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Chapter 43

The Immune System

Overview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and


Response
Barriers help an animal to defend itself from the
many dangerous pathogens it may encounter
The immune system recognizes foreign
bodies and responds with the production of
immune cells and proteins

PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Biology

Two major kinds of defense have evolved:


innate immunity and acquired immunity

Eighth Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-1

Innate immunity is present before any


exposure to pathogens and is effective from
the time of birth
It involves nonspecific responses to pathogens
Innate immunity consists of external barriers
plus internal cellular and chemical defenses

1.5 m
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Fig. 43-2

Pathogens
(microorganisms
and viruses)

Acquired immunity, or adaptive immunity,


develops after exposure to agents such as
microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances
It involves a very specific response to
pathogens

INNATE IMMUNITY
Recognition of traits
shared by broad ranges
of pathogens, using a
small set of receptors
Rapid response

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
Recognition of traits
specific to particular
pathogens, using a vast
array of receptors

Barrier defenses:
Skin
Mucous membranes
Secretions
Internal defenses:
Phagocytic cells
Antimicrobial proteins
Inflammatory response
Natural killer cells

Humoral response:
Antibodies defend against
infection in body fluids.
Cell-mediated response:
Cytotoxic lymphocytes defend
against infection in body cells.

Slower response

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Concept 43.1: In innate immunity, recognition and


response rely on shared traits of pathogens

Innate Immunity of Invertebrates

Both invertebrates and vertebrates depend on


innate immunity to fight infection

In insects, an exoskeleton made of chitin forms


the first barrier to pathogens

Vertebrates also develop acquired immune


defenses

The digestive system is protected by low pH


and lysozyme, an enzyme that digests
microbial cell walls
Hemocytes circulate within hemolymph and
carry out phagocytosis, the ingestion and
digestion of foreign substances including
bacteria

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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-3

Microbes

Hemocytes also secrete antimicrobial peptides


that disrupt the plasma membranes of bacteria

PHAGOCYTIC CELL

Vacuole
Lysosome
containing
enzymes

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Fig. 43-4

The immune system recognizes bacteria and


fungi by structures on their cell walls
An immune response varies with the class of
pathogen encountered

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Fig. 43-5

Fig. 43-5a

RESULTS

RESULTS

Wild type

75
Mutant + drosomycin

100

50
25
0
0

24

48
72
96
Hours post-infection

120

Fruit fly survival after infection by N. crassa fungi

% survival

100
Wild type

75

Mutant +
defensin

Mutant +
drosomycin

75
Mutant + drosomycin
50
Mutant + defensin

Mutant

25
0

50
25

Wild type

Mutant + defensin

Mutant

%s
survival

% survival

100

Mutant

24

48
72
96
Hours post-infection

120

0
0

24

48
72
96
Hours post-infection

Fruit fly survival after infection by N. crassa fungi

120

Fruit fly survival after infection by M. luteus bacteria

Fig. 43-5b

Innate Immunity of Vertebrates

RESULTS

The immune system of mammals is the best


understood of the vertebrates

%s
survival

100
Wild type

75

Mutant +
defensin

Innate defenses include barrier defenses,


phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides

50
Mutant +
drosomycin

25

M t t
Mutant

0
0

24

48
72
96
Hours post-infection

120

Additional defenses are unique to vertebrates:


the inflammatory response and natural killer
cells

Fruit fly survival after infection by M. luteus bacteria


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Barrier Defenses

Cellular Innate Defenses

Barrier defenses include the skin and mucous


membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and
reproductive tracts

White blood cells (leukocytes) engulf


pathogens in the body

Mucus traps and allows for the removal of


microbes

Groups of pathogens are recognized by TLR,


Toll-like receptors

Many body fluids including saliva, mucus, and


tears are hostile to microbes
The low pH of skin and the digestive system
prevents growth of microbes
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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-6

EXTRACELLULAR
Lipopolysaccharide
FLUID
Helper
protein

TLR4

Flagellin

WHITE
BLOOD
CELL

A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then


fuses with a lysosome to destroy the microbe

TLR5

There are different types of phagocytic cells:


Neutrophils engulf and destroy microbes

VESICLE

Macrophages are part of the lymphatic


system and are found throughout the body

TLR9

CpG DNA

TLR3

Inflammatory
responses

Eosinophils discharge destructive enzymes

ds RNA

Dendritic cells stimulate development of


acquired immunity
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Fig. 43-7

Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

Interstitial fluid
Adenoid
Tonsil

Blood
capillary

Lymph
nodes
Spleen

Tissue
cells

Lymphatic
vessel

Peyers patches
(small intestine)
Appendix

Lymphatic
vessels

Peptides and proteins function in innate


defense by attacking microbes directly or
impeding their reproduction
Interferon proteins provide innate defense
against viruses and help activate macrophages
About 30 proteins make up the complement
system, which causes lysis of invading cells
and helps trigger inflammation

Lymph
node

Masses of
defensive cells
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Inflammatory Responses
Following an injury, mast cells release
histamine, which promotes changes in blood
vessels; this is part of the inflammatory
response
These changes increase local blood supply
and allow more phagocytes and antimicrobial
proteins to enter tissues

Fig. 43-8-1

Pathogen

Splinter

Chemical Macrophage
i
l
signals
Mast cell
Capillary

Red blood cells Phagocytic cell

Pus, a fluid rich in white blood cells, dead


microbes, and cell debris, accumulates at the
site of inflammation
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Fig. 43-8-2

Pathogen

Fig. 43-8-3

Splinter

Chemical Macrophage
i
l
signals
Mast cell

Pathogen

Fluid

Capillary

Red blood cells Phagocytic cell

Splinter

Chemical Macrophage
i
l
signals
Mast cell
Capillary

Fluid
Phagocytosis

Red blood cells Phagocytic cell

Natural Killer Cells


Inflammation can be either local or systemic
(throughout the body)

All cells in the body (except red blood cells)


have a class 1 MHC protein on their surface

Fever is a systemic inflammatory response


triggered by pyrogens released by
macrophages, and toxins from
f
pathogens

Cancerous or infected cells no longer express


this protein; natural killer (NK) cells attack
these damaged cells

Septic shock is a life-threatening condition


caused by an overwhelming inflammatory
response

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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens

Concept 43.2: In acquired immunity, lymphocyte


receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition

Some pathogens avoid destruction by


modifying their surface to prevent recognition
or by resisting breakdown following
phagocytosis

White blood cells called lymphocytes


recognize and respond to antigens, foreign
molecules

Tuberculosis (TB) is one such disease and kills


more than a million people a year

Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above


the heart are called T cells, and those that
mature in bone marrow are called B cells

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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Acquired Immunity: An Overview


Lymphocytes contribute to immunological
memory, an enhanced response to a foreign
molecule encountered previously
Cytokines are secreted by macrophages and
dendritic cells to recruit and activate
lymphocytes

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B cells and T cells have receptor proteins that


can bind to foreign molecules
Each individual lymphocyte is specialized to
recognize a specific type of molecule

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Fig. 43-9

Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes


An antigen is any foreign molecule to which a
lymphocyte responds

Antigenbinding
site

Antigenbinding site

Antigenbinding
site
Disulfide
bridge

A single B cell or T cell has about 100,000


identical antigen receptors

Light
chain

Variable
regions

Constant
regions

Transmembrane
region
Plasma
membrane

chain

Heavy chains

chain

Disulfide bridge
B cell

Cytoplasm of B cell

T cell

Cytoplasm of T cell

(a) B cell receptor

(b) T cell receptor

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Fig. 43-9a

Fig. 43-9b

Antigenbinding site

Antigenbinding
site

Antigenbinding
site

Disulfide
bridge

Variable
regions

Variable
regions

Constant
regions

Constant
regions

Light
chain
Transmembrane
region
Plasma
membrane
Heavy chains

Transmembrane
region
Plasma
membrane

chain

chain

Disulfide bridge
B cell
(a) B cell receptor

Cytoplasm of B cell

Cytoplasm of T cell

T cell

(b) T cell receptor

Fig. 43-10

All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte


recognize the same epitope, or antigenic
determinant, on an antigen
B cells give rise to plasma cells, which secrete
proteins called antibodies or
immunoglobulins

Antigenbinding
sites

Epitopes
(antigenic
determinants)

Antigen-binding sites
Antibody A Antigen Antibody C

C
Antibody B

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The Antigen Receptors of B Cells and T Cells


B cell receptors bind to specific, intact
antigens
The B cell receptor consists of two identical
heavy chains and two identical light chains

Secreted antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are


structurally similar to B cell receptors but lack
transmembrane regions that anchor receptors
in the plasma membrane

The tips of the chains form a constant (C)


region, and each chain contains a variable (V)
region, so named because its amino acid
sequence varies extensively from one B cell to
another
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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Each T cell receptor consists of two different


polypeptide chains

T cells bind to antigen fragments presented on


a host cell

The tips of the chain form a variable (V) region;


the rest is a constant (C) region

These antigen fragments are bound to cellsurface proteins called MHC molecules

T cells can bind to an antigen that is free or on


the surface of a pathogen

MHC molecules are so named because they


are encoded by a family of genes called the
major histocompatibility complex

Video: T Cell Receptors


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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

The Role of the MHC

Fig. 43-11

Top view: binding surface


exposed to antigen receptors

In infected cells, MHC molecules bind and


transport antigen fragments to the cell surface,
a process called antigen presentation
A nearby T cell can then detect the antigen
fragment displayed on the cells surface

Antigen
Class I MHC
molecule

Antigen

Depending on their source, peptide antigens


are handled by different classes of MHC
molecules

Plasma
membrane of
infected cell

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Fig. 43-12

Infected cell

Microbe

Class I MHC molecules are found on almost


all nucleated cells of the body
They display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T
cells

Antigenpresenting
cell

1 Antigen
associates
with MHC
molecule

Antigen
fragment

Antigen
fragment

1
1
Class I MHC
molecule

T cell
receptor

(a)

Class II MHC
molecule

T cell
receptor

2 T cell
recognizes
combination

Cytotoxic T cell

(b)

Helper T cell

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Lymphocyte Development
Class II MHC molecules are located mainly on
dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells
Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells are
antigen-presenting cells that display antigens
to cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells

The acquired immune system has three


important properties:
Receptor diversity
A lack of reactivity against host cells
Immunological memory

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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-13

Generation of Lymphocyte Diversity by Gene


Rearrangement

DNA of undifferentiated B cell


V37

Differences in the variable region account for


specificity of antigen receptors

V38

V39

1 DNA deleted between randomly selected V and J


segments
V37

V38

V39 J5 Intron

Functional gene
2 Transcription

pre mRNA
pre-mRNA

V39 J5

Intron

3 RNA processing
V39 J5

mRNA Cap

B cell receptor

Poly-A tail

V
V

4 Translation

Rearranged DNA is transcribed and translated


and the antigen receptor formed

DNA of differentiated B cell

The immunoglobulin (Ig) gene encodes one


chain of the B cell receptor
Many different chains can be produced from
the same Ig chain gene by rearrangement of
the DNA

J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 Intron

V40

V
C

Light-chain polypeptide

Variable
region

C
Constant
region

B cell

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Origin of Self-Tolerance

Amplifying Lymphocytes by Clonal Selection

Antigen receptors are generated by random


rearrangement of DNA

In the body there are few lymphocytes with


antigen receptors for any particular epitope

As lymphocytes mature in bone marrow or the


thymus, they are tested for self-reactivity

The binding of a mature lymphocyte to an


antigen induces the lymphocyte to divide
rapidly

Lymphocytes with receptors specific for the


bodys own molecules are destroyed by
apoptosis, or rendered nonfunctional

This proliferation of lymphocytes is called


clonal selection
Two types of clones are produced: short-lived
activated effector cells and long-lived
memory cells

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Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-14

Antigen molecules
B cells that
differ in
antigen
specificity

Antigen
receptor

The first exposure to a specific antigen


represents the primary immune response
During this time, effector B cells called plasma
cells are generated, and T cells are activated
to their effector forms
In the secondary immune response, memory
cells facilitate a faster, more efficient response

Antibody
molecules

Clone of memory cells

Clone of plasma cells

Animation: Role of B Cells


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Fig. 43-15

Antibody
y concentration
(arbitrary units)

Primary immune response


to antigen A produces
antibodies to A.

Secondary immune response to


antigen A produces antibodies to A;
primary immune response to antigen
B produces antibodies to B.

Acquired immunity has two branches: the


humoral immune response and the cellmediated immune response

104
103
Antibodies
to A

102

Humoral immune response involves


activation and clonal selection of B cells
cells,
resulting in production of secreted antibodies

Antibodies
to B

101
100

Concept 43.3: Acquired immunity defends against


infection of body cells and fluids

14

21

Exposure
to antigen A

28

35

42

49

56

Exposure to
antigens A and B

Cell-mediated immune response involves


activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T
cells
Helper T cells aid both responses

Time (days)

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Fig. 43-16

Fig. 43-16a
Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response

Key

Antigen (1st exposure)

Engulfed by

Antigenpresenting cell

Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response

Cell-mediated immune response

Stimulates
Gives rise to

Key
+

Antigen (1st exposure)


Stimulates
Gives rise to

Engulfed by
Antigenpresenting cell

B cell

Helper T cell

Cytotoxic T cell

B cell

Helper T cell

M
Memory
Helper T cells

Memory
Helper T cells

Antigen (2nd exposure)


Plasma cells

Memory B cells

Memory
Cytotoxic T cells

Active
Cytotoxic T cells

Secreted
antibodies

Plasma cells

+
Antigen (2nd exposure)

Memory
B cells

Secreted
antibodies

Defend against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens,


thereby neutralizing pathogens or making them better targets
for phagocytes and complement proteins.

Fig. 43-16b

Defend against intracellular pathogens


and cancer by binding to and lysing the
infected cells or cancer cells.

Cell-mediated immune response


Key
+

Antigen (1st exposure)


Engulfed by
Antigenpresenting cell

Helper T Cells: A Response to Nearly All Antigens

Stimulates
Gives rise to

A surface protein called CD4 binds the class II


MHC molecule

+
Helper T cell

Defend against extracellular pathogens

Cytotoxic T cell

Memory
Helper T cells

+
+
Antigen (2nd exposure)
+

Active
Cytotoxic T cells

This binding keeps the helper T cell joined to


the antigen-presenting cell while activation
occurs
Activated helper T cells secrete cytokines that
stimulate other lymphocytes

Memory
Cytotoxic T cells
Animation: Helper T Cells
Defend against intracellular pathogens
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10

Fig. 43-17

Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Cells

Antigenpresenting
cell

Cytotoxic T cells are the effector cells in cellmediated immune response

Peptide antigen

Cytotoxic T cells make CD8, a surface protein


that greatly enhances interaction between a
target
g cell and a cytotoxic
y
T cell

Bacterium
Class II MHC molecule
CD4
TCR (T cell receptor)
Helper T cell
Cytokines

Humoral
immunity
(secretion of
antibodies by
plasma cells)

+
B cell

+
+
Cytotoxic T cell

Cell-mediated
immunity
(attack on
infected cells)

Binding to a class I MHC complex on an


infected cell activates a cytotoxic T cell and
makes it an active killer
The activated cytotoxic T cell secretes proteins
that destroy the infected target cell
Animation: Cytotoxic T Cells
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Fig. 43-18-1

Fig. 43-18-2

Cytotoxic T cell

Cytotoxic T cell
Perforin

Perforin

Granzymes
CD8

Granzymes
CD8

TCR

Class I MHC
molecule

Target
cell

TCR

Class I MHC
molecule

Target
cell

Peptide
antigen

Fig. 43-18-3

Pore

Peptide
antigen

B Cells: A Response to Extracellular Pathogens

Released cytotoxic T cell

The humoral response is characterized by


secretion of antibodies by B cells

Cytotoxic T cell
Perforin
Granzymes
CD8

TCR

Class I MHC
molecule

Target
cell

y g target
g cell
Dying
Pore

Peptide
antigen

Activation of B cells is aided by cytokines and


antigen binding to helper T cells
Clonal selection of B cells generates antibodysecreting plasma cells, the effector cells of
humoral immunity

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11

Fig. 43-19

Fig. 43-19-1

Bacterium

Antigen-presenting cell

Peptide B cell
antigen

Antigen-presenting cell

Bacterium
Peptide
antigen

Class II MHC
molecule

Clone of plasma cells

TCR

CD4

Cytokines

Secreted
antibody
molecules

Class II MHC
molecule
TCR

Endoplasmic
reticulum
ti l
off
plasma cell
Helper T cell

Activated
helper T cell

CD4

Clone of memory
B cells

Helper T cell

2 m

Fig. 43-19-2

Fig. 43-19-3

Antigen-presenting cell

Bacterium
Peptide
antigen

Class II MHC
molecule
TCR

Antigen-presenting cell

B cell

Helper T cell

B cell

Class II MHC
molecule

+
CD4

Bacterium
Peptide
antigen

TCR

Cytokines

Activated
helper T cell

Helper T cell

Fig. 43-19a

Clone of plasma cells

+
CD4

Cytokines

Activated
helper T cell

Secreted
antibody
molecules

Clone of memory
B cells

Antibody Classes
Endoplasmic
reticulum of
plasma cell

The five major classes of antibodies, or


immunoglobulins, differ in distribution and
function
Polyclonal antibodies are the products of many
different
ff
clones off B cells following
f
exposure to
a microbial antigen
Monoclonal antibodies are prepared from a
single clone of B cells grown in culture
2 m
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12

Fig. 43-20

Fig. 43-20a
Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)
IgM
(pentamer)

Distribution

Function

First Ig class
produced after
initial exposure to
antigen; then its
concentration in
the blood declines

Promotes neutralization and crosslinking of antigens;


very effective in
complement system
activation

Most abundant Ig
class in blood;
also present in
tissue fluids

Promotes opsonization, neutralization,


and cross-linking of
antigens; less effective in activation of
complement system
than IgM

J chain

IgG
(monomer)

Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)


IgM
(pentamer)

Only Ig class that


crosses placenta,
thus conferring
passive immunity
on fetus
IgA
g
(dimer)

J chain

Present in
secretions such
as tears, saliva,
mucus, and
breast milk

Provides localized
defense of mucous
membranes by
cross-linking and
neutralization of
antigens
Presence in breast
milk confers
passive immunity
on nursing infant

Secretory
component
IgE
(monomer)

Present in blood
at low concentrations

Triggers release from


mast cells and
basophils of histamine and other
chemicals that cause
allergic reactions

IgD
(monomer)

Present primarily
on surface of
B cells that have
not been exposed
to antigens

Acts as antigen
receptor in the
antigen-stimulated
proliferation and
differentiation of
B cells (clonal
selection)

Transmembrane
region

Distribution

First Ig class
produced after
initial exposure to
antigen;
ti
then
th its
it
concentration in
the blood declines

Function

Promotes neutralization and crosslinking of antigens;


very effective
ff ti in
i
complement system
activation

J chain

Fig. 43-20b

Fig. 43-20c

Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)


IgG
(monomer)

Distribution

Most abundant Ig
class in blood;
also present in
tissue fluids

Function

Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)

Promotes opsonization, neutralization,


and cross-linking of
antigens; less effective in activation of
complement system
than IgM
Only Ig class that
crosses placenta,
thus conferring
passive immunity
on fetus

Fig. 43-20d

IgA
(dimer)
J chain

Distribution
Present in
secretions such
as tears, saliva,
mucus, and
b
breast
t milk
ilk

Function
Provides localized
defense of mucous
membranes by
cross-linking and
neutralization
li i
off
antigens
Presence in breast
milk confers
passive immunity
on nursing infant

Secretory
component

Fig. 43-20e

Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)


IgE
((monomer)
o o e)

Distribution
Present in blood
at low concentrations

Function
Triggers release from
mast cells and
basophils of histamine and other
chemicals that cause
allergic reactions

Class of Immunoglobulin (Antibody)


IgD
(monomer)

Transmembrane
region

Distribution

Present primarily
on surface of
B cells that have
not been exposed
to antigens

Function

Acts as antigen
receptor in the
antigen-stimulated
proliferation and
differentiation of
B cells (clonal
selection)

13

Fig. 43-21

The Role of Antibodies in Immunity


Neutralization occurs when a pathogen can no
longer infect a host because it is bound to an
antibody

Viral neutralization

Opsonization

Activation of complement system and pore formation

Bacterium
Complement proteins
Virus
Formation of
membrane
attack complex

Opsonization occurs when antibodies bound to


antigens increase phagocytosis

Flow of water
and ions

Macrophage

Pore

Antibodies together with proteins of the


complement system generate a membrane
attack complex and cell lysis

Foreign
cell

Animation: Antibodies
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Fig. 43-21a

Fig. 43-21b

Opsonization

Viral neutralization

Bacterium
Virus

Macrophage

Fig. 43-21c

Active and Passive Immunization

Activation of complement system and pore formation

Active immunity develops naturally in


response to an infection

Complement proteins
Formation of
membrane
attack complex
o of
o water
ate
Flow
and ions

Pore

It can also develop following immunization,


also called vaccination
In immunization, a nonpathogenic form of a
microbe or part of a microbe elicits an immune
response to an immunological memory

Foreign
cell
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14

Fig. 43-22

Passive immunity provides immediate, shortterm protection


It is conferred naturally when IgG crosses the
placenta from mother to fetus or when IgA
passes from mother to infant in breast milk
It can be conferred artificially by injecting
antibodies into a nonimmune person

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Immune Rejection

Blood Groups

Cells transferred from one person to another


can be attacked by immune defenses

Antigens on red blood cells determine whether


a person has blood type A (A antigen), B (B
antigen), AB (both A and B antigens), or O
(neither antigen)

This complicates blood transfusions or the


transplant of tissues or organs

Antibodies to nonself blood types exist in the


body
Transfusion with incompatible blood leads to
destruction of the transfused cells
Recipient-donor combinations can be fatal or
safe
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Tissue and Organ Transplants


MHC molecules are different among genetically
nonidentical individuals
Differences in MHC molecules stimulate
rejection of tissue grafts and organ transplants

Chances of successful transplantation increase


if donor and recipient MHC tissue types are
well matched
Immunosuppressive drugs facilitate
transplantation
Lymphocytes in bone marrow transplants may
cause the donor tissue to reject the recipient

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15

Concept 43.4: Disruption in immune system


function can elicit or exacerbate disease

Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminished


Immune Responses

Some pathogens have evolved to diminish the


effectiveness of host immune responses

If the delicate balance of the immune system is


disrupted, effects range from minor to often
fatal

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Allergies
Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive)
responses to antigens called allergens

Fig. 43-23

IgE
Histamine
Allergen

In localized allergies such as hay fever, IgE


antibodies produced after first exposure to an
allergen attach to receptors on mast cells
Granule
Mast cell

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Autoimmune Diseases
The next time the allergen enters the body, it
binds to mast cellassociated IgE molecules
Mast cells release histamine and other
mediators that cause vascular changes leading
to typical allergy symptoms
An acute allergic response can lead to
anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening reaction
that can occur within seconds of allergen
exposure
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

In individuals with autoimmune diseases, the


immune system loses tolerance for self and
turns against certain molecules of the body
Autoimmune diseases include systemic lupus
erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, insulindependent diabetes mellitus, and multiple
sclerosis

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16

Fig. 43-24

Exertion, Stress, and the Immune System


Moderate exercise improves immune system
function
Psychological stress has been shown to disrupt
hormonal, nervous, and immune systems

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Immunodeficiency Diseases

Acquired Immune System Evasion by Pathogens

Inborn immunodeficiency results from


hereditary or developmental defects that
prevent proper functioning of innate, humoral,
and/or cell-mediated defenses

Pathogens have evolved mechanisms to attack


immune responses

Acquired immunodeficiency results from


exposure to chemical and biological agents
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS) is caused by a virus

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Antigenic Variation

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Fig. 43-25

The human influenza virus mutates rapidly, and


new flu vaccines must be made each year
Human viruses occasionally exchange genes
with the viruses of domesticated animals
This poses a danger as human immune
systems are unable to recognize the new viral
strain

Million
ns of parasites
per mL of blood

1.5

Through antigenic variation, some pathogens


are able to change epitope expression and
prevent recognition

Antibodies to
variant 1
appear

Antibodies to Antibodies to
variant 3
variant 2
appear
appear

1.0
Variant 1

Variant 2

Variant 3

0.5

0
25

26
27
Weeks after infection

28

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17

Latency

Attack on the Immune System: HIV

Some viruses may remain in a host in an


inactive state called latency

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects


helper T cells

Herpes simplex viruses can be present in a


human host without causing symptoms

The loss of helper T cells impairs both the


humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
and leads to AIDS
HIV eludes the immune system because of
antigenic variation and an ability to remain
latent while integrated into host DNA
Animation: HIV Reproductive Cycle

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 43-26

AIDS

Helper T cell concentration


in blood (cells/mm3)

Latency
Relative antibody
concentration

800

People with AIDS are highly susceptible to


opportunistic infections and cancers that take
advantage of an immune system in collapse

Relative HIV
concentration

600

The spread of HIV is a worldwide problem

Helper T cell
concentration

400

The best approach for slowing this spread is


education about practices that transmit the
virus

200

0
0

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Years after untreated infection

10
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Cancer and Immunity

Fig. 43-UN1

Stem cell

Cell division and gene rearrangement

The frequency of certain cancers increases


when the immune response is impaired

Elimination of
self-reactive
B cells
Antigen

Two suggested explanations are


Immune system normally suppresses
cancerous cells

Clonal selection

Formation of activated cell populations

Increased inflammation increases the risk of


cancer

Antibody

Memory cells

Effector B cells
Microbe
Receptors bind to antigens

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18

Fig. 43-UN2

You should now be able to:


1. Distinguish between innate and acquired
immunity
2. Name and describe four types of phagocytic
cells
3. Describe the inflammation response

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

4. Distinguish between the following pairs of


terms: antigens and antibodies; antigen and
epitope; B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes;
antibodies and B cell receptors; primary and
secondary immune responses; humoral and
cell-mediated
ll
di t d response; active
ti and
d passive
i
immunity
5. Explain how B lymphocytes and T
lymphocytes recognize specific antigens
6. Explain why the antigen receptors of
lymphocytes are tested for self-reactivity
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

7. Describe clonal selection and distinguish


between effector cells and memory cells
8. Describe the cellular basis for immunological
memory
9. Explain how a single antigen can provoke a
robust humoral response
10. Compare the processes of neutralization and
opsonization
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

11. Describe the role of MHC in the rejection of


tissue transplants
12. Describe an allergic reaction, including the
roles of IgE, mast cells, and histamine
13. Describe some of the mechanisms that
pathogens have evolved to thwart the
immune response of their hosts
14. List strategies that can reduce the risk of HIV
transmission
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19