4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
2.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
3.
1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
4.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
5.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4
6.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
7.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
8.
1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
9.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
10.
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4
11.
, because is undefined.
12.
13. One difference is
 
has a minimum value, while
doesnt.
14. The two graphs are reflections of one another across the line
15.
is not defined for all values of
real number.
10. (
11.
12. ( (
))
13. ( (
))
14.
15.
( (
))
( )
1. Vertical reflection across the x axis, vertical compression by a factor of 2, horizontal shift one unit left.
(
0
1
2
5
6
7
1
0
1
2.5
3
3.5
2. Vertical stretch by a factor of 2, horizontal compression by a factor of 3, and vertical shift up 2 units.
(
0
1
2
5
6
7
0
1/3
2/3
12
14
16
3. Reflection across the x axis, horizontal shift 4units to the right, vertical shift 3 units down.
(
0
1
2
5
6
7
4
5
6
8
9
10
4. Vertical stretch by a factor of 3, horizontal compression by a factor of 2, horizontal shift 2 units to the
right, and vertical shift up 1 unit.
(
0
1
2
5
6
7
2
2.5
3
16
19
22
0
1
2
5
6
7
3
4
5
5
6
7
6.
( )
7.
( )
8.
( )
9.
( )
10.
( )
11. (
12. (
13. (
14. (
15. (
2. ,
3. ,
4. (
)
)
6. (
8. (
5. (
7. (
)

9. Domain:
10. Domain:
(
(
) Range:
) Range:
.
(
).
13. Domain:
3 Range:
14. Domain:
15. Domain:
16. Domain:
)
)
)
(
(
)
)
Concept: Symmetry
1. Even
2. Odd
3. Neither
4. Neither
5. Odd
6. Neither
7. Neither
8. Even
9. (
( )
( )
10. (
( )
( )
11. (
( ) ( )
12. Yes. If h(x) and g(x) are both even and f(x)=h(x)+g(x), then:
(
( )
( )
( )
13. Yes. If h(x) and g(x) are both odd and f(x)=h(x)+g(x), then:
(
( )
( )
, ( )
( )
( )
14. There are some functions that do not have reflection symmetry across the y axis or rotation
symmetry about the origin.
15. If a function is even then it is symmetrical across the y axis. If a function is odd then it has rotation
symmetry about the origin.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. None
.
)
7.
8.
9.
10.
)
(
) Decreasing:
14. Increasing:
) Decreasing:
15. Increasing:
) Decreasing:
(
(
)
)
which is undefined.
which is undefined.
14.
15.
, infinite discontinuity at
, jump discontinuity at
, a removable discontinuity at
, an infinite discontinuity at
, a jump discontinuity
, a removable discontinuity
( )
( )
y
x
1
1
x
2
1
1
1
1
2
x
2
1
2
1
3
2
4
2.
( ( ))
(
3. The negative y values of the original parabola have been reflected across the xaxis:
y
4
3
2
1
x
1
1
4.
( ( ))
( 
5. The portion of the original parabola to the right of the yaxis has been reflected across the yaxis.
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
1
2
3
4
6.
,(
( ( ))
1
x
1
2
3
4
8.
( ( ))
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
1
2
3
4
( )
4 3 2 1
( )
 
x
1
1
4 3 2 1
2
3
1
4 3 2 1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
11. ( ( ))
( )
1
x
1
2
3
4
13.
( ( ))
 
( ( ))
( )
 
16. The original square root graph is there, as well as its reflection across the yaxis.
x
1
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
1
2
3
4
( ) is shown in red.
y
3
2
1
x
3
2
1
1
2
3
( )
2.
. It is a function.
( ))
( ( ))
( )
3.
4.
( ) is shown in red.
y
3
2
1
x
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
5.
( )
for
( ))
( ( ))
6.
( )
7.
( ) is shown in red.
y
3
2
1
x
3
2
1
1
2
3
8. The inverse is
9. You can see from the graph that they are inverses because they are symmetrical across the line y=x.
10. ( ) is shown in blue while
( ) is shown in red.
y
3
2
1
x
3
2
1
1
2
3
11.
12. (
( )
( ))
13. It is not:
. It is a function.
.
( ( ))
y
3
2
1
x
3
2
1
1
2
3
14. No. The inverse of ( ) is
( )
15. You could switch the x and y coordinates given in the original table to make the table for the
inverse.
)(
2. (
)(
3. (
)(
4. (
)
)(
)(
5. (
)(
6.
)(
)(
)(
7.
)(
)(
)(
8. .
/.
9. (
)(
/
)(
)(
) or .
10.
)(
)(
)(
11.
)(
)(
)(
12. .
/.
/(
13. .
/.
/.
)(
/.
/.
/(
)
/
)(
2. (
)(
3. (
)(
4. (
)(
5. (
)(
)(
6. (
)(
7. (
)(
8. (
)(
)
)
9.
10.
11. The binomial will have a subtraction sign. The second factor will have all addition signs.
12. The binomial will have an addition sign. The second factor will have alternating addition and
subtraction signs, ending with an addition sign.
13. (
)(
14. (
)(
15. (
)(
16. (
)(
17. (
)(
18. (
)(
19. (
20. (
)
)
)(
)(
)
)
2. (
3. (
4. (
5. (
6.
7.
8.
)
)
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
7. (
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
)
)
15.
)(
)(
)(
7. (
)(
)(
)(
8. (
)(
)(
)(
9. (
)(
)(
)(
10. (
)(
)(
)
)(
11.
12.
13.
14. (
15.
or
(
6. No solution.
is extraneous.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
is extraneous.
14.
is extraneous.
15. An extraneous solution is like a fake solution that you get when you solve the equation. It is not
actually a solution because it causes one of the original denominators to be equal to zero.
and
7. There is a hole at
8. There is a hole at
9. There is a hole at
10. There is a hole at
11.
or
12.
or
13.
y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
x
1
1
14.
y
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
x
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
15.
y
2
1
x
2
1
1
2
)(
/ .
(
/
)
(
3.
4.
5.
)(
6.
7.
8.
( )
)
(
)(
(
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )(
( )
( )
( )
( )
4.
( )
5.
( )
6.
7.
8.
)(
)(
)(
)(
(
(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)
)
(
(
)(
)(
)
)( )(
)
(
(
)(
)(
(
(
)( )(
)(
)
)(
)
)
)(
1.
)(
)(
)(
)(
)( )(
(
)(
)(
(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
(
)(
)(
)(
)
)
)(
( )(
)(
(
)
)
)
)
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
(
)(
)(
9.
10.
11. Holes: (
)(
)(
12. Holes: (
)(
) Vertical asymptote at
13. (
14. (
15. (
(
)
). Vertical asymptote at
)
(
8. ( )
9.
10.
( )
( )
(
(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)
)
(
(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)
)
(
)(
)(
)
( )(
)(
)
( )
( )
(
(
)(
)(
(
(
)( )(
)(
)
)(
)
)
. Horizontal asymptote at
. No horizontal asymptote.
. Horizontal asymptote at
y
15
10
5
x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
10 11 12 13
5
10
15
5. Here is a sketch of the graph with the oblique asymptote.
y
15
10
5
x
8
6
4
2
2
5
10
15
y
50
40
30
20
10
x
15
10
5
10
15
10
20
30
40
50
( )
)
)(
14. While there are an infinite number of functions that match these criteria, one example is:
( )
)(
15. Parabolas and cubics do not have oblique asymptotes. Only rational functions can have oblique
asymptotes.
4. Here is the graph. Students are only required to sketch the graph near the asymptotes.
y
8
6
4
2
x
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
8
5. Vertical asymptotes at
6. Horizontal asymptote at
7. Sign test at
8. Here is the graph. Students are only required to sketch the graph near the asymptotes.
8
6
4
2
8
6
9. Vertical asymptotes at
4
2
x
2
2
4
6
8
12. Here is the graph. Students are only required to sketch the graph near the asymptotes.
40
30
20
10
6
4
2
x
2
10
20
30
40
16. Here is the graph. Students are only required to sketch the graph near the asymptotes.
40
30
20
10
6
4
2
x
2
10
20
30
40
( )
and
( )
( )
( )
3. Horizontal asymptote at
4. Function approaches positive infinity as x values get large and as x values get small.
5. Zeroes at
6.
intercept at
7.
y
3
2
1
6
4
2
1
2
3
( )
( )
( )
( )
y
3
2
1
6
4
2
2
1
2
3
x
4
y
30
20
10
15
10
5
x
5
10
20
30
10
15
. /
13.
. /
14.
and
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14. x=9
15.
or
8.
9.
10. 7.132094
11.
12.
13.
in a day;
in a year
14.
15.
4.
5.
.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
. Then (
13. Let
(
and
Simplify to get
and
. Solve for
. /
logarithmic form as
. Since both
which simplifies to
other.
15. Let
and
.
. You can then rewrite in
2. 1.131
3. 2
4. 0
5. 4
6. 6
7. 3
8. 0
9. 3
10. 2
11. 5
12. 24
13. 9
14. (
)(
)(
)(
1.293
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
( )
2.
( )
3. ( )
4.
( )
5.
( )
6. 32
7. 8
8.
30
25
20
15
10
5
x
3
2
1
9. 25
10. 5
11.
30
25
20
15
10
5
x
3
2
1
12. 4
13.
14.
4
3
2
1
x
5
15.
( )
where
10
radians.
6. 0.239 rpm
7. 5.14 mi/hr
8. 63.03 feet
9. 672.27 rpm
10. 62.07 rpm
11. 23.8 mph
12. 1008.41 revolutions
13. 377.0 inches/sec
14. 336.14 rpm
15. 188.5 feet
and
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20. Answers vary.
12.
13.
14.
15.
2. 48.3
3. 36.8
4. You can use the Law of Cosines or the Triangle Sum Theorem
5. 97.9
6. 29.7
7. 52.4
8. 15.6
9. 86.0
10. 39.0
11. The Law of Cosines is the same as the Pythagorean Theorem for right triangles because
12. SSS and SAS
13. No (triangle inequality theorem)
14. No (triangle inequality theorem)
15. Yes
11. 17.2
12. 14.2
13. 6.3<a<10
14. a<6.3
15. a=6.3 or a10
2. Find the angle in the triangle (complementary angles) and then use tangent.
3. 249.8 feet
4.
5. Tangent
6. 57.05 feet
7.
11. Two tangent equations to solve for the distance from B to the building, then substitute to solve for
the height.
12. 9.8 feet
13. 5.32 in
14. 10.48 in
15. 10.35 in
and
2.
3. At multiples of 2.
4. At values of (
5.
6.
7.
y
2
1
x
3/2
/2
/2
1
2
8.
3/2
y
2
1
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
1
2
9.
y
2
1
x
3/2
/2
/2
1
2
10.
3/2
y
2
1
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
1
2
y
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
x
/2
1
3/2
2
3
4
10.
y
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
1
2
3
4
11.
x
/2
3/2
y
3/2
/2
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
/2

3/2
12.
y
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
/2
1
2
3
4
13.
3/2
y
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
1
2
3
4
14.
x
3/2
/2
/2
1
3/2
y
5
4
3
2
1
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
1
/2
/2
3/2
2
4
2.
y
x
3/2
/2
/2
1
3/2
3.
y
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
/2
3/2
4.
y
2
1
x
3/2
/2
1
5.
y
x
3/2
/2
/2
1
2
3
4
3/2
6.
y
4
2
x
3/2
/2
/2
3/2
2
7.
y
x
3/2
/2
/2
2
4
6
8.
3/2
y
3/2
/2
x
/2
3/2
2
4
9.
1.5
1
0.5
3/2
/2
x
/2
0.5
1
1.5
3/2
10.
y
1
3/2
/2
1
2
3
4
11.
( )
12. ( )
13. ( )
(
(
.
)
)
x
/2
3/2
14.
y
10
8
6
4
2
x
3
12
2
15.
( )
4
3
2
1
3/2
2.
/2
1
2
3
4
x
/2
3/2
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
x
/2
1
2
3
4
3/2
3.
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
x
/2
1
2
3
4
3/2
4.
4
3
2
1
3/2
5.
/2
1
2
3
4
x
/2
3/2
4
3
2
1
3/2
/2
6. Possible answer: ( )
7. Possible answer: ( )
9. Possible answer: ( )
12.
( )
/2
/
.
8. Possible answer: ( )
1
2
3
4
.
.
/
/
))
13. 39.69
14. 28.67
15. 565.5 minutes (about 9:26 AM); 1234.5 minutes (about 20:35 or 8:35 PM).
because
because
3.
3/2
y
5
4
3
2
1
3/2  /2
x
/2
1
3/2
2
3
4
5
4.
y
5
4
3
2
1
3/2  /2
1
2
3
4
5
x
/2
3/2
5.
y
5
4
3
2
1
3/2  /2
1
2
3
4
5
6.
x
/2
3/2
y
5
4
3
2
1
3/2  /2
x
/2
1
3/2
2
3
4
5
7.
y
5
4
3
2
1
3/2  /2
1
2
3
4
5
x
/2
3/2
8.
y
5
4
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
9.
x
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
5
4
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
x
1 2 3 4 5 6
2
3
4
5
10.
y
5
4
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
x
1 2 3 4 5 6
11.
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12.
x
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3
2
1
x
3/2  /2
/2
3/2
1
2
3
13.
y
3
2
1
x
3/2  /2
/2
1
2
3
3/2
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
2.
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
3.
( )
4.
( )
5.
( )
6.
( )
7.
( )
8.
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
/2

3/2
9.
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
1 2 3 4 5 6
10.
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
11.
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
/2

3/2
12.
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
1 2 3 4 5 6
13.
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
14.
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
/2

3/2
15.
y
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
2
5/2
3
7/2
16.
1 2 3 4 5 6
y
5/2
2
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
/2
17.
y
3/2
/2
x
6 5 4 3 2 1
/2

3/2
1 2 3 4 5 6
18.
19.
20.
). Then,
( .
/) shifts
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. 0.81
9. 0.5
10. 4
11.
12. If a function is even then its graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. If a function is odd, then
is has 180 rotation symmetry about the origin.
13.
14.
15.
)(
(
)
)
3.
)(
4.
(
5.
6. (
)(
)(
)
)
)(
)(
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
2.
3.
4.
5. (
6.
7.
(
)
(
(
)
(
( )
))
(
( )(
)(
8.
(
9.
(
(
)
)
)
)
(
(
))
)
)
( )
( )
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
( )
2.
3.
)
(
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
or
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15. Identity
Chapter 7: Vectors
Concept: Basic Properties of Vectors
1. Answers vary.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
which is point B.
9.
10.
11. NE at 10 knots.
12. Magnitude: 7.62
13. Magnitude: 5
14. Magnitude: 11.18
15. Magnitude: 10
9. 53.13
10.
11.
12. 17 miles
13. The bird is actually moving in a direction 28 south of east (62 east of south).
14. 50.6 miles per hour
15. 9 east of north
6. (
7. (
8. (
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
at 263.14
1. 24
2. 16
3. 14
4. 21
5. 34
6.
7. 56.3
8. 134.4
9. 8.1
10. 26.6
11.
12. The magnitude of a vector is the square root of the dot product of the vector with itself.
13. 0
14. (
4. four equations
5. (2, 7, 5)
6. Row 3=Row 2Row 1
7. (1, 4, 7)
8. (2, 0, 4)
9. The system is linearly dependent
10. (0, 6, 2)
11. (3, 3, 2, 0)
12.
13.
14.
15.
10. The rows represent the days of the week and the columns represent the weeks of working.
11. $124
12. $83
13. Fridays
14. Thursdays
15. No. The entries of matrices must be numbers, not words.
2. Not possible
3. 0
4. [
5. 0
6. 0
7. 0
1
1
8. 0
9. Not possible
10. They both equal 0
12. [
13. [
14. [
15. [
)
)
12. 88
13. 124
14. 176
15. Only square matrices have determinants.
16. If the determinant is zero, then the rows are not linearly independent.
)
)
3. There is not one solution because the determinant of the coefficient system is 0. The rows of the
coefficient matrix are not linearly independent.
4. (3, 2)
5. There is not one solution because the determinant of the coefficient system is 0. The rows of the
coefficient matrix are not linearly independent.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12. There is not one solution because the determinant of the coefficient system is 0. The rows of the
coefficient matrix are not linearly independent.
13. (4, 5, 3)
14. (1, 6, 8)
15. (3, 2, 5)
16. Look at the other relevant determinants for Cramers rule. If they are also zero then the system has
infinite solutions. If they are nonzero then the system has no solution.
1. [
2. [
3. [
4. 0
5. [
6. No inverse
7.
[
8.
[
9.
[
10.
[
11.
[
12.
[
13. Students should show that the matrix times itself equals the identity matrix.
14. Students should show that the matrix times itself equals the identity matrix.
15. A nonsquare matrix couldnt be multiplied on both sides by the same matrix because the order of
the matrices would not work. Therefore, for a nonsquare matrix there cannot exist just one inverse
matrix.
11.
12. Students should verify that the partial fractions sum to the original fraction.
13. Students should verify that the partial fractions sum to the original fraction.
14. Students should verify that the partial fractions sum to the original fraction.
15. Students should verify that the partial fractions sum to the original fraction.
Chapter 9: Conics
Concept: General Form of a Conic
1. ellipse
2. circle
3. ellipse
4. sideways parabola
5. hyperbola
6. parabola
7. (
8. (
9. (
)
.
11. (
12. (
13. (
14. (
10.
15.
Concept: Parabolas
1. (
2. (
3. (
4. (
5. (
6. (
(
(
)
)
7. (
8. (
)
(
7 y
6
5
4
3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 11
2
3
4
5
6
7
9. (
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 y
6
5
4
3
2
1
14 12 10 8 6 4 21
2
3
4
5
6
7
10. (
x
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
9 y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11. (
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
19 y
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
x
1
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2
3
4
12. (
y
15
10
5
x
15
10
5
10
15
5
10
15
13. (
y
15
10
5
x
15
10
5
5
5
10
15
14. (
10
15
y
15
10
5
x
15
10
5
10
15
5
10
15
15. (
( )
y
15
10
5
x
15
10
5
5
5
10
15
Concept: Circles
1.
10
15
y
4
2
x
6
4
2
2.
y
4
2
x
6
4
2
2
4
3.
y
4
2
x
6
4
2
2
2
4
4.
y
8
6
4
2
6
4
2
2
4
5.
y
8
6
4
2
6
4
2
x
2
2
4
6. (
7. (
8. (
9. (
10. (
11. (
12. (
13.
14.
15. (
Concept: Ellipses
1. Vertices: (1, 1) and (1, 9). Foci: (
)(
). Eccentricity:
)(
)(
) Eccentricity:
4.
8
6
4
2
6
4
2
x
2
2
4
6
8
5.
8
6
4
2
6
6.
4
2
2
4
6
8
x
2
). Eccentricity:
8
6
4
2
6
7.
8.
9.
4
10.
11.
12.
13.
2
2
4
6
8
x
2
)
)
feet
Concept: Hyperbolas
1
) and (
(
)
)
and
5.
y
8
6
4
2
x
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
8
6.
and
6
5
4
3
2
1
8 6 4 2
1
2
3
x
2 4 6 8
4
5
6
7
11.
) and (
).
and
y
4
3
2
1
x
121086 42
1
2 4 6 8 1012
2
3
4
5
6
7
Concept: Degenerate Conics
1. Degenerate hyperbola, point, line
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
; line
(
7.
8. (
9.
; Degenerate hyperbola
)
)
(
(
)
)
; circle
10.
11.
y
4
3
2
1
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12.
x
2 4 6 8 10 12
y
4
3
2
1
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
2 4 6 8 10 12
2
3
4
5
6
7
13.
y
4
3
2
1
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
14.
x
2 4 6 8 10 12
y
4
3
2
1
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
2 4 6 8 10 12
2
3
4
5
6
7
15.
y
4
3
2
1
12 10 8 6 4 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x
2 4 6 8 10 12
2.
3.
4.
5. Possible answers: (
6. Possible answers: (
7. Possible answers: (
8.
) (
) (
) (
)
)
)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 11
2
3
4
5
6
7
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
9.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
7 6 5 4 3 2 11
2
3
4
5
6
7
10.
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
9 y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
98 76 54 32 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11. (
12. .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112
13. .
14. (
/
)
15. (
16. (
)
)
17.
18.
; ellipse
; ellipse
; ellipse
; hyperbola
5.
; circle
6.
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
7.
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
8.
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
9.
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
10.
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
11.
12.
13.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
x
1
1
7.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
8.
3
2
1
1
x
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
x
1
1
9.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4
10.
3
2
1
1
x
1
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
5
11.
x
5
5
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12. (
y
4
3
2
1
x
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
13.
14.
15.
16.
7.
8. Inverse
9. Function
10.
at (
11. When
) and when
at (
).
12.
at (
13. When
).
14.
y
8
6
4
2
x
8
6
4
2
2
2
4
6
8
15.
y
8
6
4
2
x
8
6
4
2
2
4
6
8
2. (
3. (
6. (
( (
))
( (
))
)
)
. /
7.
8. (
4.
5. (
. /
. /
. /
11. (
13.
. /
14.
;
;
. /
. /
15. Even though the two graphs intersect, the balls are not in that place at the same time.
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
10
x
20
40
60
80
( )
) (
) (
2.
( )
)(
3.
( )
) (
4.
( )
)(
( )
) (
6.
( )
)(
7.
( )
) (
) (
)(
8. ( )
) (
) (
)(
)(
) (
)(
)(
) (
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
)(
) Roots are
)(
); Roots are
); Roots are (multiplicity 2)
(multiplicity 2)
9.
( )
)(
)(
)(
) ; Roots are
)(
)(
10.
( )
)(
)(
11.
( )
)(
) (
)(
12.
( )
)(
) (
)(
); Roots are
13. The degree of the polynomial is the number of roots with multiplicity.
14. Multiplicity refers to a root that counts more than once because when the polynomial is in factored
form, the degree of its corresponding binomial is greater than 1.
15.
5. 
yi
6. 
yi
7. 
yi
8. 
yi
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
(
14.
)(
((
,(
15. (
)
(
)(
)
((
)
(
))
,(
)
))
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
yi
10.
11. a) 3 roots b)
c)
yi
12. a) 8 roots b)
c)
yi
13. a) 12 roots b)
c)
yi
14. a) 4 roots b)
c)
yi
15. ) 3 roots b)
c)
. /(
. /(
yi
15.
3. 597
4.
5.
6.
. /
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14. Linear functions can be written in the form ( )
while arithmetic sequences can be
(
)
defined as
. The common difference in an arithmetic sequence is like the slope and
the first term of the sequence is like the yintercept. The reason for the k1 in the equation for the
sequence has to do with the fact that we start sequences at term 1 instead of term 0. One difference
between linear functions and arithmetic sequences is that arithmetic sequences are discrete (they only
exist at the specific values of the sequence), while linear functions are continuous.
15. Exponential functions can be written in the form ( )
while geometric sequences can be
defined as
. The common ratio in a geometric sequence is like the b value in an
exponential function and the first term in the sequence is like the yintercept. The reason for the k1
in the equation for the sequence has to do with the fact that we start sequences at term 1 instead of
term 0. One difference between exponential functions and geometric sequences is that geometric
sequences are discrete (they only exist at the specific values of the sequence), while exponential
functions are continuous.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
. /
12.
13.
14.
. /
15.
. /
9. Combination.
10. Permutation/decision chart:
11. Combination.
12. Combination.
13. Permutation/decision chart.
14. This problem is more complicated because you are allowed to repeat. It is like a combination
problem (because order does not matter) where you are allowed to repeat.
15. Student should feel confident using the graphing calculator for permutations and combinations.
)
)
15. There are 10240 ways to have five cards in a row, but 40 of those ways are straight flushes or royal
flushes. Therefore, there are only 10200 true flushes. There are
total poker hands.
The probability is
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. 512
11. 4096
12. 256
13. (
14. (
15. (
)
)
)
4.
2.
3.
)
is divisible by 6.
)
b)
( );
c)
; )
5. )
divisible by 3.
6.
b)
( )(
)( ( )
c)
( )(
)(
)( (
is
)(
7.
Inductive Step:
Add 4 to both sides:
Logical reasoning
Combine previous steps:
Rewrite inequality:
since
therefore,
(
8.
Start with the statement
you are trying to prove is
divisible by 5:
Add and subtract
:
Look for common factors:
Simplify:
( )
(
)
Since both parts of the expression are divisible by 5,
the whole expression is divisible by 5.
9.
Start with the statement
you are trying to prove is
divisible by 6:
Add and subtract :
Look for common factors:
Simplify:
(
) ( )
Since both parts of the expression are divisible by 6,
the whole expression is divisible by 6.
c)
10.
Statements we know:
;
(
Reasoning:
(
(
Therefore:
11.
Start with the statement
you are trying to prove is
divisible by 3:
Add and subtract :
Look for common factors:
Simplify:
(
)
(
)
( )
Since both parts of the expression are divisible by 3,
the whole expression is divisible by 3.
12.
Inductive Step:
Add (
) to both sides:
)
(
(
( )(
)(
( )(
)(
( )(
)(
)( (
)
)
)(
14. The base case is necessary for showing that the statement is true at least once. The inductive step
then shows that for every number the statement is true for, the statement is also true for the following
number. Because the base case is true then the statement must be true for all numbers. Without the
base case you havent proven anything!
15. Base Case: For n=3, the sum of the angles in a triangle is
geometry.
Inductive Step: Assume an ngon has interior angles with a sum of
Proof: We want to show that the sum of the interior angles of an n+1 gon is
(
). An n+1gon will have one additional side compared to an ngon. This means that one additional triangle can be
draw connecting exterior vertices. This logic is shown in the picture below.
The additional triangle adds another 180 degrees to the sum of the interior angles. This means an n+1(
)
(
)
gon has interior angles with a sum of
. This can be rewritten as
8. $4861.11
9. $97222.19
10. $294570.25
11. Estimate: 18 years. Actual: 17.67 years
12. Estimate: 24 years. Actual: 23.45 years
13. You would have $7000 with simple interest and $7401.22 with compound interest.
14. $13296.02
15. $16486.42
1. $1110.71
2. 7.13%
3. 6.689 years
4. $7866.28
5. 7.37%
6. 3.42%
7. 11.76 years
8. $4535.90
9. $90717.95
10. $331154.52
11. 17.33 years
12. 23.1 years
13. You would have $8160 with simple interest and $8599.98 with continuously compounding interest.
14. $6911.23
15. $12012.05
10. 1.998%
11. APR stands for the annual percentage rate and is a nominal interest rate. APY stands for annual
percentage yield and is the effective interest rate.
12. Anytime interest is compounded more often than annually, the APY will be higher than the APR.
13. Anytime interest is compounded annually, the APY will be the same as the APR.
14. You want a high APY when you are earning money, such as from a bank account.
15. You want a low APY when you are borrowing money, such as when you use a credit card or take out
a loan.
Concept: Annuities
1. $409578.18
2. 9.14%
3. 6.77 years
4. $404.07
5. $861584.02
6. 45.4 years
7. 8.89%
8. $97484.35
9. $816.58
10. 43.13 years
11. $554494.84
12. $505126.50
13. $186703.40
14. 9.493%
15. $2162.63
2. $884.98
3. 1.276 years
4. $10,575.34
5. $664.07
6. $18437.32
7. 26.18 years
8. $68,141.75
9. $60,510.05
10. $170.49
11. $21,682.35
12. About 20 months or 1.67 years
13. $198.77
14. $1108.86
15. $1138.33
. /
10.
11.
12.
as x approaches 0 is 4.
as x approaches 1 is 3.
( )
2.
( )
3.
( )
( )
4.
5.
( )
6.
( )
( )
7.
8.
( )
9.
( )
10.
( )
11.
( )
12.
( )
13.
( )
5. DNE
6. 9
7. 6
8.
9.
10. 5
11. 6
12.
13.
14.
15. DNE
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. 8
9.
10.
11.
12. 2
13. 64
14. 144
15. If the function is a rational expression with a square root somewhere, there is a good chance that
rationalizing will help you to evaluate the limit.
3.
4. 1
5. 1
6. 2
7. 1
8. 1
9. Yes
10. 11
11. 11
12. No because (
13. 3
14. 3
15. No because ( )
and ( )
and ( )
because
( )
( )
( )
3. ( )
there must exist a such that ( )
4. ( )
because
5. ( ) (
such that ( )
( )
( )
and ( )
.
( )
and ( )
( )
.
and ( )
because
( )
because
6. ( )
because
( )
( )
( )
therefore,
( )
7. ( )
because
( )
and ( )
8. ( )
( )
because
( )
and ( )
9. ( )
that ( )
because
10.
( )
and ( )
11.
12. False
and ( )
and ( )
because
because
13. True
14. True
15. Functions must be continuous over given intervals in order for the theorems to apply.
. The slope at
is . The slope at
0.
10. The derivative of the cosine function is the negative sine function.
11. The slope is 2 at every point. The derivative of the function is
12. Distance vs. Time:
is 1. The slope at
is
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
1
60
40
20
x
1
13. A tangent line is a line that just touches a curve. The slope of the tangent line at a given point is
the derivative of the function at that point.
14. Instantaneous rate of change is the speed at a given point. Speed is shown as slope in functions;
therefore, the slope of the tangent line will be the speed or instantaneous rate of change at that point.
15. We cant calculate a slope with a denominator of 0, but we can use limits to find the limit of the
slope as the denominator approaches 0.
4. 8.86
5. 0.33
6. 0.59
7. 0.72
8. The car is going at a constant speed of 25 mph for 3 hours and then instantly starts going 65 mph for
the next 2 hours.
9. 205 miles
10. The car accelerates steadily from 0 to 75 meters per second in the first 3 seconds and then stays at
75 meters per second for the next 2 seconds.
11. 262.5 feet
12. The runner increases in speed from 0 feet per second to 16 feet per second, then slows back down
to 0 feet per second.
13. The exact answer is
14. The integral of the derivative of a function gives points on the original function. For example, the
area under the curve of a rate vs. time graph gives points on the distance vs. time graph.
15. Integrals are areas under a curve. They can be calculated by finding the sum of the areas of an
infinite number of rectangles.
4.
or 17 cents
5. 36 cents
6. They should charge people more than 65 cents (the expected value) to play.
7. 18.02
8. 81.3%
9. 70.5%
10. 93.0%
11. 79.5%
12. 76.3%
13. Answers vary
14. You should charge more than $1.15 in order to theoretically make a profit by the end of the night.
15. Answers vary
16. Casinos need to design games that people have a chance of winning, but that ultimately the casino
will make money off of. Expected value helps to determine what their profit will be on average for
each game and can help them to determine what should be charged for each game.
4.
5. Answers vary
6.
8.
9. Answers vary. A student might notice that there is a bigger range in the first half of the data than in
the second half of the data.
10. Answers vary. A student might notice that more of the data is in the left side of the graph than the
right side of the graph.
11.
12.
Concept: Variance
1. Standard deviation and variance are both measures of spread, but variance is a larger number.
Standard deviation is the square root of variance.
2. Data Set A has data that is more varied and spread out than the data in Data Set B.
3. 33.2967
4. 16.5432
5. 254.568
6. 33.2967
7. 16.5432
8. 254.568
9. 4
10. c
11. If variance is large, data will be spread out on a histogram. There might be a lot of data at low
values and a lot of data at high values, with not much in between. If variance is small, all data will be
close together near the mean.
12. No, you can only calculate the variance for quantitative data, not categorical data. Bar graphs only
show categorical data.
13. Mean: 81.5; Sample Variance: 149.105; Sample Standard Deviation: 12.2109
14. Mean: 5.15; Population Variance: 12.0275; Population Standard Deviation: 3.46807
15. It is often not realistic or possible to find data from the whole population, and then you have to be
satisfied with only having a sample of the population. For example, it would be impossible to find a
piece of information from every person in the world, but you might be able to get data samples from
every country.
9. 90.21%
10. 1.15%
11. 1.64 standard deviations below the mean.
12. 49.38%
13. Approximately 68% of adult women are between 63 and 67 inches tall.
14. 69.15%
15. 0.644%
11. 18.56. This is reasonable, but because the correlation coefficient is only about 0.5, there isnt a
strong correlation and the regression equation isnt a great way to make predictions.
12. Because the data is only mildly positive correlated, you cant use this data to make predictions that
you can be very confident about. Some students scores went up from quiz 1 to quiz 2 and some
students scores went down from quiz 1 to quiz 2.
13. Answers vary. Possible answer: Correlation is a relationship between multiple variables while
causation is when a change in one variable causes a change in another variable.
14. Answers vary . Possible answer: The correlation coefficient measures how strong the correlation is
between two variables and whether the correlation is positive or negative.
15. Answers vary. Possible answer: If you have a larger sample size you will have more data points and
will be closer to have data from the full population.
6. Exponential regression makes sense because she is losing approximately have her height with each
sip. This is exponential decay with a common ratio of
7. About 5 sips.
8. 1.0866 inches.
9. The equation is
10. The logistic model is appropriate because there is a maximum for how many people can know the
rumor (400 students), so the model needs to level off around 400.
11. The model says 1 person will know the rumor after about 3.4 days. This doesnt fit with the actual
data which found that after 3 days, 29 people knew the rumor. After 5 days, the model tends to fit the
data much better.
12. Sine regression works very well. The equation is
13. The predicted depth is 5.392634697 feet. The actual depth is 5.4 feet. The residual is 0.073653035.
14. The cubic regression equation is
. This model
fits the data points well, but doesnt make as much sense out of the domain of 0 to 10 hours. The cubic
model shows the depth continually increasing after 10 hours, which it of course wouldnt actually do.
The sine model makes more sense because it is periodic, just as the depth of the water will be.
15. Modeling with regression allows you to quickly make predictions and generalizations about
relationships between variables. When there is a lot of data, modeling helps to summarize the data
visually and algebraically.
3. P=I have macaroni and cheese; Q=I have steak; R=I have green beans;
S=I have potatoes
4. (
5. P=I wear flip flops; Q=I wear shorts; R=I wear a tshirt; S=I wear a dress
6.
,(
11.
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15. The parentheses appear to make a difference when there are both conjunctions and disjunctions,
but not when there are only disjunctions.
3. P=Mike ate lunch with me; Q=John ate lunch with me.
4.
5. P=my brother wants to play with me; Q=my sister wants to play with me.
6.
7. Not all dogs go to heaven. This means there is at least one dog who does not go to heaven.
8. My teacher is often wrong.
9. Not everyone likes pizza. This means there is at least one person who does not like pizza.
10.
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14. P
15.
16. (
Contrapositive
I)
II)
III)
12. The clothes from you were not made out of jean material.
13. P=person is experienced; Q=person is unsuccessful; R=the person is Mike; S=the person is always
confused.
Original
Contrapositive
I)
II)
III)
14. Mike is unsuccessful and inexperienced.
15. P=plates that got shipped; Q=item that is cracked; R=plates from your mother; S=item that can go in
the trash.
Original
Contrapositive
I)
II)
III)
16. The plates from your mother should not go in the trash.