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Chapter 4

1. Define f ( x ) = x 3 3 x 2 + 3x .
(a) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on the interval [1, 3] using a lefthand sum with four rectangles of equal width.
(b) Is the estimate in part (a) an over-estimate or underestimate of the actual area? Justify your
conclusion.
(c) Use a definite integral to calculate the exact area between the graph of f and the x axis on
the interval [1, 3] .

Chapter 4

1. Define f ( x ) = x 3 3 x 2 + 3x .
(a) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on the
interval [1, 3] using a left-hand sum with four rectangles of equal
width.
x
f ( x)
1
1
3 1
x =
= 0.5
1.5
1.125
4
2
2
2.5
4.375
3
9
LHS = (1 + 1.125 + 2 + 4.375)( 0.5) = 4.25

(b) Is the estimate in part (a) an over-estimate or underestimate of the


actual area? Justify your conclusion.
Observe that
f ( x ) = 3x 2 6 x + 3

+1 x = 0.5
+1
f (1) + f (1.5) + f (2) + f (2.
+1 4.25

+1 Underestimate
+1 Correct supporting work

= 3 ( x 2 2 x + 1)

= 3 ( x 1)
Since f > 0 , for x > 1 , the function f is increasing on (1, 3].
Furthermore, since f (1) = 1 , f is positive and increasing on [1, 3] .
As a result, each rectangle in the left-hand sum will lie below the
graph of f . Thus the area estimate is an underestimate.
(c) Use a definite integral to calculate the exact area between the graph
of f and the x axis on the interval [1, 3] .
2

3
1
x 3x + 3 x dx = x 4 x 3 + x 2
2 1
4
3

1 4
3 2
1 4
3 2
3
3
( 3) ( 3) + ( 3) (1) (1) + (1)
4
2
2
4

=6
=

+1 Correctly integrate f
+1 Correct limits of
integration
+1 Apply the Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus
+1 Area = 6

Chapter 4

2. Define f ( x ) = x 2 + 4 x .
(a) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on the interval [1, 4] using a lefthand sum with four rectangles of equal width.
(b) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on the interval [1, 4] using a righthand sum with four rectangles of equal width.
(c) Use a definite integral to calculate the exact area between the graph of f and the x axis on
the interval [1, 4] .

Chapter 4

2. Define f ( x ) = x 2 + 4 x .
(a) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on
the interval [1, 4] using a left-hand sum with four rectangles
of equal width.
x
f ( x)
1
3
4 1
x =
= 0.75
1.75
3.9375
4
2.5
3.75
3.25
2.4375
4
0
LHS = ( 3 + 3.9375 + 3.75 + 2.4375) ( 0.75) 9.844

+1 x = 0.75
+1 f (1) + f (1.75) + f (2.5) + f (3.25)
+1 9.844

(b) Estimate the area between the graph of f and the x axis on
the interval [1, 4] using a right-hand sum with four
rectangles of equal width.
x
f ( x)
1
3
4 1
x =
= 0.75
1.75
3.9375
4
2.5
3.75
3.25
2.4375
4
0
RHS = ( 3.9375 + 3.75 + 2.4375 + 0 )( 0.75) 7.594

+1 x = 0.75
+1 f (1.75) + f (2.5) + f (3.25) + f (4)
+1 7.594

(c) Use a definite integral to calculate the exact area between the
graph of f and the x axis on the interval [1, 4] .

+1 Correctly integrate f
+1 Apply the Fundamental Theorem
of Calculus
+1 Correct limits of integration and
area = 9

x + 4 x dx = x 3 + 2 x 2
3
1
2

2
2
1 3
1 3
= ( 4 ) + 2 ( 4 ) (1) + 2 (1)
3
3

=9

Chapter 4

3. Define f ( x ) = x ( x 2 + 4 ) .
2

(a) Find the antiderivative of f that goes through ( 0,1) .


(b) Calculate

2
1

f ( x ) dx

(c) Determine the area between f and the x axis on the interval [ 1,1] .

Chapter 4

3. Define f ( x ) = x ( x 2 + 4 ) .
2

(a) Find the antiderivative of f that goes through ( 0,1) .


Let u = x 2 + 4 . Then du = 2 x dx and xdx = 0.5du .

F ( x ) = x ( x 2 + 4 ) dx
2

= u

+1

u ( 0.5du )
2

+1 Initial condition

+1 F ( x ) = 0.5 ( x 2 + 4 ) + 1.125
1

( 0.5du )

u 1
= 0.5
+C
1
= 0.5 ( x 2 + 4 ) + C
1

Since F ( 0 ) = 1 ,

1 = 0.5 ( 0 ) + 4
2

+C

1 = 0.5 ( 0.25) + C
1 = 0.125 + C
C = 1.125

The specific antiderivative is F ( x ) = 0.5 ( x 2 + 4 ) + 1.125 .


(b) Calculate

2
1

f ( x ) dx

F ( x ) = 0.5 ( x 2 + 4 ) + C

+1 Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus
+1 Correct limits
+1 0.0375

f ( x )dx = F ( 2 ) F ( 1)

= 0.0625 ( .1)
= 0.0375

(c) Determine the area between f and the x axis on the interval
[ 1,1] .

f ( x ) dx +

f ( x ) dx = 0.125 ( 0.1) + 0.1 ( .125)


0

= 0.05

+1 Two integrals with correct


integrand
+1 Correct limits of integration
+1 Area = 0.05

Chapter 4

4. The graph of a function f is shown in the figure below. It consists of two lines and a
semicircle. The regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are shaded.

3 x 2
x+3

Editor: f ( x ) = 4 x 2 + 1 2 < x < 2


x + 3
2 x4

(a) Write the definite integral or sum of definite integrals that measures the area of the shaded
region.
(b) Calculate

f ( x ) dx
0

and

f ( x ) dx .
3

(c) Determine the area of the shaded region.

Chapter 4

4. The graph of a function f is shown in the figure below. It consists of two lines and a
semicircle. The regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are shaded.

3 x 2
x+3

Editor: f ( x ) = 4 x 2 + 1 2 < x < 2


x + 3
2 x4

(a) Write the definite integral or sum of definite integrals that


measures the area of the shaded region.
3

f ( x ) dx +

+1 limits of integration
+1 integrand
+1 appropriately deal with the
canceling of areas

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx

(b) Calculate

and

f ( x ) dx .
3

The area of a circle of radius 2 is A = 4 . Therefore, the area of a


quarter circle of radius 2 is . The shaded region between x = 0
and x = 2 is a quarter circle combined with a rectangle of area 2.

f ( x ) dx = 2 + . The area of the triangular region


x = 2 and x = 3 is 0.5. Thus f ( x ) dx = 0.5 .

Therefore,
between

+1 Area of semi circle is


3

+1

f ( x ) dx = 2 + + 0.5 5.641
f ( x ) dx = 0.5

+1

+1

0
4

f ( x ) dx = 2 + + 0.5 5.641

The area of the triangular region between x = 3 and x = 4 is 0.5.


However, since this region is below the xaxis,
4

f ( x ) dx = 0.5 .
3

(c) Determine the area of the shaded region.


3

Area = f ( x ) dx +
3

= 2 f ( x ) dx +
0

f ( x ) dx
3

f ( x ) dx
3

= 5 + 2 + 0.5 11.783

3
3

f ( x ) dx = 5 + 2

+1 Appropriately deal with signed


area
+1 Area = 11.783

Chapter 4

5. Define f ( x ) = 4 x 3 4 x .
1

(a) Calculate

f ( x ) dx .
0

(b) What is the average value of f on [ 0, 2] ?


(c) What is the area of the region(s) bounded by the graph of f and the xaxis ? Show the work
that leads to your conclusion?

Chapter 4

10

5. Define f ( x ) = 4 x 3 4 x .
2

f ( x ) dx .

(a) Calculate

f ( x ) dx = x

2x

2 2

= (16 8 ) ( 0 0 )
= 8

+1 F ( x ) = x 4 2 x 2
+1 Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus
+1 8

(b) What is the average value of f on [ 0, 2] ?


2

avg value =

f ( x ) dx
0

20
8
=
2
= 4
(c) What is the area of the region(s) bounded by the graph of
f and the xaxis ? Show the work that leads to your
conclusion?
The x-intercepts of f are x = 1, 0,1 .
0

Area =

f ( x ) dx +

= 1+1 = 2

f ( x) dx
0

+1

f ( x ) dx
a

ba
+1 Correct values for a and b
+1 4

+1 Two integrals
+1 Correct limits of integration
+1 Area = 2

Chapter 4
6. Define f ( x ) =

11
4x + 3

( 2 x 2 + 3x )

(a) Use a change of variable to rewrite the integrand of

function.
3

(b) Use integration by substitution to evaluate

f ( x ) dx .
1

(c) What is the average value of f on [1, 3] ?

4x + 3

(2x

+ 3x )

dx as an easily integrable

Chapter 4
6. Define f ( x ) =

12
4x + 3

( 2 x 2 + 3x )

(a) Use a change of variable to rewrite the integrand of


4x + 3
2 x 2 + 3x 2 dx as an easily integrable function.
(
)
Let u = 2 x 2 + 3x . Then du = 4 x + 3 . The integral may be
1
rewritten as 2 du .
u

+1 u = 2 x 2 + 3x
1
+1 2 du
u

(b) Use integration by substitution to evaluate

f ( x ) dx .
1

Since u = 2 x + 3x , we need to determine the values of u


that correspond with the limits of integration x = 1 and x = 3 .

u = 2 (1) + 3 (1) = 5
2

u = 2 ( 3) + 3 ( 3) = 27
2

27

du = u 1

27
5

+1 Upper limit u = 27
+1 Lower limit u = 5
+1 Use integrand u 2
22
+1
or 0.163
135

1 1 22
=
0.163
27 5 135

(c) What is the average value of f on [1, 3] ?

avg value =

f ( x ) dx
1

3 1
11
=
135
0.0815

+1

f ( x)dx
a

ba
+1 Correct limits of integration
+1 0.0815

Chapter 4
7. Define f ( x ) =

13
1
.
x
2

(a) Use the trapezoidal rule with n = 5 to estimate

f ( x )dx .
1

(b)

f ( x ) = ln x + C . Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to calculate the exact value of


2

f ( x )dx .
1

(c) Explain why the trapezoidal rule cannot be used to estimate

f ( x )dx .

Chapter 4
7. Define f ( x ) =

14
1
.
x
2

(a) Use the trapezoidal rule with n = 5 to estimate

f ( x )dx .
1

b a 2 1
=
= 0.1
2n
2 ( 5)
2

ba
= 0.1
2n
+2 Proper use of trapezoidal rule
+1 0.696

+1
1

f ( x )dx 0.1 1 + 2 1.2 + 2 1.4 + 2 1.6 + 2 1.8 + 2


1

(b)

0.696
f ( x ) = ln x + C . Use the Fundamental Theorem of
2

Calculus to calculate the exact value of

f ( x )dx
1

f ( x )dx = ln 2 ln 1

= ln 2
(c) Explain why the trapezoidal rule cannot be used to
1

estimate

f ( x )dx .

1
is discontinuous at x = 0 . Since the
x
function f is not continuous on [ 1,1] , the trapezoidal rule
may not be used.

The function f ( x ) =

+1 Use Fundamental Theorem of


Calculus
+1 ln 2 or 0.693
+1 Exact value
+1 f discontinuous at x = 0
+1 continuity required for
trapezoidal rule

Chapter 4

15

8. A continuous, integrable function f has exactly two x-intercepts, ( x1 , 0 ) and ( x2 , 0 ) .


x2

(a) What is the difference in meaning between

f ( x) dx

and

x1

f ( x) dx ?

(b) Write an integral for the area bounded by f and the x-axis.
(c) Given that F ( x ) = f ( x ) dx ,

x2

f ( x) dx = 2 , and F ( x ) = 5 , determine F ( x ) .
1

x1

Chapter 4

16

8. A continuous, integrable function f has exactly two x-intercepts, ( x1 , 0 ) and ( x2 , 0 ) .


x2

(a) What is the difference in meaning between

f ( x) dx

and

x1

f ( x) dx ?
x2

x2

f ( x ) dx is the signed area of the region bounded by f and

x1

+2

f ( x) dx

explanation (1 if

x1

the x-axis.
f ( x) dx is the family of functions with derivative f

state area not signed area)


+2 f ( x ) dx explanation

(b) Write an integral for the area bounded by f and the xaxis.
Since the function f is continuous and has exactly two
xintercepts, the area of the region bounded by f and the xx2

axis is given by

+1 limits of integration
+1 integrand f or f
+1 integrand f

f ( x ) dx

x1

(c) Given that F ( x ) = f ( x ) dx ,


F ( x1 ) = 5 , determine F ( x2 ) .

F ( x2 ) = F ( x1 ) +

x2

f ( x)dx

x1

= 5 + ( 2 )
=3

x2

x1

x2

f ( x ) dx = 2 , and

+1 F ( x2 ) = F ( x1 ) + f ( x )dx
+1 F ( x2 ) = 3

x1

Chapter 4

17

9. Let graph of a continuous, twice-differentiable function f is shown in the figure below. The
three regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are marked A, B, and C and have areas
5.5, 8, and 15.5, respectively.

The function F is an antiderivative of f with the property that F (1) = 9 .

(a) Which value is larger F (0) or F (4) ? Justify your answer.


(b) How many times does F equal 5 on the interval [ 0, 4] ? Show the work that leads to your
conclusion.
(c) On what interval(s) is F increasing? Justify your answer.

Chapter 4

18

9. The graph of a continuous, twice-differentiable function f is shown in the figure below. The
three regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are marked A, B, and C and have areas
5.5, 8, and 15.5, respectively.

The function F is an antiderivative of f with the property that F (1) = 9 .

(a) Which value is larger F (0) or F (4) ? Justify your answer.


1

F (1) = F ( 0 ) + f ( x ) dx
0

F ( 0 ) = F (1) f ( x ) dx
0

= 9 ( 5.5)

F ( 4 ) = F (1) + f ( x ) dx
1

= 9 + ( 8 + 15.5)
= 9 + 7.5
= 16.5

= 14.5
F ( 4 ) is larger.

+1 Use F ( b ) = F ( a ) + f ( x ) dx
a

+1 Use appropriate limits of


integration in each integral
+1 Conclusion with correct
justification

(b) How many times does F equal 5 on the interval [ 0, 4] ?


Show the work that leads to your conclusion.
We know F ( 0 ) = 14.5 , F (1) = 9 , and F ( 4 ) = 16.5 . We
3

calculate F (3) = F (1) + f ( x ) dx = 9 + ( 8 ) = 1 . Since

+1 F (3) = 1
+1 Correct supporting work
+1 Two times

F (1) > 5 > F (3) , F ( c) = 5 for some c in (1, 3) . Since

F ( 3) < 5 < F (4) , F ( c) = 5 for some c in ( 3, 4 ) . So the

function F equals 5 two times on the interval [ 0, 4] .


(c) On what interval(s) is F increasing? Justify your answer.
When f > 0 , F is increasing. Since f > 0 on (3, 4] , F
is increasing on (3, 4] .

+1 When f > 0 , F is increasing.


+1 f > 0 on (3, 4]
+1 F is increasing on (3, 4] .

Chapter 4

19

10. The graph of a continuous, twice-differentiable function f is shown in the figure below.
The three regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are marked A, B, and C and have
areas 4, 4, and 6.25, respectively.

The function F is an antiderivative of f with the property that F (0) = 6 .

(a) Which value is larger F (2) or F (5) ? Justify your answer.


(b) How many times does F equal 4 on the interval [ 0, 5] ? Show the work that leads to your
conclusion.
(c) On what interval(s) is F increasing? Justify your answer.

Chapter 4

20

10. Let graph of a continuous, twice-differentiable function f is shown in the figure below. The
three regions between the graph of f and the x -axis are marked A, B, and C and have areas
4, 4, and 6.25, respectively.

The function F is an antiderivative of f with the property that F (0) = 6 .

(a) Which value is larger F (2) or F (5) ? Justify your answer.


5

F ( 5) = F ( 0 ) + f ( x ) dx

F ( 2 ) = F ( 0 ) + f ( x ) dx

= 6 + ( 4 + 4 6.25)

=64

=2
= 0.25
F (2) is larger.
(b) How many times does F equal 4 on the interval [ 0, 5] ?
Show the work that leads to your conclusion.
We know F (0) = 6 , F ( 2 ) = 2 , and F (5) = 0.25 . We
4

calculate F (4) = F (0) + f ( x ) dx = 6 + ( 4 + 4 ) = 6 .

+1 Use F ( b ) = F ( a ) + f ( x ) dx
a

+1 Use appropriate limits of


integration in each integral
+1 Conclusion with correct
justification

+1 F ( 4 ) = 6
+1 Correct supporting work
+1 Three times

Since F ( 0 ) > 4 > F (2) , F ( c ) = 4 for some c in ( 0, 2 ) .

Since F ( 2 ) < 4 < F (4) , F ( c ) = 4 for some c in ( 2, 4 ) .

Since F ( 5) < 4 < F (4) , F ( c ) = 4 for some c in ( 4, 5) .

So the function F equals 4 three times on the interval


[0, 5] because of the Intermediate Value Theorem.
(c) On what interval(s) is F increasing? Justify your answer.
When f > 0 , F is increasing. Since f > 0 on the
interval ( 2, 4 ) , F is increasing on ( 2, 4 ) .

+1 When f > 0 , F is increasing.


+1 f > 0 on ( 2, 4 )
+1 F is increasing on ( 2, 4 ) .