 2:67;

tFE 5 2 2:67;

tEC 5 0

The forces in the truss members are now calculated by multiplying the tension coefficients by the

member lengths, i.e.

TAB 5 tAB LAB 5 2 0:67 3 1:5 5 2 1:0 kN compression

TAC 5 tAC LAC 51 2:0 3 1:5 51 3:0 kN tension

TBC 5 tBC LBC

in which

LBC 5

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

xB 2 xC 2 1 yB 2 yC 2 5 021:52 1 1:5202 5 2:12 m

Then

TBC 51 0:67 3 2:12 511:42 kN tension

Note that in the calculation of member lengths it is immaterial in which order the joint coordinates

occur in the brackets since the brackets are squared. Also

TBD 5 tBD LBD 5 22:67 3 1:5 5 24:0 kN compression

97

Similarly

TDF 5 24:0 kN compression

TDC 5 25:0 kN compression

TFC 515:67 kN tension

TFE 5 24:0 kN compression

TEC 5 0

In some instances, particularly when a rapid solution is required, the member forces in a truss may be

found using a graphical method.

The method is based upon the condition that each joint in a truss is in equilibrium so that the forces

acting at a joint may be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a closed polygon (see

Section 2.1). The directions of the forces must be drawn in the same directions as the corresponding members and there must be no more than two unknown forces at a particular joint otherwise a polygon of forces

cannot be constructed. The method will be illustrated by applying it to the truss in Ex. 4.4.

EXAMPLE 4.7

Determine the forces in the members of the Warren truss shown in Fig. 4.22; all members are 1 m long.

It is convenient in this approach to designate forces in members in terms of the areas between them

rather than referring to the joints at their ends. Thus, in Fig. 4.22, we number the areas between all

forces, both internal and external; the reason for this will become clear when the force diagram for the

complete structure is constructed.

The support reactions were calculated in Ex. 4.4 and are shown in Fig. 4.22. We must start at a joint

where there are no more than two unknown forces, in this example either A or D; here we select A.

The force polygon for joint A is constructed by going round A in, say, a clockwise sense. We must then

go round every joint in the same sense.

First we draw a vector 12 to represent the support reaction at A of 2.75 kN to a convenient scale

(see Fig. 4.23). Note that we are moving clockwise from the region 1 to the region 2 so that the

vector 12 is vertically upwards, the direction of the reaction at A (if we had decided to move round

A in an anticlockwise sense the vector would be drawn as 21 vertically upwards). The force in the

member AB at A will be represented by a vector 26 in the direction AB or BA, depending on

whether it is tensile or compressive, while the force in the member AE at A is represented by the

vector 61 in the direction AE or EA depending, again, on whether it is tensile or compressive. The

point 6 in the force polygon is therefore located by drawing a line through the point 2 parallel to

the member AB to intersect, at 6, a line drawn through the point 1 parallel to the member AE. We

see from the force polygon that the direction of the vector 26 is towards A so that the member AB

is in compression while the direction of the vector 61 is away from A indicating that the

member AE is in tension. We now insert arrows on the members AB and AE in Fig. 4.22 to

indicate compression and tension, respectively.

- Technical-article-Comparative-evaluation-of-steel-profiles-in-roof-trusses.pdfDiunggah olehRenzo Matias
- Tension Coefficient MethodDiunggah olehpeipei
- To find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of a simple screw jackDiunggah olehitsmeersaurabh
- RCC-Conc Objective QuestionsDiunggah olehAlok Jha
- Parte 1 Fundamentos Electromagneticos Con Matlab_Lonngren & SavovDiunggah olehAlbert Hernández
- Architectual Structures(1)Diunggah olehAleksxander Gova
- 3D Geometry in Geogebra - A Parametric Curve and Tangent Vector(1)Diunggah olehDarma Putra
- Pro/ENGINEER Tutorial 4 - Simple AssemblyDiunggah olehrohitsharma4377
- PC Shifting GraphsDiunggah olehHector R.
- UltimatUltimate Strength Formulation for Axially Loaded CHS Uniplanar Tjointe Strength Formulation for Axially Loaded CHS Uniplanar TjointDiunggah oleh김대경
- Auto PlotterDiunggah olehAditi Bhardwaj
- 4MCAD-EN ManualDiunggah oleholgf
- electrical computer application lesson 5Diunggah olehWang Sol
- quickreport3dDiunggah olehgreen77park
- HKDSE Practice Paper 2012 Mathematics_Module 2Diunggah olehLPlastic
- Evaluation of the gamma dose distribution comparison method.pdfDiunggah olehthomas
- autocad pptDiunggah olehAmexTesfayeKora
- 013391545X_section2.5-2.6Diunggah olehAtef Naz
- ARE Structures Cheat SheetDiunggah olehkris
- 10.1.1.34.4002Diunggah olehcudalbge
- 013391545X_section4-5Diunggah olehAtef Naz
- 4-1.CE102Fall2013_MicroStation Lab-1.pdfDiunggah olehTom
- Bently Book Chapter 3 Vibration VectorsDiunggah olehManuel L Lombardero
- UntitledDiunggah olehapi-150536296
- PPT_Econ_9e_one_click_ch01.pptDiunggah olehErsin Tukenmez
- Graphs Basics 10152010Diunggah olehDomenico Verbicaro
- trussprojectDiunggah olehapi-302698141
- Using MS Excel for Chemistry, GraphingDiunggah olehMichael Shavlik
- Assignment 3Diunggah olehVladimir Pavlović
- EC3sh_BDiunggah olehJosh Zngr

- mom assignment.pdfDiunggah olehjar2
- Magnified Healing BrochureDiunggah olehMySecret Gardenmdp
- case study - seizuring dogDiunggah olehapi-301746262
- 21-PEUGEOT_AL4 Hydraulic Solenoid Check & Full Oil Counter ZeroDiunggah oleh2cv6club
- EEE 1207 021 6 DOF Robotic Arm ManipulatorDiunggah olehUNsha bee kom
- Renault Decoding Tool ENGDiunggah olehJan Hämäläinen
- Encapsulated Scale Inhibitor TreatmentDiunggah olehzmst2013
- A CFD Comparison of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Across Inline Arrangement Serrated Finned Tube Heat Exchanger With an Increasing Number of RowsDiunggah olehunknown8787
- Differential Equations in ApplicationsDiunggah olehRadhakrishnan Sreerekha
- Toshiba 30wl46 Lcd Tv SmDiunggah olehCristina Nistor
- 2013.03.20 - Wiring - Stylea_brochureDiunggah olehLeed EN
- 22STOR~1Diunggah olehHemantkumar Tung
- patologi ovarium dan massa ovariumDiunggah olehAde Gustina Siahaan
- Ht CatalogueENwebDiunggah olehlaura
- Endocrine System DentalDiunggah olehHashim Ghazo
- IDRISI Software manualDiunggah olehamo
- Fieldwork Write Up Booklet 2Diunggah olehkimsteven
- Chemistry Problem Set 3Diunggah olehhydrazine23
- Trend Recorder based on Arduino using I2CDiunggah olehS Bera
- 103_MANUFACTURING_ENGINEERING.PDFDiunggah olehSushil Kumar Singh
- Multimodal TradeoffDiunggah olehSiva Teja
- Panel DEEQADiunggah olehAbdelwahed Zerrouki
- WRO 2017 ARC Tetrastack RulesDiunggah olehAlaas Alvcasza
- Summative Test in Science 7Diunggah olehJohn Perseus Lee
- No Frisson in Talks Over Fission NPT and NWS - The Hindu Mobile EditionDiunggah olehMarudavanan Sundaram
- Tableau Antidiabetiques Guide Des Produits 2017 EnDiunggah olehHayna Rose
- ExamView - Chem1120test2SummerI2015Diunggah olehJosef Lyle H. Solis
- Rewers: Sacramento IdeasDiunggah olehmelissacorker
- UH Manuever Guide.pdfDiunggah olehFerdinando Ocampo
- Bridge Procedures GuideDiunggah olehapi-20017870