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Chemistry 222

Exam 4: Chapters 11, 13, 14, Separations
Fall 2013
80 Points
Complete five (5) of the following problems. Each problem is worth 16 points. CLEARLY mark
the problems you do not want graded. You must show your work to receive credit for problems
requiring math. Report your answers with the appropriate number of significant figures.
1. Consider the titration of 25.0 mL of 0.0200 M MnSO4 with 0.0100 M EDTA in a solution
buffered at pH 8.00. (log Kf = 13.89 for MnY2-)
a. Calculate pMn2+ at two of the volumes below. (12 points)
At the equivalence point
10.0 mL before the equivalence point
10.0 mL after the equivalence point.
First locate the equivalence point:
25.0 mL
x 0.0200 mol Mn2+
1 mol Y4=
50.0 mL
1 mol Mn2+
0.0.0100 mol Y4L
At the equivalence point: [MnY2-] = (25.0 mL x 0.0200 mol/L)/(75.0 mL) = 0.00667 M
Mn2+ +
Kf' = Y4-Kf = 4.35x1011 =

= (0.0056)(7.76 x 1013) = 0.00667-x
Solving for x yields [Mn2+] = 1.24 x 10-7M or pMn = 6.90

10 mL before the equivalence point: we will have consumed 4/5 of the Mn2+, so 1/5 remains.
Since K is large, we can assume that the dissociation of MnY2- is negligible.
25.0 mLx0.0200 mol Mn2+x1x
=0.001538 M Mn2+ or, pMn = 2.81
5 25 + 40 mL
10 mL after the equivalence point: we will have 10.0 mL extra EDTA.
[MnY2-] = (25.0 mL x 0.0200 mol/L)/(85.0 mL) = 0.005882 M
[EDTA] = (10.0 mL x 0.0100 mol/L)/(85.0 mL) = 0.001176 M
Mn2+ +
0.001176 + x
Kf' = Y4-Kf =

= (0.0056)(7.76 x 1013) =
4[Mn ][Y ]
(x)( 0.001176 + x)
Solving for x yields [Mn2+] = 1.16 x 10-11M or pMn = 10.94

b. Given that the fraction of the EDTA present as Y4- does not reach its maximum until pH
is over 12 or so, why would we choose to run the titration at pH 8.00 instead? (4 points)
Increasing the pH favors the formation of insoluble metal hydroxides, therefore, the
titration must be run at a higher pH or we must use an auxiliary complexing agent to
prevent hydroxide formation at higher pH.

2. A 1.12 g sample of soil containing Ni2+ and Zn2+ and other nonmetals was digested in acid
and diluted to a final volume of 50.00 mL. This solution was treated with 25.0 mL of
0.0452 M EDTA to bind all the metal. The excess unreacted EDTA required 12.4 mL of
0.0123 M Mg2+ for complete reaction. An excess of the reagent 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol
was then added to displace the EDTA from zinc only. Another 29.2 mL of Mg2+ were
required for reaction with the liberated EDTA. Calculate the percent by weight of Ni2+ and
percent by weight of Zn2+ in the original rock sample.
We need to figure out the mass of both metals in the sample.
25.0 mL x 0.0452 mol EDTA = 1.13 mmol EDTA delivered
12.4 mL x 0.0123 mol Mg x 1 mol EDTA = 0.1525 mmol EDTA in excess
1 mol Mg
So, (1.13 0.1525)mmol = 0.9775 mmol EDTA was used to bind all of the metal. Therefore,
mol Zn2+ + mol Ni2+ = 0.9775 mmol
We can determine the amount of zinc from the magnesium titration:
29.2 mL x 0.0123 mol Mg2+ x 1 mol EDTA x 1 mol Zn2+ = 0.3592 mmol Zn2+
1 mol Mg
1 mol EDTA
So, the difference between the total moles metal and the moles zinc must correspond to the
number of moles nickel in the sample.
(0.9775 0.3592)mmol = 0.6183 mmol Ni2+
Now to determine percent composition:
0.3592 mmol Zn2+ x 65.37 g Zn x
= 0.02348 g Zn
1 mol Zn
1000 mg
0.02348 g Zn x 100 % = 2.10 % Zn
1.12 g sample
0.6183 mmol Ni2+ x 58.71 g Ni x
= 0.03630 g Ni
1 mol Ni
1000 mg
0.03630 g Ni x 100 % = 3.24 % Ni
1.12 g sample

3. In our magnesium determination in the laboratory, we added a solution made from ammonia
and ammonium chloride to each sample prior to titrating with EDTA. Explain the two primary
purposes served by the addition of this solution?
Your discussion should focus on the following two ideas:
1. In order for the titration to be effective, it is important to keep as much of the EDTA in its
fully deprotonated for as is reasonable. Keeping the pH high results in a larger fraction
of all EDTA present as Y4-. AS a result, the conditional formation constant, Kf, will
remain large.

2. At high pH, many metal ions form insoluble metal hydroxides or hydrous oxides. Should
this happen, the analyte would precipitate out of solution and be unavailable for reaction
with EDTA. Ammonia serves as an auxiliary complexing agent in the titration by forming
a soluble magnesium complex. The tendency for ammonia to bind Mg2+ is greater than
that for hydroxide, preventing the formation of magnesium hydroxide. However, EDTA
binds more strongly than ammonia, allowing the titration reaction to occur.

4. You need to do a pH measurement and have a pH electrode, pH 4.00, 7.00, and 10.00
buffers, but no pH meter! You do, however, have access to a voltmeter capable of
measuring potential differences at the millivolt level. Using these materials, describe how
you could determine the pH of an unknown aqueous solution. Include a description of how
you would collect the data and how you would use the data to find the pH of your unknown.

In your description, you should address the following items.

1. Connect the leads of the pH electrode to the voltmeter.
2. Measure Ecell for each buffer. (You should briefly describe how this is done)
3. Plot Ecell vs pH, you should expect a straight line with a slope of ~59mV/pH unit. (Why
should this relationship be linear?)
4. Measure Ecell for the unknown and extract the unknown pH from your calibration curve.

5. Consider the half reactions below:


Eo (volts)

MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e- Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)


Au+(aq) + e- Au(s)


a. Write the shorthand (line) notation for the galvanic cell that could be produced from the
two half reactions above. What is the Eo for this cell? (6 points)
Since we want the galvanic cell, we need to determine which have cell will need to be
the anode and which will need to be the cathode so that the overall cell reaction is
spontaneous (has a positive cell potential, Eocell).
Since Eocell = Eocathode - Eoanode, if the gold half cell is the cathode, the cell potential
becomes Eocell = +1.690V (+1.507V) = +0.183 V. Since this potential is positive, this
must be the arrangement for the galvanic cell, with Eocell = +0.183 V
The shorthand notation is:
Pt(s)| MnO4- (aq), H+ (aq), Mn2+(aq) || Au+ (aq) | Au(s)

b. What is the cell potential if [MnO4-] = 0.00200M, [Mn2+] = 0.140 M, [Au+] = 0.000100 M
and pH = 9.13? Is this more or less spontaneous than under standard conditions as in
part a above? (10 points)
The overall cell reaction is:
5Au+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O 5Au + MnO4- + 8H+
We can use the Nernst equation to determine the cell potential:
Ecell =+0.183V-0.05916 Vlog[MnO4-][H+]8
Ecell =+0.183V-0.05916 Vlog [0.00200][10-9.13]8 =+0.832V
Since this potential is more positive than that at standard conditions, the reaction is more
spontaneous under these conditions than under standard conditions.
You could also use the Nernst equation for each half reaction, then calculate a cell
= +0.621 V
Eanode = +1.507V - 0.05916 V log
+ 8
[MnO4 ][H ]
Ecathode =

+1.690V -

0.05916 V



= +1.453 V

Ecell = Ecathode - Eanode = : +1.453 V (+0.621 V) = +0.832 V


6. Calculate the Eo for the half reaction Pd(OH)2 (s) + 2e- Pd (s) + 2OH- given that the Ksp for
Pd(OH)2 is 3.0x10-28 and the Eo = +0.915 V for Pd2+ + 2e- Pd (s).
There are several approaches to solving this problem. Heres one:

Net = 1 +2

Pd + 2e- = Pd (s)
Pd(OH)2 (s) = Pd2+ + 2OHPd(OH)2 (s) + 2e- = Pd (s) + 2OH2+

+0.915 V



Go1 = -nFEo
Go2 = -RTlnK
Go1 + Go2

Since we can make our overall equation by summing the two components, we can
determine the Go for the reaction from the sum of the Gos for the component reactions.
Go1 = -nFEo = -(2 mol e-)(96485 coul/mole e-)(+0.915V) = -176,568 J
Go2 = -RTlnK = -(8.31441 J/mol K)(298K)ln(3.0x10-28) = 157,021 J
Gonet = Go1 + Go2 = 157021 J + (-176568 J) = -19,547 J
Eonet = Gonet/(-nF) = -19547 J/[-(2 mol e-)(96485 coul/mole e-)] = +0.1013 V
Another approach would be to convert everything to Ks and realize that Knet = K1 x K2:
For an equilibrium: -nFEo = -RTln K = -2.303RTlog K
So, for this equilibrium at standard temperature:
logK1 = (-nFEo1)/(-2.303RT) = 30.94
Knet = K1K2 = (1030.94)(3.0x10-28) = 2668
Then Eonet = (2.303RT/nF)log K = (0.05916V/2)log(2668) = +0.101V

7. Complete ONE of the following regarding separations. Choose a or b, not both!

a. In our gas chromatography experiment, we are interested in determining the ethanol
concentration in our unknown. As part of the procedure, we add propanol to each
sample and standard. Explain why propanol is added, what purpose it serves, and what
characteristics make it useful for this purpose.
b. The Van Deemter equation relates the impact of flow rate, u, on plate height, H, in a
separation by the relationship below. Describe what the A, B, and C terms correspond
to and explain how they are related to flow rate, and ultimately, H.



a. Propanol was added as an internal standard because it is difficult to make reproducible

injections of our samples and, as a result, the areas of our sample peaks would depend
not only on changing concentration but also on changing sample volumes. The addition
of an internal standard allows us to relate all peak areas to those of the internal
standard, diminishing the impact of sample-to-sample volume variations. To be a useful
internal standard for GC, propanol must be able to be well resolved from the other
components of the sample under the conditions of our experiment.
b. The A term corresponds to the potential for multiple paths that an analyte can take
through the column. As a result of these multiple paths, analytes with the same identity
will take varying times to migrate through the column, producing broader peaks.
Decreasing particle size our removing packing material decreases the impact of this
term, but changing flow rate has no impact, thus no u in this term of the equation.
The B term relates to diffusion along the column axis. The longer time that a sample
plug spends on the column, the more opportunity for diffusion to occur along the column,
therefore, increasing flow rate will diminish the impact of this term by shortening the time
spent on the column, hence a 1/u dependence in the equation.
The C term related to diffusion into and out of the stationary phase and mobile phase. If
mobile phase moves too quickly thorough the column for this diffusion to keep up, some
material will lag behind on the column and lead to a broader peak. Slowing flow rate
down allows more time for diffusion between the phases and less lag, hence the linear
dependence on u.

Possibly Useful Information

Kw = 1.0 x 1014 = [H+][OH-]

E Eo

log Q E o
log Q

b b 2 4ac

Go = -nFEo = -RTlnK

F = 96485 C mol-1

R = 8.31441 Jmol-1K-1

E const.
log ion

y = mx + b ,


Values of y4- for EDTA at 20C and = 0.10 M







3.7 x 10







1.3 x 10


1.9 x 10


2.3 x 10

3.3 x 10-14

5.0 x 10-4



2.6 x 10-11

5.6 x 10-3







3.8 x 10

5.4 x 10