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Rwanda

For other uses, see Rwanda (disambiguation).

dominated state in 1962. The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990. Social tensions
erupted in the 1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists
Rwanda (/rund/ or /rund/), ocially the Rekilled
an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and modpublic of Rwanda (Kinyarwanda: Repubulika y'u
erate Hutu. The RPF ended the genocide with a military
Rwanda; French: Rpublique du Rwanda), is a sovereign
state in central and east Africa. Located a few degrees victory.
south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Rwandas economy suered heavily during the 1994
Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Rwandan Genocide, but has since strengthened. The
Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Cofis highly elevated; its geography dominated by mountains fee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism
in the west and savanna to the east, with numerous lakes is a fast-growing sector and is now the countrys leadthroughout the country. The climate of the country is ing foreign exchange earner. Rwanda is one of only two
temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely,
dry seasons each year.
and visitors are prepared to pay high prices for gorilla
The population is young and predominantly rural, with tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part
a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans are of Rwandan culture, particularly drums and the highly
composed of three ethnic groups: the Hutu, Tutsi and choreographed intore dance. Traditional arts and crafts
Twa. The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people de- are produced throughout the country, including imigongo,
scended from Rwandas earliest inhabitants. Scholars dis- a unique cow dung art.
agree on the origins of and dierences between the Hutu
and Tutsi; some believe dierences are derived from former social castes, while others view them as being ethnicities or tribes. Christianity is the largest religion in
the country; the principal language is Kinyarwanda, spoken by most Rwandans, with French and English serving as ocial languages. Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), who took oce in 2000.
Rwanda today has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations
report suppression of opposition groups, intimidation and
restrictions on freedom of speech. The country has been
governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times; there are ve provinces delineated by borders drawn in 2006. Rwanda has the worlds highest proportion of females in government positions in proportion
to the population.

1 History
Main article: History of Rwanda
Modern human settlement of what is now Rwanda dates
from, at the latest, the last glacial period, either in the
Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid
period which followed, up to around 3000 BC.[6] Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers,
who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools.[7][8] These
early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda
today.[9] Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of
Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, clearing forest land
for agriculture.[10][9] The forest-dwelling Twa lost much
of their habitat and moved to the mountain slopes.[11] Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the
Bantu migrations; one theory is that the rst settlers were
Hutu, while the Tutsi migrated later to form a distinct
racial group, possibly of Cushitic origin.[12] An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with
incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering
the existing society.[13][9] Under this theory, the Hutu and
Tutsi distinction arose later and was a class distinction
rather than a racial one.[14][15]

Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron


ages, followed later by Bantu peoples. The population
coalesced rst into clans and then into kingdoms. The
Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth
century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily,
centralising power, and later enacting anti-Hutu policies.
Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German
East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916
during World War I. Both European nations ruled through
the kings and perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu
population revolted in 1959. They massacred numerous
Tutsi and ultimately established an independent, Hutu1

A reconstruction of the King of Rwanda's palace at Nyanza

The ag of Rwanda between 1962 and 2001

The earliest form of social organisation in the area was


the clan (ubwoko).[16] Clans existed across the Great
Lakes region, with around twenty in the area that is now
Rwanda.[17] The clans were not limited to genealogical
lineages or geographical area, and most included Hutu,
Tutsi, and Twa.[17] From the 15th century, the clans
began to coalesce into kingdoms;[18] by 1700 around
eight kingdoms existed in present-day Rwanda.[19] One
of these, the Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi
Nyiginya clan, became increasingly dominant from the
mid-eighteenth century.[20] The kingdom reached its
greatest extent during the nineteenth century under the
reign of King Kigeli Rwabugiri. Rwabugiri conquered
several smaller states, expanded the kingdom west and
north,[21][20] and initiated administrative reforms; these
included ubuhake, in which Tutsi patrons ceded cattle,
and therefore privileged status, to Hutu or Tutsi clients
in exchange for economic and personal service,[22] and
uburetwa, a corve system in which Hutu were forced to
work for Tutsi chiefs.[21] Rwabugiris changes caused a
rift to grow between the Hutu and Tutsi populations.[21]
The Twa were better o than in pre-Kingdom days, with
some becoming dancers in the royal court,[11] but their
numbers continued to decline.[23]
The Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to
Germany as part of German East Africa, marking the be-

1 HISTORY
ginning of the colonial era. The explorer Gustav Adolf
von Gtzen was the rst European to signicantly explore the country in 1894; he crossed from the south-east
to Lake Kivu and met the king.[24][25] The Germans did
not signicantly alter the social structure of the country,
but exerted inuence by supporting the king and the existing hierarchy and delegating power to local chiefs.[26]
Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi during World War I, beginning a period of more direct colonial rule.[27] Belgium simplied and centralised the power
structure,[28] and introduced large-scale projects in education, health, public works, and agricultural supervision,
including new crops and improved agricultural techniques
to try to reduce the incidence of famine.[29] Both the Germans and the Belgians promoted Tutsi supremacy, considering the Hutu and Tutsi dierent races.[30] In 1935,
Belgium introduced identity cards labelling each individual as either Tutsi, Hutu, Twa or Naturalised. While
it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy
Hutu to become honorary Tutsi, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the classes.[31]
Belgium continued to rule Rwanda as a UN Trust
Territory after World War II, with a mandate to
oversee independence.[32][33] Tension escalated between
the Tutsi, who favoured early independence, and the
Hutu emancipation movement, culminating in the 1959
Rwandan Revolution: Hutu activists began killing Tutsi,
forcing more than 100,000 to seek refuge in neighbouring countries.[34][35] In 1961, the now pro-Hutu Belgians
held a referendum in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy. Rwanda was separated from Burundi
and gained independence in 1962.[36] Cycles of violence
followed, with exiled Tutsi attacking from neighbouring
countries and the Hutu retaliating with large-scale slaughter and repression of the Tutsi.[37] In 1973, Juvnal Habyarimana took power in a military coup. Pro-Hutu discrimination continued, but there was greater economic
prosperity and a reduced amount of violence against
Tutsi.[38] The Twa remained marginalised, and by 1990
were almost entirely forced out of the forests by the government; many became beggars.[39] Rwandas population
had increased from 1.6 million people in 1934 to 7.1 million in 1989, leading to competition for land.[40]
In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel
group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda, initiating the Rwandan Civil War.[41] Neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage in the
war,[42] but by 1992 it had weakened Habyarimanas authority; mass demonstrations forced him into a coalition with the domestic opposition and eventually to sign
the 1993 Arusha Accords with the RPF.[43] The ceasere ended on 6 April 1994 when Habyarimanas plane
was shot down near Kigali Airport, killing him.[44] The
shooting down of the plane served as the catalyst for the
Rwandan Genocide, which began within a few hours.
Over the course of approximately 100 days, between
500,000 and 1,000,000[45] Tutsi and politically moder-

Rwandan President Paul Kagame

Juvnal Habyarimana

ate Hutu were killed in well-planned attacks on the orders of the interim government.[46] Many Twa were also
killed, despite not being directly targeted.[39] The Tutsi
RPF restarted their oensive, and took control of the
country methodically, gaining control of the whole country by mid-July.[47] The international response to the
Genocide was limited, with major powers reluctant to
strengthen the already overstretched UN peacekeeping
force.[48] When the RPF took over, approximately two
million Hutu ed to neighbouring countries, in particular Zaire, fearing reprisals;[49] additionally, the RPF-led
army was a key belligerent in the First and Second Congo
Wars.[50] Within Rwanda, a period of reconciliation and
justice began, with the establishment of the International
Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the reintroduction of Gacaca, a traditional village court system.
During the 2000s Rwandas economy, tourist numbers
and Human Development Index grew rapidly;[51][52] between 2006 and 2011 the poverty rate reduced from 57%
to 45%,[53] and child mortality rates dropped from 180
per 1000 live births in 2000 to 111 per 1000 in 2009.[54]

tion with the Cabinet,[56] exercising the prerogative of


mercy,[57] commanding the armed forces,[58] negotiating
and ratifying treaties,[59] signing presidential orders,[60]
and declaring war or a state of emergency.[58] The President is elected by popular vote every seven years,[61]
and appoints the Prime Minister and all other members of Cabinet.[62] The incumbent President is Paul
Kagame, who took oce upon the resignation of his predecessor, Pasteur Bizimungu, in 2000. Kagame subsequently won elections in 2003 and 2010,[63][64] although
human rights organisations have criticised these elections
as being marked by increasing political repression and a
crackdown on free speech.[65]

The current constitution was adopted following a national


referendum in 2003, replacing the transitional constitution which had been in place since 1994.[66] The constitution mandates a multi-party system of government,
with politics based on democracy and elections.[67] However, the constitution places conditions on how political
parties may operate. Article 54 states that political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race,
ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other
division which may give rise to discrimination.[68] The
government has also enacted laws criminalising genocide
ideology, which can include intimidation, defamatory
speeches, genocide denial and mocking of victims.[69]
2 Politics and government
According to Human Rights Watch, these laws eectively make Rwanda a one-party state, as under the
Main articles: Politics of Rwanda, Foreign relations of guise of preventing another genocide, the government
Rwanda and Military of Rwanda
displays a marked intolerance of the most basic forms
The President of Rwanda is the head of state,[55] and of dissent.[70] Amnesty International is also critical; in
has broad powers including creating policy in conjunc- its 2010 report Amnesty said that genocide ideology laws

2 POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

have been used to silence dissent, including criticisms 178 in the world.[83] The constitution provides for an
of the ruling RPF party and demands for justice for RPF Ombudsman, whose duties include prevention and ghtwar crimes.[71]
ing of corruption.[84][85] Public ocials (including the
The Parliament consists of two chambers. It makes legis- President) are required by the constitution to declare their
those who
lation and is empowered by the constitution to oversee the wealth to the Ombudsman and to the public;
[86]
do
not
comply
are
suspended
from
oce.
[72]
activities of the President and the Cabinet. The lower
chamber is the Chamber of Deputies, which has 80 members serving ve-year terms. Twenty-four of these seats
are reserved for women, elected through a joint assembly
of local government ocials; another three seats are reserved for youth and disabled members; the remaining 53
are elected by universal surage under a proportional representation system.[73] Following the 2008 election, there
are 45 female deputies, making Rwanda the only country
with a female majority in the national parliament.[74] The
upper chamber is the 26-seat Senate, whose members are
selected by a variety of bodies. A mandatory minimum
of 30% of the senators are women. Senators serve eightyear terms.[75]

The Chamber of Deputies building

Rwandas legal system is largely based on German and


Belgian civil law systems and customary law.[76] The judiciary is independent of the executive branch,[77] although
the President and the Senate are involved in the appointment of Supreme Court judges.[78] Human Rights Watch
have praised the Rwandan government for progress made
in the delivery of justice including the abolition of the
death penalty,[79] but also allege interference in the judicial system by members of the government, such as
the politically motivated appointment of judges, misuse
of prosecutorial power, and pressure on judges to make
particular decisions.[80] The constitution provides for two
types of courts: ordinary and specialised.[81] Ordinary
courts are the Supreme Court, the High Court, and regional courts, while specialised courts are military courts
and the traditional Gacaca courts, which have been revived to expedite the trials of genocide suspects.[82]
Rwanda has low corruption levels relative to most other
African countries; in 2010, Transparency International
ranked Rwanda as the eighth cleanest out of 47 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and 66th cleanest out of

The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) has been the dominant political party in the country since 1994. The
RPF has maintained control of the presidency and the
Parliament in national elections, with the partys vote
share consistently exceeding 70%. The RPF is seen
as a Tutsi-dominated party but receives support from
across the country, and is credited with ensuring continued peace, stability, and economic growth.[87] Human
rights organisations, including Amnesty International and
Freedom House, claim that the government suppresses
the freedoms of opposition groups by restricting candidacies in elections to government-friendly parties, suppressing demonstrations, and arresting opposition leaders and
journalists.[71][88]
Rwanda is a member of the United Nations,[89] African
Union, Francophonie,[90] East African Community,[91]
and the Commonwealth of Nations.[92] For many years
during the Habyarimana regime, the country maintained
close ties with France, as well as Belgium, the former
colonial power.[93] Under the RPF government, however,
Rwanda has sought closer ties with neighbouring countries in the East African Community and with the Englishspeaking world. Diplomatic relations with France were
suspended between 2006 and 2010 following the indictment of Rwandan ocials by a French judge.[94] Relations with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
were tense following Rwandas involvement in the First
and Second Congo Wars;[50] the Congolese army alleged Rwandan attacks on their troops, while Rwanda
blamed the Congolese government for failing to suppress
Hutu rebels in North and South Kivu provinces.[95][96]
Rwandas relationship with Uganda was also tense for
much of the 2000s following a 1999 clash between the
two countries armies as they backed opposing rebel
groups in the Second Congo War.[97] As of 2012, relations with both Uganda and the DRC are improved.[97][98]
The Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) is the national army
of Rwanda. Largely composed of former Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) soldiers, it includes the Rwanda Land
Force, Rwanda Air Force and specialised units.[99] After the successful conquest of the country in 1994 in the
aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide, the Rwandan Patriotic Front decided to split the RPF into a political division (which retained the RPF name) and the RDF, a military division which was to serve as the ocial army of
the Rwandan state. Defence spending continues to represent an important share of the national budget, largely due
to continuing security problems along the frontiers with
the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi, and
lingering concerns about Uganda's intentions towards its
former ally. During the First and Second Congo War,

5
the RPF committed wide scale human rights violations
and crimes against humanity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, according the United Nations Mapping
Report.[100]

of their local cell council, from which an executive committee is elected.[107] The city of Kigali is a provinciallevel authority, which coordinates urban planning within
the city.[104]

The present borders were drawn in 2006 with the aim


of decentralising power and removing associations with
3 Administrative divisions
the old system and the genocide. The previous structure of twelve provinces centred around the largest cities
Main articles: Provinces of Rwanda and Districts of was replaced with ve provinces based primarily on
geography.[108] These are Northern Province, Southern
Rwanda
Rwanda has been governed by a strict hierarchy Province, Eastern Province, Western Province, and the
Municipality of Kigali in the centre.

4 Geography
Main articles: Geography of Rwanda and Climate of
Rwanda
At 26,338 square kilometres (10,169 sq mi), Rwanda

Provinces of Rwanda

since precolonial times.[101] Before colonisation, the


King (Mwami) exercised control through a system of
provinces, districts, hills, and neighbourhoods.[102] The
current constitution divides Rwanda into provinces
(intara), districts (uturere), cities, municipalities,
towns, sectors (imirenge), cells (utugari), and villages
(imidugudu); the larger divisions, and their borders, are
established by Parliament.[103]
The ve provinces act as intermediaries between the national government and their constituent districts to ensure that national policies are implemented at the district
level. The Rwanda Decentralisation Strategic Framework developed by the Ministry of Local Government
assigns to provinces the responsibility for coordinating
governance issues in the Province, as well as monitoring and evaluation.[104] Each province is headed by a
governor, appointed by the President and approved by
the Senate.[105] The districts are responsible for coordinating public service delivery and economic development. They are divided into sectors, which are responsible for the delivery of public services as mandated by the
districts.[106] Districts and sectors have directly elected
councils, and are run by an executive committee selected
by that council.[107] The cells and villages are the smallest
political units, providing a link between the people and
the sectors.[106] All adult resident citizens are members

The Kagera and Ruvubu rivers, part of the upper Nile

is the worlds 149th-largest country.[109] It is comparable in size to Burundi, Haiti and Albania.[76][110] The entire country is at a high altitude: the lowest point is the
Rusizi River at 950 metres (3,117 ft) above sea level.[76]
Rwanda is located in Central/Eastern Africa, and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the
west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, and
Burundi to the south.[76] It lies a few degrees south of
the equator and is landlocked.[94] The capital, Kigali, is
located near the centre of Rwanda.[111]
The watershed between the major Congo and Nile
drainage basins runs from north to south through Rwanda,
with around 80% of the countrys area draining into the
Nile and 20% into the Congo via the Rusizi River and
Lake Tanganyika.[112] The countrys longest river is the
Nyabarongo, which rises in the south-west, ows north,
east, and southeast before merging with the Ruvubu and
formed the Kagera; the Kagera then ows due north along
the eastern border with Tanzania. The NyabarongoKagera eventually drains into Lake Victoria, and its
source in Nyungwe Forest is a contender for the as-yet

6
undetermined overall source of the Nile.[113] Rwanda has
many lakes, the largest being Lake Kivu. This lake occupies the oor of the Albertine Rift along most of the
length of Rwandas western border, and with a maximum
depth of 480 metres (1,575 ft),[114] it is one of the twenty
deepest lakes in the world.[115] Other sizeable lakes include Burera, Ruhondo, Muhazi, Rweru, and Ihema, the
last being the largest of a string of lakes in the eastern
plains of Akagera National Park.[116]

4 GEOGRAPHY
annual rainy days is reduced with short periods of more
intense rainfall. Other times, frequent torrential rainfall
on a daily basis exceeds the total monthly quantity. Also,
there are times when there is a late onset of rainfall or an
early cessation of the same.[125]

4.1 Biodiversity
Main article: Wildlife of Rwanda
In prehistoric times montane forest occupied one-third of

Lake and volcano in the Virunga Mountains

Mountains dominate central and western Rwanda. They


are part of the Albertine Rift Mountains that ank the Albertine branch of the East African Rift, which runs from
north to south along Rwandas western border.[117] The
highest peaks are found in the Virunga volcano chain in
the northwest; this includes Mount Karisimbi, Rwandas
highest point, at 4,507 metres (14,787 ft).[118] This western section of the country lies within the Albertine Rift
montane forests ecoregion.[117] It has an elevation of
1,500 to 2,500 metres (4,921 to 8,202 ft).[119] The centre of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while
the eastern border region consists of savanna, plains and
swamps.[120]
Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with
lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation.[94] Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily temperature range
between 12 and 27 C (54 and 81 F), with little variation through the year.[121] There are some temperature
variations across the country; the mountainous west and
north are generally cooler than the lower-lying east.[122]
There are two rainy seasons in the year; the rst runs
from February to June and the second from September
to December. These are separated by two dry seasons:
the major one from June to September, during which
there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe
one from December to February.[123] Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country
receiving more precipitation annually than the east and
southeast.[124] Climate change has caused a change in the
pattern of the rainy seasons. According to a report by the
Strategic foresight Group, at times, the total number of

Topis in Akagera National Park

the territory of present-day Rwanda. Naturally occurring


vegetation is now mostly restricted to the three National
Parks, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of
the country.[127] Nyungwe, the largest remaining tract of
forest, contains 200 species of tree as well as orchids
and begonias.[128] Vegetation in the Volcanoes National
Park is mostly bamboo and moorland, with small areas of
forest.[127] By contrast, Akagera has a savanna ecosystem
in which acacia dominates the ora. There are several
rare or endangered plant species in Akagera, including
Markhamia lutea and Eulophia guineensis.[129]
The greatest diversity of large mammals is found in the
three National Parks, which are designated conservation
areas.[130] Akagera contains typical savanna animals such
as giraes and elephants,[131] while Volcanoes is home to
an estimated one-third of the worldwide mountain gorilla
population.[132] Nyungwe Forest boasts thirteen primate
species including chimpanzees and Ruwenzori colobus
arboreal monkeys; the Ruwenzori colobus move in groups
of up to 400 individuals, the largest troop size of any primate in Africa.[133]
There are 670 bird species in Rwanda, with variation between the east and the west.[134] Nyungwe Forest, in the
west, has 280 recorded species, of which 26 are endemic
to the Albertine Rift;[134] endemic species include the
Ruwenzori Turaco and Handsome Francolin.[135] Eastern
Rwanda, by contrast, features savanna birds such as the
Black-headed Gonolek and those associated with swamps
and lakes, including storks and cranes.[134]

Economy

the numbers of each.[144] Production systems are mostly


traditional, although there are a few intensive dairy farms
around Kigali.[144] Shortages of land and water, insufMain article: Economy of Rwanda
Rwandas economy suered heavily during the 1994 cient and poor-quality feed, and regular disease epidemics with insucient veterinary services are major
constraints that restrict output. Fishing takes place on
the countrys lakes, but stocks are very depleted, and
live sh are being imported in an attempt to revive the
industry.[145]
The industrial sector is small, contributing 14.3% of GDP
in 2010.[76] Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture,
shoes, plastic goods, textiles and cigarettes.[76] Rwandas
mining industry is an important contributor, generating US$93 million in 2008.[146] Minerals mined include
cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used
in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.[146][147]
Coee beans drying in Maraba. Coee is one of Rwandas major
cash crops.

Genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain the infrastructure, looting, and neglect of important
cash crops. This caused a large drop in GDP and destroyed the countrys ability to attract private and external
investment.[76] The economy has since strengthened, with
per-capita GDP (PPP) estimated at $1,592 in 2013,[3]
compared with $416 in 1994.[136] Major export markets
include China, Germany, and the United States.[76] The
economy is managed by the central National Bank of
Rwanda and the currency is the Rwandan franc; in June
2010, the exchange rate was 588 francs to the United
States dollar.[137] Rwanda joined the East African Community in 2007 and there are plans for a common East
African shilling, which could be in place by 2015.[138] In
addition, the Rwandan economy was ranked second in the
world in terms of green investment facilitation according
to the 2014 Global Green Economy Index.[139]
Rwanda is a country of few natural resources,[94] and the
economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture by
local farmers using simple tools.[140] An estimated 90%
of the working population farms, and agriculture constituted an estimated 42.1% of GDP in 2010.[76] Since the
mid-1980s, farm sizes and food production have been
decreasing, due in part to the resettlement of displaced
people.[141][142] Despite Rwandas fertile ecosystem, food
production often does not keep pace with population
growth, and food imports are required.[76]
Crops grown in the country include coee, tea,
pyrethrum, bananas, beans, sorghum and potatoes. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the
high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing
favourable conditions. Reliance on agricultural exports
makes Rwanda vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[143]
Animals raised in Rwanda include cows, goats, sheep,
pigs, chicken, and rabbits, with geographical variation in

Mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park

Rwandas service sector suered during the late-2000s


recession as banks reduced lending and foreign aid
projects and investment were reduced.[148] The sector rebounded in 2010, becoming the countrys largest sector
by economic output and contributing 43.6% of the countrys GDP.[76] Key tertiary contributors include banking and nance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and
restaurants, transport, storage, communication, insurance, real estate, business services and public administration including education and health.[148] Tourism is
one of the fastest-growing economic resources and became the countrys leading foreign exchange earner in
2011.[149] In spite of the genocides legacy, the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe
destination;[150] The Directorate of Immigration and Emigration recorded 405,801 people visiting the country between January and June 2011; 16% of these arrived from
outside Africa.[151] Revenue from tourism was US$115.6
million between January and June 2011; holidaymakers
contributed 43% of this revenue, despite being only 9%
of the numbers.[151] Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely;
gorilla tracking, in the Volcanoes National Park, attracts thousands of visitors per year, who are prepared

5 ECONOMY

to pay high prices for permits.[152] Other attractions include Nyungwe Forest, home to chimpanzees, Ruwenzori colobus and other primates, the resorts of Lake Kivu,
and Akagera, a small savanna reserve in the east of the
country.[153]

5.1

Media and communications

Main article: Telecommunications in Rwanda


The largest radio and television stations are state-run.
Most Rwandans have access to radio and Radio Rwanda
is the main source of news throughout the country. Television access is limited mostly to urban areas.[154] The
press is tightly restricted and newspapers routinely selfcensor to avoid government reprisals.[154] Nonetheless,
publications in Kinyarwanda, English, and French critical of the government are widely available in Kigali. Restrictions were increased in the run-up to the Rwandan
presidential election of 2010, with two independent newspapers, Umuseso and Umuvugizi, being suspended for six
months by the High Media Council.[155]
Rwandatel is the countrys oldest telecommunications
group, providing landlines to 23,000 subscribers,
mostly government institutions, banks, NGOs and
embassies.[156] Private landline subscription levels are
low. As of 2013, mobile phone penetration in the
country is 57%,[157] up from 35% in 2011.[158] The
leading provider is MTN, with around 2.5 million
subscribers, followed by Tigo with 700,000.[158] A third
mobile phone service, run by Bharti Airtel, launched
in March 2012.[159] Rwandatel also operated a mobile
phone network, but the industry regulator revoked its
licence in April 2011, following the companys failure
to meet agreed investment commitments.[160] Internet
penetration is low but rising rapidly; in 2010 there
were 7.7 internet users per 100 people, up from 2.1
in 2007.[161] In 2011, a 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi)
bre-optic telecommunications network was completed,
intended to provide broadband services and facilitate
electronic commerce.[162] This network is connected
to SEACOM, a submarine bre-optic cable connecting
communication carriers in southern and eastern Africa.
Within Rwanda the cables run along major roads, linking
towns around the country.[162] Mobile provider MTN
also runs a wireless internet service accessible in most
areas of Kigali via pre-paid subscription.[163]

Rural water pump

access to safe water; in 2008, 73% of the population had


access to safe water, up from about 55% in 2005.[164] The
countrys water infrastructure consists of urban and rural
systems which deliver water to the public, mainly through
standpipes in rural areas and private connections in urban areas. In areas not served by these systems, hand
pumps and managed springs are used.[165] Despite rainfall exceeding 100 centimetres (39 in) annually in many
areas,[121] little use is made of rainwater harvesting.[165]
Access to sanitation remains low; the United Nations estimates that in 2006, 34% of urban and 20% of rural
dwellers had access to improved sanitation.[166] Government policy measures to improve sanitation are limited,
focusing only on urban areas.[166] The majority of the
population, both urban and rural, use public shared pit
latrines for sanitation.[166]

Rwandas electricity supply was, until the early 2000s,


generated almost entirely from hydroelectric sources;
power stations on Lakes Burera and Ruhondo provided
90% of the countrys electricity.[167] A combination of
below average rainfall and human activity, including the
draining of the Rugezi wetlands for cultivation and grazing, caused the two lakes water levels to fall from 1990
onwards; by 2004 levels were reduced by 50%, leading
to a sharp drop in output from the power stations.[168]
This, coupled with increased demand as the economy
grew, precipitated a shortfall in 2004 and widespread
loadshedding.[168] As an emergency measure, the government installed diesel generators north of Kigali; by 2006
these were providing 56% of the countrys electricity, but
were very costly.[168] The government enacted a number
of measures to alleviate this problem, including rehabilitating the Rugezi wetlands, which supply water to Bu5.2 Infrastructure
rera and Ruhondo and investing in a scheme to extract
Main articles: Transport in Rwanda and Water supply and methane gas from Lake Kivu, expected in its rst phase
to increase the countrys power generation by 40%.[169]
sanitation in Rwanda
6% of the population had access to electricity in
The Rwandan government prioritised funding of water Only [170]
2009.
supply development during the 2000s, signicantly increasing its share of the national budget.[164] This fund- The government has increased investment in the transport
ing, along with donor support, caused a rapid increase in infrastructure of Rwanda since the 1994 Genocide, with

9
aid from the United States, European Union, Japan, and
others. The transport system centres primarily around
the road network, with paved roads between Kigali and
most other major cities and towns in the country.[171]
Rwanda is linked by road to other countries in the East
African Community, such as Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi
and Kenya, as well as to the eastern Congolese cities of
Goma and Bukavu; the countrys most important trade
route is the road to the port of Mombasa via Kampala and
Nairobi.[172] The principal form of public transport in the
country is the shared taxi. Express routes link the major
cities and local service is oered to most villages along
the main roads. Coach services are available to various
destinations in neighbouring countries. The country has
an international airport at Kigali that serves one domestic
and several international destinations.[173] As of 2011 the
country has no railways, although funding has been secured for a feasibility study into extending the Tanzanian
Central Line into Rwanda.[174] There is no public water
transport between the port cities on Lake Kivu, although a
limited private service exists and the government has initiated a programme to encourage development of a full
service.[171]

density.[40] The population is predominantly rural, with


a few large towns; dwellings are evenly spread throughout the country.[94] The only sparsely populated area of
the country is the savanna land in the former province of
Umutara and Akagera National Park in the east.[176] Kigali is the largest city, with a population of around one
million.[177] Its rapidly increasing population challenges
its infrastructural development.[76][178][179] Other notable
towns are Gitarama, Butare, and Gisenyi, all with populations below 100,000.[180] The urban population rose from
6% of the population in 1990,[178] to 16.6% in 2006;[181]
by 2011, however, the proportion had dropped slightly,
to 14.8%.[181]

Rwanda has been a unied state since pre-colonial


times,[30] and the population is drawn from just one ethnic and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda;[182] this contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders
were drawn by colonial powers and did not correspond to
ethnic boundaries or pre-colonial kingdoms.[183] Within
the Banyarwanda people, there are three separate groups,
the Hutu (84% of the population as of 2009), Tutsi (15%)
and Twa (1%).[184][76] The Twa are a pygmy people who
descend from Rwandas earliest inhabitants, but scholars
do not agree on the origins of and dierences between the
Hutu and Tutsi.[185] Anthropologist Jean Hiernaux con6 Demographics
tends that the Tutsi are a separate race, with a tendency
towards long and narrow heads, faces and noses";[186]
Main articles: Demographics of Rwanda, Religion in others, such as Villia Jefremovas, believe there is no discernible physical dierence and the categories were not
Rwanda and Languages of Rwanda
[187]
In precolonial Rwanda the Tutsi
In 2012, estimates place Rwandas population at historically rigid.
were the ruling class, from whom the Kings and the
majority of chiefs were derived, while the Hutu were
agriculturalists.[188] The current government discourages
the Hutu/Tutsi/Twa distinction, and has removed such
classication from identity cards.[189]

Rural children

11,689,696.[76] The population is young: an estimated


42.7% are under the age of 15, and 97.5% are under
65. The annual birth rate is estimated at 40.2 births per
1,000 inhabitants, and the death rate at 14.9.[76] The life
expectancy is 58.02 years (59.52 years for females and
56.57 years for males), which is the 30th lowest out of
221 countries and territories.[76][175] The sex ratio of the
country is relatively even.[76]
At 408 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,060 /sq mi),
Rwandas population density is amongst the highest in
Africa. Historians such as Grard Prunier believe that the
1994 genocide can be partly attributed to the population

Roman Catholic church in Rwamagana

The majority of Rwandans are Catholic, but there have


been signicant changes in the nations religious demographics since the Genocide, with many conversions to
Evangelical Christian faiths and Islam.[190] As of the
2002 Census, Catholics represented 56.5% of the population, Protestants 37.1% (of whom 11.1% were Seventh Day Adventists) and Muslims 4.6%. 1.7% claimed

10

7 CULTURE

no religious beliefs.[191] Traditional religion, despite ofcially being followed by only 0.1% of the population,
retains an inuence. Many Rwandans view the Christian
God as synonymous with the traditional Rwandan God
Imana.[192]
The countrys principal language is Kinyarwanda, which
is spoken by most Rwandans. The major European
languages during the colonial era were German, and
then French, which was introduced by Belgium and remained an ocial and widely spoken language after
independence.[193] The inux of former refugees from
Uganda and elsewhere during the late 20th century[193]
has created a linguistic divide between the Englishspeaking population and the French-speaking remainder
of the country.[194] Kinyarwanda, English and French
are all ocial languages. Kinyarwanda is the language of government and English is the primary educational medium. Swahili, the lingua franca of the
African Great Lakes, is also widely spoken, particularly
in rural areas.[194] Additionally, inhabitants of Rwandas
Nkombo Island speak Amashi, a language closely related
to Kinyarwanda.[195]

and the drumming, also traditionally performed by men,


on drums known as ingoma.[197] The best known dance
group is the National Ballet. It was established by
President Habyarimana in 1974, and performs nationally and internationally.[198] Traditionally, music is transmitted orally, with styles varying between the social
groups. Drums are of great importance; the royal drummers enjoyed high status within the court of the King
(Mwami).[199] Drummers play together in groups of varying sizes, usually between seven and nine in number.[200]
The country has a growing popular music industry, inuenced by African Great Lakes, Congolese, and American
music. The most popular genre is hip hop, with a blend
of rap, ragga, R&B and dance-pop.[201]

Culture

Main articles: Culture of Rwanda, Music of Rwanda and


Cuisine of Rwanda
Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan

Rwandan woven basket

Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the


country, although most originated as functional items
rather than purely for decoration. Woven baskets and
bowls are especially common.[202] Imigongo, a unique
cow dung art, is produced in the southeast of Rwanda,
with a history dating back to when the region was part
of the independent Gisaka kingdom. The dung is mixed
Traditional Rwandan intore dancers
with natural soils of various colours and painted into patceremonies, festivals, social gatherings and storytelling. terned ridges to form geometric shapes.[203] Other crafts
The most famous traditional dance is a highly chore- include pottery and wood carving.[204] Traditional housographed routine consisting of three components: the ing styles make use of locally available materials; circuumushagiriro, or cow dance, performed by women;[196] lar or rectangular mud homes with grass-thatched roofs
the intore, or dance of heroes, performed by men;[196] (known as nyakatsi) are the most common. The gov-

7.2

Sport

11

ernment has initiated a programme to replace these with 7.2 Sport


more modern materials such as corrugated iron.[205][206]
Internationally, Rwandas athletes made most headlines
Rwanda does not have a long history of written literain basketball, where the national team qualied for the
ture, but there is a strong oral tradition ranging from ponal stages of the African Basketball Championship four
etry to folk stories. Many of the countrys moral values
times in a row and put in bids to host this event.[219]
and details of history have been passed down through
the generations.[207] The most famous Rwandan liter- Rwanda Cricket Stadium is main cricket ground in
ary gure was Alexis Kagame (19121981), who car- Kigali. In 2011, Rwanda Cricket Stadium Foundation
ried out and published research into oral traditions as was formed in August 2011 to build and manage, on
well as writing his own poetry.[208] The Rwandan Geno- a not for prot basis, the rst dedicated international
cide resulted in the emergence a literature of witness ac- cricket ground in Rwanda. It is located 4.5 hectare site
counts, essays and ction by a new generation of writers on the edge of Kigali, Rwandas capital. The charity
such as Benjamin Sehene. A number of lms have been is run by a team of cricket enthusiasts from the UK
produced about the Rwandan Genocide, including the Christopher Shale and Rwanda in partnership with the
Golden Globe-nominated Hotel Rwanda, Shake Hands Marylebone Cricket Club Foundation. Cricket was origiwith the Devil, Sometimes in April, and Shooting Dogs, the nally introduced in Rwanda by migrants, of the Jasat famlast two having been lmed in Rwanda and having fea- ily. The ground is expected to be completed in 2014. The
construction of Rwandas rst dedicated cricket ground
tured survivors as cast members.[209]
will provide a permanent home for the sport, helping
Eleven regular national holidays are observed throughits development and increasing opportunity for thouout the year, with others occasionally inserted by the
sands of disadvantaged young people. In 2012, Brian
[210]
government.
The week following Genocide MemoLara agreed to became one of the Patrons. The Starial Day on 7 April is designated an ocial week of
dium is also supported by British Prime Minister David
[211]
mourning.
The victory for the RPF over the Hutu exCameron, Andrew Mitchell, Jonathan Agnew, Heather
tremists is celebrated as Liberation Day on 4 July. The
Knight, Peter Gummer, Baron Chadlington
last Saturday of each month is umuganda, a national day
of community service, during which most normal ser- Rwanda competed in the Commonwealth Games for the
rst time at the 2010 Games in Delhi, India, after joining
vices close down from 07:00 until 12:00.[212]
the Commonwealth the year before. They also entered
the 2014 games, with competitors in Athletics, Boxing,
Cycling, Swimming and Weightlifting.

7.1

Cuisine

The cuisine of Rwanda is based on local staple foods produced by subsistence agriculture such as bananas, plantains (known as ibitoke), pulses, sweet potatoes, beans,
and cassava (manioc).[213] Many Rwandans do not eat
meat more than a few times a month.[213] For those
who live near lakes and have access to sh, tilapia is
popular.[213] The potato, thought to have been introduced to Rwanda by German and Belgian colonialists, is
very popular.[214] Ubugari (or umutsima) is a paste made
from cassava or maize and water to form a porridge-like
consistency that is eaten throughout the African Great
Lakes.[215] Isombe is made from mashed cassava leaves
and served with dried sh.[214] Lunch is usually a buffet known as mlange, consisting of the above staples
and sometimes meat.[216] Brochettes are the most popular
food when eating out in the evening, usually made from
goat but sometimes tripe, beef, or sh.[216] In rural areas,
many bars have a brochette seller responsible for tending and slaughtering the goats, skewering and barbecuing
the meat, and serving it with grilled bananas.[217] Milk,
particularly in a fermented yoghurt form called ikivuguto,
is a common drink throughout the country.[218] Other
drinks include a traditional beer called urwagwa, made
from sorghum or bananas, which features in traditional
rituals and ceremonies.[214] Commercial beers brewed in
Rwanda include Primus, Mtzig, and Amstel.[215]

8 Education
Main article: Education in Rwanda
The Rwandan government provides free education

Pupils at a Rwandan secondary school

in state-run schools for nine years: six years in primary and three years following a common secondary
programme.[220] President Kagame announced during
his 2010 re-election campaign that he plans to extend

12

9 HEALTH

Butaro Hospital at Burera, Northern Province


OLPC classroom teaching

this free education to cover the nal three secondary


years.[221] Many poorer children still fail to attend school
because of the necessity of purchasing uniforms and
books and commitments at home.[222] There are many
private schools across the country, some church-run,
which follow the same syllabus but charge fees.[222]
A very small number oer international qualications.
From 1994 until 2009, secondary education was oered
in either French or English; because of the countrys
increasing ties with the East African Community and
the Commonwealth, only the English syllabi are now
oered.[223] The country has a number of institutions
of tertiary education, with the National University of
Rwanda (UNR), Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), and Kigali Institute of Education (KIE)
being the most prominent.[222] In 2011, the gross enrolment ratio for tertiary education in Rwanda was 7%, from
4% in 2008.[224] The countrys literacy rate, dened as
those aged 15 or over who can read and write, was 71% in
2009, up from 38% in 1978 and 58% in 1991.[225] Since
2010, Rwanda is participating the in the Open Source
and Open Hardware educational project One Laptop Per
Child. By 2013, 400,000 XO-XS laptops have been distributed. The breakthrough came from a funding from
the Clinton Foundation for a rst 20,000 XO-XS laptops. It is not clear who funded the next batch of 100,000
XO-XS laptops nor the additional laptops leading to the
400,000 XO-XS laptops.[226]

Health

In the pre genocide era before 1994, Rwandas health care


was supported by the Bamako Initiative which was sponsored by UNICEF and WHO and adopted by African
ministers of health in 1987.[227] [228] Progress was then
started towards decentralising the health management
system rst to the Province level then to the district
level.Unfortunately this was disrupted by the 1994 genocide which occurred. As a result of this the healthcare
system alongside with the economy got crippled.In the

post genocide period,Rwanda has had an uphill climb in


the recovery of their health system as well as economy
over the last ten years. The decentralized multi-tiered system in Rwanda has four referral hospitals which are Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK), Centre
Hospitalier Universitaire de Butare (CHUB), King Faisal
Hospital (KFH) and the Kanombe Military Hospital.It
also has a number of dispensaries,34 health posts which
are mainly involved with the outpatient programmes such
as immunizations and family planning services,a number
of health centres estimated to be over 440 and 48 district
hospitals.[229] In 2008, the government spent 9.7% of national expenditure on healthcare, compared with 3.2% in
1996.[230] Health insurance became mandatory for all individuals in 2008;[231] in 2010 over 90% of the population
was covered.[232] The health insurance is mainly delivered by the Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme,
which consists primarily of a social health insurance program called Mutuelles de Sante.[229]

9.1 Maternal and child health


Rwanda is one of the countries which is on track in fulllling the 4th and 5th Millennium Development Goals.In
terms of the maternal mortality ratio,it reduced from
1,400 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 320
deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013.[233] This was
with an average annual rate of reduction to 8.6 from
2000 to 2013.[234] Due to a variety of reasons such as
poverty,poor roads due to the hilly terrain in the rural areas,misleading traditional beliefs and inadequate
knowledege on pregnancy related issues,31 percent of the
women end up delivering at home despite having a public health insurance scheme.Some of the solutions which
have been sought to the challenges include the training of
more community health workers (village health teams)
to sensitize the community,ontop of providing them with
mobile phones to contact the health facilities in emergency situations such as heamorrhage. The number of
ambulances to some of the rural health centres have
also been increased.[235] According to a recent report by
WHO most of the pregnant women die from hemorrhage

9.3

Water and sanitation

13

(25%), hypertension (16%), abortion and sepsis (10% epidemic has remained at a prevalence of about 3% for
each) and a small number die from embolism (2%).[236] the past seven years.[249] In reference to the gapminder
The demand for family planning was satised by 71% by graph,a comparison between the life expectancy versus
2010,the number of women who went for ante natal vis- the number of people living with HIV (number, all ages).
its that is 4 or more visits went up to 35% in 2010 which It illustrates that between 1989 and 1990, the number
though is low could have probably led to an increase in the of people living with HIV was 181,838 with a life exnumber of pregnant women seeking a skilled attendant at pectancy of 48 years. During the 1994 genocide, the
delivery from 26% in 1992 to 39% in 2005 and then to number increased to 200,000 with a life expectancy of
6 years. In the post genocide era, 1995 the numbers were
69% in 2010.[234] In terms of prevention of mother-tochild transmission of HIV,in 2010 the percentage of HIV still the same but the life expectancy had increased to 40
years as now HIV programmes had gradually begun. In
and pregnant women receiving ante retrovirals drugs rose
[237]
from 67% to 87% in 2012.
45 percent of women be- 2011, the gures were still the same but life expectancy
shot up to 63 years which showed that the number of
tween the ages of 15 to 49, use family planning methods.
This comes as no surprise as Rwanda women on average, people receiving the anti-retrovirals and had increased
leading to more people living longer. Expansion and engive birth to 4.6 children throughout their lifetime (RDHS
hancement of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course
2010).
(DOTS) in the six point Stop Tuberculosis (TB) strategy
Prevalence of some diseases is declining, including the described by Laserson and Wells has been implemented
elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus[241] In in Rwanda by the health ministrys integrated program to
1990 there were 163 under ve deaths for every 1000 combat leprosy and TB since 1990. This has led to treatlive births.[242] In 2010, 91 children died before their ment success rates rising from 58% (2003)to 81% by late
fth birthday for every 1000 live births,[242] often from 2006. In 2005, the case detection percentage for TB was
diarrhoea, malaria or pneumonia.[243] However, this g- 24%, which was below the target for case detection.[250]
ure is improving steadily.
In 2005, 11,450 people died because of malaria. This
In 1990,the percentage of children immunized against number reduced to 477,000 people dying of malaria in
[251]
This can be attributed to the various malaria
measles was roughly estimated to be 82% and by 2012 2012.
ithad increasd dramatically to 98% coverage of measles,3 prevention strategies which have been put in place such
doses of hepatitis B, 3 doses if pnuemoccal conjugate- as:
vaccine and 3 does of DTP.[244] Exclusive breast feeding
rate increased to 85%.This can be explained by a number
of factors such as increased awareness among the populations both rural and urban through education programmes
as well as improved coverage of eective interventions.
This has been signicant in the prevention and treatment
of the major causes of child mortality.
The number of malnurished children in Rwanda stil poses
as a challenge. The percentage of children under 5 years
who were moderately or severely underweight decreased
from 24 percent in 1992 to 18% in 2005 to 12% in 2012.
Stunting reduced slightly from 57% in 1990 to 44% in
2010.[245]

9.2

Millenium Development Goal 6

Initially in the post genocide era, there was a heavy


burden of diseases such as malaria,tuberculosis and
AIDS,this was coupled with insucient funds and food
insecurity.[246] The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were
then began though they were mainly used for HIV programmes in Rwanda.[247] In June 2012, 108, 113 people with advanced HIV disease in Rwanda were receiving anti-retroviral therapy, making Rwanda (along with
much richer Botswana) one of only two countries in subSaharan Africa to achieve the United Nations goal of universal access to antiretroviral therapy.[248] Rwandas HIV

Education campaigns.
Community mobilisation.
Training of trainers.
Bed net distribution.

9.3 Water and sanitation


From 1990 to 2012, an improvement in the drinking water coverage was registered from 59% to 67% and the use
of surface water reduced from 25% to 11%.[252] There
was also an improvement in the sanitation coverage from
1990 to 2012. This was from 30% to 64%. The unimproved sanitary facilities reduced further from 59% to
23%, while open defecation reduced from 7% to 3%.[252]

10 See also
Outline of Rwanda
Index of Rwanda-related articles

11 Notes
[1] CIA (IV) 2013.

14

11 NOTES

[2] National Census Service 2012, p. 16.

[38] Prunier 1995, pp. 7476.

[3] IMF (II) 2013.

[39] UNPO 2008, History.

[4] Gini Index. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.

[40] Prunier 1995, p. 4.

[5] 2014 Human Development Report Summary. United


Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 2125.
Retrieved 27 July 2014.

[41] Prunier 1995, p. 93.

[6] Chrtien 2003, p. 44.

[43] Prunier 1995, pp. 190191.

[7] Dorsey 1994, p. 36.

[44] BBC News (III) 2010.

[8] Chrtien 2003, p. 45.

[45] Henley 2007.

[9] Mamdani 2002, p. 61.


[10] Chrtien 2003, p. 58.
[11] King 2007, p. 75.
[12] Prunier 1995, p. 16.
[13] Mamdani 2002, p. 58.
[14] Chrtien 2003, p. 69.
[15] Shyaka, pp. 1011.
[16] Chrtien 2003, p. 88.
[17] Chrtien 2003, pp. 8889.
[18] Chrtien 2003, p. 141.
[19] Chrtien 2003, p. 482.
[20] Chrtien 2003, p. 160.
[21] Mamdani 2002, p. 69.
[22] Prunier 1995, pp. 1314.
[23] Prunier 1995, p. 6.
[24] Chrtien 2003, p. 217.
[25] Prunier 1995, p. 9.
[26] Prunier 1995, p. 25.
[27] Chrtien 2003, p. 260.
[28] Chrtien 2003, p. 270.

[42] Prunier 1995, pp. 135136.

[46] Dallaire 2005, p. 386.


[47] Dallaire 2005, p. 299.
[48] Dallaire 2005, p. 364.
[49] Prunier 1995, p. 312.
[50] BBC News (VI) 2010.
[51] UNDP (III) 2010.
[52] RDB (I) 2009.
[53] National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda 2012.
[54] United Nations Statistics Division.
[55] CJCR 2003, article 98.
[56] CJCR 2003, article 117.
[57] CJCR 2003, article 111.
[58] CJCR 2003, article 110.
[59] CJCR 2003, article 189.
[60] CJCR 2003, article 112.
[61] CJCR 2003, articles 100101.
[62] CJCR 2003, article 116.
[63] Lacey 2003.
[64] BBC News (IV) 2010.
[65] HRW 2010.
[66] Media High Council.

[29] Chrtien 2003, pp. 276277.


[67] CJCR 2003, article 52.
[30] Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 450.
[68] CJCR 2003, article 54.
[31] Gourevitch 2000, pp. 5657.
[32] United Nations (II).

[69] National Commission for the Fight against Genocide


2008, p. 1.

[33] United Nations (III).

[70] Roth 2009.

[34] Gourevitch 2000, pp. 5859.

[71] Amnesty International 2010.

[35] Prunier 1995, p. 51.

[72] CJCR 2003, article 62.

[36] Prunier 1995, p. 53.

[73] CJCR 2003, article 76.

[37] Prunier 1995, p. 56.

[74] UNIFEM 2008.

15

[75] CJCR 2003, article 82.

[111] Encyclopdia Britannica 2010.

[76] CIA (I).

[112] Nile Basin Initiative 2010.

[77] CJCR 2003, article 140.

[113] BBC News (II) 2006.

[78] CJCR 2003, article 148.

[114] Jrgensen 2005, p. 93.

[79] HRW & Wells 2008, I. Summary.

[115] Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 153.

[80] HRW & Wells 2008, VIII. Independence of the Judiciary. [116] Global Nature Fund.
[81] CJCR 2003, article 143.

[117] WWF 2001, Location and General Description.

[82] Walker March 2004.

[118] Mehta & Katee 2005, p. 37.

[83] Transparency International 2010.

[119] Munyakazi & Ntagaramba 2005, p. 7.

[84] CJCR 2003, article 182.

[120] Munyakazi & Ntagaramba 2005, p. 18.

[85] Oce of the Ombudsman.

[121] BBC Weather, Average Conditions.

[86] Asiimwe 2011.

[122] Best Country Reports 2007.

[87] Clark 2010.

[123] King 2007, p. 10.

[88] Freedom House 2011.

[124] Adekunle 2007, p. 1.

[89] United Nations (I).

[125] Blue Peace for the Nile, 2009, Strategic Foresight Group

[91] Grainger 2007.

[126] World Weather Information Service - Kigali. World


Meteorological Organization. Retrieved November 16,
2012.

[92] Fletcher 2009.

[127] Briggs & Booth 2006, pp. 34.

[93] Prunier 1995, p. 89.

[128] King 2007, p. 11.

[94] Department of State (III) 2012.

[129] REMA (Chapter 5) 2009, p. 3.

[95] USA Today 2008.

[130] IUCN 2011.

[96] Al Jazeera 2007.

[131] Embassy of Rwanda in Japan.

[97] Heuler 2011.

[132] RDB (II) 2010.

[98] BBC News (VII) 2011.

[133] Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 140.

[90] Francophonie.

[99] Rwandan Ministry of Defence, Law Establishing Rwanda [134] King 2007, p. 15.
Defence Forces, LAW N 19/2002 of 17/05/2002, J.O. [135] WCS.
n 13 of 01/07/2002
[136] IMF (I).
[100] United Nations Mapping Report: DRC 19932003
[137] Namata 2010.
[101] OAU 2000, p. 14.
[138] Lavelle 2008.
[102] Melvern 2004, p. 5.
[139] 2014 Global Green Economy Index. Dual Citizen LLC.
[103] CJCR 2003, article 3.
Retrieved 20 October 2014.
[104] MINALOC 2007, p. 8.

[140] FAO / WFP 1997.

[105] Southern Province.

[141] WRI 2006.

[106] MINALOC 2007, p. 9.

[142] Department of State (I) 2004.

[107] MINALOC 2004.

[143] WTO 2004.

[108] BBC News (I) 2006.

[144] MINAGRI 2006.

[109] CIA (II).

[145] Namata 2008.

[110] Richards 1994.

[146] Mukaaya 2009.

16

11 NOTES

[147] Delawala 2001.

[185] Mamdani 2002, pp. 4647.

[148] Nantaba 2010.

[186] Mamdani 2002, p. 47.

[149] Birakwate 2012.

[187] Jefremovas 1995.

[150] Nielsen & Spenceley 2010, p. 6.

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14
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24

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File:Akagera_1980_1_Topi.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Akagera_1980_1_Topi.jpg License:
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File:Flag_of_Rwanda.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Flag_of_Rwanda.svg License: Public domain
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File:Flag_of_the_German_Empire.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Flag_of_the_German_Empire.


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ogg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.navyband.navy.mil/anthems/national_anthems.htm Original artist: United States
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Contributors:
Original artist: Nicholas Moreau

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TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg License:


CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky
File:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AleXXw
File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk contribs), based
on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

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Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0