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LATAR BELAKANG

Studi komunikasi politik merupakan gabungan dari beberapa disiplin ilmu. Dalam
perkembangannya studi tentang komunikasi politik lebih mendapat perhatian oleh sarjana
ilmu politik dibandingkan dengan sarjana ilmu komunikasi. Hal serupa juga diungkapkan
Cangara dalam Al-Fatah bahwa di Indonesia pada awalnya perhatian untuk membicarakan
komunikasi politik justru tumbuh di kalangan para sarjana ilmu politik daripada para sarjana
ilmu komunikasi itu sendiri (Cangara dalam Al-Fatah, 2009:34). Meskipun demikian, ilmu
komunikasi sudah banyak mengajarkan tentang politik meski masih belum fokus. Mark
Roelofs dalam Rakhmat mengatakan bahwa politik adalah pembicaraan atau lebih tepat,
kegiatan politik (berpolitik) adalah berbicara (Roelofs dalam Rakhmat, 1993:8). Sejalan
dengan perkembangannya, para ilmuwan berusaha untuk memberikan definisi tentang
komunikasi politik. Setiap ilmuwan dalam mengkaji dan menjelaskan tentang studi
komunikasi politik mempunyai pandangan yang berbeda-beda.
Menelaah beberapa pandangan diatas maka dapat dikatakan bahwa kegiatan politik
melibatkan komunikasi diantara beberapa orang yang terlibat didalamnya. Berorientasi dari
beberapa pandangan ilmuwan tentang komunikasi politik dapat dikatakan bahwa secara
keseluruhan tidak mudah untuk mendefinisikan komunikasi politik. Berkaitan dengan
semakin bertambahnya definisi komunikasi politik yang disebabkan karena perbedaan sudut
pandang, maka secara sederhana dapat dikatakan bahwa komunikasi politik merupakan
proses penyampaian pesan politik.

Definition of Political Communication

Dahlan (1999)
Suatu bidang atau disiplin yang menelaah perilaku dan kegiatan komunikasi yang bersifat
politik, mempunyai akibat politik atau berpengaruh terhadap perilaku politik.
Astrid, S. Soesanto, 1980:2
Komunikasi politik adalah komunikasi yang diarahkan kepada pencapaian suatu pengaruh
sedemikian rupa, sehingga masalah yang dibahas oleh jenis kegiatan komunikasi ini dapat
mengikat semua warganya melalui suatu sanksi yang ditentukan bersama oleh lembagalembaga politik.
Meadow dalam Nimmo (2004)
Political communication refers to any exchange of symbols or messages that to a
significant extent have been shaped by or have consequances for political system.
McNair (2003)
Political communication as pure discussion about the allocation of public resources
(revenues), official authority (who is given the power to make legal, legislative, and
executive decision), and official sanctions (what the state reward or punishes).
Fagen (1966)
Communicative activity considered political by virtue of its consequences, actual, and
potential, that it has for the functioning of political systems.
Meadow (1980)
Political communication refers to any exchange of symbols or messages that to a
significant extent have been shaped by or have consequences for the political system.

Dalam bidang komunikasi politik terdapat beberapa bentuk-bentuk kegiatan


komunikasi politik untuk mencapai tujuan politiknya. Kegiatan politik merupakan suatu
interaksi atau dapat dikatakan adalah suatu kegiatan berkomunikasi antara orang-orang.
Politik sangat berkaitan erat dengan apa yang disebut dengan komunikasi. Salah satu kajian
penting dalam kegiatan politik yaitu bahwa semua kegiatan politik sangat berhubungan
dengan komunikasi.

All political action is a reaction to communication one of kind or another. There are,
however, different levels and types of communication. Face-to- face communication is the
most basic (Roskin, 1997:166).
Berikut adalah beberapa bentuk-bentuk kegiatan komunikasi politik disertai dengan list
definition dari tokoh-tokoh ahli:

A. Definition of Propaganda
Darren G. Lilleker
Propaganda is communication that is deliberately designed by one group in society to
influence the attitudes and behaviour of others. It often uses symbolism and rhetoric and
appeals to the emotional and irrational aspects of our sensibility. Propaganda is, perhaps,
the oldest from of political communication that remains today. Propaganda, though more
associated with totalitarian regimes, arguably underpins much government information
in the 21st century. At the heart of true propaganda are three key elements: rhetoric, myth,
and symbolism.
Therefore we need to identified the use of rhetoric, symbolism and myth within
communications, such as party press releases, before we beside that they are acting as
propagandists. Propaganda, however, must follow certain rules. It:
1. Seeks to draw the reader into and beyond the text, causing internal conflicts over issues
or reinforcing prejudices we often like to deny we possess: racism particularly;
2. Highlights that change is possible through action by the reader, comparing negative
aspects of the past to a positive future as a result of the action;
3. Conveys the impression of being objective truth, unsponsored and coming from the
public sphere rather than attempting to influence the audience;
4. Treats the audience as passive, there is no hint that the audience can use differential
decoding to block out parts of a message and so not be motivated to act;
5. Is overt in using visual, rhetorical and symbolic tools, but those must be long to society
and be simply and universally decoded as the originator intends.

Political Propaganda By : Schulze-Wechsungen


Waves of propaganda hit Germany, leaving a world in confusion. We had nothing similar
with which to defend ourselves. Our leaders realized too late the power and effects of this
modern weapon, a weapon without limits, that thunders more loudly than cannon fire, that
is more destructive than a gas attack. This weapon forced the World War on us, it forged
the alliance against Germany, it brought ever new armies to the front against us, it gave
them confidence, it used every methodbecause every method was at their disposal.
Success proved them right,
Only their military leadership found things impossible. For their propaganda general
staff, everything was possible. Propaganda is the most modern of weapons. We have
suffered under it, we have learned from it. Having learned from experience its necessity,
we now use it. We had to destroy our airplanes, tanks, guns, and the like, but not the
weapon of propaganda. How could we not have used it, who is foolish enough to
underestimate its power? We owe our rise to it and will have to depend on it even more in
the future. It is a powerful tool in molding the nature and the thinking of the new, the
modern man.
Alexander von Humboldt
Wrote that one must organize a lasting moral force, which is nothing other than a firm,
systematic, coherent attempt to raise the morale of the nation, to control it.
Leonard W. Dobb
Usaha

sistemis

yang

dilakukan

oleh

individu-individu

yang

masing-masing

berkepentingan untuk mengontrol sikap kelompok individu lainnya dengan cara


menggunakan sugesti.

B. Definition of Broadcasting
Darren G. Lilleker
Broadcasting, a common feature of the communication of political actors in both pluralist,
media-centred democracies as well as authoritharian regimes, is any communication
which is directed towards the masses. Therefore different communication modes as
diverse political advertising, campaign leaflets, speeches to the reported by media can
come under the heading of broadcasting. This means that all such communication must be
designed to appeal to all sigments of the electorate and cannot exclude or offend anyone
group. Broadcasting is normally associated solely with the media industry, and in
particular radio and television companies communication to their audience.
However, we should not forget that those that create the news, in particular,
organizations that use news management techniques to gain favourable coverage and the
transmission of their messages, are also in the business of broadcasting. In a mediacentred democracy, in which all political communication is mediated prior to reaching the
public, all political communication is automatically viewed as being broadcasting.
The history of political communication is necessarily a history of the mass media.
While avoiding reducing the professionalization debate to technological determinism, we
can see that as the mass media has evolved, increasing its reach, so politicians have had
to be increasingly aware of media audiences and the way in which the media operates.

C. Definitions of Campaigns
Darren G. Lilleker
A campaigns is a series of events all designed to communicate to an audience and garner
support from that audience. Campaigns are used by a wide range of actors, both
commercial and political, and are designed to win over the audience through and
political, and are designed to win over the audience through a range of increasingly
sophisticated techniquees.
Rogers dan Storey (1987) (dalam Venus, 2004:7)
Kampanye politik merupakan serangkaian tindakan komunikasi yang terencana dengan
tujuan menciptakan efek tertentu pada sejumlah besar khalayak yang dilakukan secara
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berkelanjutan pada kurun waktu tertentu, sehingga berbeda dengan propaganda, dimana
kampanye cirinya sumber yang melakukannya selalu jelas, waktu pelaksanaan terikat dan
dibatasi, sifat gagasan terbuka untuk diperdebatkan khalayak, tujuannya tegas, variatif
serta spesifik, modu penerimaan pesan sukarela dan persuasi, modus tindakannya diatur
kaidah dan kode etiknya, sifat kepentingan mempertimbangkan kepentingan kedua belah
pihak.

D. Definitions of Infotainment
Darren G. Lilleker
A constructed noun, infotainment is the combination of the words information and
entertainment, suggesting a practice of the blending together of their presentation within
the broadcasting of news and current affairs. Infotainment describe the way in which the
modern mass audience largely receives political communication. It is argued that, with the
disengagement of the public from hard news due to the fragmentation of mass media,
politicians will communicate in more entertaining, media friendly, ways, while the news
media will make news more entertaining and reflective of popularculture.
Maurice Edelman (1995:1) argues, political communication becomes situated in
frame that belong to other popular genres likes novels, painting, stories, films, dramas,
television sitcoms, striking rumours, even memorable jokes.

E. Definition of Political Advertising


Darren G. Lilleker
As well as advertising, a political advertisement is a purposely placed piece of
communication, using a range of media, designed to garner positive feeling towards the
sponsor. Political advertising, in one form or another, has been a feature of campaigning
ever since groups began competing over public support.
Arthur Sanders 2004
An expert in the use of advertising and the media in the US, argues that successful
political advertisements should exhibit four features. They should:
1. Have dramatic impact, to ensure interest and aid recall.
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2. Draw in familiar themes, stories, and genres to appear relevant.


3. Focus on people, often real people and not politicians or actors, rather than policy.
4. Be simple, so carrying one easily understood message.
Lynda Lee Kaid (University of Florida)
Kaid, 1996a, 1997c, 1999
As a form of political communication, political advertising is both celebrated and
reviled. Over the past five decades, since its first appearance in campaigns in the 1950s,
political advertising has evolved into the dominant form of communication between
candidates and voters in the United States. In a variety of forms and styles, political
advertising has also become a staple of communication in democracies around the world.
It is not surprising, therefore, that the research on political advertising has become one of
the most significant components of the political communication discipline.
In the first review of research on political advertising in the Handbook of Political
Communication in 1981
Political advertising as the communication process by which a source (usually a political
candidate or party) purchases the opportunity to expose receivers through mass channels
to political messages with the intended effect of influencing their political attitudes,
beliefs, and/ or behaviors. (Kaid, 1981, p. 250).
Ied Kaid and Holtz-Bacha (1995)
The defining characteristics of modern political advertising are:
1. Control of the message.
2. Use of mass communication channels for message distribution.

F. Definition of Political Marketing


Darren G. Lilleker
Political marketing refers to the use of marketing tools, concepts and philosophies within
the field of policy development, campaigning and internal relations by political parties
and organizations. It is seen as a reaction to the rise of political consumerism, and the
collapse of partisanship, in western democratic societies as well as emergent democratic.
Kotler and Levy (1969)
Noted the fact that political candidates are markered as well as soap; however, more
recent work has progressed to focus on the role of marketing in the stages of policy
desaign and applying what are known as the 4Ps of marketing: product, promotion, place,
and price.

G. Definition of Rhetoric
Darren G. Lilleker
Rhetoric is the use of symbolism and language to ensure that a message is encoded
in the way desired by the communicator. Rhetorical communication is intentionally
persuasive, is central to propaganda, and is used to encourage a change in an audience
members behaviour. The use of rhetoric is as age-old as political communication and was
seen by Aristotle in his discourses on ancient Greek democratic politics as a necessary
means of bending the will of the people. Rhetorical speech is used in all our daily lives, as
a means of persuading others, as much as it is a tool common in political communication.
It is concerned with ensuring that the interpretation of our message is uniform, at least
among a majority. It is central to campaigning, underpins propaganda and spin and is a
central form of discourse within the soundbite culture of designer politics. To be
succesfull, rhetoric must be designed with a complex understanding of the audience, their
social norm, values and fears, and will speak to these directly. Designer of rhetorical
communication thus proceed through a five stage process. They:
1. Identify and define the problem.
2. Identify the audience required to solve the problem.
3. Identify or infer that audiences interpretive system: their norms, fears and values.
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4. Translate the problem into the audience interpretive system: create the message.
5. Deliver the message for optimal audience acceptance.
Machiavelli
Elegantly defended the politics of rhetorically constructed appearances of rhetorically
constructed, positively valued public personae as the tools needed to rule populations that
could never be subjugated by force alone. Rhetorical discourses were fear and worship
inspiring, and there in lay their political values.
The 18th-century empirical philosophers and rhetoricians from Jhon Locke (16321704) to Richard Whately (1787-1863)
The rhetorical reliance on systems of topoi or belief structures as the bases of argument
opened the discipline to human error and hence could affect outcomes in the arenas of
talk, including politics.
George Campbell (1719-1796) in this The Philosophy of Rhetoric (1776/1963)
Rhetoric was to be faced with a scientistically inspired set of tests for those arguments,
that is, tests based largely on factual investigations and other forms of empirical research.
I.A. Richards (1893-1979)
Rhetoric as the study of misunderstanding and its remedies. Richard then sought to teach
students the functions of language (expressions of sense, feeling, tone, and intention) as
well as the seven human activities accomplished in language use (indicating,
characterizing, valuing, influencing, controlling, and purposing), to make them sensitive
to the ways in which human comprehension can go awry.
Gronbeck
Retorika politik dapat dipahami sebagai sebuah seni menggungakan bahasa untuk
mempengaruhi orang lain dengan adanya suatu tujuan-tujuan politik. The good man
speaking well. Kalimat ini menjadi dasar bagi Gronbeck dalam memformulasikan
teorinya mengenai retorika politik. Menurut Gronbeck, retorika adalah kemampuan
berbicara di muka publik dengan berbagai teknik untuk bukan saja menyampaikan pesan,
melainkan juga menanamkan pengaruh. Pada dasarnya, menurut Gronbeck, tanpa

memasukkan kata politik pun retorika merupakan sebuah wacana yang sepenuhnya
politis karena mengandung kepentingan politik.
Dan Nimmo
Mendefinisikan retorika sebagai komunikasi dua arah, satu-kepada-satu, dalam arti satu
orang atau lebih, yang saling berusaha untuk mempengaruhi pandangan satu sama lain
melalui tindakan timbal balik.
Aristoteles
Sambil mengutip Aristoteles, Dan Nimmo mengklasifikasikan retorika menjadi tiga jenis,
yakni retorika deliberatif, retorika forensik dan retorika demonstratif:
1. Retorika deliberative dirancang untuk mempengaruhi orang-orang dalam urusan
kebijakan pemerintah dengan menggambarkan keuntungan dan kerugian relatif dari caracara alternatif. Fokusnya adalah pada apa yang akan terjadi di masa depan jika suatu
kebijakan tertentu diambil atau tidak diambil.
2. Retorika forensi menyangkut ruang yuridis. Fokusnya pada apa yang terjadi di masa lalu
untuk menunjukan bersalah atau tidak bersalah, pertanggungjawaban, atau hukuman dan
ganjaran. Setting-nya biasanya dilakukan di ruang sidang, meskipun terjadinya di tempat
lain.
3. Retorika demonstrative merupakan pidato epideiktik, wacana yang memuji dan
menjatuhkan. Tujuannya adalah untuk memperkuat sifat baik dan sifat buruk seseorang,
suatu lembaga atau gagasan. Kampanye politik biasanya menggunakan retorika
demonstratif.

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H. Definition of Political Socialization


American Government/Public Opinion
Political socialization is a lifelong process by which people form their ideas about politics
and acquire political values. The family, educational system, peer groups, and the mass
media all play a role. While family and school are important early in life, what our peers
think and what we read in the newspaper and see on television have more influence on our
political attitudes as adults.
People acquire political culture through a process known as political socialization.
Although the bulk of political socialization occurs during childhood, adults continue to be
socialized. Political socialization occurs in many ways:
1. Family
Our first political ideas are shaped within the family. Parents seldom "talk
politics" with their young children directly, but casual remarks made around the
dinner table or while helping with homework can have an impact. Family tradition is
particularly a factor in party identification, as indicated by the phrases lifelong
Republican and lifelong Democrat. The family may be losing its power as an agent of
socialization, however, as institutions take over more of child care and parents
perform less of it. Young children usually spend far more time with their families than
with anyone else and thus tend to acquire the familys habits, beliefs, behaviors, and
attitudes. For this reason, family tends to be the most important source of political
socialization. Families mostly impart political culture unintentionally by acting as
examples for the children. Very often, people end up with political beliefs similar to
those of their parents.
2. School
Children are introduced to elections and voting when they choose class
officers, and the more sophisticated elections in high school and college teach the
rudiments of campaigning. Political facts are learned through courses in American
history and government, and schools, at their best, encourage students to critically
examine government institutions.
Schools themselves are involved in politics; issues such as curriculum reform,
funding, and government support for private schools often spark a debate that
involves students, teachers, parents, and the larger community.
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Most children learn about their country at school, usually through a


curriculum known as civic education. This curriculum trains young people to be good
citizens, often via history, government, and social studies. Although these lessons are
usually basic, many of the key ideas and values of a society are imparted through
school.
Example: Most students learn about U.S. history at a young age, but
textbooks and teachers tend to simplify the history and present it in a positive light.
For example, the end of racial segregation is usually discussed as a sign of the
progress America has made toward equality and liberty.
3. Peer Groups
At all ages, friends and acquaintances will influence ones beliefs. Although
peer pressure certainly affects teenagers' lifestyles, it is less evident in developing
their political values. Exceptions are issues that directly affect them, such as the
Vietnam War during the 1960s. Later, if peers are defined in terms of occupation,
then the group does exert an influence on how its members think politically. For
example, professionals such as teachers or bankers often have similar political
opinions, particularly on matters related to their careers.
4. Religion
Different religious traditions have very different values, and ones faith often
significantly influences ones political views.
Example: Roman Catholicism has a well-defined set of positions on many political
issues, ranging from abortion to capital punishment to social justice. Although not all
Catholics oppose abortion or favor more welfare programs, many do as a result of
their religious beliefs.
5. Minority status
Members of a minority group sometimes feel like outsiders, and this feeling of
isolation and alienation affects their attitudes toward society and government. This is
particularly true when the minority group is treated either better or worse than others
in society.
6. Media
Much of our political information comes from the mass media: newspapers,
magazines, radio, television, and the Internet. The amount of time the average
American family watches TV makes it the dominant information source, particularly
with the expansion of 24-hour all-news cable channels. Not only does television help
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shape public opinion by providing news and analysis, but its entertainment
programming addresses important contemporary issues that are in the political
arena, such as drug use, abortion, and crime. The growth of the Internet is also
significant; not only do essentially all-news outlets have their own Web sites, but
online bloggers present a broad range of political opinion, information, and analysis.
The power of media is increasing with the spread of 24-hour cable news
networks, talk radio, the Internet, and the seeming omnipresence of personal audio
and video devices, so the influence of the media on political socialization is no longer
confined to the young.
7. Key events
A major political event can shape an entire generations attitudes toward its nation
and government.
Example: World War II defined the attitudes of many Americans, especially those
who served in it. Many veterans became dedicated to living up to the ideals professed
in the war. Twenty years later, the Vietnam War would have a similarly important
impact, fostering skepticism of foreign military operations. In the 1970s, the
Watergate scandal instilled a profound mistrust of government in many people.

I. Definition of Political Education

Darren G. Lilleker
Our friends at Media Mobilizing Project have great insight about how to talk about
Political and Popular education. Here's a snapshot of what they have to say about
political education:
"By 'political education' we mean the collective process of study, research, and analysis
that we need to engage in together in order to do this work.
To be effective, we must understand the situation we are in and the forces we are up
against. Dumb forces do not defeat smart forces. The ruling class is a smart force, with
massive think tanks, top universities, and a deep interest in poor and working people not
understanding history, philosophy, economics or politics. Neither schools nor the mass
media teach us the truth, much less the tools we need to change society. We must actively
seek out and work for our understanding. MMP prioritizes process that support our
network and members doing this, both individually and together."
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Definisi mengenai pendidikan politik yang dikutip oleh Kartini Kartono (1996: 64) sebagai
berikut :
1. Pendidikan politik adalah bentuk pendidikan orang dewasa dengan menyiapkan kaderkader untukpertarungan politik dan mendapatkan penyelesaian agar menadang dalam
perjuangan politik.
2. Pendidikan politik adalah upaya edukatif yang internasional, di sengaja dan sistematis
untukmembentuk inividu sadar politik, dan mampu menjadi pelaku politik yang
bertanggung jawab secara etisatau moril dalam mencapai tujuan-tujuan politik.
R. Hayer
Pendidikan politik adalah usaha membentuk manusia menjadi partisipasi yang
bertanggungjawab dalam politik.

J. Definition of Political Lobying


The process of influencing public and government policy at all levels: federal, state, and
local. Dalam dunia politik lobi dapat diartikan sebagai suatu upaya persuasi dan
pendekatan yang dilakukan oleh satu pihak yang memiliki kepentingan tertentu untuk
memperoleh dukungan dari pihak lain yang dianggap memiliki pengaruh atau wewenang
dalam upaya pencapaian tujuan yang ingin dicapai.

K. Definition of Public Relations

Darren G. Lilleker
Public relation democracy is a term used to describe a pluralist society with a free media
and where much of the communication that comes out of the political system is designed to
persuade the public that policies are correct, that laws and procedure are legitimate and
that one organization is better at representing groups of voters than its competitors.
Davis (2002) and Franklin (2004)
The core aim of public relations is to present an individual or organization in a positive
light, to enhance the publics perception of that individual or organization and, perhaps
but not always, to get the public to do something for that individual or organization. This
14

means that public relations is about image creation and branding, news management and
campaigning, it is not necessarily about legitimizing a political system.
By the PRSA National Assembly
In 2011/12, PRSA led an international effort to modernize the definition of public relations
and replace a definition adopted in 1982 by the PRSA National Assembly. PRSA initiated
campaign and produced the following definition: Public relations is a strategic
communication

process

that

builds

mutually

beneficial

relationships

between

organizations and their publics.


Ivy Lee and Edward Louis Bernays
Definition of public relations in the early 1900s as follows: "a management function,
which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures, and interests of an
organization followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and
acceptance."
Edward Bernays
The public relations counsel is the agent working with both modern media of
communications and group formations of society in order to provide ideas to the publics
consciousness.

L. Definition of Agitation
Agitasi Politik, dari bahasa Agitare artinya bergerak atau menggerakan, dalam bahasa inggris
agitation.
Harbert Blumer
Agitasi beroperasi untuk membangkitkan rakyat kepada suatu gerakan politik, baik lisan
maupun tulisan dengan merangsang dan membangkitkan emosi khalayak. Dimulai dengan
cara membuat kontradiksi dalam masyarakat dan menggerakan khalayak untuk menentang
kenyataan hidup yang dialami selama ini (penuh ketidakpastian dan penuh penderitaan)
dengan tujuan menimbulkan kegelisahan dikalangan massa.
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Nepheus Smith
Orang yang melakukan agitasi disebut agitator, yaitu orang yang berusaha menimbulkan
ketidakpuasan, kegelisahan atau pemberontakan orang lain. Ada agitator yang sikapnya
selalu gelisah dan agresif, ada juga yang lebih tenang, cenderung pendiam tetapi mampu
menggerakan khalayak dengan ucapan dan tulisannya.

The Evolution of Political Communication Under The New Order in


Indonesia
Menurut Lucian dan Karl (1978, 284) ada beberapa bentuk komunikasi politik pada masa
Orde Baru di Indonesia. Bentuk-bentuk komunikasi tersebut antara lain : direct speech,
symbolic speech, cartoons, dan monumen.
1. Direct Speech
Direct speech in reality forms the overwhelming bulk of political communication in any
society: gossip, rumors, discussions, arguments, interrogations, and intrigues. In the
process, the live ephemeral communication is transmuted into an illustration or symbolic
representation.
2. Symbolic Speech
If direct speech often eludes the academic eye because of its fluid and ephemeral nature,
symbolic speech escapes attention for rather different reasons. For example, on August
17, 1945, a new-made Red-White national flag was flown at Sukarnos side as he read the
historic proclamation of Indonesian independence. Tweenty-three years later, on August
17, 1968 , the same flag was flown again for the last time. In the meantime, it had become
a pusaka (heirloom). The red had faded to the color of dried blood, the white to ashen
grey. On all sides there fluttered hundreds of new-made flags, brilliant in the morning sun.
3. Cartoons
Of all the forms of visual political communication, cartoons are perhaps the most readily
decipherable. As they frequently make use of written words, they seem closest to
conventional printed documents. As they are usually responses to particular historical
events, they can, on one level at least, be mined for their factual content.
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4. Monuments
Few observers have recognized that monuments are a type of speech, or tried to discern
concretely what is being said, why form and content are specifically what they are.

Pers dan Kampanye Pemilu


Kampanye Pemilihan Umum idealnya merupakan proses penyampaian pesan-pesan
politik yang salah satu fungsinya memberikan pendidikan politik bagi masyarakat. Melalui
kampanye, partai-partai politik berusaha meyakinkan massa pemilih dengan mengangkat
berbagai agenda yang dinilainya akan memberikan keuntungan bagi masyarakat. Karena itu,
setiap partai politik selalu berusaha menemukan cara-cara paling efektif untuk merekrut
sebanyak-banyaknya massa. Dalam proses rekrutmen, pers memiliki tingkat efektifitas yang
relatif tinggi. Pada dua kali Pemilu pasca Orde Baru, pers tampak semakin mendapat porsi
peran yang lebih besar. Cara-cara kampanye konvensional mulai banyak ditinggalkan. Partaipartai politik terus melirik peluang-peluang yang biasa diperankan pers. Penyajian pesanpesan politik oleh para kandidat pun tampak semakin hidup dan bervariasi. Pers kemudian
menjadi alat komunikasi partai-partai politik untuk merekrut massa.
Pendekatan-pendekatan kampanye inilah yang kemudian telah melahirkan kesan
politik yang relatif berbeda bila dibanding dengan suasana pada beberapa Pemilu
sebelumnya. Meskipun Pemilu diikuti banyak partai, tetapi setiap partai tetap tidak
kehilangan kesempatan untuk mengemukakan agenda-agenda politiknya secara lebih bebas.
Sehingga banyaknya partai peserta Pemilu bukan lagi menjadi hambatan, tetapi justru
merupakan potensi yang akan lebih menguntungkan pihak pemilih.

17

KESIMPULAN

Dari beberapa definisi mengenai komunikasi politik dan bentuk-bentuk kegiatan


komunikasi poltik menurut para tokoh ahli yang telah dijelaskan sebelumnya, maka dapat
disimpulkan bahwa komunikasi politik merupakan sebuah aktifitas dimana terdapat
penyampaian pesan atau informasi oleh aktor-aktor tertentu yang berkaitan dengan politik.
Jadi, yang membedakan antara komunikasi politik biasa dengan komunikasi politik adalah
pesan yang disampaikan, dimana dalam komunikasi politik pesan yang disampaikan adalah
yang berkaitan dengan pesan politik. Selain itu, komunikator politik juga tidak dapat dibatasi
oleh aktor-aktor politik saja, melainkan aktor non-politik juga dapat menyampaikan pesan
politik. Jadi, komunikasi politik dapat dikatakan bahwa komunikasi politik merupakan proses
penyampaian pesan politik.
Selanjutnya, pada komunikasi politik terdapat beberapa bentuk-bentuk kegiatan
komunikasi politik untuk mencapai tujuan politiknya. Ada beberapa bentuk kegiatan
komunikasi politik. Dengan adanya berbagai bentuk kegiatan komunikasi politik ini, tujuan
yang ingin disampaikan kepada masyarakat dapat tersampaikan dan mendapat respon yang
baik. Oleh karena itu, ada banyak sekali cara menyampaikan pesan politik tersebut melalui
bentuk-bentuk kegiatan komunikasi politik, masing-masing bentuk kegiatan memiliki teknik
tersendiri dalam menyampaikan pesan politiknya. Misalnya, retorika dan propaganda.
Retorika merupakan bentuk kegiatan komunikasi politik dengan cara seni penggunaan bahasa
untuk berkomunikasi secara efektif dan persuasif. Selain itu, propaganda merupakan bentuk
kegiatan komunikasi politik secara lebih luas yaitu dengan teknik mempengaruhi tindakan
manusia dengan memanipulasi representasi (penyajian) yang berbentuk lisan, tulisan, gambar
atau musik. Serta masih banyak lagi cara atau teknik lain dari bentuk kegiatan komunikasi
politik dalam penyampaian pesan politiknya, seperti yang sudah dijelaskan melalui pendapat
para tokoh ahli sebelumnya.

18

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Books :
A. Davis. 2002. Public Relations Democracy: Public Relations, Politics, and the Mass Media
in Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Adam, F. Simon. 2002. The Winning Message: Candidate Behaviour, Campaign Discourse
and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
D. Graber. 2001. Processing Politics: Learning from Television in the Internal Age. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
D. Wing and B.I. Newman. 1999. Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage.
David, M. Farrell and Rudiger, Schmitt Beck. 2002. Do Political Campaigns Matter?
Campaign Effects in Elections and Referendum. London: Routledge.
Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2008. Communication in Politics-Research. New York London: Taylor and
Francis Group.
Lilleker, Darren G. 2006. Key Concepts in Political Communication. London: Great Britain
by Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wilts.
Muhtadi, Aseo Saeful. 2008. Komunikasi Politik Indonesia (Dinamika Islam Politik Pasca
Orde Baru). Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
Musolf, Lloyd D. 1968. Communications Satellites in Political Orbit. USA: Company
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 68-21786.
N. OShaughnessy. 2004. Politics and Propaganda: Weapons of Mass Seduction.
Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Pye, Lucian W. and Karl D. Jackson. 1978. Political Power and Communications in
Indonesia. London: University of California Press.
W. Lance Bennett and Robert M. Entman. Mediated Politics: Communication in the Future
of democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Internet :
Al-Fatah. Pengertian Politik Menurut Para Ahli Definisi. Online. Diakses melalui
http://www.academia.edu/4732686/Pengertian_Politik_Menurut_Para_Ahli_Definisi
Pada tanggal 27 Oktober 2014.
Holli and Margaret. The SAGE Handbook of Political Communication. Online. Diakses
melalui
http://books.google.co.id/books?id=OhpnDgNKQTEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=poli
tical+communication&hl=en&sa=X&ei=v4xMVKC_J6SNmwXE54DQAw&redir_es
c=y#v=onepage&q=political%20communication&f=false Pada tanggal 26 Oktober
2014.
McNair, Brian. An Introduction to Political Education. Online. Diakses melalui
http://books.google.co.id/books?id=jH93hrf6RtsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=political
+communication&hl=en&sa=X&ei=v4xMVKC_J6SNmwXE54DQAw&redir_esc=y
#v=onepage&q=political%20communication&f=false Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 2014.
PRSA (Public Relations Society of America). Online. Diakses melalui
http://www.prsa.org/aboutprsa/publicrelationsdefined/#.VE76_ldzLNE Pada tanggal
18 Oktober 2014.

Journal :
A. OCass. 2001. An investigation of the political marketing concept and political market
orientation in Australia politics, European Journal of Marketing.
J. Dermody and R. Scullion. 2002. Perceptions of negative political advertising. Meaningful
or Menacing?, International Journal of Advertising.
K. Moloney. 2004. Democracy and public relations, Journal of Communication
management.

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