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Presented by

HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.


1161 Nishiwaki, Nishiwaki-city,
Hyogo, 677-0015, Japan
Tel: (+81) 0795-22-2134
Fax: (+81) 0795-22-1283
e-mail: info@hiruta-riken.co.jp

HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD., a manufacturer of sizing agents and technical consultant on sizing, locate in
the midland of Hyogo, Japan, a traditional production center of so-called Banshu-ori or yarn-dyed woven
cloth. We have been offering the best solution in sizing process to global customers through providing our
sizing agents as well as technical information.

Key factors of warp sizing


Warp sizing is an essential process to coat warp yarns with elastic film and bind fibers of
yarns as lowering fluff or hairiness so that yarns may be so strong that resist the mechanical
strain in weaving process, and maintain or improve weaving efficiency. Quality of warp sizing
is generally evaluated by the following factors:

Total strength including elasticity of sized yarn to resist such

Cohesive strength

mechanical strains in weaving process as tensing, bending, rubbing,


shedding, etc.

Very important factor to prevent yarns from clinging among yarns. It is

Fluff binding

particularly required in weaving a high-density fabric or by a


high-speed air jet loom. Sized yarns without fluff (of which fluff is
lowered well) may be shed smoothly in weaving loom.
The amount of size picked up by yarns. An ideal size pickup is

Size pickup (SPU)

pre-determined according to yarn/fabric construction, by which you


can formulate a size recipe and set squeeze roll pressure and other
mechanical conditions. Size must be picked up by yarn sheet evenly.

Smoothness
& Softness

Size cooking
conditions

Sizing machine
conditions

Another important factor of sized yarn as well as cohesive strength


particularly in weaving high-count yarns into a high-density fabric by a
high-speed air jet loom.

Determine the quality of size solution in terms of viscosity, particle


size, etc. In other words, a good size solution can be prepared in a
good cooking process

In terms of size box temperature, squeeze pressure, draft, dry


cylinder temperature, etc. which may determine the quality of the
above factors.

1/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Factor (1)

Total strength including elasticity of


sized yarn to resist such mechanical
strains in weaving process as tensing,
bending, rubbing, shedding, etc.

Cohesive Strength

Mechanical strains

Warp yarns are drawn as rubbing on thread eye of droppers, mail of healds, comb of reed,
etc.

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Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

How to improve cohesive strength


Use our sizing agent Ketacol-TH with sponge effect

How to measure cohesive strength


In weaving threads into cloth by looms, the warp must be resistant to such mechanical
strains as tensing bending rubbing, shedding, etc., otherwise yarn may be broken. A number
of such yarn breakages may lower weaving efficiency and quality of woven cloth.
Data of yarn strength in terms of elongation, tenacity, or the like offered by conventional yarn
strength testers are useful for studying yarn quality, but most of them do not correlate to
weaving efficiency to be known in practical weaving process. That is, it is difficult for such
conventional testers to analyze actual weavability of sized yarns.

Conventional cohesion tester

(TM

type yarn rubbing and cohesion tester


the right photograph) developed
several decades ago was the most
useful device.
Nowadays,

weavability

predictor

developed by Hiruta Riken Co., Ld. is


only device with patented mechanism
(patent No. 601116) to simulate and
apply mechanical strains of looms to

Photo. 1: TM type yarn rubbing and cohesion tester

yarns, and to numerically determine


Yarn cohesive strength. It is already approved worldwide that analysis data obtained by this
device correlate to actual weavability.
3/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Photo. 2: Our weavability predictor

Mechanism
The front face of the device is shown in the above picture. Yarn to be tested is drawn through the yarn guide.
The both ends of yarn are held by yarn terminal and clip guide equipped with a specified weight. And the
yarn is clipped on recording pen. Turning on the drive switch rotates the friction disk in which the yarn rubs
on 11 different-shape friction pieces and receives strains as if it were stressed on a weaving loom.
Simultaneously, the recording pen is oscillated on rotating chart paper set on the recording drum. All motion
stops when yarn was broken. The number of rotation of friction disk is counted by counter. Chart drawn by
the recording pen may tell the condition of testing yarn particularly when it is elongated.

How to evaluate
Rotation speed of friction disk and weight are chosen according to specified loom speed and yarn count to
be tested as follows.
Loom speed
(type of loom)
170 ~ 250 rpm
(shuttle or rapier loom)
250 ~ 650 rpm
(rapier, projectile, or air jet loom)
650 ~ 800 rpm
(air jet loom)

Rotation speed of
friction disk
70 rpm
80 ~ 90 rpm
90 ~ 100 rpm

Yarn count
(cotton)
20
30
40
50
60
80

Weight
90 ~ 100 g
80 ~ 90 g
70 ~ 80 g
60 ~ 70 g
50 ~ 60 g
40 ~ 50 g

Total number of rotation of friction disk may be converted into cohesive strength of tested yarn. Basic
standard of acceptable cohesive strength is calculated from the following formula: acceptable cohesive
strength = (warp density per inch + weft density per inch) x a specific factor (3*).
e.g.

in case of twill with density of 124 x 80


(124 + 80) x 3 = 612

* The above specific factor (3) is our empirical factor. In case that cohesive strength of a sized yarn is more
than a value calculated by the above formula with the empirical factor 3, the yarn might be woven with
weaving efficiency of 90 % or more. However, it is not always adoptable depending on mechanical
conditions of looms, fabric construction, etc. A specific factor to be adoptable for you, therefore, should be
determined by accumulating correlative data between cohesive strength of each tested yarn and actual
weaving efficiency of such yarn to be recorded by looms.

4/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Factor (2)

Very important factor to prevent yarns from


clinging among yarns. It is particularly
required in weaving a high-density fabric or
by a high-speed air jet loom. Sized yarns
without fluff (of which fluff is lowered well)
may be shed smoothly in weaving loom.

Fluff binding

Shedding angle

Shedding angle of shuttle loom is usually as wide as shuttle with a specified size could move
through shed warp sheets to insert weft, in which fluffs of warp sheets hardly block such
movement. On the contrary, the angle of air jet loom is minimized by prioritizing the speed of
shedding motion. Weft is inserted by linear air jet, but may be blocked by fluffs if they are
many or long.

How to reduce fluff


1. Obtain easy divide by dividing rods of sizing machine
> Use our sizing agent Ketacol-TH with sponge effect
> Obtain 50 % or more voids in the width of squeezing roller

5/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Percentage of voids (S):


N
S = 1 -----------------27 C

x 100

S = percentage of voids (%)


C = Cotton yarn count
N = Number of warp / Working width in inch

How to obtain enough voids:


1) Use multi-size box (two/three/four)
2) Use multi-sheet dividing drying system
3) Use wet dividing rod

2. Set cylinder dryer temperature properly


Cylinder section
No. 1
Temp. variation
Flat pattern
100 C
Conventional pattern
100 C
Up-to-date pattern
120 C

No. 2

No. 3

100 C

100 C

110 C

120 C

110 C

95 C

Modern sizing machines consist of two-size box and three groups of cylinder dryers. In order
to reduce fluffs, temperatures of two front groups should be set higher than the rear. That is,
warp is divided into two sheets of which surface are quickly dried respectively by front dryers,
so that sheets might be again coupled without sticking together on the rear dryer.

6/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Factor (3)

The amount of size picked up by


yarns. Size must be picked up by
yarn sheet evenly.

Size Pickup (SPU)

An ideal size pickup is pre-determined according to yarn/fabric construction, by which you


can formulate a size recipe (size concentration) and set squeeze roll pressure and other
mechanical conditions. Size must be picked up by yarn sheet evenly.
Basics of ideal SPU (for regular cotton woven cloth)
Yarn count

10/s

20/s

30/s

40/s

50/s

60/s

80/s

SPU (1.0 %)

8.0

9.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

15.0

16.0

SPU = Size concentration x Squeezing ratio (*)


90 120 % by polyester/cotton blend

(*)

100 150 % by 100 % cotton


120 170 % by 100 % rayon
100 % or less by 100 % polyester
(depending on machine and squeeze roller conditions)

Factor (4)

Smoothness & softness

Another important factor of sized yarn


as well as cohesive strength
particularly in weaving high-count
yarns into a high-density fabric by a
high-speed air jet loom.

Weave cross-sectional diagram:


High-dense woven cloth with a defect
(if warp is very hard)

Regular woven cloth in normal structure

Sizing agent & auxiliaries for smoothness/softness


- Ketacol-TH with sponge effect
- Wax
- Oiling agent
- Softener (surfactant)
- Acrylic resin
- After waxing
Moisture regain (after drying process) for smoothness/softness
Ideal amount of moisture of sized yarn:
100 % cotton
6.5 ~ 7.0 %
100 % rayon
9.0 ~ 9.5 %
100 % polyester
1.0 ~ 1.5 %
65/35 polyester/cotton
3.0 ~ 3.5 %

7/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Factor (5)

Size cooking conditions

Determine the quality of size solution in


terms of viscosity, particle size, etc.
In other words, a good size solution can be
prepared in good cooking process

Wax
Oiling agent

By a high pressure cooker:


120C

Finish

Water
Ketacol-TH

~35C

60C

Steam

10 min.

15 min.

Mixing tank

30 min.

20 min.

High pressure cooker

Draw water (a temperature below 35C is preferable) with a volume 75 80% of


predetermined finished volume. Add Ketacol-TH as stirring and keep stirring for 10
minutes without heat.
Keep stirring, and apply steam to increase the temperature to 60C by 15 minutes.
Keep stirring, and transport the size solution to cooker.
Start cooking by high pressure cooker and increase the temperature to 120C by 30
minutes.
Note: Cooking time between and should be longer than 20 minutes. And
such cooking time should be constant for every batch so that stable size solution
with a same good quality might be prepared.
Keep stirring and temperature at 120C for 20 minutes.
Note: cooking time between and should be constant also for every batch to
prepare stable size solution.
Add wax and/or oiling agent in the mixing tank if necessary. Finish cooking by
transporting the size solution to an empty stock tank, check finished volume, and
add hot water if necessary to be a predetermined volume.
Note: add wax and/or oiling agent at the stage if it is difficult to add it at the
stage
[Cooking conditions may be modified according to type and conditions of cooker]

8/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

By an open cooker:
Wax
Oiling agent
95C

95C

Finish

Water
Ketacol-TH

60C

~35C

Steam

10 min.

45 min.

30 min.

Draw water (a temperature below 35C is preferable) with a volume 85 95% of


predetermined finished volume. Add Ketacol-TH slowing as stirring and keep
stirring for 10 minutes without heat.
Keep stirring, and apply steam to increase the temperature to 95C by 45 minutes.
Note: control steam flow in order to increase at the rate of 1 - 2C per minute.
Particularly it is preferable to take more times in the stage between and . And
such cooking conditions should be constant for every batch so that stable size
solution with a same good quality might be prepared.
Keep stirring (and add wax and/or oiling agent if necessary when the temperature
reached 60C).
Keep stirring and temperature at 95C for 30 minutes.
Add wax and/or oiling agent if necessary. Finish cooking by transporting the size
solution to an empty stock tank, check finished volume, and add hot water if
necessary to be a predetermined volume.
Note: add wax and/or oiling agent at the stage if it is difficult to add it at the
stage
[Cooking conditions may be modified according to type and conditions of cooker]

9/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Viscosity of size solution


For better warp sizing, it is important to
maintain ideal viscosity of size solution.
If size solution has extreme high
viscosity, it may not permeate in warp 6-mm viscosity cup
yarns well which might be rough and (Dripping completion time for water (25C):
hard in handling touch, and be bound 3.7 sec.)
as a tape (two or more yarns are bound
together). On the contrary, if size
solution without enough viscosity is
applied in warp yarns, their fluffs may
not be laid down well, and/or SPU may
be lower than expected because size
may be easily squeezed out.
In general, ideal viscosity is between 10
and 20 seconds by 6-mm viscosity cup
(the right figure).

10/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.

Factor (6)

Sizing machine conditions

In terms of size box temperature, squeeze


pressure, draft, dry cylinder temperature,
etc. which may determine the quality of the
above factors.

Size box temperature


Viscosity of size solution may vary with temperatures, which may affect the appropriate SPU
rate. In order to achieve a constant SPU rate, it is necessary to maintain a constant size
temperature.
The use of an automatic temperature control device is essential to obtain a constant
temperature according to the difference of yarn kinds

Yarn kinds
100 % cotton
Polyester/cotton
Greige

CVC

Ideal size
temperature
90 ~ 95 C
90 ~ 95 C

state
100 % rayon

75 ~ 80 C

Polyester/rayon

80 ~ 90 C

100 % cotton yarn dyed

75 ~ 90 C

Remarks
Greige cotton yarn contains cotton waxes of
which melting point is about 85 C. Size
temperature for such yarn must be 90 C or
more, otherwise the yarn might not absorb
size solution but retaining cotton waxes.
Rayon fiber may be broken with high
temperatures
Ideal temperature depends on dyeing
condition. Residual fixing agent on fiber
might block the penetration of size solution.

Stretching (draft)
It is preferable for warp yarns to minimize draft in sizing process. Ideal stretch rate is 1.2 ~
1.5 % for 100 % cotton and polyester/cotton blend.
Drying temperature (of cylinder dryer)
Modern sizing machines consist of two-size box and three groups of cylinder dryers.
In order to reduce fluffs, temperatures of two front groups should be set higher than the rear.
That is, warp is divided into two sheets of which surface are quickly dried respectively by
front dryers, so that sheets might be again coupled without sticking together on the rear
dryer.

11/11
Warp Sizing Technology for web
HIRUTA RIKEN CO., LTD.