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CHAPTER-8

MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS

Topics covered:
Eigen values and Eigen vectors
Approximate methods
(i) Dunkerleys method
(ii) Rayleighs method
Influence co-efficients
Numerical methods
(i) Matrix iteration method
(ii) Stodolas method
(iii) Holzars method
1. Eigen values and Eigen vectors
In vibration problems Eigen values are the natural frequencies and the Eigen vectors
are modal vectors. This method is a basic tool, which can be used to analyse any
vibratory problems.
Example-1
Obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors and mode shapes of the system shown
in Fig.1, using eigen value method.

K1
m1

x1
K2
m2

x2
K3

m3

x3

Fig.1 Linear vibratory system

The equations of motions of the system can be obtained by Newtons or Lagranges
method.
The governing equations of motion of the system shown in Fig.1 are:

m1x1 (K1 K 2 )x1 K 2 x 2 0

(1)

m2x 2 K 2 x1 (K 2 K 3 )x 2 K 3 x 3 0

(2)

m3 x 3 K 3 x 2 K 3 x 3 0

(3)

The above equations can be written in matrix form as:

0 x1 (K1 K 2 )
K2
0 x1 0
m1 0

0 m

0 x 2 K 2
(K 2 K 3 ) K 3 x 2 0
2

0
0 m3 x3
0
K3
K 3 x 3 0
Mx K x 0

(4)
(5)

where, M-Mass/inertia matrix

K - Stiffness matrix
x -generalized displacement vector
x -generalized acceleration vector
Eqn.(5) can be written as:

x M1 K x 0
x Dx 0

(6)
(7)

M1

M

(8)

x 2 x

(9)

Dx 2 x 0

(10)

substitute in above Eqn.

2

Dx x 0
where,
I -Identity matrix

(11)

I - D 0

(12)

For simplification, let us consider,

K 1 K 2 K 3 K and m1 m 2 m 3 m

The equations in matrix form changes to:

m 0 0 x1 2K K 0 x1 0
0 m 0 x K 2K K x 0

2
2
0 0 m x3 0 K K x 3 0

(13)

We have D M K
1

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

M1

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

M

M m3

m2
1
3 0
m
0

0
m2
0

0
1 0 0
1

0
0 1 0

m
0 0 1
m2

1 0 0 2K - K 0
1
D 0 1 0 - K 2K - K
m
0
1 0 - K K
2 -1 0
K
D - 1 2 - 1
m
0 - 1 1
Eigen values
Eigen values can be obtained by,

I - D 0

1 0 0
2 -1 0
K

0 1 0 - - 1 2 - 1 0
m
0 0 1
0 - 1 1
- K/m
0
( - 2K/m)

- K/m
( 2K/m)
- K/m 0

0
- K/m
( K/m)
Solving the above eqn.,
K
K2 K3
6 2 3 0
m
m
m
Solve the above Eqn. to get three values of ,
3 5 2

1 12 0.198

K
m

(14)

1 0.44

K
m

2 22 1.55

K
m

2 1.24

K
m

3 32 3.24

K
m

3 1.80

K
m

Eigen vectors
For obtaining Eigen vectors consider the equation
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

I - Dx 0
I - DAsint 0
I - DA 0
where, A- eigen vector or modal vector

(15)
(16)

First modal vector,

1I - DA1 0

0.198K
m

(17)

1 0 0
2 - 1 0 A 11 0
0 1 0 - K - 1 2 - 1 ..A 0

m
21
0 0 1
0 - 1 1 A 31 0

1
0 A 11 0
1.802

1
1.802
1 ..A 21 0

0
1
0.802 A 31 0
Solving the above Eqn,

1.802A11 A 21 0

(18)

A 11 1.802A 21 A 31 0

(19)

A 21 0.802A 31 0

(20)

A1

A 11

A 21
A
31

A 11

A 21

A1 A
11

A 31

A 11

A 21
A 31

A 11
A 11

1.802
2.247

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

A 11

1
A 21

A1 A 1.802
11

2.247

A 31

A 11

(21)

Second modal vector,

2 I - DA2

1.55K
m

1 0 0
2 - 1 0 A 12 0
0 1 0 - K - 1 2 - 1 ..A 0

m
22
0 0 1
0 - 1 1 A 32 0

1
0 A 12 0
0.445

1
0.445
1 ..A 22 0

0
1
0.55 A 32 0

0.445A12 A 22 0

(22)

A 12 0.445A 22 A 32 0

(23)

A 22 0.55A 32 0

(24)

A2

A 12

A 22
A
32

A 12

A2 A 22 A
12

A 32

A 12

A 22

A 32

A 12

A 12

0.445

-0.80

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

A2

A 12

1
A 22

0.445
A
12

- 0.80

A 32

A 12

(25)

Third modal vector

3 I - DA3

3.247K
m

1 0 0
2 - 1 0 A 13 0
0 1 0 - K - 1 2 - 1 ..A 0

m
23
0 0 1
0 - 1 1 A 33 0

1
0 A 13 0
1.247

1
1.247
1 ..A 23 0

0
1
2.247 A 33 0
Solving the above Eqn.
1.247A 13 A 23 0

(26)

A 23 2.247A 33 0

(27)

A 13 1.247A 23 A 33 0

(28)

A3

A 13

A 23
A
33

A 13

A3 A 23 A
13

A 33

A 13

A 23

A 33

A 13

A 13

-1.247

0.55

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

A 13

1
A 23

A3 A - 1.247
13

0.55

A 33

A 13

Modal vectors:

A1

1.802
2.247

A2

0.445
- 0.80

A3

- 1.247
0.55

(29)

Modal matrix:

1
1
1
1.802 0.445 1.247

2.247 0.80
0.55

(30)

Mode Shapes

K1
m1

x1
K2
m2

x2
K3

m3

x3

Mode-I

Mode-II

Mode-III

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

2. Influence co-efficents
It is the influence of unit displacement at one point on the forces at various points of a
multi-DOF system.
OR
It is the influence of unit Force at one point on the displacements at various points of
a multi-DOF system.
The equations of motion of a multi-degree freedom system can be written in terms of
influence co-efficients. A set of influence co-efficents can be associated with each of
matrices involved in the equations of motion.
Mx K x 0
For a simple linear spring the force necessary to cause unit elongation is referred as
stiffness of spring. For a multi-DOF system one can express the relationship between
displacement at a point and forces acting at various other points of the system by
using influence co-efficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents
The equations of motion of a multi-degree freedom system can be written in terms of
inverse of stiffness matrix referred as flexibility influence co-efficients.
Matrix of flexibility influence co-efficients = K

The elements corresponds to inverse mass matrix are referred as flexibility

mass/inertia co-efficients.
Matrix of flexibility mass/inertia co-efficients = M1
The flexibility influence co-efficients are popular as these coefficents give elements
of inverse of stiffness matrix. The flexibility mass/inertia co-efficients give elements
of inverse of mass matrix
Stiffness influence co-efficents.
For a multi-DOF system one can express the relationship between displacement at a
point and forces acting at various other points of the system by using influence coefficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents.

F K x

k 11 k 12 k 13
K k 21 k 22 k 32
k 31 k 32 k 33
wher, k11, ..k33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients
k11-stiffness influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k21- stiffness influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k31- stiffness influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit deflection at point 1
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

Example-1.
Obtain the stiffness coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2.

K1
k11

K1

m1

x1=1 Unit

K12

m2

m3

m1

x1=0

x1=0

K2
x2=0

k22

m2

K3
k31

k13

m1

K2
k21

K1

K2
x2=1 Unit

k23

m2

K3
x3=0

(a)

k32

m3

(b)

x2=0
K3

k33

m3

x3=0

x3=1 Unit

(c)

Fig.3 Stiffness influence coefficients of the system

I-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 1 as shown in Fig.3(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,

k11 K1 K 2
k 21 K 2
k 31 0

II-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 2 as shown in Fig.3(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,

k12 -K 2
k 22 K 2 K 3
k 31 -K 3

III-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 3 as shown in Fig.3(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
k13 0
k 23 -K 3

k 33 K 3
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

10

k 11 k 12 k 13
K k 21 k 22 k 32
k 31 k 32 k 33
- K2
0
K 1 K 2

K 2 K 3 - K 3
K - K 2

0
- K3
K 3
From stiffness coefficients K matrix can be obtained without writing Eqns. of motion.
Flexibility influence co-efficents.

F K x
x K 1F
x F
where, - Matrix of Flexibility influence co-efficents given by
11 12
21 22
31 32

13
32
33

wher, 11, ..33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients

11-flexibility influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit force at point 1
21- flexibility influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit force at point 1
31- flexibility influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit force at point 1
Example-2.
Obtain the flexibility coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2.
I-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.4(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
1
11 21 31
K1
II-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 2 as shown in Fig.4(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
22 32

1
1

K1 K 2

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

11

III-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 3 as shown in Fig.4(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
1
1
23

K1 K 2
33

1
1
1

K1 K 2 K 3

Therefore,
11 21 12 31 13
22 32 23
33

1
K1

1
1

K1 K 2

1
1
1

K1 K 2 K 3

K1
F1=0

m1

K1
x1=11

F1=0

m2

m1

x1=12

x1=13

K2
x2=21

F2=1

m2

K3
F3=0

F1=0

m1

K2
F2=1

K1

K2
x2=22

F2=1

m2

K3

m3

x3=31

(a)

F3=0

x2=23
K3

m3

x3=32

(b)

F3=0

m3

x3=33

(c)

Fig.4 Flexibility influence coefficients of the system

For simplification, let us consider : K 1 K 2 K 3 K
11 21 12 31 13

1
1

K1 K

1 1
2

K K K
1 1 1 3

K K K K

22 32 23
33

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

11 12
21 22
31 32

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

12

13
32
33

1 1 1
1
1 2 2
K
1 2 3

K 1
In Vibration analysis if there is need of K 1 one can use flexibility co-efficent matrix.
Example-3
Obtain of the Flexibility influence co-efficents of the pendulum system shown in the
Fig.5.

l
11
m

T
F=1
m
l

m
l

l
m
Fig.5 Pendulum system

m
Fig.6 Flexibility influence
co-efficents

I-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.6 and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
T sin l
T cos g(m m m) 3mg

tan

1
3mg

is small, tan sin

sin

11
l

11 l sin
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

11

13

l
3mg

Similarly apply 1 unit force at point 2 and next at point 3 to obtain,

l
22
5mg
the influence coefficients are:
11 21 12 31 13
22 32 23

33

l
5mg

11l
6mg

11l
6mg

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

14

Approximate methods
In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the first
(fundamental) natural frequency. Approximate methods like Dunkerleys method,
Rayleighs method are used in such cases.
(i) Dunkerleys method
Dunkerleys formula can be determined by frequency equation,
2 M K 0

(31)

K 2 M 0

1
I K 1M 0
2

1
I M 0
2

(32)

1 0 .

1 0 1 .
2
.

0 0 .

0 11 12
0 21 22

.

1 n1 n2

.
.
.

12m2
2 11m1

0
2 22m2

.
.

n1m1
n2m2

1n m1 0
2n 0 m2
.

nn 0
0

.
.
.

0
0
0

mn

.
2nmn
0

.
.
1

. 2 nnmn

1nmn

Solve the determinant

n

n 1

1
1
2 11m1 22m2 ... nnmn 2

1122m1m2 1133m1m3 ... nnmn ... 0

(33)

It is the polynomial equation of nth degree in (1/2). Let the roots of above Eqn. are:
1 1
1
, 2 , ...... 2
2
1 2
n

1
1
1 1
1
1

, ...... 2 2
2 12 2 22

(34)
n
n 1
1

1
1
1
2 2 2 ...... 2 2 ... 0

n
1 2

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

15

Comparing Eqn.(33) and Eqn. (34), we get,

1
1
1
2 2 ...... 2 11m1 22m2 ... nnmn
(35)
n
1 2
In mechanical systems higher natural frequencies are much larger than the
fundamental (first) natural frequencies. Approximately, the first natural frequency is:
1
2 11m1 22m2 ... nnmn
(36)
1
The above formula is referred as Dunkerleys formula, which can be used to estimate
first natural frequency of a system approximately.
The natural frequency of the system considering only mass m1 is:
1n

11m1

K1
m1

(37)

1
1
1
1
2 2 ...... 2
2
1
1n 2n
nn

(38)

where, 1n , 2n , ..... are natural frequency of single degree of freedom system

considering each mass separately.
The above formula given by Eqn. (38) can be used for any mechanical/structural
system to obtain first natural frequency
Examples: 1
Obtain the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig.7
using Dunkerleys method.

K
m

x1
K
m

x2
K

x3
Fig.7 Linear vibratory system
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

16

Dunkerleys formula is:

1
2 11m1 22m2 ... nnmn OR
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 ...... 2
2
1
1n 2n
nn

Any one of the above formula can be used to find fundamental natural frequency
approximately.
Find influence flexibility coefficients.
11 21 12 31 13
22 32 23

1
K

2
K

3
K
Substitute all influence coefficients in the Dunkerleys formula.
33

1
2 11m1 22m2 ... nnmn
1
1 m 2m 3m 6m
2

K
K
K
1 K
1 0.40 K/m rad/s

Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of the system shown in Figure by Dunkerleys
method. Take m1=100 kg, m2=50 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2006 for 20 Marks

180

m1

m2

2
120

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

17

11

1.944x10 -3
EI

22

9x10 -3
EI

1
2 11m1 22m2
n

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

18

(ii) Rayleighs method

It is an approximate method of finding fundamental natural frequency of a system
using energy principle. This principle is largely used for structural applications.
Principle of Rayleighs method
Consider a rotor system as shown in Fig.9. Let, m1, m2 and m3 are masses of rotors on
shaft supported by two bearings at A and B and y1, y2 and y3 are static deflection of
shaft at points 1, 2 and 3.

m1

m2

m3

y1

y2

y3

Fig.9 A rotor system.

For the given system maximum potential energy and kinetic energies are:
Vmax

1 n
migy i
2 i 1

(39)

Tmax

1 n
mi y i2
2 i 1

(40)

where, mi- masses of the system, yi displacements at mass points.

Considering the system vibrates with SHM,
y i 2 y i

(41)

Tmax

2
2

my
i

i 1

2
i

(42)

Vmax Tmax

(43)

n

m gy
i 1
n

my
i 1

(44)
2
i

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

19

(45)

(46)

(47)

Eqn.(44) is the Rayleighs formula, which is used to estimate frequency of transverse

vibrations of a vibratory systems.
Examples: 1
Estimate the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in
Fig.10 using Rayleighs method. Take: m=1kg and K=1000 N/m.

2K
2m

x1
K
2m

x2
K

x3
Fig.10 Linear vibratory system
Obtain influence coefficients,
11 21 12 31 13
22 32 23

1
2K

3
2K

5
2K
Deflection at point 1 is:
33

y1 11m1g 12m2g 13m3 g

mg
2 2 1 5mg 5g
2K
2K
2000
Deflection at point 2 is:
y1

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

20

mg
2 6 3 11mg 11g
2K
2K
2000
Deflection at point 3 is:
y2

y 3 31m1g 32m2g 33m3 g

mg
2 6 5 13mg 13g
2K
2K
2000
Rayleighs formula is:
y3

m gy
i 1
n

my
i

i 1

2
i

5
11
13 2

2x
2x
2x
g
2000
2000
2000

2

2
2
2
5
11
13 2
2
2
2
g
2000
2000
2000

Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the system shown in
Fig.11 by Rayleighs method.
E=196 GPa, I=10-6 m4, m1=40 kg, m2=20 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2005 for 20 Marks
m1

m2
2

A
160

180

80
Fig.11 A rotor system.

Step-1:
Find deflections at point of loading from strength of materials principle.
W

b
l

Fig.12 A simply supported beam

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

21

For a simply supported beam shown in Fig.12, the deflection of beam at distance x
from left is given by:
Wbx 2
(48)
l x 2 b2 for x (l b)
y
6EIl
For the given problem deflection at loads can be obtained by superposition of
deflections due to each load acting separately.
Deflections due to 20 kg mass
9.81x20 x0.18x0.16 0.42 2 0.16 2 0.18 2
y1'
6EI0.42
9.81x20 x0.18x0.24 0.42 2 0.24 2 0.18 2
y '2
6EIx0.42
Deflections due to 40 kg mass
9.81x40 x0.16x0.26 0.42 2 0.26 2 0.16 2
y1' '
6EIx0.42
9.81x40 x0.16x0.18 0.42 2 0.18 2 0.16 2
y '2'
6EIx0.42
The deflection at point 1 is:
0.803
y1 y1' y1' '
EI
The deflection at point 2 is:
0.82
y 2 y '2 y '2'
EI

0.265
EI
0.29
EI
0.538
EI
0.53
EI

m gy
i 1
n

my
i 1

2
i

9.8140x0.803 20x0.82
40x0.803 2 20x0.82 2

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

22

Numerical methods
(i) Matrix iteration method
Using this method one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors of a vibratory
system having multi-degree freedom.
It is required to have 1< 2<.< n
Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
Mx K x 0
(49)
where,

x Asint

(50)

2 MA K A 0

(51)
th

r2 MAr K Ar 0

K 1 MAr
DAr

1
Ar
r2

1
Ar
r2

(52)

where, D is referred as Dynamic matrix.

Eqn.(52) converges to first natural frequency and first modal vector.
The Equation,

M1K Ar r2 Ar
D1 Ar r2 Ar
where, D1 is referred as inverse dynamic matrix.

(53)

Eqn.(53) converges to last natural frequency and last modal vector.

In above Eqns (52) and (53) by assuming trial modal vector and iterating till the Eqn
is satisfied, one can estimate natural frequency of a system.
Examples: 1
Find first natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig.10 using
matrix iteration method. Use flexibility influence co-efficients.
Find influence coefficients.
11 21 12 31 13

1
2K

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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22 32 23
33

23

3
2K

5
2K

11 12
21 22
31 32

13
32
33

1 1 1
1

1 3 3
2K
1 3 5

K 1 MAr 12 Ar
r

DAr

1
Ar
r2

Obtain Dynamic matrix D K M

1

1 1 1 2 0 0
2 2 1
m
m

D 1 3 3 0 2 0 2 6 3
2K
2K
1 3 5 0 0 1
2 6 5
Use basic Eqn to obtain first frequency
DA1 12 A1
r
Assume trial vector and substitute in the above Eqn.

Assumed vector is: u1 1

1

First Iteration

2 2 1 1
1
m
5m

Du1 2 6 3 1
2.2
2K
2K

2 6 5 1
2.6
As the new vector is not matching with the assumed one, iterate again using the new
vector as assumed vector in next iteration.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

24

Second Iteration

Du2

2 2 1 1
1
m
4.5m

2 6 3 2.2

2.55

2K
K

2 6 5 2.6
3.13

Third Iteration

Du3

2 2 1 1
1
m

5.12m

2 6 3 2.555

2.61

2K
K

2 6 5 3.133
3.22

Fourth Iteration

2 2 1 1
1
m

5.22m

Du4 2 6 3 2.61
2.61
2K
K

2 6 5 3.22
3.23
As the vectors are matching stop iterating. The new vector is the modal vector.
To obtain the natural frequency,
1
1

5.22m

D 2.61
2.61
K
3.22
3.23

DA1 12 A1
1
1
5.22m

2
1
K
12

1 K
5.22 m

1 0.437

K
m

A1

2.61
3.23

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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25

Method of obtaining natural frequencies in between first and last one

(Sweeping Technique)
For understanding it is required to to clearly understand Orthogonality principle of
modal vectors.
Orthogonality principle of modal vectors
x2

b1

b2

a1

a2

x1
Fig.13 Vector representation graphically
Consider two vectors shown in Fig.13. Vectors a and

other if and only if

aT b 0

(54)

a1

b
a 2 1 0
b 2

a1

1 0 b1
a 2
0
0 1 b 2

aT I b 0
where,
I is Identity matrix.
From Eqn.(55), Vectors a

(55)

and b are orthogonal to each other with respect to

identity matrix.
Application of orthogonality principle in vibration analysis
Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
Mx K x 0

x Asint
2 MA1 K A1 0
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
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26

2 MA1 K A1

12 MA1 K A1

(56)

22 MA2 K A2

(57)

Multiply Eqn.(56) by A2 and Eqn.(57) by A1

T

12 A2 MA1 A2 K A1

(58)

12 A1 MA2 A1 K A2

(59)

Eqn.(58)-(59)

A1T MA2

(60)

A1T K A2

(61)

Above equation is a condition for stiffness orthogonality.

By knowing the first modal vector one can easily obtain the second modal vector
based on either mass or stiffness orthogonality. This principle is used in the matrix
iteration method to obtain the second modal vector and second natural frequency.
This technique is referred as Sweeping technique
Sweeping technique

After obtaining A1 and 1 to obtain A2 and 2 choose a trial vector V1

orthogonal to A1 ,which gives constraint Eqn.:

V1T MA1 0
V1

V2

(62)

0 A1
m1 0

V3 0 m2 0 A 2 0
0
0 m3 A 3

V1m1A1 V2m2 A 2 V3m3 A 3 0

m1A1 V1 m2 A 2 V2 m3 A 3 V3 0
V1 V2 V3

(63)

m A
2 2
m1A 1

(64)

m A
3 3
m1A 1

(65)

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27

V1 V2 V3

V2
V2

V3
3

0 V1

0 1 0 V2
0 0 1 V3
SV1

(66)

where S is referred as Sweeping matrix and V1 is the trial vector.

New dynamics matrix is:

Ds DS

Ds V1

1
A2
22

(67)

The above Eqn. Converges to second natural frequency and second modal vector.
This method of obtaining frequency and modal vectors between first and the last one
is referred as sweeping technique.
Examples: 2
For the Example problem 1 Find second natural frequency and modal vector of the
system shown in the Fig.10 using matrix iteration method and Sweeping technique.
Use flexibility influence co-efficients.
For this example already the first frequency and modal vectors are obtained by matrix
iteration method in Example 1. In this stage only how to obtain second frequency is
demonstrated.
First Modal vector obtained in Example 1 is:

A1

A1 1

A 2 2.61
A 3.23
3

2 0 0
M 0 2 0 is the mass matrix
0 0 1
Find sweeping matrix
0
S 0 1 0
0 0 1
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
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ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

28

m A
2(2.61)
2.61
2 2
2(1)
m1A 1

m A
1(3.23)
1.615
3 3
2(1)
m1A 1
Sweeping matrix is:
0 - 2.61 - 1.615
S 0 1
0
0
0
1
New Dynamics matrix is:

Ds DS

2 2 1 0 - 2.61 - 1.615
0 1.61 1.11
m
m

Ds 2 6 3 0 1
0
0 0.39 0.11

2K
K
1 3 5 0
0 0.39
0
1
1.89
First Iteration

Ds V1

1
A2
22

0 1.61 1.11 1
- 2.27
- 9.71
m
m
0.28m

1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 1
2.28
8.14
Second Iteration

- 10.64
- 21.28
m

m
0.5m

-1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 8.14
15.77
31.54
Third Iteration

- 33.39
- 8.67
m

m
3.85m

-1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 31.54
59.52
15.38
Fourth Iteration

- 18.68
- 8.98
m

m
2.08m

-1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 15.38
28.67
13.78
Fifth Iteration

- 13.68
- 7.2
m

m
1.90m

0 0.39 0.11 1 - 1.90

1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 13.78
25.65
13.5
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

29

Sixth Iteration

- 13.24
- 7.08
m

m
1.87m

0 0.39 0.11 - 1 - 1.87

-1

K
K
K

0 0.39
1.89 13.5
25.12
13.43
1
1087m

2
2
K
12

1 K
1.87 m

1 0.73

K
m

Modal vector

-1
A2 - 0.14
1.89

Similar manner the next frequency and modal vectors can be obtained.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

30

(ii) Stodolas method

It is a numerical method, which is used to find the fundamental natural frequency and
modal vector of a vibratory system having multi-degree freedom. The method is
based on finding inertia forces and deflections at various points of interest using
flexibility influence coefficents.
Principle / steps
1. Assume a modal vector of system. For example for 3 dof systems:

x1 1

x 2 1
x 1
3
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point,
F1 m12 x1 for Mass 1

(68)

F2 m 2 2 x 2 for Mass 2

(69)

F3 m 3 2 x 3 for Mass 3

(70)

3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients, using the
formula,

x1 F111 F212 F3 13

(71)
x2 F121 F222 F3 23
x F F F
2 32
3 33
3 1 31
4. If assumed modal vector is equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then solution
is converged. Natural frequency can be obtained from above equation, i.e
x1 x1

If x 2 x2 Stop iterating.
x x
3 3
Find natural frequency by first equation,
x1 1 F111 F212 F3 13

(72)

5. If assumed modal vector is not equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then
consider obtained deflection vector as new vector and iterate till convergence.
Example-1
Find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system shown
in Fig.10 using Stodolas method.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
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B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

31

First iteration

x1 1

1. Assume a modal vector of system u1 = x 2 1
x 1
3
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
F1 m1 2 x1 2m 2

F2 m22 x 2 2m2
F3 m 3 2 x 3 m 2

3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients

Obtain flexibility influence coefficients of the system:
1
11 21 12 31 13
2K
3
22 32 23
2K
5
33
2K
x1 F111 F212 F3 13
Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 m 2 m 2 5m 2

K
K
2K
2K
x2 F121 F222 F3 23
x1

Substitute for Fs and ,s

x2

m 2 6m 2 3m 2 11m 2

K
2K
2K
2K

x3 F131 F2 32 F3 33

Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 6m 2 5m 2 13m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
4. New deflection vector is:
x3

x1
5
2
m
x2
11
2K
x
13
3

x1
1
2
5m
x2
2.2 = u2
2K
x
3
2.6
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

32

The new deflection vector u2 u1 . Iterate again using new deflection vector u2
Second iteration

x1 1

1. Initial vector of system u2 = x2 2.2
x 2.6
3
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
F1 m1 2 x1 2m 2

F2 m 2 2 x 2 4.4m 2
F3 m 3 2 x3 2.6m 2

3. New deflection vector,

x1 F111 F212 F313
Substitute for Fs and ,s
m 2 4.4m 2 2.6m 2 9m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
x2 F121 F222 F323
x1

Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 13.2m 2 7.8m 2
23m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
x3 F131 F232 F333
x2

Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 13.2m 2 13m 2
28.2m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
4. New deflection vector is:
x3

x1
9
2
m

x2
23
2K
x

3
28.2
x1
1
2
9m

x2
2.55 = u3
2K
x

3
3.13
The new deflection vector u3 u2 . Iterate again using new deflection vector u3

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

33

Third iteration

x1 1

x 3.13
3

F1 m1 2 x1 2m 2

F2 m22 x2 5.1m2
F3 m32 x3 3.13m2

3. new deflection vector,

x1 F111 F212 F313
Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 5.1m 2 3.13m 2 10.23m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
x2 F121 F222 F323
x1

Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 15.3m 2 9.39m 2
26.69m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
x3 F131 F232 F333
x2

Substitute for Fs and ,s

m 2 15.3m 2 16.5m 2
28.2m 2

K
2K
2K
2K
4. New deflection vector is:
x3

x1
10.23
2
m

x2
26.69
2K
x
33.8
3

x1
1
2
10.23m

x2
2.60 = u4
2K
x
3.30
3

The new deflection vector u4 u3 stop Iterating

Fundamental natural frequency can be obtained by.

10.23m2
1
2K

0.44

K
m

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

34

Modal vector is:

A1

2.60
3.30

Example-2
For the system shown in Fig.14 find the lowest natural frequency by Stodolas method
(carryout two iterations)
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 10 marks

3K
4m

x1
K
2m

x2
K

x3
Fig.14 Linear vibratory system
Obtain flexibility influence coefficients,
11 21 12 31 13
22 32 23

1
3K

4
3K

7
3K
First iteration
33

x1 1

1. Assume a modal vector of system u1 = x 2 1
x 1
3

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

35

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point

F1 m1 2 x1 4m 2
F2 m 2 2 x 2 2m 2
F3 m 3 2 x 3 m 2

3. New deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients,

x1 F111 F2 12 F3 13

4m 2 2m 2 m 2 7m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K
x2 F121 F2 22 F3 23
x1

x2

4m 2 8m 2 4m 2 16m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K

x3 F131 F2 32 F3 33

4m 2 8m 2 7m 2 19m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K
4. New deflection vector is:
x3

x1
7
2
m
x2
16
3K
x
3
19
x1
1
2
7m

x2
2.28 = u2
3K
x
2.71
3

The new deflection vector u2 u1 . Iterate again using new deflection vector u2
Second iteration

x1 1

x 2.71
3

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point

F1 m1 2 x1 4m 2
F2 m2 2 x2 4.56m 2
F3 m3 2 x3 2.71m 2

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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36

3. New deflection vector

x1 F111 F212 F313

4m 2 4.56m 2 2.71m 2 11.27m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K
x2 F121 F222 F323
x1

4m 2 18.24m 2 10.84m 2 33.08m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K
x3 F131 F232 F333
x2

4m 2 18.24m 2 18.97m 2
41.21m 2

3K
3K
3K
3K
4. New deflection vector is:
x3

x1
11.27
2
m

x2
33.08
3K
x

3
41.21
x1
1
2
3.75m

x2
2.93 = u3
K
x
3.65
3

Stop Iterating as it is asked to carry only two iterations. The Fundamental natural
frequency can be calculated by,
3.75m 2
1
2K

0.52

K
m

Modal vector,

A1

2.93
3.65

Disadvantage of Stodolas method

Main drawback of Stodolas method is that the method can be used to find only
fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of vibratory systems. This method is
not popular because of this reason.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

37

(iii) Holzars method

It is an iterative method, used to find the natural frequencies and modal vector of a
vibratory system having multi-degree freedom.
Principle
Consider a multi dof semi-definite torsional semi-definite system as shown in Fig.15.
J1

J2
1 K 1

J4

J3
2 K 2

3 K 3

Fig.15 A torsional semi-definite system

The Eqns. of motions of the system are:
K ( ) 0
J
1 1

(73)

K ( ) K ( ) 0
J2
2
1
2
1
2
2
3

(74)

K ( ) K ( ) 0
J3
3
2
3
2
3
3
4

(75)

K ( ) 0
J4
4
3
4
3

(76)

The Motion is harmonic,

i isint

(77)

where i=1,2,3,4
Substitute above Eqn.(77) in Eqns. of motion, we get,
2 J11 K 1(1 2 )

(78)

2 J2 2 K 1( 2 1 ) K 2 ( 2 3 )

(79)

2 J3 3 K 2 ( 3 2 ) K 3 ( 3 4 )

(80)

2 J4 4 K 3 ( 4 3 )

(81)

4

J
2

i 1

(82)

For n dof system the above Eqn changes to,

n

J
2

i 1

(83)

The above equation indicates that sum of inertia torques (torsional systems) or inertia
forces (linear systems) is equal to zero for semi-definite systems.
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
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B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

38

In Eqn. (83) and i both are unknowns. Using this Eqn. one can obtain natural
frequencies and modal vectors by assuming a trial frequency and amplitude 1 so
that the above Eqn is satisfied.
Steps involved
1. Assume magnitude of a trial frequency
2. Assume amplitude of first disc/mass (for simplicity assume 1=1
3. Calculate the amplitude of second disc/mass 2 from first Eqn. of motion
2 J11 K 1(1 2 ) 0

2J11
K1

2 1

(84)

4. Similarly calculate the amplitude of third disc/mass 3 from second Eqn. of motion.
2 J2 2 K 1( 2 1 ) K 2 ( 2 3 ) 0

2 J1 1
1 ) K 2 ( 2 3 ) 0
K1

2 J2 2 K 1(1

2 J2 2 2 J1 1 K 2 ( 2 3 ) 0
K 2 ( 2 3 ) 2 J1 1 2 J2 2

3 2 -

2 J1 1 2 J2 2
K2

(85)

The Eqn (85) can be written as:

2

3 2 -

J
i

i 1

(86)

K2

5. Similarly calculate the amplitude of nth disc/mass n from (n-1)th Eqn. of motion
is:
n

n n -1 -

J
i 1

Kn

(87)

6. Substitute all computed i values in basic constraint Eqn.

n

J
2

i 1

(88)

7. If the above Eqn. is satisfied, then assumed is the natural frequency, if the Eqn is
not satisfied, then assume another magnitude of and follow the same steps.
For ease of computations, Prepare the following table, this facilitates the calculations.
Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor
Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

Table-1. Holzars Table

1
2
3
4

S No

J
2

J2

39

8
1
J 2

Example-1
For the system shown in the Fig.16, obtain natural frequencies using Holzars method.
J1

J2
1 K 1

J3
2 K 2

Fig.16 A torsional semi-definite system

Make a table as given by Table-1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

40

1

S No

J2

0.0625

0.0625

0.0625

0.9375

0.0585

0.121

0.121

0.816

0.051

0.172

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.75

0.19

0.44

0.44

0.31

0.07

0.51

0.56

0.56

0.56

0.44

0.24

0.80

0.80

-0.36

-0.20

0.60

-1

-1

1.56

1.56

1.56

-0.56

-0.87

0.69

0.69

-1.25

-1.95

-1.26

2.25

2.25

2.25

-1.25

-2.82

-0.57

-0.57

-0.68

-1.53

-2.10

3.06

3.06

3.06

-2.06

-6.30

-3.24

-3.24

1.18

3.60

0.36

1
J2
K

I-iteration
0.25

II-iteration
0.50

III-iteration
0.75

IV-iteration
1.00

V-iteration
1.25

VI-iteration
1.50

VII-iteration
1.75

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
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41

J
2

0.25

0.17

0.5

0.51

0.75

0.6

1.25

-1.26

1.5

-2.1

1.75

0.36

The values in above table are plotted in Fig.17.

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

J
2

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

Frequency,
Fig.17. Holzars plot of Table-3

1 0

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

42

Definite systems
The procedure discussed earlier is valid for semi-definite systems. If a system is
definite the basic equation Eqn. (83) is not valid. It is well-known that for definite
systems, deflection at fixed point is always ZERO. This principle is used to obtain the
natural frequencies of the system by iterative process. The Example-2 demonstrates
the method.
Example-2
For the system shown in the figure estimate natural frequencies using Holzars
method.
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 20 marks
3K

2K

2J

3J

Fig.18 A torsional system

Make a table as given by Table-1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

43

1

S No

J2

3
4

0.1875

0.1875

0.1875

0.8125

0.1015

0.289

0.1445

0.6679

0.0417

0.330

0.110

0. 557

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.25

0.125

0.875

0.437

-0.187

-0.046

0.828

0.27

-0.463

1.687

1.687

1.687

-0.687

-0.772

0.914

0.457

-1.144

-0.643

0.270

0.090

-1.234

-2

-4

-1

-0.5

-1.5

-1.5

-2.5

-0.833

-0.667

4.687

4.687

4.687

-3.687

-11.521

-6.825

-3.412

-0.274

-0.154

-6.979

-2.326

2.172

6.75

6.75

6.75

-5.75

-25.875

-19.125

-9.562

3.31

8.572

-10.552

-3.517

7.327

1
J2
K

I-iteration

0.25

II-iteration

0.50

III-iteration

0.75

IV-iteration

1.00

V-iteration

1.25

VI-iteration

1.50

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

1

S No

J2

9.18

9.18

9.18

-8.18

-50.06

-40.88

-20.44

12.260

37.515

-3.364

-1.121

13.38

12

12

12

-11

-88

-76

-38

-27

108

32

10.66

16.33

18.75

18.75

18.75

-17.75

-221.87

-203.12

-101.56

83.81

523.82

320.70

106.90

-23.09

J
2

44

8
1
J2
K

VII-iteration

1.75

VIII-iteration

2.0

IX-iteration

2.5

0.25

0.557

0.5

-0.463

0.75

-1.234

-0.667

1.25

2.172

1.5

7.372

1.75

13.38

16.33

2.5

-23.09

Dr. S. K. Kudari, Professor

Sessions: 10,11,12,13,14,15,16 &17
Deptt. Mech. Engg.,
B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli - 580031.

ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

45

Displacement, 4

20

10

-10

-20

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Frequency,
Fig.17. Holzars plot of Table-5
From the above Graph, the values of natural frequencies are:

1 0.35

2 1.15