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Page 15of 20

ANNEXURE 1.0
CALCULATION OF WIND EFFECTS (Ref. IS 875 Part 3 : 1987)

1.0 Basic wind speed

Vb

2.0 Design wind speed

Vz

Vb x K1 x K2 x K3

K1

Risk co-efficient

K2

=
=

Terrain roughness coefficient which is


1.038
For 13.8 m height

44

m/sec

Where

3.0 Design wind pressure

4.0 Wind load on structure


Where,

1.07

For 7.5 m height

K3

Vz

48.86904

m/sec

For 13.8 m height

47.08

m/sec

For 7.5 m height

0.6 Vz2

1432.91

N/m2

For 13.8 m height

1329.92

N/m2

For 7.5 m height

Fwt

Pz x cf x Ae

Pz

Design wind pressure as computed in 3.0 above

cf

Force coefficient for part under consideration

Ae

Total net surface area of all the members projected normal

Pz

Topography factor

1.0

(Cl. 9.1 of Ref IS)

to the face in m2
Ae will be calculated during detail design of individual structure.

5.0 Wind load on each conductor

Fwc

Pz x cf x L x D

Wind span i.e. the sum of half the spans on either side in mtrs.

(Cl. 9.2 of Ref IS)

Where,

Page 15of 20

Therefore,

and

6.0 Wind load on ground wire

Cf

Force coefficient

1.2

Dia. of conductor

0.02862

Fwc

49.21

N/m

For 12.8 m. height

5.02

Kg/m

For 13.8 m. height

45.67

N/m

For 7.5 m. height

4.66

Kg/m

For 7.5 m. height

Fwg

Pz x cf x L x D

Wind span i.e. the sum of half the spans on either side in mtrs.

Cf

Force coefficient

1.2

Dia. of Earth wire

0.01098

Fwg

18.88

For 13.8+3 m height

1.93

Kg

For 13.8+3 m height

Fwc

(Cl. 9.2 of Ref IS)

Where

Therefore,

7.0 Wind load on insulator string

Fwi

Cf x Pz x A1

Cf

Force coefficient

Pz

Design wind pressure

A1

50% of the area of insulator string

0.5 x dia of string in meters x length of string in m

0.5 x 0.255 x 1.45

Where

A1

Fwi

1.2

1.45

0.185

m2

318.11

For 12.8 m. height

32.44

Kg

For 12.8 m. height

Page 15of 20

Fwi

8.0 Wind load on hardware


Where,

Therefore,

295.24

For 7.5 m. height

30.11

Kg

For 7.5 m. height

FWH

Cfx Pz x Area

Cf

Force coefficient

Pz

Design wind pressure

Area

0.345x 0.15 x 0.5

FWH

FWH

1.2

0.025875

m2

44.49

For 12.8 m. height

4.54

Kg

For 12.8 m. height

41.29

For 7.5 m. height

4.21

Kg

For 7.5 m. height

Page 4 of 12

ANNEXURE 1.0
CALCULATION OF WIND EFFECTS (Ref. IS 802 Part 1/ Sec 1 : 1995)

1. Basic wind speed

Vb

44

2. Reference wind speed

Vr

Vb
Ko

Ko

m/sec

Where,

\
3. Design wind speed

Factor for conversion of 3 sec. speed into an average speed


of wind during 10 min. period

1.375

Vr

32

Vd

V R x K1 x K2

K1

Risk co-efficient

m/sec

Where
=

1.08

(As per specification)


K2

Terrain roughness coefficient which is


1.00 for terrain category 2.

Therefore
4. Design wind pressure

5. Wind load on structure

Vd

34.56

Pd

0.6 Vd2

716.64

m/sec

N/m2

Fwt

Pd x cdt x Ae x GT

Pd

cdt

Drag coefficient for panel under consideration

Ae

Total net surface area of all the members projected normal

(Cl. 9.1 of Ref IS)


Where,

716.64

N/m2

to the face in m2
Ae will be calculated during detail design of individual structure.
GT

Gust response factor as per Table 6 of ref. IS and


corresponding to height above ground & terrain category 2

Page 5 of 12

6. Wind load on each conductor

Fwc

Pd x cdc x L x dia of conductor (d) x Gc

Wind span i.e. the sum of half the spans on either side in mtrs.

Cdc

Drag coefficient which is 1.0 for conductor.

Gc

Gust response factor which is 2.2223 for 29 m height 2.175 for

(Cl. 9.2 of Ref IS)


Where,

25 m height, 1.91 for 12.8 m height, 1.83 for 7.5 m height of


conductor support and terrain category 2
and

Therefore

7. Wind load on insulator string

Fwc

Fwc

716.64 x 1 x 1 x 0.02862 x 1.91

39.17

N/m

For 12.8 m. height

3.99

Kg/m

For 12.8 m. height

716.64 x 1 x 1 x 0.02862 x 1.83

37.53

N/m

For 15 m. height

3.83

Kg/m

For 15 m. height

Fwi

Cdi x Pd x A1 x G1

Cdi

drag coefficient to be taken as 1.2

Pd

A1

50% of the area of insulator string

0.5 x dia of string in meters x length of string in m

0.5 x 0.255 x 1.45

Where

716.64

N/m2

For 400 kV string


A1

=
G1

0.185

1.45

m2

Gust response factor (Refer Table 6 of IS 802 Part


1/ Sec 1 : 1995)

G1

1.99

For 12.8 m. height

1.92

For 7.5 m. height

Page 6 of 12

Fwi per string shall be considered as follows Fwi

Fwi

8. Wind load on hardware


Where,

1.2 x 716.64 x 0.185 x 1.99

For 12.8 m. height

316.6

For 12.8 m. height

32.28

Kg

For 12.8 m. height

1.2 x 716.64 x 0.185x 1.92

For 7.5 m. height

305.46

For 7.5 m. height

31.15

Kg

For 7.5 m. height

FWH

Cdi x Pd x Area x GH

GH

Gust response factors which are same as for insulators

1.91

For 12.8 m. height

GH

1.83

For 7.5 m. height

Area

Cdi

0.345 x 0.15 x 0.5

0.025875

1.2

m2

For 400 kV

FWH per string shall be considered as follows FWH

FWH

1.2 x 716.64 x 0.025875x 1.91

For 12.8 m. height

42.5

For 12.8 m. height

4.33

Kg

For 12.8 m. height

1.2 x 716.64x 0.025875 x 1.83

For 15 m. height

40.72

For 15 m. height

4.15

Kg

For 15 m. height

ANNEXURE 1.0
TEMPERATURE RISE IN STRUNG BUS BAR
A. 400kV Jack Bus
I

Data

1. Type of conductor

: All Aluminium Alloy Conductor (AAAC)

2. Cross sectional area

604

mm2

3. Overall diameter

31.95

mm

455

4. Number of conductors per phase


5. Full load continuous current per
subconductor considering total load of
two 315 MVA 400/220 KV transformers

o
6. AC resistance at 20 C

0.0568 W/Km.
[Ref IS 398 (Part 4) : 1994 Table 2]

7. Constant mass temp. coefficient of


resistance of Al. Alloy conductor

o
0.0036 / C
[Cl. 4.4 IS 398 (Part 4) : 1994]

8. Resistivity of aluminium alloy wire

r20

at 20oC

0.0328

Amps.

W/mm2 / m

[Cl. 4.1 IS 398 (Part 4) : 1994]

9. Max. Ambient temperature

50

10. Velocity of normal air current

11. Intensity of solar radiation

SRAD

12. Solar radiation absorption coefficient

SABS

0.6

0.3

13. Emissivity of conductor


II. Calculations

m/sec

(Assumed)

0.965x10-1 w/cm2

(Ref. : Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book By


Westinghouse Electric Corporation)

Under thermal equilibrium conditions


ERAD + I2R = Wc + Wr . 1.0
Where

Page 7 of 12

ERAD

Watts per meter absorbed by the conductor through


solar radiation

SRAD x SABS x Surface area of one meter length of


conductor

0.966 x 10-1 x 0.6 x P x 3.195 x 100

=
R

Where

Therefore

58.12

Resistance per meter of conductor at equilibrium


temperature

Resistivity at final temp x unit length


A

1 x r20 [1 + a (t + d t - 20)]
604

dt

Temperature rise

\R

1 x 0.0328 [1+0.0036(50 + d t - 20)]


604

5.43 x 10-5 [1.108 + 0.0036 d t]

6.02 x 10-5 +0.02 d t x 10-5

4552 [6.02 x 10-5 + 0.02 d t x 10-5]

12.463 + 0.041 d t

0.0128 pv dt x 155.587 watts per meter

I 2R

Wc

Ohms

Watts

Ta0.123D
Where

Pressure in atmosphere = 1

Wc

Watts lost due to convection

Ta

Average of absolute temperature of conductor and air

(273+t) + dt
2

Overall dia of conductor in inches

31.95 = 1.258
25.4

Page 8 of 12

Normal velocity of air in feet / sec = V x 3.281

5 x 3.281
= 16.405 feet / sec
= 0.0128 16.405 x dt x 155.587

\ Wc

(323 + dt) 0.123 1.258


2

= 7.192 dt
(323 + dt) 0.123
2

The watts lost due to radiation


4
4
= 36.8 E (273+t+dt) - (t+273) x 155.587 watts per meter
1000
1000

Wr

4
4
= 36.8 x0.3 x 155.587 (323+dt) - (323)
1000
1000
-12
4
10
= 1717.68 x 10 { (323 + dt) - 1.088 x 10 } W

From equation 1.0


58.12 + 12.463 + 0.041 dt

7.192 dt + 1717.68x10-12(323+dt)4 - 18.69


(323 + dt)0.123
2

o
= 19 C

\ dt
B) 220kV Main Bus
I

Data :
Same as for 400kV except I = 900A

II Calculations
ERAD =
I2 R =
=

58.12W
9002 {6.02 x 10-5 + 0.02 dt x 10-5}
48.762 + 0.162 dt

Page 9 of 12

7.192 dt

Wc =

(323 + dt)0.123
2

Wr

1717.69 x 10-12 (323 + dt)4 - 18.69

From equaton 1.0


58.12 + 48.762 + 0.162 dt

7.192 dt + 1717.68x10-12(323+dt)4 - 18.69


(323 + dt)0.123
2

\ dt

29.8oC

Page 10 of 12

ANNEXURE 3.0
ADEQUACY OF CONDUCTOR SPACINGS
1.0

Based on maximum tension of 1400 kgf / subconductor, proposed


to be adopted in 400kVyard and 1000 kgf / subconductor in 220kV
yard,sag tension calculations have been carriedout. The salient
results of calculations required for decidingadequacy of conductor
spacings, are as follows :
Voltage level

Temp

% of wind

Sag

Deflection Swing

( C)

load

(m )

(m )

(m )

400kV
(72 m span)

70
70

Nil
100%

2.52
--

-3.31

-2.15

220kV
(53.5 m span)

80
80

nil
100%

2.061
--

-2.57

-1.53

2.0

400kV yard

2.1

Vertical Clearance

Required clearance between main bus bar and jack bus bar
=

Maximum sag + minimum phase to phase clearance

2.52 + 4

6.52

m.

Clearance provided = 7.5 m


2.2

Horizontal Clearance
Required clearance between center line of two phase
=

Max. swing + minimum phase to phase clearance +


subconductor spacing

2.15 + 4.0 + 0.45

6.6

m.

Clearance provided = 7.0 m


3.0

220kV yard

3.1

Vertical clearance
Required clearance between main bus bar and jack bus bar. As well
as Main busbar and equipment bus bars
=

Max. sag + minimum phase to phase clearance

2.061 + 2.4

4.461 m

Clearance provided = 4.5 m


3.2 Horizontal Clearance
Required clearance
=
Maximum swing + phase to phase clearance + sub conductor
spacing
=

1.53 + 2.4 + 0.25

4.18 m

Clearance provided = 4.5 m