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ASSIGNMENT 1

JOEAL LIM GUAN CHIN


15115
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

21 OCTOBER 2014

Carbon Steel
Carbon steel is a type of metal alloy formed as a result of combined iron and carbon. There
are four (4) types of carbon steel each with many grades. The four (4) grades can be
explained as below:

Low Carbon Steel Composition of 0.05%-0.25% carbon and up to 0.4% manganese.


Also known as mild steel, it is a low cost material that is easy to shape. While not as
hard as higher-carbon steels, its surface hardness can be increased by carburizing.

Medium Carbon Steel Composition of 0.29%-0.54% carbon with 0.60%-1.65%


manganese. Medium carbon steel is ductile and strong with good wear properties.

High Carbon Steel Composition of 0.55%-0.95% carbon with 0.30%-0.90%


manganese. It is very strong and holds shape memory well, making it ideal for springs
and wire.

Very High Carbon Steel - Composition of 0.96%-2.1% carbon. Its high carbon
content makes it an extremely strong material, though it is brittle and requires special
handling.

It can be seen that the higher the carbon content, the steel become stronger and harder but at
the same time it reduces the ductility and weldability of the steel.

(A) A106GrB
This is a type of carbon steel pipe where the fluid flows inside such pipe is of high
temperature and pressure. Facilities that use this grade of pipe includes boilers, power plants,
oil and gas refineries and et cetera.
Chemical and Mechanical Properties (S-Seamless Pipe):
(According to Hebei Province Gold Mysterious Pipe Co., Ltd.)

Table 1: Composition of A106GrB carbon steel pipe


Grade

Mn

Si

Cr"

Cu"

Mo"

Ni"

V"

0.25

0.27-0.93

0.035

0.035

0.10

0.40

0.40

0.15

0.40

0.08

0.30

0.29-1.06

0.035

0.035

0.10

0.40

0.40

0.15

0.40

0.08

0.35

0.29-1.06

0.035

0.035

0.10

0.40

0.40

0.15

0.40

0.08

*The total composition for these 5 elements shall not exceed 1.00%

Table 2: Mechanical properties of A106GrB carbon steel pipe


Grade

Rm Mpa Tensile Strength

Mpa
Yield Point

330

205

Elongation

Delivery Condition

20

Annealed

415

240

20

Annealed

485

275

20

Annealed

*annealed- heat treatment that alters chemical and physical properties of a materials to increase its
ductility

Dimensional Tolerances:
Table 3: Dimensional tolerances for carbon steel A106GrB
Pipe Type

Pipe Sizes

Tolerances

48.3mm

0.40mm

60.3mm

1%mm

OD
Cold Drawn

WT

12.5%

(B) API5LX65
This grade of steel is of a higher strength, tough, weldable steel for applications in the oil
and gas industry especially at offshore.

Figure 1: Example of grading system of API5LX65

- The steel pipe mentioned herein is substantially modified from the API 5L, X65 standard.
- Pipes are fully killed and fine grain steel material.
- NACE MR0175:Satisfactory
- This steel offers enhanced yield tensile ratio of 0.87 (max) and impact values verified from
as low as -30C.
- This grade is also known as L450Q in USC Units.
Chemical composition
Table 4: Chemical composition of enhanced API5LX65 carbon steel pipe with thickness (t) <= 25mm

*All values are maximum unless stated otherwise and in unit of percentage

Mechanical Properties

Table 5: Mechanical properties of enhanced API5LX65 carbon steel pipe

Stainless Steel
Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected
carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is
active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide; and, because of the greater
volume of the iron oxide, this tends to flake and fall away.
Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which
prevents further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and
blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure, and, due to the similar size
of the steel and oxide ions, they bond very strongly and remain attached to the surface.
There are three (3) main types of stainless steel namely; austenitic, ferritic, and martensitic.
They can be identified by their microstructure or predominant crystal phase.
i.

Austenitic:

Austenitic steels have austenite as their primary phase (face centered cubic crystal). These are
alloys containing chromium and nickel (sometimes manganese and nitrogen), structured
around the Type 302 composition of iron, 18% chromium, and 8% nickel. Austenitic steels
are not hardenable by heat treatment. The most familiar stainless steel is probably Type 304,
sometimes called T304 or simply 304. Type 304 surgical stainless steel is an austenitic steel
containing 18-20% chromium and 8-10% nickel.
ii.

Ferritic:

Ferritic steels have ferrite (body centered cubic crystal) as their main phase. These steels
contain iron and chromium, based on the Type 430 composition of 17% chromium. Ferritic
steel is less ductile than austenitic steel and is not hardenable by heat treatment.
iii.

Martensitic:

The characteristic orthorhombic martensite microstructure was first observed by German


microscopist Adolf Martens around 1890. Martensitic steels are low carbon steels built
around the Type 410 composition of iron, 12% chromium, and 0.12% carbon. They may be
tempered and hardened. Martensite gives steel great hardness, but it also reduces its
toughness and makes it brittle, so few steels are fully hardened.
There are also other grades of stainless steels, such as precipitation-hardened, duplex, and
cast stainless steels. Stainless steel can be produced in a variety of finishes and textures and
can be tinted over a broad spectrum of colors.
(A) SS304
Grade 304 is the standard "18/8" stainless; it is the most versatile and most widely used
stainless steel, available in a wider range of products, forms and finishes than any other. It
has excellent forming and welding characteristics. The balanced austenitic structure of Grade
304 enables it to be severely deep drawn without intermediate annealing, which has made this
grade dominant in the manufacture of drawn stainless parts such as sinks, hollow-ware and
saucepans. For these applications it is common to use special "304DDQ" (Deep Drawing
Quality) variants. Grade 304 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of components for
applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 304 also has
outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin
sections.
Grade 304L, the low carbon version of 304, does not require post-weld annealing and so is
extensively used in heavy gauge components (over about 6mm). Grade 304H with its higher
carbon content finds application at elevated temperatures. The austenitic structure also gives
these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.
Chemical Formula
Fe, <0.08% C, 17.5-20% Cr, 8-11% Ni, <2% Mn, <1% Si, <0.045% P, <0.03% S
Composition:

Table 6: Composition for stainless steel grade 304/304L/304H


Grade
304

304L

304H

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

Ni

min.

18.0

8.0

max.

0.08

2.0

0.75

0.045

0.030

20.0

10.5

0.10

min.

18.0

8.0

max.

0.030

2.0

0.75

0.045

0.030

20.0

12.0

0.10

min.

0.04

-0.045

18.0

8.0

max.

0.10

2.0

0.75

0.030

20.0

10.5

Mechanical Properties:
Table 7: Mechanical properties for stainless steel grade 304/304L/304H
Grade

Tensile
Strength
(MPa) min

Yield Strength
0.2% Proof
(MPa) min

Elongation (%
in 50mm) min

304

515

205

304L

485

304H

515

Hardness
Rockwell B
(HR B) max

Brinell (HB) max

40

92

201

170

40

92

201

205

40

92

201

304H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM No 7 or coarser.

Physical Properties:
Table 8: Physical properties for stainless steel grade 304/304L/304H
Grade

304/L/H

Density
(kg/m3)

8000

Elastic
Modulus
(GPa)

193

Mean Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
(m/m/C)

Thermal
Conductivity
(W/m.K)

0100C

0315C

0-538C

at
100C

at
500C

17.2

17.8

18.4

16.2

21.5

Specific
Heat 0100C
(J/kg.K)

Electrical
Resistivity
(n.m)

500

720