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Analytical, Optical and

Biomedical Instrumentation
for

Instrumentation Engineering
By

www.thegateacademy.com

Syllabus

A.O.B

Syllabus for Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation


Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry. X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements.
Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics.
Interferometers, applications in metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG,
ECG and EMG. Clinical measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of
Computer Assisted Tomography.

Analysis of GATE Papers


(Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

3.0

2012

6.0

2011

2.0

2010

9.0

2009

11.0

2008

16.0

2007

16.0

2006

14.66

2005

12.66

2004

25.0

2003

18.0

Overall Percentage

12.12%

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Contents

A.O.B

CONTENTS
Chapter
#1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

#5.

Page No.

U.V, Visible and IR spectrometry

1 - 15

1-3
3-7
7-9
10 - 11
11 - 12
13
13 - 15

Analytical Instrumentation
Beer Lamberts law
Infrared Spectroscopy Instrumentation
Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Mass Spectrometer

16 - 22

16 - 17
17 - 18
19 - 20
21
21 - 22

Introduction
Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

X ray and Nuclear Radiation Measurements

23 - 34

23 - 24
24 - 26
26 - 28
29 - 30
30 - 31
32
32 - 34

Origin of X rays
X-ray Diffraction Braggs Law
Nuclear Detectors
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Optical Sources and Detectors

35 - 55

35 - 37
37 - 41
41 - 49
50 - 51
51 - 52
53
53 - 55

Optical Sources
LASER
Photo Detectors
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Interferometer, Applications in Metrology

Introduction
Michelsons Interferometer Working
Application in Metrology
Assignment

56 63
56
56 - 57
57 - 58
59 - 60

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Contents

Answer Keys
Explanations

#6. Basics of Fiber Optics

#7.

#8.

#9.

Introduction
Construction
Fibre Characteristics and Classification
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

A.O.B

61
61 - 63

64 76
64
64 - 66
66 - 69
70 - 71
71 - 72
73
73 - 76

Ultrasonic Transducers and Ultrasonography

77 - 83

77
77
78 - 79
79
80 - 81
82
82 - 83

Introduction
Acoustic Impedence(z)
Ultrasonic Transducers
Doppler Shift Ultrasound Transducer
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

ECG EEG EMG

84 - 102

84 - 87
87 - 89
89 - 91
91 - 94
95 - 96
97 - 98
99
99 - 102

Sources of Bioelectric Potentials


ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)
EEG (Electro Encephalogram)
EMG (Electromyogram)
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys.
Explanations.

Clinical Measurement and


Computer Assisted Tomography

Introduction
Measurement of Blood Pressure
Measurement of Blood Volume
Measurement of Heart Sounds
Test on Blood Cells
Principle of Computer Assisted Tomography
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

103 - 114
103
103 - 104
104
105
105 - 109
109 - 110
111 - 112
113
113 - 114

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Contents

A.O.B

Module Test

115 - 126

Test Questions
Answer Keys
Explanations

115 - 119
120
120 - 126

Reference Books

127

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Chapter 1

A.O.B

CHAPTER 1
U.V, Visible and IR spectrometry
Analytical Instrumentation
Analytical instruments are primarily used to obtained qualitative and quantitative
information regarding the composition of a given unknown sample.
The basic building blocks are:
Chemical
information
source

Analytical
instrument

Signal
conditioner

Display
system

Chemical information source generates signal containing information of the unknown


sample.
Analytical instruments then generate signal based on the composition of the sample. This
stage forms an important building block in analytical instruments where the separation,
detection and of the composition is done by employing either emission or absorption or
scattering of electromagnetic radiation as the key principle of detection.
Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation is a type of energy that is transmitted through space at a speed of
3
m/sec.
These radiations do not require a medium of propagation and can also travel through
vacuum.
Relation between the energy of electromagnetic radiation (normally called as photons) and
frequency of its propagation is given by
where E: energy
h: Plancks constant

ergs-s (or)

Joules-s

: frequency
If is the wavelength interval between successive maxima and minima of the wave), then
C =
Where C: velocity of propagation of radiant energy in vacuum.
Interaction of radiation with matter
S. No
Radiation absorbed
Energy changes involved
1.
Visible, ultraviolet, x Electronic transitions, vibrational
ray
rotational changes

or

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Page 1

Chapter 1
2.

Infrared

3.
4.

Microwave
Radio frequency

A.O.B

Molecular vibrational changes with


superimpose rotational changes
Rotational changes
They are absorbed by an intense magnetic
field.

Spectroscopic methods and corresponding energy states of matter or basis of phenomenon


S. No
Method
Phenomena employed
1.
Nuclear magnetic
Nuclear spin coupling with an
resonance
applied magnetic field
2.
Microwave spectroscopy Rotation of molecules
3.
Infrared and Raman
Rotation or vibration of molecules,
spectroscopy
electronic transitions
4.
UV visible spectroscopy Electronic energy changes,
5.
X-ray spectroscopy
Diffraction and reflection of X-ray
radiation from atomic layers.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Fig (1.1) shows the various regions of electromagnetic spectrum which are normally used in
spectroscopic works.
UV VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY
2.5 M 2400

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

20 100 MHz (~ 300 MHz IN


SUPERCONDUCTING INSTRUMENTS)
MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY
2000 MHz 300 GHz

300 m

10 m

0.67 m

30 m

3 cm

7000

3000

30 3

7000 4000

MICROWAVES

FREQUENCY RANGE
OF HUMAN EYE

EXTRA HIGH
VERY LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
VERY HIGH ULTRA HIGH SUPER HIGH
LOW
FREQUENCY INFRARED
FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FREQUENCY FREQUENCY

10 kHz

100 kHz

0 15 kHz; FREQUENCY RANGE


OF AVERAGE HUMAN EAR

1 MHz

30 MHz

450 MHz

NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE
RESONANCE 2 1000 MHz

1 GHz

10 GHz

ELECTRON SPIN
RESONANCE; X-BAND
9.46 GHz

300 GHz

4.3

VISIBLE

ULTRAVIOLET

X-RAY

INFRARED
SPECTROSCOPY 1 MM2.5 M 10 4000 cm
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

Fig.1.1 Electromagnetic spectrum from DC to X-ray


In the following sections, we discuss the various methods employed (by the analytical
instruments) for detection of the composition of the analyte sample in the different regions of
the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Page 2

Chapter 1

A.O.B

Visible and Ultraviolet: Calorimeter and Spectrophotometer


In the visible and ultraviolet region of spectrum, the method of analysis employed by the
analytical instruments are based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation.
Calorimeters and spectrophotometers are the analytical instruments used in this region.
Principle
Whenever a beam of radiant energy strikes the surface of a substance (analyte or sample),
the radiation interacts with the atoms or molecules of the substance resulting in absorption
(or) transmittance or scattering (reflection) depending on the properties of the sample.

Absorbed
Radiation

Transmitted Radiation

Incident
Radiation
Sample
Absorption spectroscopy is based on the principle that the amount of absorption that occurs
is dependent on the number of molecules present in the sample.
Here the analysis is done by studying the intensity of the radiant power leaving the
substance, i.e., the transmitted radiation which is an indication of concentration of the
sample.
The absorbance is calculated as;
Transmittance (T)
where:
p: energy transmitted
P : Incident energy
Absorbance

log ( )
log

Optical density

( )
log (

Beer Lamberts Law


This law gives a relation between energy absorbed by the sample and the energy
transmitted.
Absorbance (A) = abc
where:
a is the absorptivity of the sample (constant)
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Page 3

Chapter 1

A.O.B

b is the thickness of the absorbing material


c is the concentration of the sample
p
As we known, A log ( ) and T
P
log ( )

abc

log ( ) and T =

Assumptions
1.
2.
3.

Here the radiation used is monochromatic (single wave length) in nature.


Sample is of low concentration.
The others factors that influence the absorption are not considered.

The instrument module for UV and visible spectrometry can be pictorized as below
Example: The transmittance of a coloured solution is 0.5, the absorption of the solution is?
A = log

= log

= 0.3

Example: In a particular sample the absorption is 0.6 for a molar concentration of the solute of
1.0
moles and 2cm path length the molar absorptivity is?
A = abc
a=
Substitute a = 3000
Radiant
Source

Wavelength
Selector

Solvent

Photo
detector

Read out
device

Sample

Radiation sources used are


1.
2.
3.

Hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp(U.V)


Incandescent filament lamps 350nm 2.5m
Tungsten halogen lamps (visible)

Wavelength selection is done with the various dispersive techniques given.


Optical Filters
Absorption Filter
These optical filters usually absorb the radiation and transmit light of single wavelength.
There efficiency is poor, when compared to other filters.
Interference Filters
These filters use interference phenomena.
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Page 4

Chapter 1

A.O.B

Thus, these filters normally have semi-transparent layers.


Light, which is incident on it undergoes multiple reflections between the pair of semi
transparent layers and the wavelength that is transmitted through them is determined by
the thickness of the dielectric layer.
The wavelength selection is done by the relation:
m
d n) sin
where : angle of incidence
d : thickness of dielectric spaces,
n : refractive index of dielectric spacer.
m : order of interference
: wavelength
Monochromators
They are the another class of filters, which provide better isolation than optical filters.
They are capable or isolating a narrow band of wavelengths effectively.
Principle employed for separation of wavelength is done by using a dispersing medium,
where the radiant energy gets isolated.
Dispersion of radiant energy into different wavelengths is usually done by prism
monochromators or by diffraction grating.
Prism Monochromators
Here in prism monochromators, the isolation of different wavelengths is done by using the
refractive index of wavelengths, which is different for different wavelengths.
Thus, radiation of different wavelengths gets disperssed at different angles by prism.
Prisms are normally made of glass or quartz. Glass is used in visible region and quartz for
ultraviolet region.
Resolving Power (R)
The term resolving power is applied to spectrum producing devices and means as the ability of
the instrument to form separate images of two closely adjacent spectral lines.
It is defined generally by the equation
where R: resolving power
: wavelength
d : smallest wavelength separation, which is separable with the instrument.
d
and
.
For prism, the resolving power is given by the expression:
t
where d is the difference or refractive index
t : base of the prism.
Example: A prism spectrometer uses flint glam prism with glam dispersion
6 0A at = 5893 0A find base t of prism?

952cm-1 and d =

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Page 5