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A General Introduction to Moral Theory

by John

J. McCall
Reflective Paper
We make decisions by accessing our conscience, which is where
intellect meets the humanity in us. Usually when we feel an action is
right, enthusiasm and influence are good. When we feel an action is
not right, the effect is professed to be bad. There are moral theories
that explain the way things are and theories explaining the way things
should be, however, people and their philosophies are so different that
no common moral groundwork can be recognized; everyone is correct.
Not only is everybody correct, but also no one has a right to disapprove
other peoples views or enforce their own views upon them.
Moral Theory attempts to understand nature. The basic Golden
Rule is do unto others as you would have them do unto you. This
statement is the basic moral principle that is the grounds of a more
specific moral attitude and judgment. The central theme that echoed
through out this paper was the concept of morality that aims at
controlling and directing human behavior and leads to human well
being. Our own moral intentions are said to spring from the state of
the soul. Our valuation of the net effect of our performance on other
lives originates from the state of the mind. Distinctive ethical choices
are, therefore, always subjective and individual as they can only be
made within the constraints of what is identified. But because what is

recognized can have many disparities, there are no moral

fundamentals, which require boundless realization of the association of
all things. In other words, if we can connect into the inseparability of all
things, we can make moral judgments. If we want to judge we,
therefore, need to have first hand knowledge of all exclusive conditions
of the ethical impasse. Focusing on the present circumstances and do
the right thing by the people you are with. If we can do this, we can
generate a self-immortalizing cycle of good.
Respect was something that encompassed my up bringing. Faith
and family was the reason for our existence because respecting others
was the family platform. My up bringing implies that this will lead to
true happiness of soul. John McCall brings the term of External Control
of Morals, a reward and punishment behavior. For example, religious
tradition reveals a threat of eternal damnation, that our actions are
punishable. Christians believe that God is the ultimate power. Fear of
crossing this higher power allows our morals to stay on course. In
other words, our actions are punishable in the forever. Many people do
not feel this in todays world. Maybe this is why the ethics and morals
of today are on the downturn. Police, clergy, teachers, to name a few,
are not as respected in todays culture. Can it be an indirect result of
the decline of the religious ethics? John McCall professes that
individuals operate through a process where they socialize human
norms and make them their own. But contrary to the utilitarianism

theory, predicting the future has no guarantees. How does a person

know what makes people happy?


Linda DellaPia