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HOT-DIP

GALVANIZING FOR
CORROSION
PREVENTION:
inspecting
A guide to specifying & inspecting
reinforcing steel
hot-dip galvanized reinforcing steel
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CORROSION PROTECTION FOR STEEL 2
Steel Corrosion 2
How Zinc Prevents Steel from Corrosion 4
Barrier Protection 4
Cathodic Protection 4
DESIGN, FABRICATION & INSTALLATION 5
Design 5
Steel Selection 6
Detailing Reinforcement 6
Dissimiliar Metals in Concrete 6
Fabrication 6
Bending Parts 6
Storage & Handling 6
Installation 7
Welding 7
Local Repair of Coating 7
Removal of Forms 7
THE HOT-DIP GALVANIZING PROCESS 7
Surface Preparation 7
Galvanizing 8
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HOT-DIP GALVANIZED COATINGS 9
The Metallurgical Bond 9
Impact & Abrasion Resistance 9
Corner & Edge Protection 9
Complete Coating 10
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GALVANIZED STEEL 10
Ductibility & Yield/Tensile Strength 10
Fatigue Strength 10
Bond Strength 10
Zinc Reaction in Concrete 11
INSPECTION 11
Coating Thickness 12
Magnetic Thickness Measurements 12
Stripping Method 13
Weighing Bars Before and After Galvanizing 13
Microscopy 13
Sampling Statistics 13
Factors Affecting Coating Thickness 13
Coating Appearance 14
Visual Guide 14
Bare Spots 14
Dross Protrusions 15
Blisters & Slivers 15
Lumps & Runs 15
Flux Inclusions 15
Ash Inclusions 15
Gray or Mottled Coating Appearance 15
Brown Staining 15
Rust Staining 16
Wet Storage Stain 16
Galvanized Reinforcing Steel Testing 16
Bond Strength Test 16
Chromate Finish Test 16
Embrittlement Test 16
Accelerated Aging Test 16
FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GALVANIZED REINFORCEMENT 17
Vertical Construction 17
Horizontal Construction 18
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 19
ASTM & CSA SPECIFICATIONS 20
CORROSION
PROTECTION FOR
STEEL
Repairing damage caused by corrosion is a
multi-billion dollar problem. Observations of
numerous structures show that corrosion of
reinforcing steel is either a prime factor, or at
least an important factor, contributing to stain-
ing, cracking and/or spalling of concrete struc-
tures. The effects of corrosion often require Corrosion of unprotected reinforcing steel
costly repairs and continued maintenance dur- creates hazard due to spalling concrete.
ing the structure’s life.
vides details on the specification and practices
When steel is exposed to an aggressive involved with galvanized reinforcement, as well
environment, or if the design details or work- as inspection details.
manship are inadequate, corrosion of the rein-
forcement may become excessive, and the con- STEEL CORROSION
crete may exhibit signs of distress. Rust, iron’s corrosion product, is the result
of an electrochemical process. Rust occurs
Galvanized reinforcing steel is effectively because of differences in electrical potential
and economically used in concrete where unpro- between small areas on the steel surface involv-
tected reinforcement will not have adequate ing anodes, cathodes and an electrolyte (a medi-
durability. The susceptibility of concrete struc- um for conducting ions). These differences in
tures to the intrusion of chlorides is the primary potential on the steel surface are caused by vari-
incentive for using galvanized steel reinforce- ations in steel composition/structure, the pres-
ment. Galvanized reinforcing steel is especially ence of impurities, uneven internal stress,
useful when the reinforcement will be exposed and/or corrosive environments.
to the weather before construction begins.
Galvanizing provides visible assurance that the In the presence of an electrolyte, the differ-
steel has not rusted. ences mentioned above create corrosion cells,
which consist of microscopic anodes and cath-
odes. Because of differences in potential within
the cell, negatively charged electrons flow from
anode to cathode, and iron atoms in the anode
area are converted to posi- FIGURE 1 - Corrosion Cell
tively charge iron ions.
The positively charged
iron ions (FE++) of the
anode attract and react
with the negatively charged
hydroxyl ions (OH-) in
the electrolyte to form iron
Galvanizing rebar helps prevent corrosion. oxide, or rust. Negatively
charged electrons (e-) react at the cathode
This publication provides information on surface with positively charged hydrogen ions
design variables involved in specifying galva- (H+) in the electrolyte to form hydrogen gas.
nized reinforcement. This publication also pro- A simplified picture of what occurs in this
2 corrosion cell is shown in Figure 1.
Impurities present in the electrolyte create inhibition of iron corrosion occurs at a pH of
an even better conductive path for the corrosion 12.0. But as the pH is reduced, the corrosion
process. For example, these impurities can be rate increases. With reduction of pH to 11.5,
the constituents in which the steel is immersed the iron corrosion rate increases by as much as
or present in atmospheric contaminants, includ- five times the rate at a pH of 12.0.
ing sulfur oxides, chlorides or other pollutants
present in damp atmospheres or dissolved in At an active anodic site, particularly in pits,
surface moisture. Calcium hydroxide, present in the formation of positively charged ferrous ions
hardened concrete, also acts as an electrolyte in attracts negatively charged chloride ions, giving
the presence of moisture. high concentrations of ferrous chloride. Ferrous
chloride partially hydrolyzes, yielding hydrochlo-
Under normal conditions, concrete is alka- ric acid and an acid reaction. These reactions
line (pH of about 12.5) due to the presence of reduce protection at the steel-concrete inter-
calcium hydroxide. In such an environment, a face. At a corroding surface, the pH may be 6.0
passivating iron-oxide film forms on the steel, or less.
causing almost complete corrosion inhibition.
As the pH of the concrete surrounding the rein- As mentioned before, the anode and cath-
forcement is reduced by the intrusion of salts, ode areas on a piece of steel are microscopic.
leaching or carbonation, the system becomes Greatly magnified, the surface might appear as
active and corrosion proceeds. the mosaic of anodes and cathodes pictured in
Figure 2, all electrically connected by the under-
The presence of chloride ions can affect the lying steel.
inhibitive properties of the concrete in two
ways. The presence of chloride ions creates lat- Moisture in the concrete provides the elec-
tice vacancies in the oxide film, thus providing trolyte and completes the electrical path
defects in the film through which metal ions between the anodes and cathodes on the metal
may migrate more rapidly and permit pitting surface. Due to potential differences, a small
corrosion to proceed. Also, if the hydroxyl ion electric current begins to flow as the metal is
concentration is reduced, for example by car- consumed in the anodic area. The iron ions pro-
bonation, the pH is lowered and the corrosion duced at the anode combine with the environ-
proceeds further. In the presence of oxygen, ment to form the loose, flaky iron oxide known
as rust.

As anodic areas corrode,


FIGURE 2 - Corrosion of Steel new material of different
1. Corrosion of steel is an electro- composition and structure
chemical reaction. Minute differ-
ences in structure of the steel’s is exposed. This results
chemisty create a mosaic pat- in a change of electrical
tern of anodes and cathodes potentials and also
containing stored electrochemi-
cal energy.
2. Moisture forms an electrolyte,
1 2 changes the location of
anodic and cathodic sites.
which completes the elctrical path
The shifting of anodic and
between anodes and cathodes,
spontaneously releasing the stored
electrochemical energy. A small electrical
3 cathodic sites does not occur
current beings to flow, carrying away particles all at once. In time, previously
of the anode areas. The particle combines with the uncorroded areas are attacked, and a uni-
environment to form rust. When salt or acid is added to
the moisture, the flow of electric current and corrosion form surface corrosion is produced. This
accelerates. process continues until the steel is entirely con-
3. At this stage, the anodes are corroded and cathodes are sumed.
protected. However, the instability of the metal itself caus-
es the anodes to change to cathodes and the corrosion
cycle beings again, resulting in uniform corrosion of the
entire surface. 3
The corrosion products that form on steel Comparison of the two lines in Figure 4
have much greater volume than the metal that is emphasizes the importance of the passivating
consumed in the corrosion reaction. This layer for corrosion protection against chlorides.
increase in volume around the bare steel rebar
exerts great disruptive tensile stress on the sur- FIGURE 4 - Zinc’s Passivation Quality
rounding concrete. When resultant tensile
Effect of Chloride Concentration on the Critical
stress is greater than the concrete tensile Pitting Potential (Duval)
strength, the concrete cracks (Figure 3), leading 0
to further corrosion. Corrosion cracks are usual-
ly parallel to the reinforcement and are quite -200
distinct from transverse cracks associated with
tension in the reinforcement caused by loading. mV
-400
As the corrosion proceeds, the longitudinal (SCE)
-600
cracks widen and, together with structural trans-
verse cracks, cause spalling of the concrete. -800
Zinc
Zinc Passivated by
FIGURE 3 - Spalling Concrete -1000
Ca(OH)2 for 15 days
-1200
10-2 10-1 1
Concentration of Cl-(N)

Cathodic Protection
Table 1, page 5, shows the galvanic series
of metals and alloys arranged in decreasing
order of electrical activity. Metals toward the
HOW ZINC PREVENTS STEEL top of the table, often referred to as “less
noble” metals, have a greater tendency to lose
FROM CORRODING electrons than the more noble metals at the bot-
The reason for the extensive use of hot-dip tom of the table. Thus, metals higher in the
galvanized steel is the twofold nature of the series provide cathodic (or sacrificial) protection
coating. As a barrier coating, galvanizing pro- to those metals below them.
vides a tough, metallurgically bonded zinc coat-
ing that completely covers the steel surface and Because zinc is anodic to steel, the galva-
seals the steel from the environment’s corrosive nized coating provides cathodic protection to
action. Additionally, zinc’s sacrificial action exposed steel. When zinc and steel are connect-
(cathodic) protects the steel even where damage ed in the presence of an electrolyte, the zinc is
or minor discontinuity occur in the coating. slowly consumed, while the steel is protected.
Zinc’s sacrificial action offers protection where
It should be noted that the performance of small areas of steel are exposed, such as cut
hot-dip galvanized reinforcing steel in concrete edges, drill-holes, scratches, or as the result of
is quite different than that of hot-dip galvanized severe surface abrasion. Cathodic protection of
steel in atmospheric conditions. the steel from corrosion continues until all the
zinc in the immediate area is consumed.
Barrier Protection
Both steel and chromated zinc are normally
Zinc is characterized by its amphoteric
passive in the highly alkaline environment of
nature and its ability to passivate due to the for-
concrete. However, penetration of chloride ions
mation of protective reaction product films.
to the metal surface can break down this passiv-
Reaction of zinc with fresh cement leads to pas-
ity and initiate rusting of steel or sacrificial cor-
sivity by formation of a diffusion barrier layer of
4 zinc corrosion products.
TABLE 1 - Galvanic Series of Metals solution of the alloy layers in the zinc coating.
CORRODED END Only after the coating has fully dissolved in a
Anopdic or less noble region of the bar will localized corrosion of the
(Electronegative)
Arrangement of steel begin.
Magnesium
Zinc Metals in the
Aluminum Galvanic Series: Galvanizing protects the steel during in-
Cadmium plant and on-site storage, as well as after
Iron or Steel Any one of these
metals and alloys will
embedment in the concrete. In areas where the
Stainless Steels (active) reinforcement may be exposed due to thin or
Soft Solders theoretically corrode
Lead while offering pro- porous concrete, cracking, or damage to the
Tin tection to any other concrete, the galvanized coating provides
Nickel which is lower in the extended protection. Since zinc corrosion prod-
Brass series, so long as
both are electrically
ucts occupy a smaller volume than iron corro-
Bronzes sion products, the corrosion that may occur to
Copper connected.
Nickel-Copper Alloys
the galvanized coating causes little or no disrup-
Stainless Steels (passive) In actual practice, tion to the surrounding concrete. Tests also
Silver Solder however, zinc is by confirm that zinc corrosion products are pow-
Silver far the most effec-
tive in this respect.
dery, non-adherent and capable of migrating
Gold from the surface of the galvanized reinforce-
Platinum
ment into the concrete matrix, reducing the
PROTECTED END likelihood of zinc corrosion-induced spalling of
Cathodic or more noble the concrete (Yeomans).
(Electropositive)

rosion of the zinc. The susceptibility of con-


crete structures to the intrusion of chlorides is DESIGN,
the primary incentive for using galvanized steel
reinforcement.
FABRICATION &
INSTALLATION
Galvanized reinforcing steel can withstand
exposure to chloride ion concentrations several DESIGN
times higher (at least 4 to 5 times) than the When galvanized steel is specified (see
chloride level that causes corrosion in black American Galvanizers Association’s publication
steel reinforcement. While black steel in con- Suggested Specification for Hot-Dip Galvanizing
crete typically depassivates below a pH of 11.5, Reinforcing Steel), the design requirements and
galvanized reinforcement can remain passivated installation procedures employed should be no
at a lower pH, thereby offering substantial pro- less stringent than for structures where uncoat-
tection against the effects of concrete carbona- ed steel reinforcement is used. In addition,
tion. there are some special requirements to be
observed when galvanized steel is used. The fol-
These two factors combined -- chloride tol- lowing suggestions are intended as a guide for
erance and carbonation resistance -- are widely designers, engineers, contractors and inspec-
accepted as the basis for superior performance tors. They are intended as a supplement to
of galvanized reinforcement compared to black other codes and standards dealing with design,
steel reinforcement. The total life of a galva- fabrication and construction of reinforced con-
nized coating in concrete is made up of the time crete structures, and deal only with those spe-
taken for the zinc to depassivate (which is cial considerations that arise due to the use of
longer than that for black steel, because of its galvanized steel.
higher tolerance to chloride ions and carbona-
tion resistance), plus the time taken for the dis-
5
Steel Selection FABRICATION
The concrete reinforcing steel to be galva- Bending Bars
nized shall conform to one of the following
Hooks or bends should be smooth and not
ASTM specifications: A 615, A 616, A 617 or A
sharp. Cold-bending should be in accordance
706 (see page 20).
with the recommendations of CRSI. When bars
are bent cold prior to galvanizing, they need to
Detailing of Reinforcement be fabricated to a bend diameter equal to or
Detailing of galvanized reinforcing steel greater than those specified in Table 2. Material
should conform to the design specifications for can be cold bent tighter than shown in Table 3 if
uncoated steel bars and to normal standard it is stress-relieved at a temperature from 900
practice consistent with the recommendations to 1050 F (482-566 C) for one hour per inch
of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (2.5 cm) of bar diameter before hot-dip galvaniz-
(CRSI). ing.

Overlapping lengths of hot-dip galvanized TABLE 2 - Minimum Bend Diameters Suggested


Minimum Finished Bend Diameters-Inch-Pound Units
reinforcing steel are identical to uncoated steel Bar No. Grade 40 Grade 50 Grade 60 Grade 75
reinforcement overlap lengths because of the 3, 4, 5, 6 6d 6d 6d ---
equivalent bond strength to concrete. 7, 8 6d 8d 8d ---
9, 10 8d 8d 8d ---
11 8d 8d 8d 8d
Dissimilar Metals in Concrete 14, 18 --- ---
d = nominal diameter of the bar
10d 10d

Another consideration when using galva-


nized reinforcement in concrete is the possibili-
When galvanizing is performed before
ty of establishing a bimetallic couple between
bending, some cracking and flaking of the galva-
zinc and bare steel (i.e. at a break in the zinc
nized coating at the bend may occur. The speed
coating or direct contact between galvanized
at which the article is bent also may affect coat-
steel and black steel bars) or other dissimilar
ing integrity. The galvanized coating is best
metals. A bimetallic couple of this type in con-
maintained at slower bend speeds. According to
crete should not be expected to exhibit corro-
ASTM A 767 (see page 20), some cracking and
sive reactions as long as the two metals remain
flaking of the galvanized coating in the bend area
passivated. To ensure this is the case, the con-
is not cause for rejection. Any flaking or cracking
crete depth to the zinc/steel contact should not
can be repaired as described in ASTM A 780 (see
be less than the cover required to protect black
page 20).
steel alone under the same conditions.

Therefore, when galvanized reinforcement Storage &


is used in concrete, it should not be coupled Handling
directly to large areas of black steel reinforce- Galvanized bars
ment, copper or other dissimilar metal. Bar sup- may be stored outdoors
ports and accessories should be galvanized. Tie with no corrosion per-
wire should be annealed wire, 16-gauge or heav- formance degradation.
ier, preferably galvanized. If desired, polyethyl- Their general ease of
ene and other similar tapes can be used to pro- storage makes it feasi-
vide insulation between dissimilar metals. ble to store standard
lengths so that they are Standard-size rein-
forcing steel, both
available on demand. straight and fabri-
Another important char- cated, can be galva-
nized in advance and
acteristic of galvanized easily stored until
reinforcing steel is that it needed.
6
can be handled and placed in the same manner Removal of Forms
as black steel reinforcement, because of the
Because cements with naturally low occur-
great abrasion resistance of galvanized steel.
ring levels of chromates may react with zinc and
(For additional information, see American
retard hardening and initial set, it is important
Galvanizers Association’s Field Handling Guide:
to ensure that forms and supports are not
Hot-Dip Galvanizing vs. Fusion Bonded Epoxy.)
removed before the concrete has developed the
required strength to support itself. Normal form
removal practices may be utilized if the cement
INSTALLATION contains at least 100 ppm of chromates in the
Welding final concrete mix or if the hot-dip galvanized
bars are chromate-passivated according to ASTM
Welding galvanized reinforcement should
A 767 (see page 20), Section 4.3.
conform to the requirements of the current edi-
tion of the American Welding Society (AWS)
Standard Practice AWS D19.0, Welding Zinc-
Coated Steel. Welding of galvanized reinforce- THE HOT-DIP
ment poses no problems, provided adequate
precautions are taken. These include a slower GALVANIZING
welding rate and proper ventilation. The ventila-
tion normally required for welding operations is
PROCESS
The hot-dip galvanizing process consists of
considered adequate.
three basic steps: surface preparation, galvaniz-
ing and inspection. Each of these steps is impor-
tant in obtaining a quality galvanized coating
(Figure 5).

SURFACE PREPARATION
It is essential for the steel surface to be
clean and uncontaminated in order to obtain a
uniform, adherent coating. Surface preparation
is usually performed in sequence by caustic
(alkaline) cleaning, water rinsing, pickling, a sec-
ond water rinsing and fluxing.
The abrasion-resistant galvanized
coating requires no special han-
dling procedures. The caustic cleaner removes organic con-
taminants including dirt, water-based paint
markings, grease and oil. Next, scale and rust
Local Repair of Coating are removed by a pickling bath of hot sulfuric
acid (150 F / 66 C) or room temperature
Local removal of the galvanized coating in
hydrochloric acid. Water rinsing usually follows
the area of welds, bends, or sheared ends will
both caustic cleaning and pickling.
not significantly affect the protection offered by
galvanizing, provided the exposed surface area
Surface preparation can also be accom-
is small compared to the adjacent surface area
plished using abrasive cleaning as an alternate
of galvanized steel. When the exposed area is
to, or in conjunction with, chemical cleaning.
excessive and gaps are evident in the galva-
Abrasive cleaning is a mechanical process in
nized coating, the area can be repaired in accor-
which shot or grit is propelled against the mate-
dance with ASTM A 780 (see page 20).
rial by air blasts or rapidly rotating wheels.

7
FIGURE 5 - The Hot-Dip Galvanizing Process

Surface Preparation Galvanizing Inspection

Cooling and
Molten Quality Assurance
Rinsing Flux Zinc Bath
Rinsing Pickling Solution
Caustic
Cleaning

The final cleaning of the steel is performed Surface appearance and coating thickness
by a flux, an aqueous solution of zinc ammoni- are the result of many process parameters.
um chloride that prevents any oxidation of the Some of these parameters are steel chemistry;
newly cleaned steel and promotes good zinc variations in immersion time and/or bath tem-
adhesion to the steel. perature; rate of withdrawal from the galvaniz-
ing bath; removal of excess zinc by wiping, shak-
ing or centrifuging; and control of the cooling
rate by water quenching or air cooling.

The American Galvanizers Association has


developed procedures for galvanizing reinforc-
ing steel to assure the galvanized coating will
meet not only the minimum coating weights for
Rebar being removed from the bath galvanized reinforcement specified in ASTM A
of molten zinc. Excess zinc runs off
the bars, but enough zinc has bond- 767 (see page 20) as seen here in Table 4, but
ed to the steel to protect it from also the other requirements of the standard.
corrosion for decades.

GALVANIZING
The material to be coated is immersed in a
bath of molten zinc maintained at temperatures
of more than 800 F (430 C). A typical bath
chemistry used in hot-dip galvanizing is 98%
pure zinc. The time of immersion in the galva-
nizing bath varies depending on the dimensions
and chemistry of the material being coated.
Materials with thinner sections galvanize more Because of galvanizing’s unique, tough coating,
there is no tip-toeing around the work-site. The
quickly than those with thicker sections. intermetallic layers of galvanized coating are
harder than the base steel, so galvanized rebar
is extremely resistant to damage from abrasion
and other installation elements.
8
PHYSICAL IMPACT & ABRASION
PROPERTIES OF RESISTANCE
HOT-DIP The ductile outer zinc layer provides good
impact resistance to the bonded galvanized
GALVANIZED coating. The photomicrograph in Figure 6 shows

COATINGS the typical hardness values of a hot-dip galva-


nized coating. The hardness of the zeta, gamma
and delta layers is actually greater than the base
steel’s and provides exceptional resistance to
METALLURGICAL BOND coating damage from abrasion.
Hot-dip galvanizing is a factory-applied
coating that provides a combination of proper- FIGURE 7 - Barrier Protection Only
ties unmatched by other coating systems
because of its unique metallurgical bond with
the steel.

The photomicrograph in Figure 6 shows a


section of a typical hot-dip galvanized coating.
This is what This is what This is what
The galvanized coating consists of a progression happens at a happens at a happens at a
of zinc-iron alloy layers metallurgically bonded scratch on scratch on painted scratch on steel
galvanized steel. steel. The exposed coated with a less
to the base steel. The metallurgical bond The zinc coating steel corrodes, active metal, such
formed by the galvanizing process ensures that sacrifices itself forms a pocket of as copper. The
slowly to protect rust, and lifts the exposed steel
no underfilm corrosion can occur. Epoxy coat- the steel. This sac- paint film from the corrodes faster
ings, on the other hand, merely overcoat the rificial action con- metal surface to than normal to
tinues as long as form a blister. This protect the more
steel with a penetrable film. As illustrated in there is zinc in the blister will continue noble metal,
Figure 7, once the epoxy film is broken and the immediate area. to grow. copper.
bare steel is exposed, corrosion begins as if no
protection existed.
CORNER & EDGE
FIGURE 6 - Typical
Zinc-Iron Alloy
PROTECTION FIGURE 8 - Full Corner
Protection
Layers Corrosion often
begins at corners or
Eta
(100% Zn) edges of products that
70 DPN
have not been galva-
Zeta nized. Epoxy coatings,
(94% Zn, 6% Fe)
180 DPN
regardless of application
Delta method, are thinnest at
(90% Zn, 10% Fe)
245 DPN such places. The galva-
Gamma nized coating will be at
(75% Zn, 25% Fe)
250 DPN least as thick, possibly thicker, on corners and
edges as on the general surface. This provides
Steel
(100% Fe) equal or extra protection to these critical areas
159 DPN
(see Figure 8).
DPN = Diamond Pyramid Number

9
COMPLETE COATING The effect of the galvanizing process on the
ductility of steel bar anchors and inserts after
Because galvanizing is accomplished
being subjected to different fabrication proce-
through total immersion, all surfaces of the arti-
dures also has been investigated. The results
cle are fully coated and protected, including
demonstrate conclusively that, with correct
areas inaccessible and hard to reach with brush-
choice of steel and galvanizing procedures,
or spray-applied coatings. Additionally, the
there is no reduction in the steel’s ductility.
integrity of any galvanized coating is ensured
because zinc will not metallurgically bond to
unclean steel. Thus, any uncoated area is imme- FATIGUE STRENGTH
diately apparent as the work is withdrawn from
An extensive experimental program exam-
the molten zinc. Adjustments are made on the
ining the fatigue resistance of galvanized steel
spot, when required, so a fully protected item is
reinforcement shows that deformed reinforcing
delivered to the job site.
steel, exposed to an aggressive environment
prior to testing under cyclic tension loading,
perform better when galvanized.
MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES BOND STRENGTH
OF HOT-DIP Good bonding between reinforcing steel
and concrete is essential for reliable perform-
GALVANIZED STEEL ance of reinforced concrete structures. When
protective coatings on steel are used, it is essen-
tial to ensure that these coatings do not reduce
DUCTILITY & YIELD/TENSILE bond strength. Studies of the bonding of galva-
nized and black steel bars to Portland Cement
STRENGTH TABLE 3 - Bond Between Concrete and Reinforcing Steel
Ductility and strength of
reinforcing steel are important Concrete-Reinforcing Steel Bond
to prevent brittle failure of rein-
forced concrete. Studies of the Study A Study B Study C
effect of galvanizing on the 1000
mechanical properties of steel
Stress in Pounds-Per-Square-Inch

reinforcing bars have demon-


strated that the tensile, yield and 800
ultimate strength, ultimate elon-
gation, and bend requirements
of steel reinforcement are sub- 600
stantially unaffected by hot-dip
galvanizing, provided proper
attention is given to steel selec- 400
tion, fabrication practices and
galvanizing procedures.
200

1 3 12 1 3 12 1 3 12
Months of Curing
Galvanized
Source: University of California, Berkeley
Black Steel
10
concrete have been investigated. The results of Most types
these studies indicate: of cement and
many aggre-
1. Development of the bond between steel gates contain
and concrete depends on age and environment. small quantities
of chromates.
2. In some cases, the time required for These chro-
developing full bond-strength between steel and mates passivate At a construction site, galva-
concrete may be greater for galvanized bars the zinc surface, nized, fabricated rebar has
than for black, depending on the zincate/cement minimizing the been installed and is ready for
reaction. evolution of concrete to be placed.
hydrogen during
3. The fully developed bond strength of the reaction between zinc and the concrete. If
galvanized and black deformed bars is the same. the cement and aggregate contain less chromate
In Table 3, the bond strength of galvanized bars than will yield at least 100 ppm in the final con-
is greater than for similar black bars. crete mix, the galvanized bars can be dipped in
a chromate solution or chromates can be added
to the water when the concrete is mixed.
ZINC REACTION IN
CONCRETE
During curing, the galvanized surface of
steel reinforce-
INSPECTION
ment reacts Once the reinforcing steel has been galva-
Because of
the bond with the alka- nized, the product must be inspected to ensure
strength line cement compliance with specification requirements.
between gal-
vanized steel
paste to form
and concrete, stable, insolu- The standard specification for hot-dip gal-
galvanized ble zinc salts vanized reinforcing steel is ASTM A 767 (see
rebar is used accompanied page 20). This specification covers individual
successfully
in a variety of by hydrogen
bars, as well as groups of bars. When the bars
applications evolution. are fabricated into assemblies prior to galvaniz-
to provide This has raised ing, the standard specification for hot-dip
reliable cor- galvanized assemblies, ASTM A 123 (see page 20)
rosion prevention. The concrete the concern of
in the photo to the left was in the possibility applies. In Canada, for either bars or assemblies,
service for almost 20 years in a of steel the standard specification for hot-dip galvanized
salt-water, marine environment articles is CSA G 164 (see page 20).
and required jackhammering to embrittlement
break the bond between it and due to hydro-
the galvanized rebar. gen absorp- Inspection of the hot-dip galvanized prod-
tion. uct, as the final step in the galvanizing process,
Laboratory studies indicate that this liberated can be most effectively and efficiently conduct-
hydrogen does not permeate the galvanized ed at the galvanizer’s plant. Here, questions can
coating to the underlying steel and the reaction be raised and answered quickly, inspection
ceases as soon as the concrete hardens. speeded up and time saved, which is turned into
an asset for the overall project.
Reaction of zincates with fresh Portland
Cement mortar may retard set and early
strength development, but later, setting occurs
completely with no detrimental effects on the
concrete. In fact, an increase in bond strength
occurs. 11
TABLE 4 - ASTM A 767 COATING
THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS COATING THICKNESS
Coating Class Mass of Zinc Coating The thickness of the galvanized coating is
Coating Class min,ofoz/ft
Weight Zinc2 of Surface
Coating
the primary factor in determining the service
Class I
Bar Designation Size No. 3 915 (3.00) life of the product. The thicker the coating, the
Bar Designation Size No. 4 & larger 1070 (3.50) longer it provides corrosion protection. For
Class II steel embedded in concrete, the relationship is
Bar Designation Size No. 3 & larger 610 (2.00) approximately linear. For example, the service
life is doubled or tripled if the weight of the
zinc coating is doubled or tripled.
TABLE 5 - CONVERSION FROM ZINC COATING WEIGHT
TO ZINC COATING THICKNESS The minimum coating thickness require-
Coating Weight Coating Thickness ments for reinforcing bars from ASTM A 767 (see
oz/ft2 gm/m2 mils microns page 20) are summarized in Table 4. The conver-
1.00 305.2 1.70 43 sion of these weights into thickness values is
1.50 457.8 2.55 65 shown in Table 5. The minimum coating thickness
2.00 610.3 3.40 86
2.50 762.9 4.25 108 requirements for reinforcing bar assemblies from
3.00 915.5 5.10 130 ASTM A 123 (see page 20) are summarized in
3.50 1068.1 5.95 153 Table 6. The conversion of these grades into thick-
ness and weight numbers is shown on Table 7.

The galvanized coating thickness can be


determined via several methods. The size, shape
TABLE 6 - ASTM A 123 COATING and number of parts to be tested likely dictates
THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS
the method of testing. Some test methods are
Minimum Average Coating Thickness Grade by Material Category
non-destructive,
Material All Specimens Tested
Category Steel Thickness Measurement in inches (mm) while others require
<1/16 (<1.6) 1/16 to <1/8 (1.6 to <3.2) 1/8 to 3 /16 (3.2 to 4.8) >3 /16 to <1/4 (>4.8 to <6.4) >1
- 6.4) removal of the zinc
- /4 (>
Structural coating or sectioning
Shapes 45 65 75 85 100
Strip 45 65 75 75 100
of the test article,
Pipe & Tubing 45 45 75 75 75
thereby destroying
the test article.
Wire 35 50 60 65 80

Magnetic Thickness Measurements - The


TABLE 7 - ASTM A 123 COATING
THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS thickness of the coating can be determined by
Minimum Coating Thickness by Grade* magnetic thickness gauge measurements in
Coating
accordance with ASTM E 376 (see page 20). To
Grade mils oz/ft2 µm g/m find the specimen coating thickness, a minimum
35 1.4 0.8 35 245 of five randomly located readings must be taken
45 1.8 1.0 45 320 to represent, as much as practical, the entire
50 2.0 1.2 50 355
surface area of the bar. After specimen coating
55 2.2 1.3 55 390
60 2.4 1.4 60 425 thicknesses have been determined for three
65 2.6 1.5 65 460 bars, the average of those three bars is the aver-
75 3.0 1.7 75 530 age coating thickness for the size lot. If the lot
80 3.1 1.9 80 565 size is increased, more than three samples may
85 3.3 2.0 85 600
be needed.
100 3.9 2.3 100 705
*Conversions in this table are based on the metric thickness value equivalents
from the next earlier version of this specification, using conversion factors con-
sistent with Table x.21 in ASTM A 653 (see page 20), rounded to the nearest
5µm x 0.03937; oz/ft2 = µm x 0.02316; g/m2 = µm x 7.067.

12
Stripping Method - The average coating Sampling Statistics - For determining the
weight can be determined by stripping speci- average coating weight, three random samples
mens taken from sample bars in accordance must be tested from each lot. A “lot” is defined
with ASTM A 90 (see page 20). Cut one speci- as all bars of one size furnished to the same
men from each end of the bar and a third speci- hot-rolled reinforcing bar specifications that
men from the center of the bar. The average have been galvanized within a single production
coating weight for the bar is derived from the shift. It is essential for selected specimens to be
averages of the specimen coating weights representative of the inspection lot. Because
obtained for each of the three pieces. This inspection lot sizes can be very small, statistical
method is a destructive test and is not appropri- sampling plans, such as those covered in ASTM
ate for assemblies of reinforcing steel. B 602 (see page 20), may not be valid. However,
such a statistical sampling plan is recommended
Weighing Bars Before & After Galvanizing - for large lots.
The average coating weight can be determined
by weighing the bars before and after galvaniz-
ing. The first weight is determined after pickling
FACTORS AFFECTING
and drying, the second after the hot-dip galva- COATING THICKNESS
nized bar has cooled to an ambient temperature. There are several factors that affect the
The coating weight is the difference between the coating thickness. The only two that are readily
two weights divided by the surface area of the manageable by the galvanizer are the tempera-
bar. This method does not take into account the ture of the zinc bath and the withdrawal rate of
weight of iron reacted from the bar that is incor- the reinforcing bar from the zinc bath. To a less-
porated into the coating, so the coating weight er degree, the roughness of the surface affects
can be underestimated by as much as 10%. Base the coating thickness. Therefore, parts that have
metal reactivity affects the extent of underesti- been over-pickled and are rough on the surface
mation. This method is only appropriate for can develop thicker zinc-iron layers.
assemblies if the surface area of the assembly
can be obtained. There are two conditions that are uncon-
trollable by the galvanizer that significantly
Microscopy - The average coating weight can affect the outcome of the finished galvanized
be determined using cross-sectioned samples coating. The first is the silicon and phosphorous
and optical microscopy in accordance with content of the reinforcing steel. Certain levels of
ASTM B 487 (see page 20). The thickness of a silicon and phosphorous tend to accelerate the
cross-sectioned sample is determined by optical growth of the zinc-iron alloy layers so that the
measurement. The average coating thickness is coating continues to grow for the entire time
obtained by averaging five thickness measure- the reinforcing steel is immersed in the zinc
ments on widely dispersed cross-sections along bath. The Sandelin Curve (Figure 9 on the next
the length of the bars, so as to represent the page) shows the coating thickness produced by
entire surface of the bar. The average coating steels with different silicon levels by immersing
thickness must then be converted to coating them in zinc baths for the same amount of time.
weight. This test method is destructive and is There are two regions where the coating can
not appropriate for assemblies of reinforcing become very thick, between 0.05% and 0.14%,
steel. and over .25%, silicon. The growth of coatings in
these two regions of silicon concentration pro-
duces very thick, and thereby brittle, coatings
characterized by a matte gray surface, indicating
a predominately zinc-iron intermetallic coating
with little or no free-zinc outer layer.

13
FIGURE 9 - Sandelin Curve of itself a cause for rejection. The matte gray
finish is a sign of accelerated growth of the zinc-
iron intermetallics due to steel with high levels
of silicon. Cold-working may also result in this
appearance. The ability of a galvanized coating
to meet its primary objective of providing corro-
sion prevention should be the chief criteria in
evaluating its overall appearance and in deter-
mining its suitability.

The galvanized coating must be continuous


to provide optimum corrosion prevention.
Handling techniques for galvanizing require the
use of chain slings, wire racks or other holding
Hot-dip galvanized coatings more than 12 devices to lower material into the zinc bath.
mils (305 microns) thick can be susceptible to Chains, wires and special fixtures used to handle
externally applied stress. These thick coatings pieces may leave a mark on the galvanized item.
may experience flaking and disbonding, even These marks are not necessarily detrimental to
under very slight external stress. The coating the coating and are not a cause for rejection,
can fracture at the interface between separate unless they have exposed the bare steel or cre-
zinc-iron intermetallic layers. There will be a 0.1 ated a handling hazard for erection personnel. If
to 0.3 mil (2.5 - 8 microns) thick layer of zinc- necessary, these areas can be adequately
iron intermetallic left on the bar, while the rest repaired according to ASTM A 780 (see page 20).
of the zinc coating has flaked away.
The surface roughness of the reinforcing
The second factor affecting coating thick- steel after galvanizing also depends on the
ness is the blend of various bar sizes in a rein- amount of silicon in the reinforcing steel. Often
forcing steel assembly. Each different size bar a matte gray coating will have a rough surface.
will develop a zinc coating at a different rate. This does not affect the performance of the
Larger bars must be kept in the zinc bath for a reinforcing steel or the galvanized coating as
longer time in order to develop the minimum the rebar is embedded in concrete.
required thickness. In an assembly with different
size bars, the smaller ones tend to have thicker-
than-normal coatings because of the need to
VISUAL INSPECTION GUIDE
keep the larger bars in the bath for the required A visual inspection should be performed at
time. the galvanizer’s facility to ensure compliance
with the coating appearance requirements. The
following are rare coating conditions that may
COATING APPEARANCE occur.
ASTM A 123 and A 767 (see page 20) require
that the zinc coating have no bare spots and be Bare Spots - Gross uncoat-
free of blisters, flux spots or inclusions, and ed areas should be rejected.
large dross inclusions. The same specifications Small bare areas may be
also state that a matte gray finish is not in and repaired according to ASTM
A 780 (see page 20). Some of
the causes of bare spots are:
ASTM standards 1. Incomplete surface cleaning: Remnants
require the zinc coat- of paint, oil, grease, scale or rust cause uncoat-
ing to be free of
major imperfections.
ed areas. The molten zinc does not bond to
such residues.
14
2. Welding slag: In assem- Lumps & Runs - Areas of thicker coating,
blies that have been welded, sometimes resulting from fast withdrawal rates
slag deposits from welding or lower zinc bath temperatures, are not detri-
procedures are resistant to mental to coating performance.
the normal cleaning solu-
tions used in the galvanizing Flux Inclusions - Zinc
process and must be mechanically removed. ammonium chloride, or
3. Overdrying: If the time between preflux- “flux,” may adhere to
ing and galvanizing is too long, or the drying steel being galvanized.
temperature is too high, the steel may rust due Flux inclusions are not
to evaporation of the preflux, and the zinc will cause for rejection,
not bond to these rusted areas. assuming the underlying
coating is sound and the
4. Excess aluminum: If the aluminum con- flux deposits are removed.
centration in the zinc bath exceeds 0.01%, there
may be an occurrence of dark areas on the coat- Ash Inclusions - Zinc ash is
ing surface. the oxide film that develops
5. Articles in contact: The on the surface of the molten
zinc in the galvanizing bath zinc. Ash inclusions picked
should have free access to all up from the surface of the
parts of the surface. Articles bath during withdrawal have
should not be in contact no detrimental affect on cor-
throughout the galvanizing rosion prevention performance and are not
process. cause for rejection.

Dross Protrusions - Dross Gray or Mottled Coating


is the zinc/iron alloy that Appearance - Exposed zinc-
forms in the galvanizing ket- iron alloy layers, not covered
tle. Dross usually settles on by a layer of free zinc, result
the bottom of the kettle in a matte gray or mottled
and, if stirred up from the coating. This may happen
bottom, can attach to steel over the entire coating or in
being galvanized. Commonly, the galvanized isolated areas. Steel chemistry contributes to
coating will form around the dross particles, this occurrence. Because coating appearance
although rough surfaces may result. This is not does not affect the corrosion prevention provid-
cause for rejection unless safe handling is com- ed, matte gray or mottled coatings are not
promised or removal due to handling will leave cause for rejection.
a spot under the dross particle.
Brown Staining - If
Blisters & Slivers - Blisters and slivers some- coatings with exposed
times form as a result of surface and/or subsur- intermetallic layers
face defects in the steel being galvanized. The (zinc-iron alloy layers)
possibility for this occurrence can be minimized are exposed to the envi-
by communication among galvanizer, fabricator, ronment, brown staining
and steel supplier throughout the project’s may appear. This results
design phase. from the interaction between iron in the inter-
metallic layer and the atmosphere. Coating per-
formance is not affected.

15
Rust Staining - If galva- GALVANIZED REINFORCING
nized coatings come into
contact with bare steel STEEL TESTING
(chains used in transporta- In addition to visual inspection, different
tion, etc.), there may appear properties and characteristics of hot-dip galva-
to be rust staining on the nized rebar may also be tested. These tests may
galvanized steel surface. This need to be performed on lots of steel to ensure
is actually a superficial occurrence; the staining that they meet relevant standards, or on trial
may be cleaned off before end-use. lots before they are put into end-use. Accredited
labs experienced with the individual test proce-
Wet Storage Stain - dures should perform these tests.
The naturally occurring
formation of a tena- Bond Strength Test - The bond of the hot-dip
cious, abrasion-resist- galvanized reinforcing bar to the concrete can
ant zinc carbonate pati- be tested according to ASTM A 944 (see page
na provides yet anoth- 20). The bond strength relies heavily on the
er component to the deformation of the bar and not as much on the
protection afforded by actual bond between the zinc and the concrete.
galvanizing. The formation of this patina For plain bars with no deformation, the bond
depends on the galvanized steel’s being between the zinc and the concrete becomes
exposed to freely circulating air. very important. Pullout strength of hot-dip gal-
vanized reinforcing steel has been tested many
Stacking galvanized articles closely togeth- times, and the values of bond strength are
er for extended periods of time, thereby limiting equivalent to, or better than, black steel bond
access to freely circulating air, can lead to the strength, as illustrated in Table 3, page 10.
formation of a white powdery product common-
ly called “wet storage stain.” Chromate Finish Test - If chromate coating is
required, the existence of chromates may be
Wet storage staining is often superficial, verified using the method described in ASTM B
despite the possible presence of a bulky, white 201 (see page 20). Because chromate conversion
product. In the vast majority of cases, wet stor- coatings will weather away fairly quickly, bars
age stain does not indicate serious degradation chromated after they were galvanized may
of the zinc coating, nor does it necessarily imply exhibit no chromate by the time they are
any likely reduction in the product’s expected embedded in the concrete.
service-life.
Embrittlement Tests: Higher strength bars
If wet storage stain does form, the objects that have had considerable cold working may be
should be arranged so that their surfaces dry susceptible to embrittlement during the galva-
rapidly. Once dry, most stains can be easily nizing process. Guidelines for fabricating bars to
removed by brushing with a stiff bristle (not be hot-dip galvanized are provided in ASTM A
wire) brush. If the affected area will not be fully 143 and ASTM A 767 (see page 20). When
exposed in service or if it will be subjected to embrittlement is suspected, ASTM A 143 (see
an extremely humid environment, even superfi- page 20) designates the appropriate test method
cial white films should be removed with a stiff to determine the presence of embrittlement.
bristle brush.
Accelerated Aging Test: Efforts have been
made in many zinc-coated steel applications to
develop the correct test method to determine a
proper accelerated lifetime. The standard test
for corrosion prevention system is ASTM B 117
16
(see page 20). ASTM Committee G-1 on
Corrosion of Metals has jurisdiction over the salt FIELD PERFORMANCE
spray standards B 117 and G 85 (see page 20). OF GALVANIZED
The Committee passed the following resolution
regarding the use of B 117: REINFORCEMENT
VERTICAL CONSTRUCTION
“ASTM Committee G-1 on the Corrosion of The Egg at the Empire Center Plaza, a per-
Metals confirms that results of salt spray (fog) forming arts center in Albany, N.Y., is a massive
tests, run according to ASTM standard designa- undertaking of architecture, combining aesthet-
tion B 117, seldom correlate with performance ics and function, in a concrete and steel form.
in natural environments. Therefore, the Because of its use of hot-dip galvanized rebar,
Committee recommends that the test not be this extravagant design will give citizens and vis-
used or referenced in other standards for that itors of Albany decades of enjoyment.
purpose, unless appropriate corroborating long-
term atmospheric exposures have been conducted. Despite its name and elegantly simple
design, The Egg is a pillar of strength, literally.
“ASTM B 117 and B 368 (see page 20) are The Egg balances on a concrete and steel stem
best used as quality control tests assuring that extending six stories into the ground.
the day-to-day quality of products and manufac-
turing processes are optimized. There are a The shell of The Egg is shaped by a heavily
number of other corrosion tests which can be reinforced concrete girdle that helps keep its
used for predicting performance in service.” shape and directs the weight of the structure
onto the supporting pedestal and stem.
Salt spray tests cannot be used to accurate-
ly test zinc-coated steel because they accelerate
the wrong failure mechanism. Without a proper
wet/dry cycle, the zinc coating cannot form pati-
na layers. The absence of a patina layer allows
constant attack of the zinc metal and gives a
very low prediction of the zinc coating lifetime.
Additionally, because the corrosion rate of zinc
embedded in concrete is significantly less than
that of zinc in atmospheric conditions and has
never been subject to long-term analysis, corre-
lation to salt spray tests is impossible.

The housing
barracks at the
U.S. Coast
Guard Academy
were built with
galvanized rein-
Extensive use of hot-dip galvanized reinforcement, forcing steel to
including this surrounding wall, was specified for a protect the
hospital in Australia. Galvanizing will help keep cor- building and
rosion from creating severe spalling problems in this concrete from
structure, located in the coastal city of Katingal, corrosion and
home to a highly corrosive marine environment. spalling.

17
Adding even more durability to this decep-
tively fragile structure are miles of galvanized
rebar, weaving in and out of the shell and stem.

Construction of The Egg began in 1966 and


took 12 years to complete. Today, The Egg
remains a beautiful piece of rust-free architec-
ture.
Athens Bridge
HORIZONTAL Tioga Bridge

CONSTRUCTION
Both the Athens and Tioga Bridges are
strengthened and protected from corrosion by
hot-dip galvanized reinforcing steel.

They both are heavily traveled routes


between industrial areas of Pennsylvania and the
Five Finger Lakes area of New York. After
experiencing over 25 years of heavy snowfall, chloride-containing road salts used to keep the
consequently exposing the bridge to corrosive, bridges free from ice and snow accumulation,
each bridge contains galvanized rebar that on an
average measured 7.0+ mils (178 microns) of
zinc. Because the galvanized coating continues
to provide unsurpassed corrosion prevention to
the reinforcing steel, both bridges will continue
to be maintenance-free for an additional 20 to
30 years.

For over 20 years galvanized rebar has provided


The Pennsylvania DOT makes extensive use of the Boca Chica Bridge near Key West, Fla., with
galvanized rebar. The bridge deck of the maintenance-free corrosion prevention.
Schuylkill River Expressway in Philadelphia is Galvanized rebar has helped avoid traffic-
protected by 400 short tons (368 Mtons) of gal- snarling repairs of this 2,573-foot-long (784 m),
vanized rebar. After over a decade of service, 42-foot-wide (13 m) bridge. Despite heavy traf-
the rebar is in excellent condition. fic and humid saltwater conditions, core sam-
ples show the galvanized rebar to have an aver-
age coating thickness of 4 mils (102 microns)
18 with no detectible signs of corrosion.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
ACI Committee 222. “Corrosion of Metals in Concrete;” American Concrete Institute, 222R-85, 1985.

Adnrade, C. et al. “Corrosion Behavior of Galvanized Steel in Concrete;” 2nd International Conference on Deterioration
and Repair of Reinforced Concrete in the Arabian Gulf; Proceedings Vol. 1, pp. 395-410, 1987.

Arup, H. “The Mechanisms of the Protection of Steel by Concrete;” Society of Chemical Industry Conference of
Reinforcement in Concrete Construction; London, June 1983.

“Structures - A Scientific Assessment;” CSIRO Paper, Sydney, 1979.

Bird, C.E. “Bond of Galvanized Steel Reinforcement in Concrete;” Nature, Vol. 94, No. 4380, 1962.

Breseler B. & Cornet I. “Galvanized Steel Reinforcement in Concrete;” 7th Congress of the International Association of
Bridge and Structural Engineers, Rio de Janeiro, 1964.

Chandler, K.A. & Bayliss, D.A. “Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures;” Elsevier Applied Science Publishers,
pp. 338-339, 1985.

Cornet, I. & Breseler, B. “Corrosion of Steel and Galvanized Steel in Concrete;” Materials Protection, Vol. 5, No. 4,
pp. 69-72, 1966.

Concrete Institute of Australia. “The Use of Galvanized Reinforcement in Concrete;” Current Practice Note 17,
September 1984. ISBN 0 909375 21 6.

Duval, R. & Arliguie, G.; “Memoirs Scientifiques Rev. Metallurg;” LXXI, No. 11, 1974.

Galvanizers Association of Australia. “Hot Dip Galvanizing Manual;” 1985.

Hime, W. & Erlin, B. “Some Chemical and Physical Aspects of Phenomena Associated with Chloride-Induced Corrosion;”
Corrosion, Concrete and Chlorides; Steel Corrosion in Concrete: Causes and Restraints; ACI SP-102, 1987.

Hosfoy, A.E. & Gukild, I. “Bond Studies of Hot Dipped Galvanized Reinforcement in Concrete;” ACI Journal, March,
pp. 174-184, 1969.

India Lead Zinc Information Centre. “Protection of Reinforcement in Concrete, An Update, Galvanizing and Other
Methods;” New Delhi, 1995.

International Lead Zinc Research Organization. “Galvanized Reinforcement for Concrete - II;” USA, 1981.

Kinstler, J.K. “Galvanized Reinforcing Steel - Research, Survey and Synthesis;” International Bridge Conference Special
Interest Program, Pittsburgh, PA, 1995.

MacGregor, B.R. “Galvanized Solution to Rebar Corrosion;” Civil Engineering, UK, 1987.

Page, C.L. & Treadway, K.W.J. “Aspects of the Electrochemistry of Steel in Concrete;” Nature, V297, May 1982,
pp. 109-115.

Portland Cement Association. “An Analysis of Selected Trace Metals in Cement and Kiln Dust;” PCA publication SP109,
1992.

Roberts, A.W. “Bond Characteristics of Concrete Reinforcing Tendons Coated with Zinc;” ILZRO Project ZE-222, 1977.

Tonini, D.E. & Dean, S.W. “Chloride Corrosion of Steel in Concrete;” ASTM-STP 629, 1976.

Warner, R.F., Rangan, B.V., & Hall, A.S. “Reinforced Concrete;” Longman Cheshire, 3rd edition, pp. 163-169, 1989.

Worthington, J.C., Bonner, D.G. & Nowell, D.V. “Influence of Cement Chemistry on Chloride Attack of Concrete;” Material
Science and Technology; pp. 305-313, 1988.

Yeomans, S.R. & Hadley, M.B. “Galvanized Reinforcement - Current Practice and Developing Trends;” Australian
Corrosion
Association Conference, Adelaide, 17 pp., November, 1986.

Yeomans, S.R. “Corrosion Behavior and Bond Strength of Galvanized Reinforcement and Epoxy Coated Reinforcement in
Concrete;” ILZRO Project ZE-341, June, 1990.

Yeomans, S.R. “Comparative Studies of Galvanized and Epoxy Coated Steel Reinforcement in Concrete;” Research Report
N0. R103, University College, Australian Defense Force Academy, The University of New South Wales, 1991.

Yeomans, S.R. “Considerations of the Characteristics and Use of Coated Steel Reinforcement in Concrete;” Building and
Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993. 19
SPECIFICATIONS
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING & MATERIALS (ASTM)
A 90 Test Method for Weight (Mass) of Coating on Iron and Steel Articles
with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings
A 123 Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel
Products
A 143 Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural
Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement
A 615 Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A 616 Specification for Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A 617 Specification for Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A 653 Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron
Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process
A 706 Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A 767 Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A 780 Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip
Galvanized Coatings
A 944 Test Methods for Comparing Bond Strength of Steel Reinforcing Bars
to Concrete Using Beam-End Specimens
B 117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus
B 201 Practice for Testing Chromate Coatings on Zinc and Cadmium Surfaces
B 368 Method for Copper-Accelerated Acetic Acid-Salt Spray (Fog) Testing
(CASS Test)
B 487 Test Method for Measurement of Metal and Oxide Coating Thickness
of Microscopial Examination of a Cross Section
B 602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
E 376 Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field of Eddy-
Current (Electromagnetic) Test Methods
CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION (CSA)
G 164 Galvanizing of Irregularly Shaped Articles (Canadian specification)
20
American Galvanizers Association
Protecting Steel for Generations
6881 South Holly Circle, Suite 108
Centennial, Colorado 80112
Phone: 800-468-7732
Fax: 720-554-0909
www.galvanizeit.org
aga@galvanizeit.org
©2002