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Hydraulic systems are designed to move large loads by controlling high
pressure uids along distribu7on lines and actuators with
electromechanical valves.

The basic congura7on of a hydraulic system consists of a:
1. Fluid reservoir
2. Filter
3. Pump
4. Pressure regulator
5. Control valve
6. Actuator
The heart of the system is the pump, usually driven by a rota7ng
shaK connected to a motor.

Hydraulics Basics

Hydraulics Basics

Hydraulic system for driving

an automa7c car transmission

Gear Pump
Three main types of pumps: Gear, vane and piston pump.

Gear Pump:
- Displaces the uid between the teeth of meshing gears, this meshing
provide a seal, so the ow goes in only one direc7on.
- Up to 200cc of volumetric displacement.
- 1000 -> 3000 psi

Gearpump with external teeth

Gearpump with internal teeth

Vane Pump
Vane Pump:
- Displaces the uid in vanes guided by rotor slots. This pump output can
be varied by moving the shaK posi7on rela7ve to the housing.
- 2000 -> 4000 psi aprox.

Vane Pump

Vane Pump

Piston Pump
Piston Pump:
- Comprised of a pair of pistons, one draws uid inside while the other
pushes it to the outside.
- A swash plate drives both pistons and by adjus7ng its angle, the pump
displacement can be changed.
- Up to 6000 psi aprox.

Axial piston pump

Piston Pump

Radial piston pump



Hydraulic valves

Pressure regulator

Control valves

There are two main types of hydraulic valves:

- Innite posi7on valve: Any posi7on between open and closed
to control ow and pressure.

- Finite posi7on valve: Discrete posi7ons, usually just open or
closed, in such case they are also called ON/OFF valves.

Inlet and outlet valve connec7ons are called ports, which
internally can be congured in several posi=ons.

Finite valves are described by their port/posi7on characteris7cs:
a 4/3 valve means 4 ports and 3 dierent posi7ons.

Finite posi=on valves

Spool valve
Can be designed to be either a Finite or Innite control valve (with
certain restric7ons).
The displacement of the spool controls the ow in the channels.

Spool valve

Spool valve

Spool valve
Pilot Control: Pressure and ow provided
by slide valve. Pressure regula7on via
small solenoid (pilot).

Direct control: Pressure and ow regula7on

provided directly by solenoid.


1.- Which type of input signal needed: How does the waveform looks?

2.- Explain the input-output diagram i.e. the current vs. pressure diagram

3.- Explain how is the liquid owing through the channels in each part of the
- Pump pressure
- Working pressure
- Tank pressure