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varying line pull a theoretical study

The 18th North Sea Offshore Crane and Lifting Conference,

Stavanger, Norway

Marius Popa, FRINA, CEng, Ph.D.

25th April 2013

Summary

This paper presents in Part A a theoretical study of internal line friction, line rigidity and their

influence on drum and flange pressures on single drum winches, with varying line tension.

It also develops in Part B, using the conclusion in Part A, an analysis of the effect of the rigidity

of flange and line on the loads developed on the flange. The study in Part B was developed

focusing on the structure of the reel flange however some conclusions may be of interest also

for the structure of the winch flange.

NOTE:

This study is not intended and shall not be used to replace the basic requirements in section 5

of DNV Standard for the Certification of Lifting Appliances 2.22, with respect to design forces

and stresses to be considered for winch drums and flanges; the concepts presented are

intended to explore and stimulate a deeper understanding of two dominant phenomena

involved. With further development and sufficient practical evidence, it may support the

generation of thorough documentation as a means to alternative methods of design

(reference is made to the DNV Standard for the Certification of Lifting Appliances 2.22 Ch. 2

Sec. 3 Guidance Note for the calculation of C coefficient for more than 2 layers).

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

T=

tension in line

LAYER I SEGMENT DSI=DI/2*D

pi =

friction coefficient

Pp =

product pitch

n=

l=

number of windings along the

drum

D1 = external diameter (drum

diameter + n*Pp)

Ri=

contribution of layer i to the total

radial pressure on the drum

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

In the vertical direction, the equation of equilibrium can be written as:

pi*dA = pi-1*dA + (2*Ti+dTi)*sin(d/2) = = (pi-pi-1)*dA = Ti* d [eq 1]

In the horizontal direction, , the equation of equilibrium can be written as:

Ti+Ff-i= Ti+dTi+Ff-(i-1) => Ff-i Ff-(i-1) = dTi => -*(pi-pi-1)*dA = dTi [eq 2]

Resulting:

-*Ti* d = dTi

By integration:

T= T0*e-

Where is the angular length from the free end to the present position:

= (n-1)*2**l + -l where n is the layer, l is the number of windings and -l is the

local position on the layer n.

The equation developed below is a generalization of the capstan effect equation

for a multi layers and multi windings arrangements (no surprise!...).

Forces experienced by winch drums and reels systems as a function of rope

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

For one layer spooled onto the drum, the pressure at the free end can be deduced

as follows:

p1*dA = 2*T* sin(d/2) and having dA= d*D1/2*Pp

=>

This formula can be deduced from DNV StC 2.22 LA Ch. 2 Sec. 3 B.207.

Considering dA= d*Di/2*Pp, [eq 1] becomes:

(pi-pi-1)* d*Di/2*Pp = T0*e-* d = (pi-pi-1) = 2* T0*e-i/Di/Pp

[eq 3]

The equation type 3 can be summed up for all n layers from the outside layer down

to the drum

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

pdrum =

[eq 4.2] where

i+1= i + 2**l

Assuming that the variation in diameter does not significantly contribute to Ri (the

coefficient of diameter may increase at a significantly lower rate than that due to the

effect of friction) the equation above can be simplified:

pdrum =

Interesting to note:

[eq 4.1]

With Pp/D1 =

Forces experienced by winch drums and reels systems as a function of rope

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

Straightening effect:

Assuming that the rope/product needs a minimum pull Ks in order to be bended at the

drum radius or at the present layer radius (no pressure is generated on the drum or

between layers) the formulae for line tension variation and drum pressure can be

updated as followings:

T= (T0-Ks)*e-* +Ks

pdrum =

[eq 4.3]

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

Reference

P. Dietz, A. Lohrengel, T. Schwarzer and M. Wchter Problems related to the design of multi layer drums for synthetic and

hybrid ropes, OIPEEC Conference / 3rd International Ropedays - Stuttgart - March 2009

http://www.imw.tu-clausthal.de/fileadmin/Forschung/Veroeffentlichungen/Stuttgart_Seiltagung_IMW.pdf

Hoop stress

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

The arrangement of the test stand in P. Dietz, A. Lohrengel, T. Schwarzer and M.

Wchter Problems related to the design of multi layer drums for synthetic and

hybrid ropes, OIPEEC Conference / 3rd International Ropedays - Stuttgart - March

2009

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

The values taken from the diagram are approximated as follows:

layer

100

180

224

295

336

dR

100

80

64

51

41

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

dRi/dR(i+1)

The reference paper states rope diameter is 23 mm, arranged over 5 radial layers.

From the picture of the arrangement the approximate number of windings along length is

approximately 40, leading to a friction coefficient of 0.0009

The drum length therefore is approximately 40*0.023 = 0.92m (say 1.0m). Proportionally, the

outer diameter and the drum diameter is approximately 0.5m and 0.27m (i.e. 0.5 2*(5*0.023)

respectively.

Considering also the geometrical effect the friction coefficient seems to be 0.0013.

Forces experienced by winch drums and reels systems as a function of rope

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

10

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

The close correlation between experimental and theoretical values would appear to

demonstrate the validity of equations above.

The equations accounting all three effects are more general and by their nature provide more

conservative results. Equations considering only the effect of friction however are simpler,

requiring no information with respect to geometrical characteristics and might therefore

represent a reasonable initial approximation.

It is also noted that:

Coefficients of friction considered above (i.e. 0.0009 - 0.0013) are extremely small in

comparison with typical values (e.g. 0.05 to 0.30 for steel on steel); well-maintained, lubricated

wire rope may of course exhibit lower coefficients of friction, the values however are unknown.

Rope anchorage design for winches, [1] Ch. 2 Sec. 3 B.513, is based on a coefficient of friction

= 0.10; this value is about 100 times larger than those deduced from the results reported in

reference.

All of these due to the nature of hybrid rope reported as used in the reference?

The inclusion of diameter effects leads to an increase in coefficient of friction (approx. 50%) for

same drum pressure.

Forces experienced by winch drums and reels systems as a function of rope

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

11

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

VARIATION OF DRUM PRESSURE WITH COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (EFFECT OF DIAMETER INCLUDED) REEL

CONFIGURATION R-OUT= 5.0 / PP=0.1 M / 2 LAYERS

2.250

2.000

1.750

1.500

1.250

1.000

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Winding

-l

Radial

Friction

layer

2

0.001

2

0.01

2

0.02

2

0.05

2

0.10

2

0.20

code

10

50

2.014

1.939

1.882

1.730

1.533

1.285

1.750

2.008

1.882

1.778

1.533

1.285

1.081

1.750

2.001

1.828

1.686

1.390

1.152

1.023

1.750

1.995

1.778

1.605

1.285

1.081

1.007

1.750

1.989

1.730

1.533

1.208

1.043

1.002

1.750

1.958

1.533

1.285

1.043

1.002

1.000

1.750

1.745

1.043

1.002

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.750

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

12

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

VARIATION OF DRUM PRESSURE WITH COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (EFFECT OF DIAMETER INCLUDED) REEL

CONFIGURATION R-OUT= 5.0 / PP=0.1 M / 5 LAYERS

5.500

5.000

4.500

4.000

3.500

3.000

2.500

2.000

1.500

1.000

0

10

20

30

40

50

Winding-l

layer

5

5

5

5

5

5

Frictio

n

0.001

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.10

0.20

code

1

5.147

4.427

3.951

2.938

2.051

1.395

3.000

2

5.082

3.951

3.219

2.051

1.395

1.088

3.000

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

13

3

5.018

3.553

2.700

1.624

1.179

1.024

3.000

4

4.955

3.219

2.326

1.395

1.088

1.007

3.000

5

4.894

2.938

2.051

1.262

1.045

1.002

3.000

10

4.603

2.051

1.395

1.045

1.002

1.000

3.000

50

3.025

1.045

1.002

1.000

1.000

1.000

3.000

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

It is interesting to note that a reduction in the coefficient of friction may result from welllubricated lines; being normal practise for subsea applications, used to minimize the amount

of the heat dissipation from friction and prolong product life. As can be observed however,

reducing the coefficient of friction might lead to more load on the drum. For deep sea

applications in particular, the balance between operating procedures, maintenance routines,

cumulative damage experienced by the wire due to heating/friction and pressures applied to

the winch drum is a fine one and needs to be considered, in terms of safety, financial and

technical constraints imposed on the design of such winches.

Information contained in InterOcean source below proposes an alternative method to

minimize the pressure experienced by winch drums for deep subsea arrangements; i.e.

spooling the first layers on the drum with a reduced tension. These first layers will act in

effect like a protective cage for the drum, reducing the pressure and hoop stresses

experienced by it. Equation 4.3 shows that spooling with a tension approximating or lower

than the spring (straightening) characteristic of the line may generate less pressure on the

drum and indeed offer a degree of protection to the structure of the drum.

Stephen M. Pearlman, David R. Gordon, Michael D. Pearlman Winch Technology - Past Present and Future A Summary of

Winch Design Principles and Developments

Paper on InterOcean Systems, Inc. site

http://www.interoceansystems.com/winch_article.htm

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

14

PART A: THE ESTIMATION OF LINE TENSION AND THE PRESSURE ON WINCH DRUMS

In the paper: The relationship between increased line rigidity and a reduced coefficient of friction between layers does not

appear to be available in the literature. No sufficient data was available to validate these equations and deductions - firm

conclusions in relation to this aspect are therefore not possible at the time of writing.

However, the diagram below from an Australian mines code seems to support the idea.

Source: W. van den Bos, C. de Ruiter and S. Maljaars An axi-symmetric FEM model of drum with multi-layer rope winding,

ODN 0901, OIPEEC Conference Oxford March 2013 (correspondence with Mr. van de Bos)

Forces experienced by winch drums and reels systems as a function of rope

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

15

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

16

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

Section

1 (soft)

Line Iy=

Line A=

dy for

100kN=

0.667

200

kp=1e5/dy=

17416

ln(kp)=

4.241

5.742

2

1.33

3

400

0.88

9

1124

29

5.05

1

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

17

6 (rigid)

2.000

600

2.667

800

3.333

1000

52.080

2500

0.593

0.445

0.356

0.054

168645

224861

281073

1867797

5.227

5.352

5.449

6.271

Spokes properties

Section

1 (soft)

Spoke Iy=

2873

Spoke A=

4000

Square

dy for

100kN=

9.170

ks=1e5/dy=

10905

ln(ks)=

9.297

Triangular

dy for

4.770

100kN=

ks=1e5/dy=

20964

ln(ks)=

9.951

2

5796

4750

3

8776

5300

4

11443

5700

5

(rigid)

42817

8800

4.747

21064

9.955

3.247

30798

10.335

2.559

39078

10.573

0.852

117371

11.673

2.525

39612

10.587

1.756

56948

10.950

1.401

71378

11.176

0.507

197239

12.192

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

18

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

Rectangular arrangement: Typical shear force and bending moments diagrams for

the spoke elements

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

19

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

T arrangement :Typical shear force and bending moment diagrams for the spoke

elements

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

20

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

F-COMPUTED/F-CODE

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

F/F-code

log(kp)

R

R

R

R

R

T

T

T

T

T

Kp-1

Kp-2

Kp-3

Kp-4

Kp-5

Kp-6

4.241

5.051

5.227

5.352

5.449

6.271

2.803

1.495

1.316

1.196

1.109

0.365

3.206

1.752

1.528

1.399

1.296

0.426

3.424

1.918

1.686

1.532

1.418

0.465

3.556

2.026

1.785

1.622

1.501

0.492

4.032

2.567

2.289

2.091

1.938

0.631

0.665

0.488

0.443

0.413

0.390

0.182

0.755

0.536

0.487

0.454

0.435

0.205

0.821

0.568

0.514

0.479

0.453

0.218

0.851

0.588

0.533

0.495

0.468

0.227

0.881

0.686

0.623

0.580

0.547

0.269

4.250

4.000

3.750

3.500

3.250

3.000

2.750

2.500

2.250

2.000

1.750

1.500

1.250

1.000

0.750

0.500

0.250

0.000

4.000

4.500

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

21

5.000

5.500

6.000

6.500

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

M-COMPUTED/M-CODE

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

M/M-code

log(kp)

R

R

R

R

R

T

T

T

T

T

5.250

5.000

4.750

4.500

4.250

4.000

3.750

3.500

3.250

3.000

2.750

2.500

2.250

2.000

1.750

1.500

1.250

1.000

0.750

0.500

0.250

0.000

4.000

kp-1

4.241

2.623

3.351

3.754

4.006

4.935

0.368

0.579

0.737

0.793

0.774

kp-2

5.051

0.925

1.269

1.512

1.670

2.580

0.190

0.245

0.288

0.317

0.467

kp-3

5.227

0.728

1.006

1.202

1.346

2.139

0.150

0.194

0.223

0.247

0.375

4.500

5.000

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

22

kp-4

5.352

0.610

0.843

1.014

1.133

1.847

0.125

0.163

0.188

0.205

0.318

5.500

kp-5

5.449

0.530

0.733

0.883

0.989

1.623

0.107

0.142

0.164

0.180

0.277

kp-6

6.271

0.098

0.135

0.161

0.180

0.303

0.031

0.040

0.046

0.051

0.080

6.000

6.500

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

Z-COMPUTED/Z-CODE

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

ks-1

ks-2

ks-3

ks-4

ks-5

Z/Z-code

log(kp)

R

R

R

R

R

T

T

T

T

T

kp-1

4.241

0.936

1.045

1.096

1.126

1.224

0.553

0.768

0.897

0.932

0.878

kp-2

5.051

0.619

0.724

0.789

0.825

1.005

0.390

0.456

0.507

0.539

0.681

kp-3

5.227

0.554

0.658

0.713

0.754

0.935

0.338

0.398

0.434

0.464

0.601

kp-4

5.352

0.510

0.603

0.661

0.698

0.883

0.302

0.360

0.393

0.413

0.549

kp-5

5.449

0.478

0.566

0.623

0.659

0.837

0.276

0.325

0.363

0.384

0.506

kp-6

6.271

0.268

0.316

0.345

0.366

0.480

0.173

0.196

0.212

0.225

0.298

1.250

1.000

0.750

0.500

0.250

0.000

4.000

4.500

5.000

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

23

5.500

6.000

6.500

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

This brief study attempts to demonstrate the influence of product elasticity on the forces imparted into the

offshore reels that are used to transport them.

Figures relating to the transverse rigidity of actual product were unfortunately unavailable for the purposes of

this study, as were representative measurements taken from actual reel assemblies (e.g. strain gauge

measurements or flange tip deflections, associated with controlled constant tension onshore spooling). Such

information would obviously be valuable for the purposes of validating these theories.

Assuming a square arrangement for a spooled-on product may or may not be realistic. It is not a naturally

stable one, but the information received from industrial users of reel structures, suggest at least that there are

situations when it is specified / requested by the end-user. It may be of course that actual spooling

procedures differ from the assumptions made herein, e.g. partitions in various combinations with flexible filling

materials may in some cases be used between windings along the drum.

The triangular arrangement is obviously the more natural and therefore stable one; this study indicates that

the loads and forces experienced by the flanges at least are in effect significantly lower than the values

typically used for the purposes of design. This study does however consider a perfect fit between the ring

arrangement and the drum length; it does not therefore account for the well-known increase in load

associated with a side-ring arranged in an imperfect triangular cell (angle between line of rings centre and

horizontal less than 60). Structural failure of offshore reels does not appear to have been reported in the

literature, perhaps partly as a result of these two phenomena cancelling one another out.

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

24

CONSIDERING THE INFLUENCE OF LINE ELASTICITY.

CONCLUSIONS

Part A of this study does not consider various characteristics associated with the line (whatever it may be)

spooled onto a drum. For example, axial elasticity can have a significant effect on the pressure experienced

by a winch drum. Part B also has significant limitations due to the simplistic analysis methods employed for

assessing the effects of product and flange elasticity.

Part A however demonstrates the relative importance of friction and the spring/straightening effect for the

better understanding of loads acting on the system and the necessity for these effects to be considered for the

development of in some cases more optimum and safer winch arrangements.

At the same time, part B demonstrates the importance of understanding the effects that relative elasticity has

on the design of offshore reel structures and possible for winches too.

The effects studied in Part A together with those in part B should provide the designer with a more thorough

understanding of the phenomena at work and it is hoped some stimulation for further investigation and work

towards a different, perhaps more appropriate design methodology for reels structures, considered by the

designer as a kind of mega-winch. For this equipment the inertia effects might have at least the same

strength effect as the effect of the line spooling tension.

It is the opinion of the Author that both directions explored in parts A and B are worthy of further work, with

empirical measurements and data being the major exponents missing from the development of final

conclusions and incorporation of them into relevant codes and standards.

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

25th April 2013

Det Norske Veritas AS. All rights reserved.

25

and the environment

www.dnv.com

characteristics and varying line pull a theoretical study

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