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CSCL

Ship Structure
Ships are the conveyances running at sea. There are large-size and small-size ships.
However, their structures are almost the same. They are mainly composed of such as
follows:
Shell
Shell is just referred to the outer shell of ships, which is riveted or electrically welded
with armor plates. It is composed of three parts: garboard, forniciform outer board and
upper outer shipboard.
Frame
Frame means the total of all kinds of material that supported the shell. It is divided
into tow parts: longitudinal material and horizontal material. The longitudinal material
includes keel, base framework and side framework. And the horizontal material
includes rib, ship girder and cabin side.
Deck
Deck is referred to the armor plates paved on ship girder. It divided the ship body into
upper floor, middle floor and lower floor. The number of deck floors of large ship
may reach 6 or 7. It is used to reinforce ship framework. Also, with the constructed
several deck floors, it is useful for distributing loads and carrying cargoes.
Holds and Tanks
Holds and tanks are referred to the various spaces below board: forepeak, sternward
cabin, cargo cabin, machine cabin, boiler cabin and etc.
Super Structure
Super structure is referred to the buildings on the board. It is for sailors living and
working use, and also for marine store. It is composed of forecabin, sternward room
and bridge.

Ships Types
There are many types of ships that transport cargoes at sea. According to their use, the
cargo ships can be divided into dry cargo ships and tankers.
Dry Cargo Ship
According to the loaded cargo, structure and components, dry cargo ships can be
divided into such as follows:
1.General Cargo Ship
General cargo ships are referred to the ships that run termly in the busy cargo-

transporting shipping lines and mainly transport grocery. The speed of these ships is
fast. There are several deck floors in the ship framework to divide the cabin into a few
cargo tanks, so that various cargoes can be loaded in the ship.
2.Bulk Cargo Ship
Bulk cargo ships are referred to the ships that transport bulk cargoes without
packaging. According to the types of transported cargoes, bulk cargo ships can be
divided into grain ships, colliers and ore ships. Most of these ships have single deck.
And there are not supports in the cabin. However, clapboards are usually set up to
keep cargo in the cabin from being put in the wrong place while the ship is running in
stormy waves.
3.Refrigerated Ship
Refrigerated ships are referred to the special ships for transporting refrigerant cargoes
that are perishable. There are refrigeration systems in the ships, and the temperature in
the ship can be set to meet the requirement of cargoes in each floor.
4.Timber ship
Timber ships are referred to the ships for transporting timber or log. The cabin mouth
of the ship is large. There are no girder poles and other devices in the cabin that would
disturb loading and unloading cargoes. The timber can be loaded on the cabin and
deck. Usually, the bulwarks, which are no less than 1 meter, are set up on the both
sides of the shipboard to keep the timer on the board from flushing out to the outside
of shipboard.
5.Container Ship
Container ships can be divided into partial container ships, complete container ships
and variable container ships.
1)Partial container ship
2)Full Container Ship
3)Convertible Container Ship
6.Roll on/Roll off Ship
Rolling loading ships are mainly for transporting cars and containers. Loading devices
are not necessary for these ships. Usually, uncorked slope is installed on the side or in
either end of the ships to join the ship to the dock. While loading and unloading
cargoes, cars or trail cars can directly drive into or out of the ship cabins. The
advantage of these ships is that loading devices of docks are not required and loading
speed will be fast so that the ships can be used more efficiently.
7.Barge Carrier
Barge carriers are also called mother-and-son ships. They are referred to the ships
carrying barge that have been loaded with cargoes. The advantage of these ships is
that they are not restricted with the water depth of docks and no docks are needed to
anchor the ships. It is efficient for loading and unloading cargoes that can be
performed without anchoring. At present, barge carriers are mainly of two types:

lighter aboard ships, abbreviation for LASH, and Seabee ships.


Tanker
1.Oil Tanker
2.Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier

Ships Tonnage
Ship tonnage is the unit of calculating ship size, which can be divided into two classes:
weight tonnage and dimension tonnage.
Weight Tonnage
Ship weight tonnage is the unit for calculating ship weight. It is used 1,000 kilograms
as 1 metric ton, 2,240 pounds as 1 long ton, or 2,000 pounds as 1 short ton. Presently,
the metric system is usually applied for calculating unit. Ship weight tonnage can also
be divided into two classes: displacement tonnage and dead weight tonnage.
1.Displacement Tonnage
Displacement tonnage is the number of tons of water weight that a ship in the water
displaces, which are also the tons of the ship weight. The displacement tonnage can
also be divided into 3 classes: light displacement, full load displacement and actual
displacement.
1)Light Displacement: it is also called as empty-ship displacement. It is the total of the
weight of the ship itself, sailors and necessary supply. And it is also the minimum
weight of a ship.
2)Full Load Displacement: It is also called as heavy displacement. It refers to the
weight when the ship loads passengers and cargoes to the extent that the depth of ship
in water reaches the highest waterline.
3)Actual Displacement: It refers to the actual displacement water amount when the
ship is loaded with cargoes.
The formula of computing displacement water is such as follows:
Displacement amount (long ton) = Length * width * model coefficient (cubic foot) /
35 (for seawater) or 36 (for freshwater) (cubic foot)
Displacement amount (metric ton) = Length * width * sea gauge * model coefficient
(cubic meter) / 0.9756 (for seawater) or 1 (for freshwater) (cubic meter)
The displacement tonnage can be used to calculate the ship loaded tons. While making
ships, the weight of ships can be determined according to displacement tonnage.
When estimating the size of galleys and marines, it is usually determined with the
light displacement. In the case of marines passing through Panama Canal, actual
displacement is used as the basis of taxation.
2.Dead Weight Tonnage--D.W.T.
D.W.T. is referred to the carrying capacity in transportation. It can be divided into 2
classes: total D.W.T. and net D.W.T.
1)Gross Dead Weight Tonnage
It refers to the maximum loaded weight that is restricted with the loaded line. It is the

total of the weight of loaded cargoes, necessary fuel, freshwater and other spare
material.
Total loaded tonnage = full load displacement light displacement
2)Dead Weight Cargo Tonnage--D.W.C.T.
It refers to the maximum weight of loaded cargoes that a ship is capable of
transporting. It is also called as loaded-cargo tonnage. It is the margin of the amount
of necessary storage of fuel, freshwater and other spare material subtracted from the
total of shipload.
Ship loaded tonnage can be used to estimate the cargoes. Also, it can be used for
computing the month cost of renting a ship and denoting the transporting capacity of a
ship. In addition, it can be used as the unit of a newly made ship cost and an old ship
selling-price.
Registered Tonnage
Ships dimension tonnage is the unit of calculating ship dimension. It is also called as
registered tonnage. It is the unit that used in ship registration in marine countries,
which takes ton as the computing unit. One registered ton is equal to 100 cubic feet or
2.83 cubic meters. Ships dimension tonnage can also be divided into two classes:
gross registered tonnage and net registered tonnage.
1 Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT)
It is also called as gross dimension tonnage. It refers to the total inner space or volume
of all closed sites in the cabins and on the board. And it is the quotient that takes 100
cubic feet or 2.83 cubic meters as one ton.
Gross registered tonnage is widely used in many fields. It can be used for the country
to estimate the argosies. Also, it can used to denote the ship size. It can be used for
ship registration. And it can be used for government to determine the ship or shipmaking allowance. It can be used to compute insurance cost, ship-making cost, ship
compensation and so on.
2. Net Registered Tonnage (NRT)
It is also called as net dimension tonnage. It refers to the margin that the amount of
room, which is not for business, is subtracted from gross registered tonnage. And it is
the equivalent cargo tonnage that the ship can be loaded.
Net registered tonnage is usually used for ship applying to customs and ending
customs. And it is the basis of ships paying for various taxes and cost to ports. Also, it
can be used as the basis of paying canal cost when ships pass through canals.

Ships Load Line


Ship load line is the maximum waterline when ships are fully loaded. It is marked on the
both sides of shipboard and the center of the ship. It denotes the limitation of ship in
water. According to used material structure of ship, ship type, shipping applicability,
anti-sinking character and so on, as well as the shipping zone and season, the shipping
organized body or ship inspection office makes the ship load line mark. It is for the safe
of ship and the loading possession and passengers. And it has been accepted by the

counties all over the world. The violators will be punished with the involved laws. Ship
load line marks include such as follows: deck line, load line disc and all load lines
relevant with the disc. The meaning of the load lines in the figure is such as follows:
1TF(Tropical Fresh Water Load Line)
It denotes tropical fresh water load line. When a ship is sailed in tropical fresh water, the
loaded total cargoes cannot make the ship body in water over this line.
2F( Fresh Water Load Line)
It denotes fresh water load line. When a ship is sailed in fresh water, the loaded total
cargoes cannot make the ship body in water over this line.
3T(Tropical Load Line)
It denotes tropical load line. When a ship is sailed in tropical zone, the loaded total
cargoes cannot make the ship body in water over this line.
4S(Summer Load Line)
It denotes summer load line. When a ship is sailed in summer, the loaded total cargoes
cannot make the ship body in water over this line.
5w(Winter Load Line)
It denotes winter load line. When a ship is sailed in winter, the loaded total cargoes
cannot make the ship body in water over this line.
6WNA(Winter North Atlantic Load Line)
It denotes winter North Atlantic load line. When a ship, whose length is less than 100.5
meters, is sailed in North Atlantic (north to north latitude degree) in winter, the loaded
total cargoes cannot make the ship body in water over this line. L mark is referred to
timber load line.
In China, the ship inspection office has named the above-mentioned load lines with the
initial characters of their Bopomofos. TF, F, T, S, W and WNA have been
replaced respectively with RQ, Q, R, X, D and BDD.

In the ship-renting service, the rent cost is usually calculated with the loaded tonnage
equivalent to the load line in summer.

Ships Nationality and Flag


Ships nationality is referred to the nationality of ships. The owner of commerce ships
must apply to the involved ship management department in local country or foreign
country for proprietary registration to obtain the nationality in local country or foreign
country. Then ships nationality can be obtained.

Ships flag is referred to the swing belonged-country flag when ships are in sail. Ships
flag is the flag of ships nationality. According to the rules of law of nations, commerce
ships are the movable territory of ship-flag involved country. Whether sailed in public
sea or the sea of other countries, the ships flag of ships nationality country must be
suspended. Ships are in duty bound to the rules of ships nationality country laws, and
also have the right of protection with ships nationality country laws.
Flag of convenience are referred to the ships that are registered overseas, suspended with
foreign flag, and perform transporting business in international market. Since the days
after World War Two, the number of flag of convenience has increased rapidly. The
ships suspended with convenience flag are mainly from some countries that are strong
with ocean shipping, such as USA, Greece, Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Their shipowners register the ships overseas to obviate country heavy tax and military requisition.
And in such way, they can make transport price freely without the restriction of country,
manage ships and make use of foreign exchange freely, engage foreign sailors at liberty
to pay lower salary, lower the ship standard to save repairing cost, reduce operation cost
to enhance competitive capability and etc. The so-called open register countries, which
allow foreign ships to register in their countries, are mainly such as Liberia, Panama,
Cyprus, Singapore, Bermuda and etc. The registered countries can increase foreign
exchange income with such registration.

ships Classification
Ship classification is the index denoting the ship technology status. In the international
shipping filed, the marine ships registered with more than 100 tons of gross tonnage must
be made under the supervision of certain shipping organized body or ship inspection
organization. Before construction of ships, the specification of ship components must be
approved by the shipping organized body or ship inspection organization. After
construction of a ship, the shipping organized body or ship inspection organization
verifies ship body, the devices in the ship, sea gauge mark and etc. If they are ok, a ship
level certificate will be issued. The useful-life of the certificate is usually 4 years. After
its expiration, the above-mentioned items must be re-verified.
Ship level approval can guarantee the safe of sailing ships. It is contributed to supervise
ship technology for countries. And it can help renting and consigning persons to select
the appropriate ships to meet the requirement of transporting imports and exports
cargoes. Also, it can be used for insurance agents to determine the ships and cargoes cost.
The famous shipping organized bodies are such as follows:
1)Lloyds Register of Shipping
It was founded in 1760, which is the shipping organized body that has the longest history
and the largest scale. The shipping organized body is composed of the committees of
ship-owners, marine insurance warrantor, ship making filed, steel making filed, engine
making field and so on. Also, the committees manage the body. And their duty are
mainly of classifying and grading ships.
2)Germanischer Lloyd
3)Norske Veritas

4)Bureau Veritas
5)Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
6)American Bureau of Shipping
Chinese shipping organized body is the shipping inspection office belonged the ministry
of communications of P.R.C. In 1996, Chinese shipping organized body is elected as the
council chairman of International Shipping Grad Association at the first time, of which
the term is 1 year (From July 1, 1996. to June 30, 1997). This event indicates that the
authority of ship inspection in China has won international acceptance. Besides the
primary technology characteristic of ships, the ship grade certificate also protracts the
involved ship grade signs. The specifications of ship grade signs in all the countries are
different.
The ship grade sign of Chinese shipping organized body is *ZC.
The ship grade sign of Lloyds Register of Shipping is LR and the symbol is 100AI.
100A denotes that the body and devices of the ship are made according to the rules of
Lloyds Register of Shipping. I means that the components of the ship, such as the
anchor, anchor chain and rope, are in the favorable and effective status.

Ships Speed
Ships speed is expressed with section. The ships speed varies with the type of ship. For
instance, the speed of dry cargo ships and tankers is slow, which is usually 13 sections to
17 sections. And the speed of container ships is fast, which can reach 24.5 sections at
most presently. The speed of passenger ship is also fast.

Ships Documents
Ships documents are the total of various files that can prove ship ownership,
performance, technology status and necessary working conditions. Only if ships is
registered and approved of technology inspection to obtain the involved formal
certificate, then they can be put into operation. The international sailing ships documents
are mainly such as follows:
1)Certificate of Nationality
2)Certificate of Ownership
3)Certificate of Classification
4)Tonnage Certificate
5)Certificate of Load Line
6)Crew List
7)Log Book
In addition, shifting log, sanitation log and wireless log are also required. According to
current rules in our country, the imports and exports ships must be provided with all of
the above-mentioned documents to the harbor service management department (harbor

supervisor).