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# CK-12 Calculus, Solution Key

CK-12 Foundation

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Printed: April 1, 2014

iii

Contents

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Contents
1

iv

## Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key

1.1
Equations and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Models and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
The Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5
Finding Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
Evaluating Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7
Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8
Infinite Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1
2
5
8
13
20
24
26
28

## Derivatives, Solution Key

2.1
Tangent Lines and Rates of change . .
2.2
The Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Techniques of Differentiation . . . . .
2.4
Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
2.5
The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6
Implicit Differentiation . . . . . . . .
2.7
Linearization and Newtons Method .

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31
32
39
46
51
54
57
63

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## Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

3.1
Related Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Extrema and the Mean Value Theorem
3.3
The First Derivative Test . . . . . . .
3.4
The Second Derivative Test . . . . . .
3.5
Limits at Infinity . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
Analyzing the Graph of a Function . .
3.7
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
Approximation Errors . . . . . . . . .

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67
68
74
80
88
99
101
117
124

## Integration, Solution Key

4.1
Indefinite Integrals Calculus . . . . . .
4.2
The Initial Value Problem . . . . . . .
4.3
The Area Problem . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4
Definite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
Evaluating Definite Integrals . . . . .
4.6
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
4.7
Integration by Substitution . . . . . .
4.8
Numerical Integration . . . . . . . . .

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129
130
132
138
143
148
151
157
161

## Applications of Definite Integrals, Solution Key

164
5.1
Area Between Two Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.2
Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

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5.3
5.4
5.5
6

Contents

## The Length of a Plane Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Area of a Surface of a Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Applications from Physics, Engineering, and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

## Transcendental Functions, Solution Key

6.1
Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3
Differentiation and Integration of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions
6.4
Exponential Growth and Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5
Derivatives and Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . .
6.6
LHospitals Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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198
199
203
206
209
213
217

## Integration Techniques, Solution Key

7.1
Integration by Substitution . .
7.2
Integration by Parts . . . . . .
7.3
Integration by Partial Fractions
7.4
Trigonometric Integrals . . . .
7.5
Trigonometric Substitutions . .
7.6
Improper Integrals . . . . . . .
7.7
Ordinary Differential Equations

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219
220
224
228
234
239
245
248

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254
255
259
261
262
264
267
271
278

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## Infinite Series, Solution Key

8.1
Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2
Infinite Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3
Series Without Negative Terms . . . . . . .
8.4
Series With Odd or Even Negative Terms . .
8.5
Ratio Test, Root Test, and Summary of Tests
8.6
Power Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7
Taylor and Maclaurin Series . . . . . . . . .
8.8
Calculations with Series . . . . . . . . . . .

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C HAPTER

## Functions, Limits, and

Continuity, Solution Key

Chapter Outline
1.1

1.2

1.3

## M ODELS AND DATA

1.4

T HE C ALCULUS

1.5

F INDING L IMITS

1.6

E VALUATING L IMITS

1.7

C ONTINUITY

1.8

I NFINITE L IMITS

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## 1.1 Equations and Graphs

1. Let x = 1. Then find the corresponding y.

2x 3y = 5
2 (1) 3y = 5
2 3y = 5
3y = 5 2
3y = 3
y = 1
(1, 1) is one solution.
Let x = 4. Then find the corresponding y.

2x 3y = 5
2 (4) 3y = 5
8 3y = 5
3y = 3
y=1
(4, 1) is another solution.
To find the xintercept, let y = 0 and solve for x.

2x 3y = 5
2x 3 (0) = 5
2x = 5
5
x=
2
The xintercept is

5
2,0


.

## To find the xintercept, let x = 0 and solve for y.

2x 3y = 5
2 (0) 3y = 5
3y = 5
y=

The yintercept is 0, 35 .
2

5
3

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## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key

The equation gives a linear relationship between x and y. Its graph can be sketched through any two solutions. There
is no symmetry.
2. Solve for y:

3x2 y = 5
y = 3x2 + 5
y = 3x2 5
If x = 1, then y = 3 (1)2 5 = 3 5 = 2. One solution is (1, 2).
If x = 1, then y = 3 (1)2 5 = 3 5 = 2. Another solution is (1, 2).
To find the xintercepts, let y = 0.

y = 3x2 5
0 = 3x2 5
5 = 3x2
5
= x2
3
r
5

=x
3
r
The xintercepts are

!
5
,0 .
3

## To find the yintercept, let x = 0.

y = 3 (0)2 5
y = 5
The yintercept is (0, 5).
The graph is a parabola with a = 3, b = 0, and c = 5. It is symmetric with respect to x =
yaxis.

b
2a

= 0, which is the

3. Use a graphing calculator. Enter the relationship on the Y = menu. Look at the table of points. There are many
solutions, such as (2, 6) and (2, 6). The xintercepts are (0, 0) , (1, 0) , (1, 0). The yintercept is (0, 0). By
inspection, the graph is symmetric about the origin.
4. Use a graphing calculator. Enter the relationship on the Y = menu. Look at the table of points. There are many
solutions, such as (2, 0) and (1, 6). The xintercepts are (0, 0) , (3, 0) , (2, 0). The yintercept is (0, 0). By
inspection, the graph has no symmetry.
5. The best answer is b. Even though the values of both cars are falling, the value of the BMW is always greater
than that of the Chevy for any value of t.
6. Graph c is the best representation because you would expect a decline as soon as you bought the car and you
would expect that the value would decline more gradually after the initial drop.
7. a. Let ` represent the length of the pool and let w represent the width of the pool. Then A (w) = l w =
(w + 25) w = w2 + 25w.
3

## 1.1. Equations and Graphs

www.ck12.org

b.
264 = w2 + 25w
0 = w2 + 25w + 264
0 = (w + 33) (w 8)
0 = w + 33
33 = w

or

0 = w8

or

8=w

## The width is 8 yards. The length is 8 + 25 = 33 yards.

9,500
8. The rate of change will be 8,50018,000
= 2, 375. Since the rate of depreciation is constant, the formula
20082004 =
4
for the changing value of the car is linear. Because at time 0, the value of the car is \$18, 000, the yintercept of the
formula is 18, 000. The formula is y = 2, 375x + 18, 000.

9. The formula for the changing value of the car is y = 2, 375x + 18, 000. When x = 7, y = 2, 375 (7) + 18, 000 =
16, 625 + 18, 000 = \$1, 375.
10. A linear model may not be the best function to model depreciation because the graph of the function decreases
as time increases; hence at some point the value will take on negative real number values, an impossible situation
for the value of real goods and products.

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## 1.2 Relations and Functions

1. Apply the vertical line test to the graph of the relationship shown. The graph gives a function. The domain is the
set of all real numbers, or (, ). The range is {2 y 2}.
2. A vertical line can cross the graph in more than one place. The graph is not a function.
3. The function is a rational function. Set the denominator = 0 and solve for x.

x2 1 = 0
(x 1) (x + 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

## The range is {y > 3} {y < 0}.

4. Looking at the graph, the domain is {x < 3} and the range is {y 0}.
5. f (x) = |2x 3|2 = |x 23 |2.
The graph shows the absolute value function 32 units to the right and two units down. The domain is the set of all
real numbers, or (, ). The range is {y 2}.
6. This function is the basic quadratic function shifted 2 units left and 5 units up and then flipped.
5

www.ck12.org

1
x

## 8. f (x) = x 2 + 3 = (x + 2) + 3. This function is the

basic function f (x) = x. Note that there is a
negative sign
in front of the x. The new function becomes f (x) = x and the graph of this function is a reflection
of f (x) = x around the yaxis. Then the function is shifted 2 units left and 3 units up. It is then flipped upside
down.
6

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## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key


9. ( f o g) (x) = f (g (x)) = 3
x + 2; (go f ) (x) = g ( f (x)) = 3x + 2

2
10. ( f o g) (x) = f (g (x)) =
x = x; (go f ) (x) = g ( f (x)) = x2 = x

www.ck12.org

1. a.

## b. Based on the plot, I will use linear regression.

c. Use the graphing calculator to find the line of best fit.

Rounding to the nearest ten-thousandth, the line of best fit has the equation y = 3.1335x + 0.3296.
d. The equation is a model of the formula for the circumference of a circle: C = d. The slope m is an estimate of
. The yintercept b should be 0 but due to measurement errors, it is not 0.
2. a.

## b. Use the graphing calculator to find the line of best fit.

Rounding, the line of best fit has the equation y = 0.120547x 39.0465.
d. Let x = 700 (number of thousands in 700, 000 ). Then
8

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## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key

y = 0.120547x 39.0465
= 0.125047 (700) 39.0465
= 45.34
Since we cant have a fractional part of the number of manatees, round up to 46. About 46 manatees will be killed
in the year 2000.
3. a.

## b. Use the graphing calculator to find the line of best fit.

Rounding, the line of best fit has the equation y = 2.0132x 0.2624.
The slope m of the line of best fit is close to 2. The model is certainly shows that twice the measurement of the wrist,
x, is the measurement of the neck, y.
c. Let x = 52. Then

## y = 2.0132 (52) 0.2624

= 0.125047 (700) 39.0465
= 104.12
4. a.

## b. Based on the sketch, a quadratic model could be used.

c. Use the graphing calculator to find the quadratic model.
9

www.ck12.org

## The model is y = 0.0194x2 0.29696x + 37.7636.

d. The model might dip and then grow because the first wave of women into the workforce tended to take whatever
jobs they could find without regard to salary.
5. Let y = 100. Then solve the equation below for x:

## 100 = 0.0194x2 0.29696x + 37.7636

0 = 0.0194x2 0.29696x 62.2364

x=
x=

b2 4ac
2a q

0.29696

## (0.29696)2 4 (0.0194) (62.2364)

2 (0.0194)

0.29696 4.9177298816
x=
0.0388
0.29696 + 2.2175944180
0.29696 2.2175944180
x=
or x =
0.0388
0.0388

Because we need a positive solution (for the number of years ), the solution is x =

0.29696+2.2175944180
0.0388

= 64.808.

Based on the model, women will make as much as men 64 years after 1960 or 1960+64 = 2024. It could be realistic.
6. a.

c.

10

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## The cubic model is y = 0.00031x3 0.01614x2 + 0.257394x + 1.19651273.

d. The year 1975 is year 1. The year 2012 is year 37 in the data. Let x = 37.
Then

= 4.33

## The price of gas could be \$4.33 in 2012.

7. Use the graphing calculator to find the linear model.

## The best linear model is y = 0.051627x + 1.54389.

For the year 2012, let x = 37 again.

y = 0.051627x + 1.54389
= 0.051627 (37) + 1.54389
= \$3.45

This models predicts the price per gallon of gas to be \$3.45. It is hard to say which model works best.
8. a. Use the graphing calculator to make a scatter plot and find the exponential model.

## Rounding, the exponential model is y = 1, 000 (1.1275)x .

b. The earnings triple when y = \$3, 000.
Solve the equation 3, 000 = 1, 000 (1.1275)x for x.
11

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## 3, 000 1, 000 (1.1275)x

=
1, 000
1, 000
3 = (1.1275)x
ln (3) = ln (1.1275)x
ln (3) = xln (1.1275)
ln (3)
xln (1.1275)
=
ln (1.1275)
ln (1.1275)
9.15 = x
It will take a little more than 9 years for the earnings to triple.
9. a. y = 3, 000 (1.1275)x
b. The earnings triple when y = \$9, 000. Solve the equation 9, 000 = 3, 000 (1.1275)x .
9, 000 3, 000 (1.1275)x
=
3, 000
3, 000
3 = (1.1275)x
9.15 = x
The equation reduced to the same equation as in Exericse 8. The solution is the same. It will take a little more than
9 years for the earnings to triple.
10. a. Use the graphing calculator to make the scatter plot.

b. Use the graphing calculator to find the sine model of the data.

12

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## 1.4 The Calculus

1. a. The formula for slope of the tangent line for f (x) = x2 at x = 3 is m =

P x, x2

x2 32
x3

x2 9
x3

(x3)(x+3)
x3

= x + 3.

m = x+1

P (2.9, 8.41)

2.9 + 3 = 5.9

P (2.95, 8.7025)

2.95 + 3 = 5.95

P (2.975, 8.850625)

2.975 + 3 = 5.975

P (2.995, 8.970025)

2.995 + 3 = 5.995

P (2.999, 8.994001)

2.999 + 3 = 5.999

## b. The sequence of slopes are approaching m = 6.

2. a. Draw tangent lines on the graph of f (x) = x2 . The slope of the tangent line is negative for x < 0.
b. The slope of the tangent line is 0 for x = 0.
c. One example is a polynomial function such as p (x) = x3 4x.
3. a.

## The formula for slope of the tangent line for f (x) = x3 x at x = 2 is m =

x3 x(23 2)
x2

x3 x(82)
x2

2.05

x3 x 6
x2
3
2.1 2.1 6 9.261 2.1 6
=
= 11.61
2.1 2
0.1
11.3025

2.005

11.030025

2.001

11.006001

2.0001

11.0006

x
2.1

x3 x6
x2 .

m=

## The sequence of values are approaching m = 11.

b. The tangent lines have slopes of 0 at maximum or minimum points.
13

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## The tangent lines have slopes of 0 when x = 0.57 and x = 0.57.

c. Using the graph, the tangent line appear to have positive slope for x < 0.57 and x > 0.57.
d. Using the graph, the tangent line appear to have negative slope for 0.57 < x < 0.57.
4. a. Use the calculator to generate the graph of C (x).

200
b
= 2(0.3)
b. The function will be maximized for x = 2a
=

200
0.6

= 333.33

c. To estimate the slope of the tangent line at x = 200, use the slope formula for the points (200,C (200)) and
(200.01,C (200.01)):
C (200.01) C (200) 28, 850.80 28, 850 0.80
=
=
= 80.
200.01 200
0.01
0.01
To estimate the slope of the tangent line at x = 300, use the slope formula for the points (300,C (300)) and
(300.01,C (300.01)):
C (300.01) C (300) 33, 850.20 33, 850 0.20
=
=
= 20.
300.01 300
0.01
0.01
To estimate the slope of the tangent line at x = 400, use the slope formula for the points (400,C (400)) and
(400.01,C (400.01)):
C (400.01) C (400) 32, 849.60 32, 850 0.4
=
=
= 40.
400.01 400
0.01
0.01
d. The marginal cost is positive for x < 333.33.
5. a. Divide the area under the curve from x = 1 to x = 3 in four equal rectangles.
14

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## Each width is equal to 12 . Call the rectangles R1 to R4 .

The areas are:

R1 =
R2 =
R3 =
R4 =

 
1
3
1 9 9
f
= =
2
2
2 4 8
1
1
f (2) = 4 = 2
2
  2
1
5
1 25 25
f
=
=
2
2
2
4
8
1
1
9
f (3) = 9 =
2
2
2

9
The approximation under the curve is R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 = 98 + 2 + 25
8 + 2 = 10.75.

b. Divide the area under the curve from x = 1 to x = 3 in eight equal rectangles.
15

www.ck12.org

The areas are:

R1 =
R2 =
R3 =
R4 =
R5 =
R6 =
R7 =
R8 =

 
1
1 25 25
5
f
=
=
4
4
4 16 64
 
1
3
1 9
9
f
= =
4
2
4 4 16
 
1
7
1 49 49
f
=
=
4
4
4 16 64
1
1
f (2) = 4 = 1
4
  4
1
9
1 81 81
f
=
=
4
4
4 16 64
 
1
5
1 25 25
f
=
=
4
2
4
4
16
 
1
11
1 121 121
f
=
=
4
4
4
16
64
1
1
9
f (3) = 9 =
4
4
4

c.
16

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## Each width is equal to 12 . Call the rectangles R1 to R4 .

The midpoint of R1 is
midpoint of R4 is

5
2 +3

1+ 23
2

5
2

= 54 . The midpoint of R2 is

2
11
11
2
=
2
4.

3
2 +2

7
2

= 47 . The midpoint of R3 is

2+ 52
2

9
2

= 94 . The

 
1
5
1 25 25
f
=
=
2
4
2 16 32
 
1
7
1 49 49
R2 = f
=
=
2
4
2 16 32
 
1
9
1 81 81
R3 = f
=
=
2
4
2 16 32
 
1
11
1 121 121
R4 = f
=
=
2
4
2
16
32
R1 =

25
32

49
121
+ 32
+ 81
32 + 32 = 8.625.

6. a.
17

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## Each width is equal to 14 . Call the rectangles R1 to R4 .

The areas are:

" 
 #


1 3
1
1
1
63

+4
= +1 =
4
4
4
64
256
" 
#




1
1 3
1
1
1
15

+4
= +2 =
4
2
2
4
8
32
" 
#
 


1
3 3
3
1
37
155

+4
= +3 =
4
4
4
4
64
256
h
i
1
1
1
3
R4 = f (1) = (1)3 + 4 (1) = (1 + 4) =
4
4
4
4
 
1
=
4
 
1
1
=
R2 = f
4
2
 
1
3
R3 = f
=
4
4
1
R1 = f
4

## The approximation of the area under the curve is R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 =

63
256

15
3
+ 32
+ 155
256 + 4 = 2.07.

b. The area from x = 1 to x = 0 is below the xaxis. We are not finding area under a curve but the are between the
curve and the xaxis. The area from x = 1 to x = 0 is below the xaxis is symmetric to the area under the curve
from x = 0 to x = 1.
7. The length of the interval is 4 0 = 4. Divide 4 by 6 to get that the length of each sub-interval is of length
18

4
6

= 23 .

www.ck12.org

## Call the rectangles R1 to R6 .

The areas are:

r
 
2
2
1
= 0.136
=
3
6
3
r
 
1
1
4
4
f
=
= 0.192
6
3
6
3
1
1
f (2) = 2 = 0.236
6
6
r
 
1
8
8
1
f
=
= 0.272
6
3
6
3
r
 
10
1
10
1
f
=
= 0.304
6
3
6
3
1
1
f (4) = 2 = 0.333
6
6

1
R1 = f
6
R2 =
R3 =
R4 =
R3 =
R3 =

The approximation of the area under the curve is R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 = 0.136 + 0.192 + 0.236 + 0.272 +
0.304 + 0.333 = 1.473.
8. The average velocity of a falling object from t = a to t = b is given by
4.9(b2 a2 )
the average velocity is
= 4.9(ba)(b+a)
= 4.9 (b + a).
ba
ba

s(b)s(a)
ba

4.9b2 4.9a2
.
ba

Simplifying, we get

Make a sequence of values of x that get closer to b = 4 and find the average velocity between each x and 4.

3.9

3.95

3.99

3.999

3.9999

19

www.ck12.org

## 1.5 Finding Limits

1. a.

1.99

x2 4
x+2
(1.9)2 4
= 3.9
1.9 + 2
3.99

1.999

3.999

2.1

4.1

2.099

4.099

2.0099

4.0099

y=

x
1.9

4
= 4.
b. The table shows that the sequence of values approach 4. Thus, limx2 xx+2

2. a.
x
0.49

b. limx 1

2x1
2x2 +3x2

y=

2 (0.49) 1

0.495

2 (0.49)2 + 3 (0.49) 2
0.4008

0.49999

0.4000

0.51

0.3984

0.5099

0.3984

0.500001

0.3999

= 0.4 , or 52 .

20

2x 1
2x2 + 3x 2
= 0.4016

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## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key


limx4 3x3 3x = 180b.


limx4 3x3 3x = 180
c.


limx0 3x3 3x = 0
d.

The function values are the same as the limits because the function is defined at those values.
4. a. limx3 f (x) = 1.5 because f (3) = 1.5.
b. limx2 f (x) = 0 because f (2) = 0.
c. limx1 f (x) = 2 because f (1) = 2.
21

## 1.5. Finding Limits

www.ck12.org

d. limx4 f (x) does not exist because the right-hand limit and the left-hand limit are not the same.
5. a. limx2 f (x) = 0 because f (2) = 0.
b. limx0 f (x) because the function is not defined at x = 0.
c. limx4 f (x) is a number close to 1 but less than 1 because of the horizontal asymptote of y = 1.
d. limx50 f (x) is a number close to 1 but less than 1 because of the horizontal asymptote of y = 1.
6. Use a graphing calculator to make a table of values to find the limit.


The limit exists and limx2 x2 + 3 = 7
7.

## The limit exists and limx1 xx+1

2 1 = 0.5. (Note: you will get an error if you try to find f (1) directly. The limit
of values of both sides are approaching 0.5, but the function is not defined at x = 1.
8.

## The limit exists and limx2

2x + 5 = 1.

9.


The limit exists and limx2 x2 + 3x = 28.
10.
22

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## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key

The limit does not exist. Note that there is a break in the graph when x = 1.

23

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## 1.6 Evaluating Limits


1. limx2 x2 3x + 4 = 22 3 (2) + 4 = 4 6 + 4 = 2
2

16
2. limx4 xx4
= limx4 (x4)(x+4)
= limx4 (x + 4) = 4 + 4 = 8
x4

x2
x2
3. limx4 x4 = limx4    = limx4 1 = 1 =
x+2
x2
x+2
4+2

1
2+2

1
4

## 4. The rational function x2

x+1 cannot be simplified. Use a graphing calculator to view the graph and you will see that
x2
limx1 x+1 does not exist.
5. limx1 10x2
3x+1 =

10(1)2
3(1)+1

102
3+1

12
2

=6

6.

x+32
x+32
x+3+2

= lim

lim
x1
x1
x1
x1
x+3+2

(x + 3) 2 x + 3 + 2 x + 3 4


= lim
x1
(x 1)
x+3+2
x+34
x1
 = lim


= lim
x1 (x 1)
x1 (x 1)
x+3+2
x+3+2
1
= lim
x1
x+3+2
1
1
1
1
=
=
=
=
1+3+2
4+2 2+2 4
7.
x2 25
(x 5) (x + 5)
= lim
3
x5 x 125
x5 (x 5) (x2 + 5x + 25)
x+5
5+5
10
2
= lim 2
= 2
=
=
x5 x + 5x + 25
5 + 5 (5) + 25 75 15
lim

## 8. limx1 (g o f (x)) = limx1 g ( f (x)) = limx1 g

The function f (x) =
does not exist.

1
x+1

1
x+1

1
x+1

## 9. Use the Squeeze Theorem.


lim (5x 11) lim f (x) lim x2 4x + 9

x5

x5

x5
2

x5

14 lim f (x) 14
x5

24

www.ck12.org

1
x

 
1
lim x lim sin
lim x4
x0
x0
x0
x
 
1
04 lim sin
04
x0
x
 
1
0 lim sin
0
x0
x
4

1
x

1
x

1
x

= 0 0 = 0.

25

1.7. Continuity

www.ck12.org

1.7 Continuity
1.

2.

## The function has a break at x = 2. It is continuous everywhere except for x = 2.

3.
p


1
+
x
+
1
x
x
 p

= lim+  p
lim+ p

x0
1 + x 1 x0
1+ x1
1+ x+1


p
x
1+ x+1

= lim+
1+ x1
x0


p
x
1+ x+1

= lim+
x
x0
q

= lim+ 1 + x + 1
x0
q

= 1 + 10 + 1
= 1+1 = 2
4.
lim

x2

26

x3 8
x3 8
= lim
|x 2|(x 2) x2 (x 2) (x 2)

(x 2) x2 + 2x + 4
= lim
(x 2) (x 2)
x2

x2 + 2x + 4
= lim
x + 2
x2

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1.99

x3 8
|x 2|(x 2)
1194.08

1.999

11, 994

1.9999

119, 994

y=

lim

x2

2x|x1|
(x1)

x3 8
=
|x 2|(x 2)

= limx1+

2x(x1)
(x1)

= limx1+ 2x = 2.

## 6. For x > 2, |x + 2|= x + 2. Then

lim+

x2

(x + 2) + x + 2
|x + 2|+x + 2
= lim+
|x + 2|x 2 x2 (x + 2) x 2

## 7. f (2) = (2)3 + 2 (2)2 (2) + 1 = 8 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 3

f (3) = (3)3 + 2 (3)2 (3) + 1 = 27 + 18 + 3 + 1 = 5
By the Intermediate Value Theorem, there is an xvalue c with f (c) = 0.

3
8. f (9) = 9 9 1 = 0.08

3
f (10) = 10 10 1 = 0.008
By the Intermediate Value Theorem, there is an xvalue c with f (c) = 0.
9. The value x = a is considered a maximum because it is a high point in the graph and the graph turns back down.
Because it is not the highest point in the interval, x = a is called a relative maximum. The value x = c is a maximum
of the interval and is the absolute maximum because it is the highest maximum The value x = b is a minimum of the
interval and is, in fact, an absolute minimum of the interval because it is the lowest value of the interval. The value
x = d is neither a maximum nor a minimum.
10. [Note: I think that this question should be replaced with an easier question - see comments on pdf file.]

27

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1.

f (x) =

(x + 2)2

3.01

(x 2)2 1
1248.76

3.001

12498.75

3.0001

124998.75

lim+

x3

(x + 2)2
(x 2)2 1

= +

2.
lim

(x + 2)2

(x 2)2 1

x2 + 4x + 4
x x2 4x + 4 1

= lim

x2 + 4x + 4
x x2 4x + 3
x2
+ 4x
+ x42
x2
x2
= lim x2 4x
x
x2 + x32
x2
= lim

= lim

1 + 4x + x42

1 4x + x32
1+0+0
=
10+0
=1
x

3.

f (x) =

x
1.01

(x 2)2 1
455.28

1.001

4505.25

1.0001

45, 005.25

lim+

x1

4. limx 2x1
x+1 = limx
28

(x + 2)2

2x 1
x x
x 1
x+x

2 1

= limx 1+ 1x =
x

(x + 2)2
(x 2)2 1

20
1+0

=2

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5. limx x

## Chapter 1. Functions, Limits, and Continuity, Solution Key

5 +3x4 +1

x3 1

= limx

4
x5
3x5 + 15
x5
x
x
3
x
+ 15
5
x
x

= limx

3
+ 15
x4
x
1
+ 15
x2
x

1+

The limit of the denominator is 0, so this is an indeterminate form. We can argue the limit in this way: the numerator
approaches 1 as x goes to . The denominator approaches 0 and is a positive quantity because x12 > x15 . The ratio
3
+ 15
x4
x
1
+ 15
x2
x

1+

is a positive quantity that increases without bound because 1 divided by a very small positive number is a

## large positive number.

Thus, limx x

5 +3x4 +1

x3 1

= .

6.
3x4 2x2 + 3x + 1
= lim
lim
x
x
2x4 2x2
=
=

3x4
x4

2x
+ 3x
+ x14
x4
x4

2
2x4
2x
x4
x4
3 x22 + x33 + x14
lim
x
2 + x22

30+0+0 3
=
2+0
2

7.
2x3
xx5 + x35
x5
3
x5
2x
+ 2x
x35
x5
x5
x5
1
3
2
2 4 + 5
lim x 2 x 2 x 3
x 1 2 + 4 5
x
x
x

2x3 x + 3
lim 5
= lim
x x 2x3 + 2x 3
x
=
=

00+0
=0
10+00

## 8. Zero: Set numerator = 0.

(x + 4)2 = 0
x+4 = 0
x = 4
Vertical asymptotes: Set denominator = 0.

(x 4)2 1 = 0
x2 8x + 16 1 = 0
x2 8x + 15 = 0
(x 5) (x 3) = 0
x = 5 or x = 3
The vertical asymptotes are x = 5 or x = 3.
End behavior:
29

## 1.8. Infinite Limits

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lim

(x + 4)2
(x 4)2 1

x2 + 8x + 16
x x2 8x + 15

= lim
=

x2
2
lim x
x x2
x2

= lim

lim

(x + 4)2
(x 4)2 1

+ 8x
+ 16
x2
x2
8x
+ 15
x2
x2

1 + 8x + 16
x2
8
x

1 +

15
x2

1+0+0
=1
1+0+0

x2 + 8x + 16
x x2 8x + 15

= lim

x2
x2
x x2
x2

= lim
= lim

+ 8x
+ 16
x2
x2
8x
+ 15
x2
x2

1 + 8x + 16
x2
8
x

1 +

15
x2

1+0+0
=1
1+0+0

9. Zero:
There are no vertical asymptotes.


lim 3x3 x2 + 2x + 2 =
x

lim 3x3 x2 + 2x + 2 =

10.

2x2 8
x+2

2(x2 4)
x+2

2(x2)(x+2)
x+2

= 2 (x 2)

Zero:
2 (x 2) = 0
x2 = 0
x=2
There are no vertical asymptotes. There is a discontinuity at x = 2.

2x2 8
= lim [2 (x 2)] =
x
x x + 2
2
2x 8
lim
= lim [2 (x 2)] =
x x + 2
x
lim

30

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Chapter Outline
2.1

## TANGENT L INES AND R ATES OF CHANGE

2.2

T HE D ERIVATIVE

2.3

T ECHNIQUES OF D IFFERENTIATION

2.4

## D ERIVATIVES OF T RIGONOMETRIC F UNCTIONS

2.5

T HE C HAIN R ULE

2.6

I MPLICIT D IFFERENTIATION

2.7

31

www.ck12.org

## 2.1 Tangent Lines and Rates of change

1. a. Let y = f (x). For x0 = 3, f (x) = 12 x2 = 21 (3)2 =

9
2

f (x1 ) f (x0 )
x1 x0

f (3) f (1)
31

16
2

8 92
43

= 8.
=

7
2

= 72 .

## b. First, find f 0 (x).

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
h
1
(x0 + h)2 12 x0
= lim 2
h0
h
1 2
x + 2hx0 + h2 21 x0
= lim 2 0
h0
h
2hx0 + h2
= lim
h0
h
h (2x0 + h)
= lim
h0
h
= lim (2x0 + h)

f 0 (x0 ) = lim

h0

h0

= 2x0

The instantaneous rate of change of y = f (x) with respect to x at x0 = 3 is f 0 (3) = 2x0 = 2 (3) = 6.
c. The slope of the tangent line at x1 = 4 is f 0 (4) = 2x0 = 2 (4) = 8.
d. The slope of the secant line between x0 = 3 and x1 = 4 is the same as the average rate of change of y with respect
to x over the interval [3, 4]. Then msec =
e.
32

f (x1 ) f (x0 )
x1 x0

8 92
43

7
2

= 72 .

www.ck12.org

1
2

f (x1 ) f (x0 )
x1 x0

1 1
32

32

2 3
66

= 61 .

33

## 2.1. Tangent Lines and Rates of change

www.ck12.org

f 0 (x0 ) = lim

h0

= lim

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
h
1
1
x0 +h x0
h

h0

= lim

0 +h
(xx0 +h)x
0

x0
(x0 +h)x0

h0

= lim

x0 (x0 +h)
(x0 +h)x0

h0

= lim

x0 x0 h
(x0 +h)x0

h0

= lim

h0

h
(x0 +h)x0

 h

h
1
= lim

h0 (x0 + h) x0
h
1
= lim
h0 (x0 + h) x0
1
= lim 2
h0 x0 + hx0
1
= 2
x0

The instantaneous rate of change of y = f (x) with respect to x at x0 = 2 is f 0 (2) = x12 = 212 = 41 .
0

## c. The slope of the tangent line at x1 = 3 is

f 0 (3)

x12
0

312

19 .

d. The slope of the secant line between x0 = 2 and x1 = 3 is the same as the average rate of change of y with respect
to x over the interval [2, 3]. Then msec =
e.
34

f (x1 ) f (x0 )
x1 x0

1 1
32

32

2 3
66

= 16 .

www.ck12.org

## 3. The slope of the tangent line at a point x is f 0 (x).

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
h0
h

2
(x0 + h) + 1 x02 + 1
= lim
h0
h
x02 + 2x02 h + h2 + 1 x02 1
= lim
h0
h
2
2
2x h + h
= lim 0
h0
h

h 2x02 + h
= lim
h0
h

= lim 2x02 + h

f 0 (x0 ) = lim

h0
2x02

## The slope of the tangent line at x0 = 6 is f 0 (6) = 2x02 = 2 (6) = 12.

4. a. Let y = f (x). For x0 = 1, f (1) = 1 = 1 and for x0 = 4, f (3) = 1 =
3
1
The average rate of change of y with respect to x over [1, 3] is msec =

f (x1 ) f (x0 )
x1 x0

3.
3

f (3) f (1)
31

3 1
3



3
=
1
3

1
2

35

## 2.1. Tangent Lines and Rates of change

www.ck12.org

3 1.
6

b.
f 0 (x0 ) = lim

h0

= lim

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
h
1
1x0
x +h
0

h0


= lim

1
x0 +h

1
x0

h0

( x0+h)( x0 )
( x0 +h)

 

x0 + h
x0
 

x0 + h
x0

( x0 +h
)( x0 )

x0
 

h0
h
x0 + h
x0

x0 x0 + h
 

= lim
h0 h
x0 + h
x0



x0 x0 + h
x0 + x0 + h
 


= lim
h0 h
x0 + h
x0
x0 + x0 + h
x (x + h)
 0 0


= lim
h0 h
x0 + h
x0
x0 + x0 + h
h
 


= lim
h0 h
x0 + h
x0
x0 + x0 + h
1
 


= lim
h0
x0 + h
x0
x0 + x0 + h
1
 


=
x0 + 0
x0
x0 + x0 + 0
1
=  

x0
x0
x0 + x0
1
=   
x0
x0 2 x0
1
= 3
2
x0
= lim

c. f 0 (1) =

1
 3
2
1

= 12

## 5. a. h (35) = 4.9 (3.5)2 = 6002.5 meters

b.
h (35) h (0)
35 0
4.9 (35)2 4.9 (0)2
=
35
2
4.9 (35)
=
35
= 4.9 (35)

v=

= 171.5 m/sec
c. Set h (t) = 200 and solve for the numbers of minutes t that pass for the rocket to travel 200 meters.
36

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

200 = 4.9t 2
200
= t2
4.9
40.82 = t 2
6.39 = t 2
Next, find the average velocity:

200 h (0)
6.39 0
200 4.9 (0)2
=
6.39
200
=
6.39
= 31.3 m/sec

v=

d. Write h (t) = f (t) do avoid confusing h (t) with h in the formula for the instantaneous rate of change.

f (t0 + h) f (t0 )
h0
h
4.9 (t0 + h)2 4.9t02
= lim
h0
h

2
4.9 t0 + 2ht0 + h2 4.9t02
= lim
h0
h
4.9t02 + 9.8hx0 + 4.9h2 4.9t02
= lim
h0
h
9.8ht0 + 4.9h
= lim
h0
h
4.9h (2x0 + 1)
= lim
h0
h
= lim 4.9 (2t0 + 1)

f 0 (t0 ) = lim

h0

= 9.8t0
Rewrite the formula with h0 (t) : h0 (t) = 9.8t0 . Then h0 (35) = 9.8 (35) = 343 m/sec.
6. a.
(2) (0)
20
9.9 (2)3 9.9 (0)3
=
20
79.2
=
2
= 39.6 nanometers/nanosecond

v=

37

## 2.1. Tangent Lines and Rates of change

b.
(t0 + h) (t0 )
h0
h
9.9 (t0 + h)3 9.9t03
= lim
h0
h

9.9 t03 + 3t02 h + 3t0 h2 + h3 9.9t03
= lim
h0
h
3
2
9.9t0 + 29.7t0 h + 29.7t0 h2 + 9.9h3 9.9t03
= lim
h0
h
2
2
29.7t0 h + 29.7t0 h + 9.9h3
= lim
h0
h

9.9h 3t02 + 3t0 h + h2
= lim
h0
h

2
= lim 9.9 3t0 + 3t0 h + h

0 (t0 ) = lim

h0

= 29.7t02
The instantaneous velocity at t0 = 2 is 0 (2) = 29.7 (2)2 = 118.8 nanometers/nanosecond.

38

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www.ck12.org

## 2.2 The Derivative

1.

f (x + h) f (x)
h0
h
6 (x + h)2 6x2
= lim
h0
h

2
6 x + 2xh + h2 6x2
= lim
h0
h
6x2 + 12xh + 6h2 6x2
= lim
h0
h
2
12xh + 6h
= lim
h0
h
6h (2x + h)
= lim
h0
h
= lim 6 (2x + h)

f 0 (x) = lim

h0

= 6 (2x)
= 12x

When x0 = 3, y = f (3) = 6 (3)2 = 54. The slope of the tangent line is m = f 0 (3) = 12 (3) = 36. Then the equation
of the tangent line at x = 3 is

y y0 = m (x x0 )
y 54 = 36 (x 3)
y 54 = 36x 108
y = 36x 54
39

## 2.2. The Derivative

www.ck12.org

2.

f (x + h) f (x)
h

x+h+2 x+2
= lim
h0
h



x+h+2 x+2
x+h+2+ x+2


= lim

h0
h
x+h+2+ x+2
(x + h + 2) (x + 2)


= lim
h0 h
x+h+2+ x+2
x+h+2x+2


= lim
h0 h
x+h+2+ x+2
h


= lim
h0 h
x+h+2+ x+2
1

= lim
h0
x+h+2+ x+2
1

=
x+2+ x+2
1
=
2 x+2

f 0 (x) = lim

h0

## 8 + 2 = 10. The slope of the tangent line is m = f 0 (8) = 1

= 1 . Then
2 8+2
2 10
the equation of the tangent line at x = 3 is
When x0 = 8, y = f (8) =

y y0 = m (x x0 )

1
y 10 = (x 8)
2 10

1
4
y 10 = x
2 10
10

1
4
y = x + 10
2 10
10

3.
40

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

f (x + h) f (x)
h

3 (x + h)3 2 3x3 2
= lim
h0
h

3
2
3 x + 3x h + 3xh2 + h3 2 3x3 + 2
= lim
h0
h
3x3 + 9x2 h + 9xh2 + 3h3 3x3
= lim
h0
h
9x2 h + 9xh2 + 3h3
= lim
h0
h

2
3h 3x + 3xh + h2
= lim
h0
h

= lim 3 3x2 + 3xh + h2

f 0 (x) = lim

h0

h0
2

= 9x

When x0 = 1, y = f (1) = 3 (1)3 2 = 5. The slope of the tangent line is m = f 0 (1) = 9 (1)2 = 9. Then
the equation of the tangent line at x = 3 is

y y0 = m (x x0 )
y (5) = 9 (x (1))
y + 5 = 9x + 6
y = 9x + 4

4.
41

## 2.2. The Derivative

www.ck12.org

f (x + h) f (x)
h0
h
1
1

x+h+2
x+2
= lim
h0
h

f 0 (x) = lim

1
(x+h+2)

= lim

(x+h+2)
1
(x+2)
(x+2) (x+2) (x+h+2)

h0
(x+2)(x+h+2)
(x+h+2)(x+2)

= lim

h0

x+2xh2
(x+h+2)(x+2)

= lim

h0

h
(x+h+2)(x+2)

= lim

h0

h
(x + h + 2) (x + 2) h
1
= lim
h0 (x + h + 2) (x + 2)
1
=
(x + 2) (x + 2)
1
=
(x + 2)2
= lim

h0

1
1
= 1+2
= 1. The slope of the tangent line is m = f 0 (1) = 1 2 = 112 =
When x0 = 1, y = f (1) = (x+2)
(1+2)
1. Then the equation of the tangent line at x = 1 is

y y0 = m (x x0 )
y 1 = 1 (x (1))
y 1 = x 1
y = x
5.
f (x + h) f (x)
h0
h

a (x + h)2 b ax2 b
= lim
h0
h

2
2
a x + 2x h + h2 b ax2 + b
= lim
h0
h
ax2 + 2axh + ah2 ax2
= lim
h0
h
2
2axh + ah
= lim
h0
h

ah 2x + ah2
= lim
h0
h

= lim a 2x + ah2

f 0 (x) = lim

h0

= 2ax
42

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

When x0 = b, y = f (b) = ab2 b. The slope of the tangent line is m = f 0 (b) = 2ab. Then the equation of the
tangent line at x = 1 is

y y0 = m (x x0 )

y ab b = 2ab (x b)
2

## y ab2 + b = 2abx 2ab2

y = 2abx ab2 b

6. To find the derivative of f (x) = x 3 , we will use the relationship below. It shows that the difference of two numbers
as a difference of cubes and then factor the difference of two cubes.

 1 3  1 3
ab = a3 b3
  1 2
 1 2 
 1
1
1 1
3
3
3
3
3
a
= a b
+a b + b3
 1
 2

1
1 1
2
= a3 b3 a3 +a3 b3 +b3
f 0 (x) = lim

h0

f (x + h) f (x)
h
1

(x + h) 3 (x) 3
= lim
h0
h
i h
h
i
1
1
2
1
1
2
(x + h) 3 + (x + h) 3 x 3 + x 3
(x + h) 3 (x) 3
i
= lim
h
2
1
1
2
h0
h
(x + h) 3 + (x + h) 3 x 3 + x 3
x+hx
i
= lim h
2
1
1
2
h0
h (x + h) 3 + (x + h) 3 x 3 + x 3
h
i
= lim h
2
1
1
2
h0
3
3
3
3
h (x + h) + (x + h) x + x
1
i
= lim h
2
1
1
2
h0
h (x + h) 3 + (x + h) 3 x 3 + x 3
=
=

1
2
3

1
3

x +x x3 +x3
1
2

3x 3

1
2

3(1) 3

= 13 .

43

## 2.2. The Derivative

www.ck12.org

y y0 = m (x x0 )
1
y 1 = (x 1)
3
1
1
y1 = x
3
3
1
1
y = x +1
3
3
1
2
y = x+
3
3

7. Use Exercise 5. For f (x) = 5x2 2, a = 5 and b = 2 and f 0 (x) = 2ax = 2 5x = 10x. Thus,
10.
8. The function f (x) =

dy
dx
x=1

= 10 (1) =

3
x is continuous at x = 0 because it satisfies these three conditions:

3
1. f (0) = 0 = 0

## 2. limx0+3 x = 0 and limx0 3 x = 0. Thus, limx0 3 x = 0.

3. limx0 3 x = f (0) = 0.
f (x) is not differentiable at x = 0 because f 0 (x) =

1
2

3x 3

## 9. The function is continuous at x = 1 because it satisfies these three conditions:

1. f (1) = 12 + 1 = 2

2. limx1 f (x) = limx1 x2 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 and limx1+ f (x) = limx1+ 2x = 2. Thus, limx1 f (x) = 2.
3. limx1 f (x) = f (1) = 2.
For x = 1, f (x) = x2 + 1, which gives a = 1 and b = 1. By Exercise 5, f 0 (x) = 2abx for x 1. Thus, f 0 (x) = 2x
and is defined at x = 1.
44

www.ck12.org

## f (x) = f (x + 0) = f (x) + f (0) + 3x (0)

f (x) = f (x + 0) = f (x) + f (0) + 0
f (x) = f (x) + f (0)
f (x) f (x) = f (0)
0 = f (0)
Because f is differentiable, then we can find for all x:

f (x + h) f (x)
h
f (x) + f (h) + 3xh f (x)
= lim
h0
h
f (h) + 3xh
= lim
h0
h
f (h)
3xh
= lim
+ lim
h0 h
h0 h
= 4 + lim 3x

f 0 (x) = lim

h0

h0

= 4 + 3x

45

www.ck12.org

## 2.3 Techniques of Differentiation

1.

y = 5x7
dy
d  7
x
=5
dx
dx
 71 
= 5 7x
= 35x6

2.

y=
dy
=
dx
=
=
=
=


1 3
x 2x2 + 1
2

1 d  3
x 2x2 + 1
2 dx


 d
1 d  3 d 
2
x +
2x + 
2 dx
dx
dx



1
3x31 2 2x21 + 0
2

1 2
3x 4x
2
3 2
x 2x
2

3.
3

1
2x x2 + 2x + 2
2



dy
d
1
=
2x3 x2 + 2x + 2
dx dx
2


d h 3i d
1 3
d
d h i
=
2x +
x + [2x] +
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
2


d  3
1 d
1 2
d
d h i

= 2
x

x + 2 [x] +
2
dx
dx
dx
2 dx
2



1 
= 2 3x31 2x21 + 2  + 0
2
2
2
= 3 2x x + 2
2
2
= 3 2x 2x + 2
y=

46

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

4.
y = a2 b2 + x2 a b + x

dy
d  2
=
a b2 + x 2 a b + x
dx dx
d
d
d  2 d
d
d
=
x + [a] + [b] + [x]
[a] + [b] +
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx




= 0 0 + 2x21 0 0 + 1x11
= 2x + 1
5.
1
x7
y = x3 + x7

dy
d  3
x + x7
=
dx dx
d  3  d  7 
=
x
+
x
dx 31  dx

= 3x
+ 7x71
y = x3 +

= 3x4 7x8
3
7
= 4 8
x
x
6.


y = x3 3x2 + x 2x3 + 7x4


d  3
dy
x 3x2 + x 2x3 + 7x4
=
dx dx
 d  3

 d  3

= x3 3x2 + x
2x + 7x4 + 2x3 + 7x4
x 3x2 + x
dx 
 dx


= x3 3x2 + x 2 3x31 + 7 4x41 + 2x3 + 7x4 3x31 3 2x21 + 1x11




= x3 3x2 + x 6x2 + 28x3 + 2x3 + 7x4 3x2 36x + 1
7.

y=

1 1
+
x x2

3x4 7



y = x1 + x2 3x4 7


dy
d  1
=
x + x2 3x4 7
dx dx
 d  4

 d  1

= x1 + x2
3x 7 + 3x4 7
x + x2
 dx

dx

= x1 + x2 3 4x41 0 + 3x4 7 1x11 2x21





1 1
=
+ 2 12x3 + 3x4 7 x2 2x3
x x






1 1
1
2
3
4
+
12x + 3x 7 2 3
=
x x2
x
x
47

www.ck12.org

8.

1
x+
x
1
1
y = x2 + 1
x2
1
1
y = x 2 + x 2
i
1
dy
d h 1
=
x 2 + x 2
dx dx
d h 1 i d h 1 i
=
x2 +
x 2
dx
dx

 

1 12
1 x 1 2
2
2
2
2
= x
+ x
2
2
1 1 1 3
= x 2 x 2
2
2
1
1
= 1 3
2x 2 2x 2
1
1
=
2
2 x 2 x3
y=

9.

3
y=
x+3


dy
d
3

=
dx dx
x+3

d
d
 3 dx
[ x + 3]
( x + 3) dx
=

2
( x + 3)
h 1
i

d
( x + 3) 0 3 dx
x2 +3
=

2
( x + 3)


1 2
0 3 12 x 2 2 + 0
=

2
( x + 3)
1

3 2
x
= 2
2
( x + 3)
3
= 1
2
2x 2 ( x + 3)
3
=
2
2 x ( x + 3)

48

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

10.

4x + 1
x2
9

dy
d 4x + 1
=
dx dx x2 9
 d
 2

d
x2 9 dx
[4x + 1] (4x + 1) dx
x 9
=
(x2 9)2

x2 9  (4x + 1) [2x]
=
(x2 9)2


4x2 36 8x2 + 2x
=
(x2 9)2
4x2 36 8x2 2x
=
(x2 9)2
4x2 2x 36
=
(x2 9)2
y=

11.

F =G

mM
r2


dF
d
mM
=
G 2
dr
dr
r

d 
=
GmMr2
dr
= 2GmMr21
= 2GmMr3
2GmM
=
r3

12.



 d


d
(3 0 ) d
0 + 3 0 + 3 d
[3 0 ]
d 0 + 3
=
2
d
3 0
(3 0 )


2
(3 0 ) 0 + 3 0 + 3 0
=
(3 0 )2

(3 0 ) 0 + 32
=
(3 0 )2
0 + 32
=
3 0
49

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13.
2
x3
= 2x3
d  3 
dy
2x
=
dx dx
= 2 (3) x31
y=

= 6x4

d2y
d 
=
6x4
2
dx
dx
= 6 (4) x41
= 24x5
d  5 
d3y
=
24x
3
dx
dx
= 24 (5) x51
= 120x6
120
= 6
x

3
d y
120
= 6 = 120

3
dx x=1
1

50

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## 2.4 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

1.
y = x sin x + 2
d
d
d
y0 = x [sin x] + sin x [x] + 
dx
dx
dx
= x cos x + sin x 1 + 0
= x cos x + sin x
2.
y = x2 cos x x tan x 1


d  2
d
d
d
d
[cos x] + cos x
x x [tan x] + tan x [x] + 
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx

= x2 ( sin x) + cos x (2x) x sec2 x + tan x (1) 0

y0 = x2

## = x2 sin x + 2x cos x x sec2 x tan x

3.
y = sin2 x
= sin x sin x
d
d
y0 = sin x [sin x] + sin x [sin x]
dx
dx
= sin x cos x + sin x cos x
= 2 sin x cos x
4.
y=
y0 =
=
=
=
=

sin x 1
sin x + 1
d
d
(sin x + 1) dx
(sin x 1) (sin x 1) dx
(sin x + 1)
(sin x + 1)2
(sin x + 1) (cos x) (sin x 1) (cos x)
(sin x + 1)2
sin x cos x + cos x (sin x cos x cos x)
(sin x + 1)2
sin x cos x + cos x sin x cos x + cos x
(sin x + 1)2
2 cos x
(sin x + 1)2
51

## 2.4. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

www.ck12.org

5.
y=
y0 =
=
=
=
=
=
=

cos x + sin x
cos x sin x
d
d
(cos x sin x) dx
(cos x + sin x) (cos x + sin x) dx
(cos x sin x)
(cos x sin x)2
(cos x sin x) ( sin x + cos x) [(cos x + sin x) ( sin x cos x)]
(cos x sin x)2
cos x sin x + cos2 x + sin2 x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos2 x sin2 x cos x sin x
(cos x sin x)2

2 cos sin x + 1 2 cos x sin x cos2 x sin2 x
(cos x sin x)2
2 cos x sin x + 1 + 2 cos x sin x + cos2 x + sin2 x
(cos x sin x)2
2 cos x sin x + 1 + 2 cos x sin x + 1
(cos x sin)2
2

## (cos x sin x)2

2
=
2
cos x 2 cos x sin x + sin2 x
2
=
1 2 cos x sin x
6.

x
+2
y=
tan x
1
x2
=
+2
tan x
 1  1
d
d
(tan x) dx
x 2 x 2 dx
(tan x)
0
+0
y =
(tan x)2

  1
1
(tan x) 12 x 2 x 2 sec2 x
=
2
 tan
 x  1
1
x 2 sec2 x
(tan x) 12 x 2

=
2
tan2 x
tan x
1
x
=

## 2 x tan x cos2 x sin22 x

cos x

cot x
x
= 2
2 x sin x
cot x
= x csc2 x
2 x

7.
y = csc x sin x + x
= 1+x
0

y = 0+1 = 1
52

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

8.
sec x
csc x
sin x
=
cos x
= tan x

y=

y0 = sec2 x
9.
y = csc x
y0 = csc x cot x
d
d
y00 = cot x ( csc x) ( csc x) (cot x)
dx
dx 
= cot x ( csc x cot x) + csc x csc2 x

 
 

y00
= cot2
csc
csc3
6
6
6
6
 2
3
3 ( (2)) (2)
=
= 3 (2) (8)
= 6+8
= 14
10.
cos (x + h) cos x
d
[cos x] = lim
h0
dx
h
cos x cos h sin x sin h cos x
= lim
h0
h


cos x cos h cos x sin x sin h

= lim
h0
h
h


sin h
cos x (cos h 1)
= lim
sin x
h0
h
h




(cos h 1)
sin h
= cos x lim
sin x lim
h0
h0
h
h
= cos x 0 sin x 1
= sin x

53

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## 2.5 The Chain Rule

1.
f (x) = 2x2 3x

39


d
2x2 3x
dx
38
2
= 39 2x 3x (4x 3)

f 0 (x) = 39 2x2 3x

391

2.


5 3
f (x) = x3 2
x
3
= x3 5x2



5 31 d 3

x 5x2
f 0 (x) = 3 x3 2
x
dx
4


5
3x2 + 10x21
= 3 x3 2
x



5 4
3
= 3 x 2
3x2 + 10x3
x
4 

 5
10
x 5
2
= 3
3x + 3
x2
x
 5
4  5

x 5
3x + 10
= 3

x2
x3

 2 4  5
x
3x + 10
= 3 5

x 5
x3
3.
1
f (x) =
2
3x 6x + 2
 1
= 3x2 6x + 2 2
 1 2

1
d
f 0 (x) = 3x2 6x + 2 2 2
3x2 6x + 2
2
dx
 32
1
2
= 3x 6x + 2
(6x 6)
2
6 (x 1)
=
3
2 (3x2 6x + 2) 2
3 (x 1)
=q
(3x2 6x + 2)3
54

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

4.
f (x) = sin3 x
d
(sin x)
dx
= 3 sin2 x (cos x)

f 0 (x) = 3 sin31 x

= 3 sin2 x cos x
5.
f (x) = sin x3

 d 3
x
f 0 (x) = cos x3
dx 

= cos x3 3x2

= 3x2 cos x3
6.
f (x) = sin3 x3


 d 
sin x3
f 0 (x) = 3 sin31 x3
dx  

= 3 sin2 x3 cos x3 3x2


= 9x2 sin2 x3 cos x3
7.
f (x) = tan 4x5

 d  5
4x
f 0 (x) = sec2 4x5
dx


= sec2 4x5 4 5x4

= 20x4 sec2 4x5
8.
q
4x sin2 (2x)

1
= 4x sin2 (2x) 2
12

1
d 
f 0 (x) = 4x sin2 (2x) 2 2
4x sin2 (2x)
2
dx
1

1

## = 4x sin2 (2x) 2 [4 2 sin (2x) cos (2x) 2]

2
4 4 sin (2x) cos (2x)
q
=
2 4x sin2 (2x)
f (x) =

q
4x sin2 (2x)
55

## 2.5. The Chain Rule

www.ck12.org

9.
f (x) =

sin x
cos (3x 2)

d
d
cos (3x 2) dx
[sin x] sin x dx
[cos (3x 2)]
2
cos (3x 2)
cos (3x 2) cos x sin x [ sin (3x 2)] (3)
=
cos2 (3x 2)
cos (3x 2) cos x + 3 sin x [sin (3x 2)]
=
cos2 (3x 2)

f 0 (x) =

10.
13
f (x) = (5x + 8)3 x3 + 7x
13
13 d
d 3
x + 7x + x3 + 7x (5x + 8)3
f 0 (x) = (5x + 8)3
dx
hdx
i
12
i
13 h
3
3
2
3
3x + 7 + x + 7x 3 (5x + 8)2 (5)
= (5x + 8) 13 x + 7x
12

13
3x2 + 7 + 15 x3 + 7x (5x + 8)2
= 13 (5x + 8)3 x3 + 7x
11.

x3 3
2x 5




x3 2 d x3
f 0 (x) = 3

2x 5
dx 2x 5
#

2 "
d
d
(2x 5) dx
[x 3] (x 3) dx
[2x 5]
x3
=3
2x 5
(2x 5)2
"
#


x 3 2 (2x 5) (1) (x 3) (2)
=3
2x 5
(2x 5)2


f (x) =

56

3 (x 3)2(2x5) 6 (x 3)3
(2x 5)24

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## 2.6 Implicit Differentiation

1.

x2 + y2 = 500

d
d  2
x + y2 =

dx
dx
d  2 d  2
d
x +
y =

dx
dx
dx
dy
2x + 2y = 0
dx
dy
2y = 2x
dx
dy 2x
=
dx
2y
dy
x
=
dx
y

2.

x2 y + 3xy 2 = 1

d  2
d
x y + 3xy 2 =

dx
dx
d  2  d
d
d
x y + [3xy]  =

dx
dx
dx
dx
dy  2 
dy
d
d
y
x + x2 [y] + y [3x] + 3x [y] 0 = 0
dx
dx
dx
dx
dy
dy
y (2x) + x2 + y (3) + 3x = 0
dx
dx
dy
dy
2xy + x2 + 3y + 3x = 0
dx
dx
dy
2 dy
x
+ 3x = 2xy 3y
dx
dx
 dy
x2 + 3x
= 2xy 3y
dx
dy 2xy 3y
= 2
dx
x + 3x
dy y (2x + 3)
=
dx
x (x + 3)
57

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3.

1 1 1
+ =
x y 2
1
x1 + y1 =
2  

d 1
d  1
x + y1 =
dx
dx 2




d 1
d 1
x
+
y
=0
dx
dx
dy
x2 y2 = 0
dx
dy
y2 = x2
dx
dy
x2
=
dx y2
y2
dy
= 2
dx
x

4.

x y = 3

1
1
x2 y2 = 3
i
1
d h 1
d h i
x2 y2 =
3
dx
dx
d h 1i d h 1i
x2
y2 = 0
dx
dx
1 1 1 1 dy
x 2 y 2
=0
2
2
dx
1 1 dy
1 1
y 2
= x 2
2
dx
2
1
dy 12 x 2
=
dx 1 y 12
2

1
2

dy y
=
dx x 12
r

y
dy
y
= =
dx
x
x
58

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

5.


sin 25xy2 = x

d
d 
sin 25xy2 =
[x]
dx 

 dx

dy
cos 25xy2 y2 (25) + 25x 2y
=1
dx



dy
cos 25xy2 25y2 + 50xy
=1
dx

 dy
=1
25y2 cos 25xy2 + 50xy cos 25xy2
dx
 dy

50xy cos 25xy2
= 1 25y2 cos 25xy2
dx

dy 1 25y2 cos 25xy2
=
dx
50xy cos (25xy2 )

6.



tan3 x2 y2 = tan
4
h  i

d  3 2
dy
tan x y2 =
tan
dx 
4
 dx
 2 2

dy
2 2
2
2
3 tan x y sec x y
2x 2y
=0
dx


 2 2

 2 2

dy
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
3 tan x y sec x y (2x) 3 tan x y sec x y
=0
2y
dx


 2 2



dy
2 2
2
2
3 tan x y sec x y
2y
= 3 tan2 x2 y2 sec2 x2 y2 (2x)
dx


dy 3 tan2 x2 y2 sec2 x2 y2 (2x)
=
dx
3 tan2 (x2 y2 ) sec2 (x2 y2 ) (2y)
dy x
=
dx y
59

## 2.6. Implicit Differentiation

www.ck12.org

7.
x2 y y2 x = 1

d  2
d
x y y2 x =

dx
dx
d  2  d  2 
x y
y x =0
dx
 dx

dy  2 
dy  2  2 d
2 d
y
x +x
y +y
[y] x
[x] = 0
dx
dx
dx
dx
 
 
dy
dy
x2 (2y)
y2 (1) = 0
y (2x) + x2
dx
dx
 
 
dy
2 dy
2
2xy + x
2x y
y2 = 0
dx
dx
 
 
dy
dy
x2
2x2 y
= y2 2xy
dx
dx
 dy
= y2 2xy
x2 2x2 y
dx
dy
y2 2xy
= 2
dx x 2x2 y

y2 2xy
x2 2x2 y
12
=
12
1
=
=1
1

m=

8.

sin (xy) = y
d
d
[sin (xy)] =
[y]
dx
dx


d
d
dy
cos (xy) y [x] x [y] =
dx
dx
dx


dy
dy
=
cos (xy) y (1) x
dx
dx
dy dy
y cos (xy) x cos x =
dx dx
dy
dy
y cos (xy) =
x cos x
dx
dx
dy
y cos (xy) =
(1 x cos x)
dx
y cos (xy)
dy
=
1 x cos x dx
60

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## Chapter 2. Derivatives, Solution Key

y cos (xy)
1 x cos x
1 cos ( 1)
=
1 cos
1 (1)
=
1+
1
=
1+

m=

9.
x3 y3 = 5
d
d  3 3
x y =



dx
 dx
d  3
d  3
y3
x
y
+ x3
=0
dx
dx



dy
=0
y3 3x2 + x3 3y2
dx
dy
3x2 y3 + 3x3 y2 = 0
dx
dy
3x3 y2 = 3x2 y3
dx
dy 3x2 y3
=
dx
3x3 y2
y
dy
=
dx
x

d2y
d h yi
=

dx2 dx
x
d
d
x dx [y] y dx
[x]
=
x2
x dy y (1)
= dx 2
x
dy
x y
= dx 2
x
dy
x dx
y
=
2
x 
x xy y
=
x2
y y
= 2
x
2y
= 2
x
2y
= 2
x

61

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10.
y2 = kx
dy
2y = k
dx
dy
k
=
dx 2y
Then slope m =

k
2y0

## The equation of the tangent line is

y y0 = m (x x0 )
k
(x x0 )
y y0 =
2y0
2y0 y 2y20 = k (x x0 )
2y0 y 2kx0 = kx kx0
2y0 y = kx kx0 + 2kx0
2y0 y = kx + kx0
2y0 y = k (x + x0 )
1
y0 y = k (x + x0 )
2

62

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## 2.7 Linearization and Newtons Method

1. First, find f 0 (x).



d x2 + 1
dx
x

x (2x) x2 + 1 1
=
x2
2x2 x2 1
=
x2
x2 1
=
x2

f 0 (x) =

f 0 (a) = f 0 (1) =

12 1
12

= 0 and f (1) =

12 +1
1

= 2.

## f (x) f (a) + f 0 (a) (x a)

f (1) + f 0 (1) (x 1)
2+0
2
2.
f 0 (x) = sec2 x
f 0 () = sec2 = 1
f () = tan = 0
Then

## f (x) f (a) + f 0 (a) (x a)

f () + f 0 () (x )
0 + 1 (x )
x
3.
f (x) = (1 + x)n
f 0 (x) = n (1 + x)n1
Then
63

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## f (x) f (a) + f 0 (a) (x a)

(1 + a)n + n (1 + a)n1 (x a)
(1 + a)n + n (1 + a)n1 x n (1 + a)n1 a
Since a is much less than 1, we can let a = 0. Then

f (x) 1n + n (1)n1 x
1 + nx
4. a. (1 + x)n 1 + nx tells us that (1 x)4 1 + 4 (x) = 1 4x.

1
b. 1 x = (1 x) 2 1 + 12 (x) = 1 21 x.

1
c. 5
5 (1 + x) 2 = 5 1 21 x = 5 25 x
1+x
d.
s
2 
 32 
 23 
2
3
3
3
3
1 3
1
= 1
= 1+
= 1 + 3 (1 x)
(x 1)
(x 1)
(1 x)
 
 23
2

2
2
3
1 3
1 + 3 (1 x)
(1 + 3 (1 + x)) 3 = (4 + 3x) 3 = 4 1 + x
4



 23


2
2
2
3
2 3
1
= 43 1+ x = 43 1+ x = 43 1+ x
4
3 4
2
e. (1.003)99 = (1 + 0.003)99 1 + 99 (0.003) = 1.297
5. Graph the function first.

f (x) = x3 + 33
f 0 (x) = 3x2
64

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## Looking at the graph, set x1 = 1.5. By Newtons Method,

f (xn )
f 0 (xn )
x3 + 3
= xn
3x2

xn+1 = xn

Then

x2 = 1.5

(1.5)3 + 3

x3 = 1.44

3 (1.5)2

= 1.444

(1.44)3 + 3
3 (1.44)2

= 1.442

Thus, x 1.442.
6. Graph the function first.

f (x) = x + 3 1 + x
1
3
f 0 (x) = 1 + (1 + x) 2 (1)
2
3
= 1 +
2 1 + x
First zero: Looking at the graph, set x1 = 1.1. By Newtons Method,
f (xn )
f 0 (xn )

x + 3 1 + x
= xn
3
1 + 2 1+x

1.1 + 3 1 + 1.1
Then x2 = 1.1
= 1.1404
3
1 + 2 1+1.1

1.1404 + 3 1 + 1.1404
x3 = 1.1404
= 1.146
3
1 + 2 1+1.1404
xn+1 = xn

65

## 2.7. Linearization and Newtons Method

Thus, x 1.146.
Second zero:
Looking at the graph, set x1 = 8. By Newtons Method,

f (xn )
f 0 (xn )

x + 3 1 + x
= xn
3
1 + 2 1+x

8 + 3 1 + 8
Then x2 = 8
= 7.9201
3
1 + 2 1+8

7.9201 + 3 1 + 7.9201
x3 = 7.9201
= 7.854
3
1 + 2 1+7.9201
xn+1 = xn

Thus, x 7.854.

66

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www.ck12.org

## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

C HAPTER

Applications of Derivatives,
Solution Key

Chapter Outline
3.1

R ELATED R ATES

3.2

3.3

3.4

## T HE S ECOND D ERIVATIVE T EST

3.5

L IMITS AT I NFINITY

3.6

## A NALYZING THE G RAPH OF A F UNCTION

3.7

O PTIMIZATION

3.8

A PPROXIMATION E RRORS

67

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## 3.1 Related Rates

1. a. Answers will vary.
b. Answers will vary.
2.

4x2 + 16y2 = 32




dx
dy
4 2x
+ 16 2y
=0
dt
dt
dx
dy
8x + 32y = 0
dt
dt
Substitute (2, 1) and

dx
dt

## = 3 into the last equation and solve for

dx
dy
+ 32y
dt
dt
dy
16 (1) (3) + 32
dt
dy
48 + 32
dt
dy
32
dt
dy
dt
8x

dy
dx .

=0
=0
=0
= 48
=

48
3 ft
=
32
2 sec

3. Draw a diagram of the situation. The runner is 23 (60) = 40 ft from first base. The players rate is

dx
dt

18 ft
sec .

The variable y represents the distance between the runner and home plate. The variable x represents the distance
traveled by the runner. The rate at which the distance between the runner and home plate is changing is dy
dt . The
2
dx
18 ft
runner is (60) = 40 ft from first base. The players rate of change is
=
. The diagram shows that a right
3

dt

sec

triangle is formed with x, the side of the diamond, and y. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for y.
68

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

602 + 402 = y2
3600 + 1600 = y2
5200 = y2

5200 = y
Now, differentiate 602 + x2 = y2 with respect to time t and substitute the known values to find

dy
dt .

602 + x2 = y2
dx
dy
0 + 2x = 2y
dt
dt
dx
dy
2x = 2y
dt
dt

 dy
18 ft
2 (40)
5200
=2
sec
dt
 dy

1440 ft
5200
=2
sec
dt
dy
1440 ft


=
dt
2
5200 sec
dy
720 ft

=
dt
5200 sec
9.98 ft dy

sec
dt
4. Draw a diagram of the situation. The balloon was 300 ft from the ground. The balloons rate of change was
20 ft
dx
dt = sec .

The variable y represents the distance between Mr. Smiths place and the balloons place. The variable x represents
the height of the balloon. The rate at which the distance between Mr. Smiths place and the balloons place was
changing is dy
dt .The diagram shows that a right triangle is formed with x, the height of the balloon, and y. Use the
Pythagorean Theorem to solve for y.
69

## 3.1. Related Rates

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3002 + 1002 = y2
90, 000 + 10, 000 = y2
100, 000 = y2
p
100, 000 = y
Now, differentiate 1002 + x2 = y2 with respect to time t and substitute the known values to find

dy
dt

1002 + x2 = y2
dy
dx
0 + 2x = 2y
dt
dt
dx
dy
2x = 2y
dt
dt
p
 dy
20 ft
2 (300)
=2
100, 000
sec
dt
 dy
p
12, 000 ft
100, 000
=2
sec
dt
12, 000 ft
dy


=
dt
2
100, 000 sec
6, 000 ft
dy

=
dt
100, 000 sec
18.97 ft dy

sec
dt
5. Draw a diagram of the situation. Let x represent the distance traveled by the first train. The rate of change of the
65 mi
first train was dx
dt = hr . Let y represent the distance traveled by the second train. The rate of change of the second
75 mi
train was dy
dt = hr . At 3 PM, the distance y = 130 mi and the distance x = 120 mi. Let s represent the distance
between the two trains.

70

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## Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for s.

1202 + 1302 = s2
14, 400 + 16, 900 = s2
31, 300 = s2
p
31, 300 = s
Now, differentiate y2 + x2 = s2 with respect to time t and substitute the known values to find

ds
dt .

y2 + x2 = s2
dx
ds
dy
2y + 2x = 2s
dt
dt
dt
dy
dx
ds
y +x = s
dt
dt
dt
65 mi p
75 mi
ds
+ (120)
= 31, 300
(130)
hr
hr
dt
9, 750 mi 7, 800 mi p
ds
+
= 31, 300
hr
hr
dt
17, 750 mi
ds

=
31, 300 hr dt
99.20 mi ds

hr
dt
6. Draw a diagram of the situation. Let x represent the distance on the ground between the bottom of the ladder and
6 ft
the wall. Let y represent the height of the ladder against the wall. The rate of change of the ladder is dy
dt = sec .
The distance between the bottom of the ladder and the wall is 17 ft.

## Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for x when y = 8.

x2 + 82 = 172
x2 + 64 = 289
x2 = 225
x = 15
Now, differentiate 172 + x2 = y2 with respect to time t and substitute the known values to find

dx
dt .

71

## 3.1. Related Rates

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x2 + y2 = 172
dx
dx
2x + 2y = 0
dt
dt
dx
dx
x +y = 0
dt
dt
dx
6 ft
(15) + (8)
=0
dt
sec
dx 48 ft
=0
(15)
dt
sec
dx 48 ft
(15)
=
dt
sec
dx
48 ft
=
dt
(15) sec
dx
16 ft

dt
5 sec
7. A = lw where ` represents the length of the rectangle, w represents the width, and A represents the area of the
6 ft
dw
2 ft
rectangle. Then dl
dt = min and dt = min . Differentiate the equation A = lw with respect to time t.

A = lw
dA dl
dw
= w+l
dt
dt
dt
2 ft
6 ft
(15) + (25)
=
min
min
90 ft 50 ft
=
+
min
min
140 ft
=
min
8. When

dp
dt

10
week ,

find

dx
dt .

## 9. Let s = length of one side of the cube. Then volume V = s3 .

V = s3
ds
dV
= 3s2
dt
dt
dV
1 in.
= 3 (6 in.)2
dt
4 min
27 in.3
=
4 min
10. a. A = r2
Solve for r when A = 36 in.2
72

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36 = r2
36 = r2
6=r
A = r2
dr
dA
= 2r
dt
dt
24 in.
dr
= 2 (6)
min
dt
24 in.
dr
=
(12) min dt
dr
2 in.
=
min dt
b.

C = 2r
dC
dr
= 2
dt
dt


2 in.
= 2
min
4 in.
=
min

73

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## 3.2 Extrema and the Mean Value Theorem

1. The absolute maximum is at x = 7. The absolute minimum is at x = 4. There is a relative maximum at x = 2. The
extreme values of f are f (7) = 7 and f (4) = 1.

2. The absolute maximum is at x = 7. The absolute minimum is at x = 9. There is a relative minimum at x = 3. The
extreme values of f are f (7) = 9 and f (9) = 0.

3. The absolute minimum is at x = 0. There is no maximum because the function is not continuous on the closed
interval. The extreme value of f is f (0) = 1.

74

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

4.
f (x) = x2 6x + 4
f 0 (x) = 2x 6
Find the critical values of f .
Solve f 0 (x) = 0.

2x 6 = 0
2x = 6
x = 3
f (3) = (3)2 6 (3) + 4 = 9 + 18 + 4 = 13
Check the endpoints:

x = 4
f (4) = 42 6 (4) + 4 = 12
x=1
f (1) = 12 6 (1) + 4 = 3
Compare function values to find the maximum and minimum. The absolute maximum is at x = 3 because f (3)
is the greatest value. The absolute minimum is at x = 1 because f (1) is the smallest value. The extrema are
f (13) = 13 and f (1) = 3.

5.
f (x) = x3 x4
f 0 (x) = 3x2 4x3
75

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## Find the critical values of f .

Solve f 0 (x) = 0.

3x2 4x3 = 0
x2 (3 4x) = 0

x2 = 0 or 3 4x = 0
x = 0 or 4x = 3
3
x = 0 or x =
4
Find the function values: f (0) = 0 and f

3
4


4
3 3
43
4

27
64

81
256
=

108
256

81
256
=

27
256

0.1055.

## Find function values of the endpoints:

0 is one endpoint and was already checked.

f (2) = 8 16 = 8
The absolute maximum at x = 34 . The absolute minimum at x = 2. The extrema are f

6.

4
= x2 + 4x2
x2
8
f 0 (x) = 2x 8x3 = 2x 3
x
f (x) = x2 +

76

3
4

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## Find the critical values of f .

Solve f 0 (x) = 0.

8
=0
x3
2x4 8 = 0

2x

x4 4 = 0





x2 4 x2 + 4 = 0


x2 2 x2 + 2 = 0

x2 2 = 0

x 2 = 0

x= 2

2=0

or x = 2
or x +

x2 + 2 = 0
x2 = 2
There are no real number solutions for x2 + 2 = 0.
Since the variable is in the denominator of one term of f 0 (x), set that denominator equal to 0.

x3 = 0
x=0
f 0 (x) is undefined for x = 0. This is another critical value.
Find the function values of the critical values in the interval [2, 0] and of the endpoints.

 
4
f 2 = 2 + = 2 + 2 = 0
2
f (0) is undefined.
Find function values of the endpoints:
0 is one endpoint and f (0) was already found to be undefined.

f (2) = 4 +

4
= 3.
4

 

## The absolute minimum is at x = 2. The extrema is f 2 = 0. There is no absolute maximum as f (x)

approaches as x approaches 0.
77

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## 7. f (x) = 3x2 12x is continuous and differentiable because it is a polynomial.

Solve 3x3 12x = 0:

3x3 12x = 0

3x x2 4 = 0
3x = 0 or x2 4 = 0
x = 0 or x = 2 or x = 2
On [2, 0] , f (2) = f (0) = 0. On [0, 2] , f (0) = f (2) = 0

f 0 (x) = 9x2 12
Set f 0 (x) = 0 and solve for the critical values.

9x2 12 = 0

3 3x2 4 = 0
3x2 4 = 0

2
2 3
2
2 3
x= =
or x = =
3
3
3
3

By Rolles Theorem, there is at least one critical value in (2, 0). That value is c = 2 3 3 . There is at least one

3

78

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

8.
2
= x2 2 (x 1)1
x1
2
f 0 (x) = 2x + 2 (x 1)2 = 2x
(x 1)2
f (x) = x2

2
On the interval [1, 0] , f (1) = 1 2
= 2 and f (0) = 2. By Rolles Theorem, there is a critical value in (1, 0).

Solve

f 0 (x) = 0
2
2x
=0
(x 1)2
2x (x 1)2 2 = 0

2x x2 2x + 1 2 = 0

x x2 2x + 1 1 = 0
x3 2x2 + x 1 = 0
[I cannot continue to solve the problem algebraically as written.]
9. f (x) is continuous on [1, 2].
f 0 (x) =

x(1)(x+2)1
x2

x(x+2)
x2

xx2
x2

## There is a number c such that f (2) f (1) = (2 1) f 0 (c).

4
=2
2
3
f (1) = = 3
1
f (2) f (1) = (2 1) f 0 (c)
f (2) =

2 3 = 1 f 0 (c)
1 = f 0 (c)
Solve for c.

2
= 1
c2
2 = c2

2 = c2

2=c
The value of c is

2.

10. On [0, r] , f (0) = 0. Also, f (r) = 0 because r is a root of f . Note that f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2a1 x + a2 is the derivative
of f (x). Then by Rolles Theorem, f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2a1 x + a2 has a root in the interval (0, r). Thus, f 0 (x) = 3x2 +
2a1 x + a2 has a positive root that is less than r because there is a root in (0, r).
79

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## 3.3 The First Derivative Test

1. The function is increasing on (0, 3). The function is decreasing on (3, 6). The function is constant on (6, +).
2. The function is increasing on (, 0) and (3, 7). The function is decreasing on (0, 3).
3. a. Draw tangent lines to the graph to help you solve these problems.
f 0 (3) is positive. f 0 (3) > 0.
b. f 0 (1) is negative. f 0 (1) < 0.
c. f 0 (3) = 0
d. f 0 (4) is positive. f 0 (4) > 0.
4.

1
= 2x x1
x
1
f 0 (x) = 2x + x2 = 2x + 2
x
f (x) = x2

## Find the critical values.

1
=0
x2
2x3 + 1
=0
x2
2x3 + 1 = 0

2x +

2x3 = 1
1
x3 =
2

3
3
x = 0.5 = 0.5 = 0.79
 
3
f 0.5 = 1.89
f 0 (x) is undefined for x = 0.
Set up the intervals and make a table. Find test points to substitute into the derivative and check the sign of the
derivative.

80

Interval




3
, 0.5



3
0.5, 0

(0, +)

Test point x = c

c = 1

c = 0.1

c=1

f 0 (c)

2 + 1 = 2

0.2 +

sign of f 0 x

f 0 (x) < 0

(0.1)2
f 0 (x) > 0

= 99.8

2+1 = 3
f 0 (x) > 0

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

3
3
By the First Derivative Test, f 0 changes fromnegative to positive
at x = 0.5. The critical value of x =
0.5 isa



3
3
local minimum. The function decreases on , 0.5 and on (0, +). The function increases on 0.5, 0 .

5.

5
f (x) = x2 1
4
f 0 (x) = 5 x2 1 (2x)
Find the critical values.

4
5 x2 1 (2x) = 0
4
x2 1 = 0 or 2x = 0
x2 1 = 0 or x = 0
x = 1 or x = 1 or x = 0
f (1) = 0
f (1) = 0
f (0) = 1

(, 1)

(1, 0)

f 0 (x) = 5 x2 1 (2x)

c = 2

4
5 (2)2 1 (2 (2))

c = 0.5

4
5 (0.5)2 1 (2 (0.5))

f 0 (c)

= 5 (3)4 (4)

Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) < 0

Interval
Test point x = c
4

81

## 3.3. The First Derivative Test

www.ck12.org

Interval

(0, 1)

(1, +)

Test point x = c

c=2

4
f 0 (x) = 5 x2 1 (2x)

c = 0.5

4
5 (0.5)2 1 (2 (0.5))

4
5 22 1 (2 2)

f 0 (c)

## = 5 (0.25 1)4 (1)

= 5 (4 1)4 (4)

Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

By the First Derivative Test, there is an absolute minimum at x = 0. The function is decreasing on (, 1) and on
(1, 0). The function is increasing on (0, 1) and on (1, +).

6.
4
f (x) = x2 1
3
f 0 (x) = 4 x2 1 (2x)
Find the critical values.

3
4 x2 1 (2x) = 0
3
x2 1 = 0 or 2x = 0
x2 1 = 0 or x = 0
x = 1 or x = 1 or x = 0

f (1) = 0
f (1) = 0
f (0) = 1
82

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

(, 1)

(1, 0)

f 0 (x) = 4 x2 1 (2x)

c = 2

3
4 (2)2 1 (2 (2))

c = 0.5

3
4 (0.5)2 1 (2 (0.5))

f 0 (c)

= 4 (3)3 (4)

= 4 (1.25)3 (1)

Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) < 0

Interval
Test point x = c
3

(0, 1)

(1, +)
c=2

f 0 (x) = 4 x2 1 (2x)

c = 0.5

3
4 (0.5)2 1 (2 (0.5))

3
4 22 1 (2 2)

f 0 (c)

= 4 (1.25)3 (1)

= 5 (4 1)3 (4)

Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

Interval
Test point x = c
3

By the First Derivative Test, there are absolute minimum at x = 1 and x = 1. The function is decreasing on
(, 1) and on (0, 1). The function is increasing on (1, 0) and on (1, +).

7. a.
f (x) = x2 4x 1
f 0 (x) = 2x 4
Find the critical values.

2x 4 = 0
2x = 4
x = 2
f (2) = 4 4 (2) 1 = 4 + 8 1 = 3
83

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Interval

(, 2)

(2, +)

Test point x = c

c = 3

c=0

2 (3) 4

2 (0) 4

= 64 = 2

= 0 4 = 4

f (x) = 2x 4
0

f (c)
0

Sign of f (x)

f (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

## The function is increasing on (, 2). The function is decreasing on (2, +).

b. By the First Derivative Test, there are absolute maximum at x = 2 with f (2) = 3.
c.

8. a.
f (x) = x3 + 3x2 9x + 1
f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 3x 9
Find the critical values.
3x2 + 3x 9 = 0

3 x2 + x 3 = 0
x2 + x 3 = 0
(x + 3) (x 1) = 0

x + 3 = 0 or x 1 = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

## f (3) = 33 + 3 (3)2 9 (3) + 1 = 28

f (1) = 1 + 3 9 + 1 = 4
84

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

Interval

(, 3)

(3, 1)

(1, +)

Test point x = c

c = 4

c=0

c=3

f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 3x 9

3 (4) + 3 (4) 9

3 (0) + 3 (0) 9

3 (3)2 + 3 (3) 9

f 0 (c)

= 48 + 12 9 = 51

= 9

= 27 + 9 9 = 27

Sign of f (x)

f (x) > 0

f (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

The function is increasing on (, 3) and on (3, +). The function is decreasing on (3, 1).
b. There is a relative maximum at x = 3 with f (3) = 28. There is a relative minimum at x = 1 with f (1) = 4.
c.

9.
2

f (x) = x 3 (x 5) = x 3 5x 3
5 2 10 1
f 0 (x) = x 3 x 3
3
3

85

## 3.3. The First Derivative Test

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5 2 10 1
x3 x 3 = 0
3 
 3
1
5 2 10 1
x3
x3 x 3 = 0
3
3
10
5
x
=0
3
3
5
10
x=
3
3
x=2
2

3
is undefined for x = 0.
f 0 (x) = 53 x 3 10
3x

Interval

(, 0)

(0, 2)

(2, +)

Test pointx = c
c = 1
c=1
c=3








q
q
q

2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
0

f (x) = x2 + (x 5)
(1) + (1 5)
(1) + (1 5)
(3) + (3 5)
3
3
33x
3 3 1
3 3
3 1
 
 


q
2
2
2
3
2
0

f (c)
= 1+6
= 14
= (3) 2
= 5.3
3
3
3
3 3
sign of f 0 (x)
f 0 (x) > 0
f 0 (x) < 0
f 0 (x) > 0
The function is increasing on (, 0) and on (2, +). The function is decreasing on (0, 2).
2

b. There
 2 is a relative maximum at x = 0 with f (0) = 0. There is a relative minimum at x = 2 with f (2) = 2 3 (2 5) =
3 2 3 .
c.

86

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

10.
p
1
x2 + 1 = 2x x2 + 1 2


 12
1
1 2
0
x +1
(2x) + x2 + 1 2 (2)
f (x) = 2x
2
p
x2
=
+ 2 x2 + 1
2 x2 + 1
f (x) = 2x

## Find the critical values.

There are no solutions for f 0 (x) = 0 and f 0 (x) is defined for all x. That means the function is increasing or decreasing
everywhere. We can check for increasing or decreasing on the entire interval (, ).

Interval

(, )

Test point x = c

c=0

p
x2
f 0 (x) =
+ 2 x2 + 1
2 x2 + 1
0
f (c)

p
02

+ 2 02 + 1
2 02 + 1
= 0+2

Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

## The function is increasing on (, ).

b. There are no maximums or minimums.
c.

87

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## 3.4 The Second Derivative Test

1.
x2 4 x2
+ = + 4x1
4 x
4
2x
x 4
f 0 (x) =
4x2 = 2
4
2 x
1
1
8
f 00 (x) = + 8x3 = + 3
2
2 x
f (x) =

Critical values:

x 4
=0
2 x2
x3 8 = 0
x3 = 8
x=2
4 4
f (2) = + = 1 + 2 = 3
4 2
Note that f 0 (x) is undefined for x = 0.
Applying the Second Derivative Test:
f 00 (2) = 12 + x83 = 12 + 88 > 0, f 00 (2), is undefined for x = 0.
There is a relative minimum at x = 2. The relative minimum of the graph is at (2, 3).
2. a.
f 0 (x) = 2x + a
2 (1) + a = 0
2+a = 0
a = 2
f (1) = 1 2 (1) + b
3 = 12+b
3+1 = b
4=b

f (x) = x2 2x + 4
f 0 (x) = 2x 2
f 00 (x) = 2
Then f (1) = 1 2 + 4 = 3.
88

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## b. Applying the Second Derivative Test:

f 00 (1) = 2 < 0
The point (1, 3) is an absolute maximum of f .
3.
f (x) = x3 + x2
f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2x
f 00 (x) = 6x + 2
Find the critical values by solving f 0 (x) = 0.

f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2x = 0
x (3x + 2) = 0

x = 0 or 3x + 2 = 0
3x = 2
2
x=
3
Find where f 00 (x) = 0.

f 00 (x) = 0
6x + 2 = 0
6x = 2
1
x=
3
Find the function values for these special points.

f (x) = x3 + x2
   3  2
2
2
2
f
=
+
= 0.15
3
3
3
   3  2
1
1
1
f
=
+
= 0.07
3
3
3
f (0) = 0
Divide the number line into the intervals using the values from f 0 (x) = 0 and f 00 (x) = 0 and make a table. Use a test
point from each interval to check the signs of the first and second derivatives.
89

Interval



2
,
3

Text point x = c

c = 1

## f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2x 3 (1)2 + 2 (1)

f 0 (c)

= 32 > 0

sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

f 00 (x) = 6x + 2

6 (1) + 2

f 00 (c)

= 6 + 2 < 0
00

00

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

2 1
,
3 3
1
c=
2
 2
 
1
1
3
+2
2
2
3
= 1 < 0
4
0
f (x) < 0
 
1
6
+2
2
= 3 + 2 < 0
00

f (x) < 0



1
,0
3
1
c=
6
 2
 
1
1
3
+2
6
6
3
2
=
<0
36 6
f 0 (x) < 0
 
1
6
+2
6
= 1 + 2 > 0
00

f (x) > 0

(0, +)
c=1
3 (1)2 + 2 (1)
= 3+2 > 0
f 0 (x) > 0
6 (1) + 2
= 6+2 > 0
f 00 (x) > 0

Sign of f (x)

f (x) < 0

Shape of Graph

## Increasing, Concave down Decreasing, Concave down Decreasing, Concave up Increasing

concave up


at 23 , 0.15 . There is a relative minimum at x = 0 located at (0, 0).
There is a relative maximum at x = 23 located

There is a point of inflection at 13 , 0.07 .

90

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

4.

f (x) =
f 0 (x) =
=
=
f 00 (x) =
=
=
=

x2 + 3
x

x (2x) x2 + 3 1
x2
2x2 x2 3
x2
x2 3
x2

2
x (2x) x2 3 (2x)
x4
3
3
2x 2x + 6x
x4
6x
x4
6
x3

x2 3
=0
x2
x2 3 = 0
f 0 (x) =

x2 = 3

x= 3

f 0 (x) is undefined at x = 0.
f 00 (x) =

6
x3

is undefined for x = 0.

x2 + 3
x

 

6
6 3
f 3 = =
= 2 3
3
3

 

6
6 3
f
3 = =
=2 3
3
3
f (x) =

91

## 3.4. The Second Derivative Test

www.ck12.org



, 3

Interval

Text point x = c c = 2
f 0 (x) =

 
3, 0

 
0, 3



3,

c = 1

c=1

c=2
(2)2 3
(2)2

x2 3

x2 3

(1) 3

12 3

x2

x2

(1)2

12

f 0 (c)

sign of f (x)
6
f 00 (x) = 3
x

(2)2 3
2

(2)
f (x) > 0
6
0

>0

13
<0
1

1
>0
4

= 2 < 0

f 0 (x) < 0
6

f 0 (x) < 0
6

f 0 (x) > 0
6

(1)3
6
=
<0
1
f 00 (x) < 0

(1)3
6
= >0
1
00
f (x) > 0

(2)3
6
= >0
8
00
f (x) > 0

Sign of f 00 (x)

(2)3
6
=
<0
8
f 00 (x) < 0

Shape of Graph

f 00 (c)

concave up



## The function has a relative maximum at x = 3 located at 3, 2 3 . There is a relative minimum at




x = 3 located at
3, 2 3 . There are no inflection points.

92

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

5.
f (x) = x3 12x
f 0 (x) = 3x2 12x
f 00 (x) = 6x

f 0 (x) = 3x2 12 = 0

3 x2 4 = 0
3 (x 2) (x + 2) = 0
(x 2) = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x = 2 or x = 2

f 00 (x) = 0
6x = 0
x=0

f (2) = 8 24 = 16
f (2) = 8 + 24 = 16
f (0) = 0

Interval

(, 2)

(2, 0)

(0, 2)

(2, )

Text point x = c

c = 3

c = 1

c=1

c=3

3x2 12

3x2 12

3x2 12

f 0 (c)

= 3 (3)2 12 > 0

= 3 (1)2 12 < 0

= 3 (1)2 12 < 0

= 3 (3)2 12 > 0

sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

f 00 (x) = 6x

6x

6x

6x

6x

= 6 (3) < 0

= 6 (1) < 0

= 6 (1) > 0

= 6 (3) < 0

00

f (c)
00

00

00

f (x) < 0

00

f (x) > 0

f 00 (x) > 0

Sign of f (x)

f (x) < 0

Shape of Graph

## Increasing, Concave down Decreasing, Concave down Decreasing, Concave up Increasing

concave up

The function has a relative maximum at x = 2 located at (2, 16). The relative minimum is located at (2, 16).
There is a point of inflection at (0, 0).
93

## 3.4. The Second Derivative Test

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6.

1
f (x) = x4 + 2x2
4
f 0 (x) = x3 + 4x
f 00 (x) = 3x2 + 4
f 0 (x) = x3 + 4x = 0

x x2 4 = 0
x (x 2) (x + 2) = 0
x = 0 or x 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x = 0 or x = 2 or x = 2
f 00 (x) = 0
3x2 + 4 = 0
4 4
x2 =
=
3 3

2
2 3
x= =
3
3
94

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

f (2) = 4
f (2) = 4
f (0) = 0
!
1
2 3
=

3
4

!4
!2
2 3
2 3

+2
3
3


 
1 16 9
12
=
+2
4
81
9
4 24 20
= +
=
9
9
9
!

!4
!2
2 3
1 2 3
2 3
=
+2
3
4
3
3


 
12
1 16 9
=
+2
4
81
9
4 24 20
= +
=
9
9
9

!
2 3
2,
3

(, 2)

Interval
Text point x = c

c = 3

!
2 3

,0
3

c = 1.5

c = 1

(3) + 4 (3)

(1.5) + 4 (1.5)

(1) + 4 (1)

(1)3 + 4 (1)

f 0 (c)

= 27 12 > 0

= 2.625 < 0

= 14 < 0

= 1 + 4 > 0

f (x) > 0

f (x) < 0

f (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

f 00 (x) = 3x2 + 4

3 (3)2 + 4

3 (1.5)2 + 4

3 (1)2 + 4

3 (1)2 + 4

f 00 (c)

= 27 + 4 < 0

= 6.75 + 4 < 0

= 3 + 4 > 0

= 3 + 4 > 0

00

sign of f (x)

00

c=1

f (x) = x + 4x

!
2 3
0,
3

00

00

f (x) < 0

f (x) > 0

f 00 (x) > 0

Sign of f (x)

f (x) < 0

Shape of Graph

concave up

!
2 3
,2
3

(2, )

c = 1.5

c=3

(1.5)3 + 4 (1.5)

(3)3 + 4 (3)

= 2.625 > 0

= 27 + 12 < 0

f (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

3 (1.5)2 + 4

3 (3)2 + 4

= 6.75 + 4 < 0

= 27 + 4 < 0

00

f (x) < 0

f 00 (x) < 0

95

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## The relative maximums are at x = 2 and x = 2. 

They are located
4) and
 at(2,
 (2, 4). The relative minimum is

and 2 3 3 , 20
9
9 .

## Close up of the interval 0, 21

You may need to zoom in even more on the graph. The graph is concave up in the interval.
b.

96

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## The relative minimum is at (0.25, 0.10).

8. False
Find the first and second derivatives.

f (x) = x4 + 4x3
f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 12x2
f 00 (x) = 12x2 + 24x
The critical values are:

4x3 + 12x2 = 0
4x2 (x + 3) = 0
x = 0 or x = 3
The possible inflection points are:

12x2 + 24x = 0
12x (x + 2) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2
Check the possible inflection points.

(, 2)

Interval
00

00

(2, 0)
00

(0, )

sign of f (x)

f (x) > 0

f (x) < 0

f 00 (x) > 0

Shape of Graph

Concave up

Concave down

Concave up

## Both x = 0 and x = 2 are inflection points.

x = 3 is a relative minimum because f 00 (3) > 0.
1
9. One example is f (x) = x2 + x1
. It has exactly relative minimum. Look at the graph.

97

## 3.4. The Second Derivative Test

10. One example is f (x) =

98

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www.ck12.org

1.

## limx+ [x [ln (x + 3) ln (x)]] = 3

2.

x
limx+ ln(1+2e
=1
x)


3. Since limx3 x2 9 = limx3 (x 3) = 0, LHospitals Rule applies.
2

9
limx3 xx3
= limx3 2x
1 = 2 (3) = 6



4. Since limx0
1 + x 1 x = limx0 = 0 , LHospitals Rule applies.

1
1
1+x 1x
(1 + x) 2 (1 x) 2
lim
= lim
x0
x0
x
x
1

(1 + x) 2 21 (1 x) 2 (1)
= lim
x0
1


1
1

= lim
+
x0 2 1 + x
2 1x
1 1
= + =1
2 2
1
2

## (x) = limx+ ln(x)

limx+ ln
= limx+
1
x
x2

1
x
1 1
2
x
2

1
x
1

= limx+
2

= limx+

x
x

= limx+ 2 = 0
x
2

6. Since limx+ x2 = + and limx+ e2x = 0, LHospitals Rule does not apply. Rewrite the limit as limx+ ex2x
so that we can apply LHospitals Rule.
2

1

1
x

1
x

ln(1x)
x

99

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## Then we can apply LHospitals Rule because limx0 ln (1 x) = limx0 x = 0.

elimx0

ln(1x)
x

= elimx0

1
1x (1)
1

= e1 =

1
e

Thus, limx0 (1 x) x = 1e .
8. Since limx0 (ex 1 x) = limx0 x2 = 0, we can apply LHospitals Rule. We actually apply it two times.
ex 1 x
ex 1
ex 1
=
lim
=
lim
= .
x0
x0 2x
x0 2
x2
2
lim

ex 1
ex
ex 1 x
=
lim
=
lim
= 0.
x 2x
x 2
x
x2
lim

100

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## 3.6 Analyzing the Graph of a Function

1. f (x) = x3 + 3x2 x 3
Domain and Range
The function is a polynomial. The domain D is the set of all real numbers. The range R is the set of all real numbers.
Intercepts and Zeros
Find the zeros or xintercepts by solving x3 + 3x2 x 3 = 0.
The possible integer roots of the polynomial are 1, 3.
We find that f (1) = 0. Thus 1 is a zero of the polynomial. Then we divide f (x) by the factor x 1. The quotient is
a 2nd-degree polynomial. Factoring that polynomial, the two roots there are 1, 3. Thus, the zeros are 1, 1, and
3.
The yintercept is f (0) = 3. The yintercept is at (0, 3).
Asymptotes and limits at infinity
The function does not have any asymptotes.


lim x3 + 3x2 x 3 = +

lim x3 + 3x2 x 3 =
x

Differentiability
The function is a polynomial and hence is differentiable everywhere.
Intervals where f is increasing and decreasing

f (x) = x3 + 3x2 x 3
f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 6x 1
Find critical values:
Set 3x2 + 6x 1 = 0 and solve for x.
The critical values are

x=
=
=
=

36 + 12
6

6 48
6
6 4 3
6
3 2 3
3

101

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## Function values of the two critical values:

!
3 2 3
= 3.07
3
!
3 + 2 3
= 3.07
3

!
3 2 3
,
3

Interval
Test point x = c

!
3 2 3 3 + 2 3
,
3
3

c = 3

c=0

3 + 2 3
,
3
c=1

evaluating

3 (3) + 6 (3) 1

3 (0) + 6 (0) 1

3 (2)2 + 6 (2) 1

f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 6x 1

= 27 18 1 > 0

= 1 < 0

= 12 + 12 1 > 0

sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Increasing

Decreasing

Increasing

at x = c

Relative Extrema
There is a relative maximum at x =
located at (0.15, 3.07).

32
3

## 3 located at (2.15, 3.07). There is a relative minimum at x =

Concavity
Find f 00 (x) and set it equal to 0. Solve for x to find possible inflection points.

f 00 (x) = 6x + 6
6x + 6 = 0
6x = 6
x = 1
Function value of x = 1 : f (1) = 0

Interval

(, 1)

(1, )

Test point x = c

c = 2

c=0

6 (2) + 6

6 (0) + 6

= 12 + 6 < 0

=6>0

00

f (x) = 6x + 6
00

f (c)
00

00

Sign of f (x)

f (x) < 0

f 00 (x) > 0

Concavity

Concave down

Concave up

Inflection Points

f (1) = 1 + 3 + 1 3 = 0
There is an inflection point at (1, 0).
102

3+2
3

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## 2. f (x) = x4 + 4x3 4x2

Domain and Range
The domain D is the set of all real numbers. The range R is the set of all real numbers.
Intercepts and Zeros
Find the zeros or xintercepts by solving x4 + 4x3 4x2 = 0.

x4 + 4x3 4x2 = 0

x2 x2 4x 4 = 0
x2 (x 2) (x 2) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2
The zeros are x = 0 and x = 2.
The yintercept is f (0) = 0. The yintercept is at (0, 0).
Asymptotes and limits at infinity
The function does not have any asymptotes.


lim x4 + 4x3 4x2 =
x

lim x4 + 4x3 4x2 =

Differentiability
The function is a polynomial and hence is differentiable everywhere.
Intervals where f is increasing and decreasing

## f (x) = x4 + 4x3 4x2

f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 12x2 8x
103

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## Find critical values:

Set 4x3 + 12x 8x = 0 and solve for x.
The critical values are

4x3 + 12x 8x = 0

4x x2 3x2 + 2 = 0

x x2 3x + 2 = 0
x (x 2) (x 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2 or x = 1

## Function values of these points:

f (0) = 0
f (1) = 1
f (2) = 0

Interval

(, 0)

(0, 1)
(1, 2)
1
3
Test point x = c
c = 1
c=
c=
2
2
 3
 2
 
 3
 2
 
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
2
evaluating
4 (1) + 12 (1) 8 (1) 4
+ 12
8
4
+ 12
8
4
2
2
2
2
2
4 12
= 13.5 + 27 12 > 0
f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 12x 8 = 4 + 12 + 8 > 0
= + 4 < 0
8
4
at x = c
sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Increasing

Decreasing

Increasing

Relative Extrema
There is a relative maximum at x = 0 located at (0, 0). There is a relative minimum at x = 1 located at (1, 1). There
is a relative maximum at x = 2 located at the point (1, 1).
Concavity
Find f 00 (x) and set it equal to 0. Solve for x to find possible inflection points.
104

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12x2 + 24x 8 = 0

4 3x2 6x + 2 = 0
3x2 6x + 2 = 0

3 3
x=
3
x = 0.42, 1.58
!
3 3
= 0.44
3
!
3+ 3
= 0.44
3

!
3 3
,
3

Interval
Test point x = c

c=0

!
3 3 3+ 3
,
3
3
c=1

c=2

## f 00 (x) = 12x2 + 24x 8

12 (0) + 24 (0) 8

12 (1) + 24 (1) 8

12 (2)2 + 24 (2) 8

f 00 (c)

= 8 < 0

=4>0

= 8 < 0

00

3+ 3
,
3

00

00

Sign of f (x)

f (x) < 0

f (x) > 0

f 00 (x) < 0

Concavity

Concave down

Concave up

Concave down

Inflection Points
!

3 3
, 0.44 ,
3

3+ 3
, 0.44
3

105

3. f (x) =

www.ck12.org

2x2
x2

## Domain and Range

The function is undefined when x2 = 0, or x = 0. The domain D is (, 0) (0, ). The range R is the set of all real
numbers.
Intercepts and Zeros
zeros:

2x 2 = 0
x=2

(2, 0) is a zero.
The yintercept is f (0), which is undefined. There is no yintercept.
Asymptotes and Limits at Infinity

2x 2
=
x x2
lim

lim

2x
x2

x22
x2
x2

2
x

x22
=0
1

2x 2
=0
x2

## There is a horizontal asymptote: y = 0.

There is a vertical asymptote: x = 0.
Differentiability
The function is differentiable everywhere, except at x = 0.
Intervals where f is increasing and decreasing

## x2 (2) (2x 2) (2x)

x4
2
2
2x 4x + 4x
=
x4
2
2x + 4x
=
x4
2x + 4
=
x3

f 0 (x) =

Critical values: x = 2, x = 0

f (2) =
106

1
= 0.5
2

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

Interval

(, 0)

(0, 2)

(2, )

Test point x = c

c = 1
2 (1) + 4

c=1
2 (1) + 4

c=3
2 (3) + 4

evaluating

(1)3

<0

(1)3

>0

(3)3

2x + 4
at x = c
x3
Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Decreasing

Increasing

Decreasing

<0

Relative extrema
There is a relative maximum at x = 2 located at (2, 0.5).
Concavity

## x3 (2) (2x + 4) 3x2

f (x) =
x6
3
2
4x 12x
=
x6
4x 12
=
x4
4x 12 = 0
00

4x = 12
x=3
f 00 (x) is undefined at x = 0.

f (3) =

4
9

Interval

(, 0)

(0, 3)

(3, )

Test point x = c
4x 12
f 00 (x) =
x4

c = 1
4 (1) 12

c=1
4 (1) 12

(1)4

(1)4

f 00 (c)

= 8 < 0

= 8 < 0

Sign of f 00 (x)

f 00 (x) < 0

f 00 (x) < 0

c=4
4 (4) 12
44
1
= 3 >0
4
f 00 (x) > 0

Concavity

Concave down

Concave down

Concave up

Inflection Points

There is an inflection point at x = 3 located at 3, 49 .
107

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4. f (x) = x x 3

## Domain and Range

The domain of each individual function is the set of real numbers. The domain D of the function is (, ). The
range R is the set of all real numbers.
Intercepts and Zeros

xx3 = 0


1
2
x3 x3 1 = 0

x = 0 or x 3 1 = 0
2

x3 = 1
x 2 = 13
x = 1
The xintercepts are x = 0, x = 1, and x = 1.
The yintercept is (0, 0).
Asymptotes and Limits at Infinity
There are no asymptotes.


1
lim x x 3 =
x


1
lim x x 3 =

Differentiability
2

1
f 0 (x) = 1 13 x 3 = 1
. The function is differentiable on (, 0) (0, ).
3
3 x2

108

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## Intervals where f is increasing and decreasing

1
1
=0
3
3 x2
1

= 1
3
3 x2

3
1 = 3 x2
1
3
= x2
3
1
= x2
27
r
1

=x
27
1
=x
3 3

3
=x

9
f 0 (x) is undefined at x = 0.

Critical values: x = 9 3 , x = 0
!
3
f
= 0.384
9
!
3
f
= 0.384
9
Intervals Where f is Increasing or decreasing

Interval
Test point x = c

!
3
,
9
c = 1

!
3

,0
9
c = 0.1

!
3
0,
9
c = 0.1

3
,
9
c=1

1
1
1
1
1
evaluating 1 q
at x = c 1 q
> 0 1 q
< 0 1 q
< 0 1
>0
3
3
3
3
3
3 12
3 (x)2
3 (1)2
3 (0.1)2
3 (0.1)2
Sign of f 0 (x)

f 0 (x) > 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) < 0

f 0 (x) > 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Increasing

Decreasing

Decreasing

Increasing

Relative Extrema




3
3
There is a relative maximum at x = 9 located at 9 , 0.384 . There is a relative minimum at x = 9 3


3
located at
9 , 0.384 .
Concavity
109

## 3.6. Analyzing the Graph of a Function

www.ck12.org

5
1
f 00 (x) = 0 + x 3 =
3
x5

f 00 (x) is undefined at 0.

Interval

(, 0)

(0, )

Test point x = c
1
evaluating
at x = c
3
x5

c = 1
1
q
<0
3
(1)5

c=1
1
q
<0
3
(1)5

Sign of f 00 (x)

f 00 (x) < 0

f 00 (x) > 0

Concavity

Concave down

Concave up

Inflection Points
There is an inflection point at x = 0 located at (0, 0).

5. f (x) = 2x 6 + 3
Domain and Range
2x 6 needs to be greater than or equal to 0.

2x 6 0
2x 6
x3
Domain D = [3, )
The greatest that f can be is 3. The range is (, 3].
110

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## Intercepts and Zeros

Since 0 is not in the domain, there is no yintercept.
Find the zeros:

2x 6 + 3 = 0

2x 6 = 3
2x 6 = 9
2x = 15
15
x=
2
There is a zero at x =

15
2.



lim 2x 6 + 3 =

## There are no asymptotes.

Differentiability
1
1
f 0 (x) = (2x 6) 2 (2)
2
1
=
1
(2x 6) 2

## The derivative is undefined at x = 3.

f (3) = 3
The function is differentiable on (3, ).
Intervals Where f is increasing/decreasing
Check the sign of f 0 (x) on (3, ). One test point is x = 4. f 0 (4) = p 1
< 0. The function is decreasing on
2 (4) 6
(3, ).
Relative Extrema
There is an absolute maximum at x = 3 located at (3, 3).
Concavity
3
1
(2x 6) 2 (2)
2
3
= (2x 6) 2
1
= q
(2x 6)3

f 00 (x) =

111

## 3.6. Analyzing the Graph of a Function

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f 00 (x) is undefined at x = 0.
On the interval (3, ) , f 00 (x) > 0 for all values in the interval. The function is concave up in the interval.
Inflection Points
There are no inflection points.

6. f (x) = x2 2 x
Domain and Range
Because of the square root function, the domain D is [0, ).
From using the first derivative, the minimum value of f is 1.19. The range is [1.19, ).
Intercepts and Zeros
zeros:

x2 2 x = 0
 3

1
x2 x2 2 = 0
3

x = 0 or x 2 = 2

3
x= 4
There are two zeros: x =

3
4 and x = 0.

f (0) = 0
Asymptote and Limits at Infinity
There are no asymptotes.
112

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

lim x2 2 x =

Differentiability

 
1
1 1
f (x) = 2x 2
x 2 = 2x
2
x
0

1
2x = 0
x
3

2x 2 1 = 0
3

2x 2 = 1
3
1
x2 =
2
 2
1
x3 =
2

  13
3
1
1
16
=
x=
=
3
4
4
4
!

3
16
= 1.19
4

## f 0 (x) is undefined at x = 0. The function is differentiable in (0, ).

Intervals where f is increasing/decreasing
!

3
16
0,
4

Interval

3
16
,
4

Test point x = c

c = 0.5

c=1

1
evaluating 2x at x = c
x
0
Sign of f (x)

1
2 (.5)
<0
0.5
f 0 (x) < 0

1
2 (1) < 0
1
0
f (x) > 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Decreasing

Increasing

Relative Extrema




3
16
16
There is a relative minimum at x = 4 located at the point
4 , 1.19
3

Concavity

 
1 3
1
x 2 = 2+
f (x) = 2
3
2
x2
00

113

## 3.6. Analyzing the Graph of a Function

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The second derivative is undefined at x = 0. It is greater than 0 for all values in (0, ). The function is concave up
on (0, ).
Inflection Points
There are no inflection points.

7. f (x) = 1 + cos x on [, ]
Domain and Range
The domain D is [, ]. Since 1 cos x 1, the range of 1 + cos x is [0, 2].
Intercepts and Zeros
zeros:

1 + cos x = 0
cos x = 1
x = or x =
yintercept

f (0) = 1 + cos 0 = 2
There is a yintercept at (0, 2).
Asymptotes and limits at infinity
There are no asymptotes. The limits at infinity are not relevant because we are looking at a function on a finite,
closed interval.
Differentiability
The function is differentiable at every point of its domain.
Intervals where f is Increasing/Decreasing
114

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

f 0 (x) = sin x
sin x = 0
x=0
f (0) = 1 + cos 0 = 2

(, 0)

c=
2

Sign of f 0 (x)


>0
2
f 0 (x) > 0

(0, )

c=
2 

sin
<0
2
f 0 (x) < 0

Increasing/Decreasing

Increasing

Decreasing

Interval
Test point x = c

sin

evaluating sin x at x = c

Because we are analyzing a continuous function on a closed interval, we check the endpoints for extrema.

f () = 0
f () = 0
There is an absolute maximum at x = 0 located at (0, 2). There are absolute minimums at x = and x = located
at (, 0) and (, 0).
Concavity

f 00 (x) = cos x
cos x = 0

x = or x =
2
2
 
f
=1
2

f
=1
2

Sign of f 00 (x)



,
2
3
c=
2

3
cos
>0
4
f 00 (x) > 0

Concavity

Concave up

Interval
Test point x = c
evaluating sin x at x = c

 
,
2 2

c=0

c=


,
3
4

f 00 (x) < 0

3
cos
4
00
f (x) > 0

Concave down

Concave up

cos 0 < 0

>0

Inflection Points
The points of inflection are at x = 2 and x =


located at 2 , 1 and

2,1


.
115

116

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www.ck12.org

## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

3.7 Optimization
1.
f (x) = 2x2 6x + 6
f 0 (x) = 4x 6
Find the critical values.

4x 6 = 0
6 3
x= =
4 2
Find the function values of the critical value and the endpoints.

f (0) = 6
f (5) = 50 30 + 6 = 26
 
 2
 
3
3
3
3
f
=2
6
+6 =
2
2
2
2
There is an absolute minimum at

3 3
2, 2


. There is an absolute maximum at (5, 26).

2.
f (x) = x3 + 3x2
f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 6x
Find the critical values.

3x2 + 6x = 0
3x (x + 2) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2
Find the function values of the critical value and the endpoints.

f (0) = 0
f (2) = 6
f (3) = 27 + 27 = 54
There is an absolute minimum at (0, 0). There is an absolute maximum at (3, 54).
117

3.7. Optimization

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3.
2

f (x) = 3x 3 6x + 6
1

f 0 (x) = 2x 3 6
Find the critical values.

2x 3 6 = 0
1

2x 3 = 6
1

x 3 = 3
x1 = 27
1
x=
27
Find the function values of the critical value and the endpoints.


f


 
 2
1
6
1
3
=3
27 6
+ 6 = 27 + 6 = 32.8
27
27
27
f (1) = 3
f (8) = 12 48 + 6 = 30

There is an absolute minimum at (1, 3). There is an absolute maximum at (8, 30).
4.
f (x) = x4 x3
f 0 (x) = 4x3 3x2
Find the critical values.

4x3 3x2 = 0
x2 (4x 3) = 0
x2 = 0 or 4x 3 = 0
3
x = 0 or x =
4
Find the function values of the critical value and the endpoints.

f (0) = 0
   4  3
3
3
3
f
=

= 0.105
4
4
4
f (2) = 24
f (2) = 8
118

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## There is an absolute minimum at

3
4 , 0.105


. There is an absolute maximum at (2, 24).

## 5. The primary equation is P = 2x + 2y.

The secondary equation is xy = 2000.
Both feasible domains require x > 0 and y > 0.
Solve the secondary equation for y : y =

2000
x .

Substitute the secondary equation into the primary equation and simplify:

P = 2x + 2y


2000
= 2x + 2
x
4000
= 2x +
x
Find the critical value:

2000
x
dP
(1) 4000
= 2+
dx
x2
P = 2x +

= 2

4000
x2

4000
=0
x2
2x2 4000 = 0

x2 2000 = 0
x2 = 2000

x = 20 5
 

2000
f 20 5 = = 20 5
20 5

## Use the second derivative to find if 20 5 is an absolute maximum or minimum.

d 2 P 8000
= 3
dx2
x
d 2 P
8000

= 
2
3 > 0
dx x=20 5
20 5

20 5 is an absolute minimum. The dimensions of the rectangle with a perimeter as small as possible is 20 5 by
20 5.
6. The primary equation is S = x + y.
The secondary equation is xy = 50.
The feasible domain is x, y > 0 or x, y < 0
Solve xy = 50 for y.
119

3.7. Optimization

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y=
Substitute y =

50
x

50
x

50
x
dS
50
= 1 2
dx
x
S = x+

## Find the critical values.

50
=0
x2
x2 50 = 0

x = 50 = 5 2
1

50
x = 5 2, than y = = 5 2
5 2

50
x = 5 2, than y = = 5 2
5 2
Use the second derivative test to determine which critical value is the absolute minimum.

 
d2S
50
=2 3
2
dx
x

2
d S
100
=  3 > 0
2
dx x=5 2
5 2
d 2 S
100

= 
2
3 < 0
dx x=5 2
5 2

Thus, 5 2 is an absolute minimum. The numbers 5 2 and 5 2 give the absolute minimum of the sum S.
7. The domain is [0, 45].

s (t) = 0.025t 2 + t + 15
s0 (t) = 0.050t + 1
0.050t = 1
t = 20
s (20) = 25
s00 (t) = 0.05 < 0
120

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

Find the function values of the endpoints and the critical values.

s (0) = 15
s (45) = 9.375
s (20) = 25
t = 20 is an absolute maximum.
At t = 20 feet, the basketball will reach a height of 25 feet.
8. h (t) = 31 t 3 + 4t 3 + 25t + 4
a. Find the first derivative.

h0 (t) = t 2 + 8t + 25
t 2 + 8t + 25 = 0
t 2 8t 25 = 0
Use the quadratic formula to find the critical values.
p
64 4 (1) (25)
t=
2

t = 4 41
8

## Since t 0, we consider the critical value t = 4 +

41.

h00 (t) = 2t + 8





h00 4 + 41 = 2 4 + 41 + 8 = 2 41 < 0

t = 4 + 41 is a maximum.


b. h 4 + 41 = 321.7 ft
c. The rocket
hits the ground when h (t) = 0. Use a graphing calculator to find the zero of the function after

h 4 + 41 = 321.7. The rocket hits the ground when t 16.6 seconds.
9. Let A be a given perimeter. The primary equation is A = xy.
The secondary equation is P = 2x + 2y.
Both feasible domains require x > 0 and y > 0.
Solve the secondary equation for y:

P = 2x + 2y
P 2x = 2y.
P
x = y
2
121

3.7. Optimization

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Substitute the secondary equation into the primary equation and simplify:

A = xy


P
=x
x
2
Px
=
x2
2
Find the critical value:

Px
x2
2
dA P
= 2x
dx
2
A=

P
2x = 0
2
2x =
x=

P
2

P
4

## Find the corresponding y.

P = 2x + 2y
 
P
+ 2y
P=2
4
P
P = 2y
2
P
= 2y
2
P
=y
4
Use the second derivative to find if

P
4

## is an absolute maximum or minimum.

d2A
= 2
dx2
d 2 P
= 2 < 0

dx2 x= P4
P
2

is an absolute maximum. The dimensions of the rectangle with a area as large as possible is

## 10. Let P be a given perimeter. The primary equation is P = 2x + 2y.

The secondary equation is A = xy.
Both feasible domains require x > 0 and y > 0.
Solve the secondary equation for y : y = Ax .
122

P
2

by P2 .

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

Substitute the secondary equation into the primary equation and simplify:

P = 2x + 2y
 
A
= 2x + 2
x
2A
= 2x +
x
Find the critical value:

2A
x
dP
2A
2A
= 2+ 2 = 2 2
dx
x
x
2A
2 2 = 0
x
2x2 2A = 0
P = 2x +

x2 A = 0
x2 = 2000

x= A
Find the corresponding y.

p
A = xy = Ay

A=y
Use the second derivative to find if

## A is an absolute maximum or minimum.

d 2 P 4A
= 3
dx2
x
d 2 P
4A
=  3 > 0
2
dx x= A
A

A is an absolute minimum. The dimensions of the rectangle with a perimeter as small as possible is A by A.

123

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## 3.8 Approximation Errors

1.
f (x) = 2x4 6x3
f (2) = 32 + 48 = 80
f 0 (x) = 8x3 18x2
f 0 (2) = 136
L (x) = f (2) + f 0 (2) (x (2))
= 80 136 (x + 2)
= 192 136x
2.
2

f (x) = x 3
 2
3
f (27) =
27 = 32 = 9
2 1
2
f 0 (x) = x 3 =
3
33x
2
2
f 0 (27) =
=
3
9
3 27
L (x) = f (27) + f 0 (27) (x 27)
2
= 9 + (x 27)
9
2
= 9+ x6
9
2
= 3+ x
9
3.

5x

f (1) = 4 = 2
1
1
1
f 0 (x) = (5 x) 2 (1) =
2
2 5x
1
1
f 0 (1) =
=
22
4
L (x) = f (1) + f 0 (1) (x 1)
1
= 2 (x 1)
4
1
1
= 2 x+
4
4
9 1
= x
4 4
f (x) =

To approximate
124

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5 x = 4.01
x = 0.99
x = 0.99

## Evaluate L (x) at x = 0.99.

L (0.99) =

Thus,

9 1
(0.99) 2.0025
4 4

4.01 2.0025.

4.
f (x) = x4
f (1) = 1
f 0 (x) = 4x3
f 0 (1) = 4
L (x) = f (1) + f 0 (1) (x 1)
= 1 + 4 (x 1)
= 4x 3
L (1.001) = 4 (1.001) 3
= 1.004

## Yes, 1.004 is a reasonable approximation.

5.
3

f (x) = x 4
f (16) = 8
3 1
3
f 0 (x) = x 4 =
4
4 ( 4 x)
3
3
3
=
f 0 (16) = 
=
4
4 (2) 8
4
16
L (x) = f (16) + f 0 (16) (x 16)
3
= 8 + (x 16)
8
3
= x+2
8
3
L (16.08) = (16.08) + 2
8
= 8.03
125

## 3.8. Approximation Errors

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6.

f (x) =

3
2x

f (1) = 1
1
1
1


f 0 (x) = (2 x) 3 (1) =
3
3
3
2x
1
f 0 (1) =
3
L (x) = f (1) + f 0 (1) (x 1)
1
= 1 (x 1)
3
1
4
= x+
3
3


3
Find the xvalues such that 2 x 13 x + 43 0.01.
Use a graphing calculator.

0.7 x 1.2
126

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## Chapter 3. Applications of Derivatives, Solution Key

7.

5x

f (1) = 4 = 2
1
1
1
f 0 (x) = (5 x) 2 (1) =
2
2 5x
1
1
f 0 (1) =
=
22
4
3
1
1
f 00 (x) = (5 x) 2 (1) = q
4
4 (5 x)3
f (x) =

1
1
f 00 (1) =  3 =
32
4
4
1
T (x) = f (1) + f 0 (1) (x 1) + f 00 (x) (x 1)2
2


1 1
1
(x 1)2
= 2 (x 1)
4
2 32

1
1
1 2
= 2 x+
x 2x + 1
4
4 64
1
1
1
9 1
= x x2 + x
4 4
64
32
64
1 2 7
143
= x x+
64
32
64



7
1 2
x 32
x + 143
8. Find the xvalues such that 5 x 64
64 0.01.

0.8 x 2.5
127

## 3.8. Approximation Errors

www.ck12.org

9.
f (x) = 2x4 6x3
f (2) = 32 + 48 = 80
f 0 (x) = 8x3 18x2
f 0 (2) = 136
f 00 (x) = 24x2 36x
f 00 (2) = 168
T (x) = f (2) + f 0 (2) (x (2)) +

1 00
f (2) (x (2))2
2

1
= 80 136 (x 2) + (168) (x + 2)2
2

= 192 136x + 84 x2 + 4x + 4
= 192 136x + 84x2 + 336x + 336
= 84x2 + 200x + 144

128

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C HAPTER

Chapter Outline
4.1

4.2

## T HE I NITIAL VALUE P ROBLEM

4.3

T HE A REA P ROBLEM

4.4

D EFINITE I NTEGRALS

4.5

4.6

## T HE F UNDAMENTAL T HEOREM OF C ALCULUS

4.7

I NTEGRATION BY S UBSTITUTION

4.8

N UMERICAL I NTEGRATION

129

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## 4.1 Indefinite Integrals Calculus

1. The antiderivative of 1 is x because the derivative of x is 1.
The antiderivative of 3x2 is x3 because the derivative of x3 is 3x2 .
The antiderivative of 6x is 3x2 because the derivative of 3x2 is 6x.
Thus, F (x) = x x3 3x2 +C.
2. The antiderivative of x is 21 x2 because the derivative of 12 x2 is x.
2

## The antiderivative of x 3 is 35 x 3 because the derivative of 35 x 3 is x 3 .

x2
2

35 x 3 +C.

1
5
3. The antiderivative of 2x + 1 = (2x + 1) 5 is
Thus, F (x) =

5
12

## (2x + 1) 5 because the derivative of

4.

Z 

2+

Z
Z

5 dx = 2dx +
5dx
Z
Z
= 2 x0 dx + 5 x0 dx
 0+1 
 0+1 

x
x
=2
+ 5
0+1
0+1

= 2x + 5x +C

5.

2 (x 3)3 dx = 2

(x 3)3 dx+

(x 3)4
+C
4
(x 3)4
=
+C
2
=2

6.

Z


7
3
x x dx = x 3 dx
2

=
=
130

x3+3
10
3

+C

3 10
x 3 +C
10

5
12

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7.


Z 
1
1
x + 4 dx =
x + 9 dx
x x
xZ2
Z

Z 

xdx +

x 2 dx

x2 x 2
= + 7 +C
2
2
=

2
x2
7 +C
2 7x 2

8.
Z

4x3 dx

f (x) =
=

=4

3x2 dx +

x3 dx 3

x2 dx +

xdx

xdx

3dx
Z

3dx

x4
x3 x2
x1
3 + 3
4
3
2
1
2
x
= x4 x3 + 3x +C
2

=4

9.
Z

F (x) =


2e2x + x 2 dx

e2x x2
+ 2x +C
2
2
2
x
= e2x + 2x +C
2
F (0) = 5
=2

F (0) = e2(0) +

02
2 (0) +C = 1 +C
2

1 +C = 5
C=4
F (x) = e2x +

x2
2x + 4
2

(
x, x 0
10. |x|=
x, x < 0
Then for x 0,
Z

|x|dx =

xdx =

x2
+C.
2

Z

|x|dx =

xdx =

x2
+C.
2
131

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## 4.2 The Initial Value Problem

1.

f 0 (x) = 2e2x 2 x
1

f 0 (x) = 2e2x 2x 2
Z 

1
0
f (x) dx =
2x2x 2x 2 dx
Z

e2x dx 2 x 2 dx
 x
3
x2
e
=2
2 3 +C
2
2
3
4
= e2x x 2 +C
3

f (x) = 2

2.

1
f 0 (x) = sin x x
e

Z
Z 
1
0
f (x) dx =
sin x x dx
e
Z

sin xdx ex dx
 x 
e
+C
= cos x 1
1
= cos x + ex +C

f (x) =

132

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## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

3.

f 00 (x) = (2 + x) x

= 2 x+x x
1

= 2x 2 + x 2
Z
Z 

1
3
00
f (x) dx =
2x 2 + x 2 dx
Z

f 00 (x) dx = 2
f 0 (x) = 2

x 2 dx + x 2 dx
!
3
5
x2
x2
+ 5
3
2

  
3
2
2  5
=2
x2 +
x2
3
5
4 3 2 5
= x2 + x2
3
5
4 3 2 5
0
f (x) = x 2 + x 2
3
5

Z
Z 
3
2 5
4
0
f (x) dx =
x 2 + x 2 dx
3
5
Z
Z
3
5
4
2
=
x 2 dx +
x 2 dx
3
!
! 5
5

4
3

4 7
8 5
x 2 + x 2 +C
15
35

x2
5
2

2
5

x2
7
2

4.
7
f 0 (x) = 6x5 4x2 +
3

Z
Z 
7
0
5
2
f (x) dx =
6x 4x +
dx
3
7
dx
x5 dx 4 x2 dx +
3
 6
x
x3 7
=6
4 + x
6
3 3
7
4
= x6 x3 + x +C
3
3
f (1) = 4
4
7
4 = (1)6 (1)3 + (1) +C
3
3
4 7
4 = 1 + +C
3 3
4 = 2 +C
Z

f (x) = 6

2=C
4
7
f (x) = x6 x3 + x + 2
3
3
133

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5.

## f 0 (x) = 3x2 + e2x

Z

f 0 (x) dx =


3x2 + e2x dx
Z

x2 dx + e2x dx
 3
x
e2x
=3
+
+C
3
2
e2x
= x3 +
+C
2
f (0) = 3
f (x) = 3

3 = (0)3 +
3=

e2(0)
+C
2

1
+C
2

5
=C
2
f (x) = x3 +

e2x 5
+
2
2

6.

1
3
x2 2
x
2
= x 3 x2
Z
Z 

2
0
f (x) dx =
x 3 x2 dx
f 0 (x) =

f (x) =
=

x 3 dx x2 dx
!
5
x3
x1

+C
5
1
3

3 5 1
= x 3 + +C
5
x
f (1) = 3
5
3
1
3 = (1) 3 + +C
5
1
3
3 = + 1 +C
5
8
3 = +C
5
7
=C
5
3
3 5 1 7 3
1 7
f (x) = x 3 + + =
x5 + +
5
x 5 5
x 5
134

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

7.
f 0 (x) = 2 cos x sin x
Z

f 0 (x) dx =

(2 cos x sin x) dx
Z

cos xdx

f (x) = 2

sin xdx

= 2 (sin x) ( cos x) +C



1
3+
2

1
3+
2

= 2 sin x + cos x +C

1
= 3+
2


= 2 sin
+ cos
+C
3!
3

3
1
+ +C
=2
2
2

0=C
f (x) = 2 sin x + cos x

f 0 (x) = 2x + 4
Z

f (x) dx =

(2x + 4) dx

f (x) = 2

xdx + 4dx
 2
x
+ 4x +C
= 2
2
= x2 + 4x +C

## Since (2, 4) is on the graph of f , then f (2) = 4.

f (x) = x2 + 4x +C
4 = (2)2 + 4 (2) +C
4 = 4 8 +C
4 = 12 +C
16 = C
f (x) = x2 + 4x + 16
f (5) = (5) + 4 (5) + 16
= 25 + 20 + 16
= 11
135

www.ck12.org

9.

## f 00 (x) = sin x e2x

f 0 (x) =

Z
Z


sin x e2x dx
sin xdx

e2x dx

e2x
+C
2
e2x
+C
= cos x +
2
1
f 0 (0) = cos (0) + +C
2
5
1
= 1 + +C
2
2
3=C
= cos x

e2x
f 0 (x) = cos x +
+3
2

Z 
e2x
f (x) =
cos x +
+ 3 dx
2
Z
Z
Z 2x
e
dx + 3dx
= cos xdx +
2
  2x
1 e
= sin x +
+ 3x +C
2 2
e2x
+ 3x + c
= sin x
2
f (0) = 0
1
0 = sin (0) + 0 +C
4
1
0 = 0 +C
4
1
=C
4

2x

136

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

10.
1
1
f 00 (x) = = x 2
x

x 2 dx

f (x) =
1

x2

+C

1
2
1

= 2x 2 +C
1

f 0 (4) = 2 (4) 2 +C
1

7 = 2 (4) 2 +C
3=C
1

f 0 (x) = 2x 2 + 3
Z 

1
f (x) =
2x 2 + 3 dx
Z

1
2

2x dx + 3dx
!
3
x2
= 2 3 + 3x +C
2

4 3
= x 2 + 3x +C
3
f (4) = 25
4 3
25 = 4 2 + 3 (4) +C
3
4
25 = (8) + 12 +C
3
32
13 =
+C
3
7
=C
3
7
4 3
f (x) = x 2 + 3x +
3
3

137

www.ck12.org

## 4.3 The Area Problem

1.

10

10

i
(2i

3)
=

2i2 3i

i=1

i=1
10

10

= 2 i2 3 i
i=1

i=1




10 (10 + 1)
10 (10 + 1) (2 10 + 1)
3
=2
6
2




10 11 21
10 (10 + 1)
3
=2
6
2
= 770 165


= 605

2.

(3 i) (2 + i) =

i=1

6 + 3i 2i i2

i=1
n

= 6 + i i2
i=1
n


n

= 6 + i i2
i=1

i=1

i=1

n (n + 1) n (n + 1) (2n + 1)

= 6n +
2
6

2 + 2n + n + 1
2
n
2n
n +n
= 6n +

2
6
2
3
2
n + n 2n + 3n + n
= 6n +

2
6
2
3
72n + 6n + 6n 4n 6n2 2n
=
12
3
4n + 76n
=
12
3
n + 19n
=
3

3. The length of each interval is xi xi1 = 21 . The function takes the minimum value on the right endpoint of each
interval.
138

www.ck12.org

## S (P) = mi (xi xi1 )

i=1
4

 
1
= f (xi )
2
i=1

1 4
1 xi2

2 i=1
"
#
 2 !
 2 !


1
3
1
1
+ 1 02 + 1
+ 1 22
=
2
2
2
 
 

3
1
5
=
+ (1) +
+ (3)
2
4
4
= 1.25
=

The function takes on the maximum value on the left endpoint of each interval.
4

## T (P) = Mi (xi xi1 )

i=1
4

 
1
= f (xi1 )
2
i=1

1 4
2
1 xi1

2 i=1
"
 2 ! 
 2 !#


1
1 
3
2
2
=
1 (0) + 1
+ 1 (1) + 1
2
2
2

 
 
5
3
1
1+
+ (0) +
=
2
4
4
= 0.25
=

4. The length of each interval is xi xi1 = 12 . The function takes the minimum value on the right endpoint of each
interval for the endpoints who are less than 0. The function takes the minimum value on the left endpoint for each
interval with endpoints greater than 0.
4

i=1
2

  4
 
1
1
+ f (xi1 )
2
2
i=1
i=3
  4
 
2
1
2 1
2
= 2xi
+ 2xi1
2
2
i=1
i=3
= f (xi )

2
= xi2 + xi1
i=1

i=3

 2
 2
1
1
2
2
=
+ 0 + (0) +
2
2
= 0.5
139

## 4.3. The Area Problem

www.ck12.org

The function takes the maximum value on the left endpoint of each interval for the endpoints who are less than 0.
The function takes the maximum value on the right endpoint for each interval with endpoints greater than 0.

## T (P) = Mi (xi xi1 )

i=1
2

  4
 
1
1
= f (xi1 )
+ f (xi )
2
2
i=1
i=3




4
2
1
1
2
+ 2xi2
= 2xi1
2
2
i=3
i=1
2

2
= xi1
+ xi2
i=1

i=3

 2  2
1
1
+
+ 12
= (1)2 +
2
2
= 2.5
5. The length of each interval is xi xi1 = 1. The function takes the minimum value on the right endpoint of each
interval.

## S (P) = mi (xi xi1 )

i=1
3

= f (xi ) (1)
i=1
3

1
i=1 xi
1 1
= 1
3 2
= 1.83
=

The function takes on the maximum value on the left endpoint of each interval.

## T (P) = Mi (xi xi1 )

i=1
3

= f (xi1 ) (1)
i=1
3

i=1 xi1

1 1 1
=
4 3 2
= 1.08
6. If we partition the interval [2, 6] into n equal sub-intervals, then each sub-interval will have length
4x = 4n . The right endpoint of each interval is ri = 2 + ni .
140

62
n

4
n

and so

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

S (P) = f (ri ) 4x
i=1
n 



 
4i
4
= 3 2+
+5
n
n
i=1
 
n 
4
12i
= 11 +
n
n
i=1
n
48i
44
+ 2
i=1 n
i=1 n
n

=
=

44
48 n
(n) + 2 i
n
n i=1

48 n (n + 1)
n2
2
24
= 44 + 24 +
n
24
= 68 +
n
= 44 +

## Let n . Then S (P) = 68.

7.

S (P) = f (ri ) 4x
i=1
n 

  
2i 2 2
= 1+
n
n
i=1
 

n
4i 4i2
2
= 1+ +
n
n
n
i=1
n

n
n
2
8i
8i2
+ 2 + 3
i=1 n
i=1 n
i=1 n

2
8 n
8 n
(n) + 2 i + 3 i2
n
n i=1
n i=1




8 n (n + 1)
8 n (n + 1) (2n + 1)
= 2+ 2
+ 3
n
2
n
6
6 16 4
4
= 2+4+ + + + 2
n
6
n 3n
26 6 4
4
=
+ + + 2
3
n n 3n
=

26
3 .

141

## 4.3. The Area Problem

www.ck12.org

8.
n

S (P) = f (ri ) 4x
i=1
n

1
1 + 3in

3
n + 3i

i=1
n 

i=1

## 9. Yes, f (x) = |x 2| is continuous on [1, 4].

10. No, f (x) is not continuous on [0, 1].

142

! 
3
n


www.ck12.org

## 4.4 Definite Integrals

1. Each sub-interval of [0, 2] will have length of 4x =

20
4

## = 12 . The midpoints are 41 , 34 , 54 , 74 .









1 1
3 1
5 1
7 1
+ 2
+ 2
+ 2
R4 = 2
4 2
4 2
4 2
4 2
 
 
 
 
5 1
3 1
1 1
7 1
=
+
+
+
4 2
4 2
4 2
4 2
7+5+3+1
=
8
=2

2. From 0 to 2, the line forms a triangle with the xaxis from (0, 2) to (2, 0). The height of the triangle is 2. The
width is 2 0 = 2. The area of the triangle is 12 (2) (2) = 2 .
3. Use the right endpoints to compute the integral. Divide [0, 2] into n subintervals of length 4x =
right endpoints: 2n , n4 , K, 2in , K, 2n
n.

Z2
0

20
n

= n2 . Use the

  
2i
2
(2 x) dx = lim f
n
n
n
i=1

 

n
2
2i
= lim 2
n
n
n
i=1
"

  #
n
n
4
2i
2
= lim
n
n
i=1 n
i=1 n
#
"


n
n
4i
4
= lim
n
i=1 n
i=1 n
"
#
n
4 4 n
= lim 2 i
n
n i=1
i=1 n


4n 4 n2 + n
2
= lim
n n
n
2




2
2
= lim 4 2
= lim 2
=2
n
n
n
n

## 4. Each sub-interval of [1, 4] will have length of 4x =

11
9
14
12
17
5 ,1+ 5 = 5 ,1+ 5 = 5 .

41
5

143

## 4.4. Definite Integrals

3
R5 = 12 1 +
5

www.ck12.org

!
!
!
!
 2
 2
 2
 2
8
8 3
11
11 3
14
14 3
17
17 3

5
5 5
5
5 5
5
5 5
5
5 5

3
3
3
3
= 0 + (2.56 1.6) + (4.84 2.2) + (7.84 2.8) + (11.56 3.4)
5
5
5
5
= 0.576 + 1.584 + 3.024 + 4.896
= 10.08

5.

R4
1



x2 x dx limn ni=1 f 1 + 3in

3
n

"
 
#  
3i 2
3i
3
= lim 1 +
1+
n
n
n
n
i=1




n
3i
3
6i 9i2
= lim 1 + + 2 1
n
n
n
n
n
i=1



n 
3
3i 9i2
+ 2
= lim
n
n
n
n
i=1
#
 " n
n
3
3i
9i2
= lim
+ i n2
n n
i=1 n
i=1
#
 " n
3
3
9 n 2
= lim
+ n2 i
n n
n i=1
i=1
   2
   3

9
n +n
2n + 3n2 + n
27
= lim
+
n
n2
2
n3
6


 2
3
2
18n + 27n + 9n
9n + 9n
+
= lim
2
n
2n
2n3


9
9
9
27
= lim
+ +9 3 + 2
n 2
2n
2n
2n
= 13.5
n

10
2

## = 12 . The right endpoints are 12 , 1.

 2 !
1
1
1 
R2 = 3
+ 3 (1)2
2
2
2
 
3 1
1
=
+ (3)
4 2
2
3 3
= +
8 2
= 1.875
b. Each sub-interval of [0, 1] will have length of 4x =
144

10
5

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1 
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3 (1)2
R5 = 3
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5


3 1 + 4 + 9 + 16
=
+1
5
25
3
= (2.2)
5
= 1.32
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
c. Each sub-interval of [0, 1] will have length of 4x = 10
10 = 10 . The right endpoints are 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 1.

 !
 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
1 2 1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
R10 = 3
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
 2 !
 1
1
7
1
8
1
9
1 
6
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3
+ 3 (1)2
+ 3
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10


3 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 + 49 + 64 + 81
=
+1
10
100


3 285
+1
=
10 100
= 1.15


## d. The area should be 1.

7. a. Each sub-interval of [0, 1] will have length of 4x =

10
2

## = 12 . The right endpoints are 12 , 1.

1
1
+ e1
2
2
1
1
= (1.649) + (2.718)
2
2
= 2.18

R2 = e0.5

10
5

## = 15 . The right endpoints are 15 , 25 , 35 , 54 , 1.

 1 1  2 1  3 1  4 1
1
R5 = e 5
+ e5
+ e5
+ e5
+ e1
5
5
5
5
5
1
= (1.221 + 1.492 + 1.822 + 2.226 + 2.718)
5
1
= (9.479)
5
= 1.896
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
c. Each sub-interval of [0, 1] will have length of 4x = 10
10 = 10 . The right endpoints are 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 1
.

145

## 4.4. Definite Integrals

www.ck12.org

 1 1  2 1  3 1  4 1  5 1
+ e 10
+ e 10
+ e 10
+ e 10
R10 = e 10
10
10
10
10
10
 6 1  7 1  8 1  9 1

1
+ e 10
+ e 10
+ e 10
+ e 10
+ e1
10
10
10
10
10
1
=
(1.105 + 1.221 + 1.35 + 1.492 + 1.649 + 1.822 + 2.014 + 2.226 + 2.46 + 2.718)
10
1
=
(18.06)
10
= 1.81
d. The area should be e 1 1.7.
8.

## The graph is symmetric around the origin. The area is 0.

9.

Z0

2
1

x3 x dx = 2


Z0

x3 dx

"

Z0

x dx

 #
n 
1
i 1
= 2 lim
lim
n
n n i=1
n n
i=1
"
!#
1 n
1 n
= 2 lim 4 i3 + 2 i
n
n i=1
n i=1
"

!#


1 n (n + 1) 2 1 n (n + 1)
= 2 lim 4
+ 2
n
n
2
n
2




1 n2 + 2n + 1
n+1
= 2 lim
2
+
n
n
4
2n



1
1
1
1
1
= 2 lim 2 + +
n
4 2n 4n
2 2n


1 1
=2 +
4 2
 
1
1
=2
=
4
2
10.
146

(i)3
n3

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

y=

p
9 x2

y2 = 9 x 2
x 2 + y2 = 9
x2 + y2 = 32
From x = 0 to x = 3, y =

p
9 x2 is a quarter of the circle around the origin with radius 3. The area is

r2
4

9
4 .

147

www.ck12.org

1.

Z9 


Z9
1
3
dx = 3x 2 dx
x
4

Z9

=3

x 2 dx

4
1

=3

x2

#9

1
2

 4 
=6
9 4
= 6 (3 2)
=6

2.

Z1
0

t t

Z1

dt =

t dt

Z1

t 2 dt

#1

#1
t3
t2

=
2
3
0
 2
0 3

1
1
=
0
0
2
3
1 1
=
2 3
1
=
6

3.
148

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

Z5 
2


Z5
Z5
1
1
1
1
+ dx = x 2 dx + dx
x
2
2
2
2
#5
#5
1
x2
1
= 1
+ x
2 2
2 2
#5
#5

1
=2 x + x
2 2
2




5
2
= 2 52 2 +
2
2

3 2
= 2 52 2+
2

4.

Z1
0

x 1

Z1


x4 1 dx

x + 1 dx = 4
0

= 4

x5
5

#1

x]10
0

1
= 4 1
5
4
= 4
5
16
=
5

5.

Z8 
2


Z8
Z8
Z8
4
4
2
2
+ x + x dx =
dx + x dx + x dx
x
x
2
2
2
#8
#8
3
2
x
x
+
= 4ln x]82 +
3
2
2

512 8
= 4ln8 44ln2 +
+ 32 2
3
3
= 203.55

R4
3x
6. e3x dx = e3
2

#4
=

e12
3

e3

7.
149

www.ck12.org

Z4

2
dx = 2ln (x + 3)
x+3

#4
1

## = 2ln (7) 2ln (4)

8.

F (9) F (1) =

Z9
1
52
3

#9

x2
xdx = 3

2 3
=
x
3

#9
1



2  3  3
2
52
=
9
1
= (27 1) =
3
3
3

52 13
F (9) F (1)
=
=
=
91
8
24
6
9. By the Mean Value Theorem for derivatives there exits a c in [a, b] such that

Z4

f (x) dx = f (c) (b a)

9 = f (c) (4 1)
9 = f (c) (3)
3 = f (c)

## 10. He is partially correct. The definite integral

R2

sin x dx computes the net area under the curve. However, the area

R2
0

150

www.ck12.org

1.

Z4


(2x + 3) dx =

2x2
+ 3x
2

 4

0

2 (4)
+ 3 (4) 0
2
= 28
=

2.

151

## 4.6. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Z2

www.ck12.org

ex dx = ex |20 = e2 e0 = e2 1

3.

Z3
1

x2 + x dx =


x3 x2
+
3
2

 3

1

27 9 1 1
=
+
3
2 1 2
26
=
+4
3
38
=
3

4.
152

www.ck12.org

Z2

x2 x dx =


x3 x2
+
3
2

 2

0

8 4
= 0
3 2
8
= 2
3
2
=
3
5.

Z+1

|x|dx =

Z0
1

x dx +

Z1

x dx
0

0
1
x2
x2
= +
2
2
1  0
1
1
= 0
+ 0
2
2
=1

## 6. The graph has a zero at x =

3
2. The absolute value of the function can be split at that zero.
153

Z3

|x 2|dx =

3
Z2

www.ck12.org

Z

x + 2 dx +
3

3
 2


x3 2 dx

3
2

 4
 4
 3

x
x

= + 2x + + 2x

4
4
3
0
2
 4
 4

3
3






2
2

3
3

34

+2
2 (3)
2
=
2 0 +
2
4
4
4

3
3

2 2
81 24 2 2
3
3
=
+2 2+
+2 2
4
4
4
4

57
3
3
= 2 + 42 2 +
4

57
3
= 3 2+
4
7.

Z+4

Z+4

Z+4

## [|x 1|+|x + 1|] dx =

|x 1|dx +

Z1

=
2

(1 x) dx +

|x + 1|dx

Z4
1

(x 1) dx +

Z1

(x 1) dx +

Z4

(x + 1) dx

 1
 2
 4  2
 1  2
 4

x
x
x
x2

x + x +
+x
= x
+

2
2
2
2
2
1
!1
! 2
!
!



2
2
2
(4)
(2)
1
(1)2
(2)2
1
2
+
4
1 +
(1)
(2) +
= 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
  
 
1
1
1
1
(0) + (12)
= (4) + (8 4)
2
2
2
2
= 22
8. Graph the functions.

154

www.ck12.org

Z2

Area =

x x dx

Z1

Z



x x dx +
x x dx

Z1

=
0

=
=
=
=

1
2

x dx

Z1

Z2

x dx +
0

x dx

Z2

x 2 dx
1

1
2
1

3 2
x
x2
x 2
x2
+ 3
3

2
2
2 0
2
0
 1  1 

2
1
1
2 3
2
(1) 3 + 2

22 1
3
2
2
3



14 2
3
2 2

6
3
3
74 2
3
3
2

9.

155

www.ck12.org

Z2


4 x2 dx

Area =
0

4x|20

2
x3

3
0

8
= 80 0
3
16
=
3
10.

Area =

Z3 



x2 + 1 (3 x) dx

Z1

Z


3 x x + 1 dx +
x2 1 (3 x) dx
2

Z1


2 x x2 dx +

Z3


x2 2 + x dx

3
3
x3
x2

3
=
+ 2x|1 +
2
3
3
2
0
 0 1
1

1 1
27 1
9 1
= 2 +

(6 2) +

2 3
3
3
2 2
59
=
6
2x|10

156

1
x2

1
x3

www.ck12.org

## 4.7 Integration by Substitution

1. Let u = ln x and dv = x. Then du = 1x dx and v =

x2
2.

x ln x dx = uv lim v du
x2 ln x
x2 1

dx
2
2 x
Z
x
x2 ln x

dx
=
2
2
x2 ln x x2
=
+C
2
4
Z

2. Let u = ln x and dv =

3
x. Then du = 1x dx and v = 23 x 2 .

Z
Z3

x ln x dx = uv

v du
3

3 1
2x 2 ln x 2
xln x dx =

x 2 dx
3
3
x

1
3
2

2x ln x 2
=

3
3

Z3

x 2 dx
1

3
2

2x ln x 4x 2

3
9

! 3

1

3
2

3
2



4
2 3 ln x 4 3

0
=
3
9
9
2 3 2 ln x 4 3 2 4
=

+
3
9
9
3. Let u2 = 2x + 1. Then

u2 = 2x + 1
u2 1 = 2x
u2 1
=x
2
u du = dx
157

## 4.7. Integration by Substitution

www.ck12.org



1 u2 1
u du
u
2
Z 2
u 1
=
du
2
Z

1
u2 1 du
=
2


1 u2
=
u
2 3
"
#
3

2x + 1
1
=
2x + 1
2
3


1
2x + 1
=
2x + 1
1 +C
2
3

2x + 1 (2x 2)
1
=
+C
2
3
2x + 1 (x 1)
=
+C
3

dx =
2x + 1

4. Let u = 1 x2 . Then

du = 2x dx
1
du = x dx
2
and
u 1 = x2
u + 1 = x2

When using usubstitution, just put limits as u1 and u2 as placeholders on the integral. After u is replaced by the
function of x, put back the original limits of integration.
158

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key

Z1

Zu2  p

p
x
1 x2 dx = x2 x 1 x2 dx
3

u1

1
=
2
=

1
2

1
=
2

Zu2

(u + 1)

u du

u1
Zu2 


1
3
u 2 u 2 du

u1
5

u2
5
2

u2

3
2


 1
3
5


2
1 2

1 x2 2 1 x2 2
=

2 5
3
0


1 2 2

= 0
2 5 3
2
=
15
5. Let u = x and dv = cos x dx. Then du = dx and v = sin x.
Z

x cos x dx = x sin x

sin x dx

= x sin x ( cos x) +C
= x sin x + cos x +C
6. Let u = x3 + 9. Then

du = 3x2 dx
1
du = x2 dx
3

Z1
0

Zu2
p
1
3
x
x + 9dx =
u du
3
2

u1

1
=
3

Zu2

u 2 du
u1
3

1 u2
= 3
3 2
1
q

2

=
(x3 + 9)3

9
0


2
3
2
=
10 27
9
159

www.ck12.org

7. Let

1
= x1
x
du = x2 dx
1
du = 2 dx
x
u=

Z 

1
1
ex
2
x

eu du

dx =

= eu +C
1

= e x +C
2

## 8. Let u = x2 and dv = xex dx. Then du = 2x dx and v = 12 ex .

Z

9. Let u = ln x and dv =

1
3
x2

2
2
1
x3 ex dx = x2 ex (2x) dx
2
Z
2
2
1
= x2 ex ex (x) dx
2
2
1
1 2
= x2 ex ex +C
2
2

dx = x 2 dx. Then du =

1
x

and v = 23 x 2 .

 3  Z  2  x 32
2
ln x x 2
dx
5 dx =
3
3
x
x2
Z
5
2ln x 2
=
+
x 2 dx
3
3
3x 2

ln x

2 x 2
 +C
=
+
3
3 32
3x 2
2ln x
4
=
3 +C
3
3x 2
9x 2
2ln x

10.

Re 1
e
x dx = ln x|1 = ln e ln 0 = ln e = 1
1

160

www.ck12.org

## 4.8 Numerical Integration

1. 4x =

Z1

10
8

1
8

x2 ex dx


 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
f (0) + 2 f
+2f
+2f
+2f
+2f
+2f
+2f
+ f (1)
=
16
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
"
#
 2
 2
 2
 2
 2
 2
 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
0+2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 2
e 8 + (1)2 e1
=
16
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
[0.028 + 0.097 + 0.193 + 0.303 + 0.148 + 0.531 + 0.638 + 0.368]
16
0.16
=

2. 4x =

Z4
1

41
6

3
6

1
2


 
 
 


1
3
5
7
f (1) + 2 f
+ 2 f (2) + 2 f
+ 2 f (3) + 2 f
+ f (4)
ln xdx =
4
2
2
2
"
#
r !
r !
r !
 
 
 
1
3
5
7
0 + 2ln
+ 2ln
2 + 2ln
+ 2ln
3 + 2ln
+ ln
4
=
4
2
2
2
1
[0.405 + 0.693 + 0.916 + 1.099 + 1.253 + 0.693]
4
1.26
=

3. 4x =

10
4

1
4

Z1 p

1 + x4 dx


 
 
 

1
1
1
3
=
f (0) + 2 f
+2f
+2f
+ f (1)
8
4
2
4

s
s
s
 4
 4
 4 q
1
1
1
3
= 1 + 2 1 +
+2 1+
+2 1+
+ 1 + (1)4
8
4
2
4
1
[1 + 2.004 + 2.061 + 2.295 + 1.414]
8
1.10

4. 4x =

31
8

2
8

1
4

161

## 4.8. Numerical Integration

Z3
1

www.ck12.org


 
 
 
 
 
 

1
1
5
6
7
9
10
11
dx =
f (1) + 2 f
+2f
+2f
+ 2 f (2) + 2 f
+2f
+2f
+ f (3)
x
8
4
4
4
4
4
4


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
1
=
1+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+
8
5
6
7
2
9
10
11
3
1
= [1 + 1.6 + 1.333 + 1.143 + 1 + 0.889 + 0.8 + 0.727 + 0.667]
8
1.10

5. Find n such that |ErrorTrapezoidal | 0.001. | f 00 (x) |= | x23 | 2 because the maximum value of the second derivative
is 2 on the interval [1, 3].

2 (3 1)3
0.001
12n2
16
0.001
12n2
16 0.012n2
16
n2
0.012
r
16
n
0.012
36.5 n

Thus, you can choose n = 37 in order for the Trapezoidal Estimate to be within 0.001 of the actual integral.
6. 4x =

Z1

10
8

1
8

x2 ex dx


 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
=
f (0) + 4 f
+2f
+4f
+2f
+4f
+2f
+4f
+ f (1)
24
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
"
#
 2
 
 2
 
 2
 2
 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
=
0+4
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 4
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 4
e 8 + 2
e 8 + 4
e 8 + (1)2 e1
24
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
[0.055 + 0.097 + 0.387 + 0.303 + 0.836 + 0.531 + 1.276 + 0.368]
24
0.16
=

7. 4x =
162

41
6

3
6

1
2

www.ck12.org

Z4

## Chapter 4. Integration, Solution Key


 
 
 


1
3
5
7
xln x dx =
f (1) + 4 f
+ 2 f (2) + 4 f
+ 2 f (3) + 4 f
+ 2 f (4)
6
2
2
2
"
#
r
r
r
 
 
 

3
5
7
3
5
7
1
0+4
ln
+ 2 2ln (2) + 4
ln
+ 2 3ln (3) + 4
ln
+ 4ln (4)
=
6
4
2
2
2
2
2

1
[0 + 1.986 + 1.961 + 5.795 + 3.805 + 9.374 + 2.773]
6
4.28
=

8. 4x =

20
6

Z2 p

x4 + 1dx

2
6

1
3


 
 
   

1
1
2
4
5
=
f (0) + 4 f
+2f
+ 4 f (1) + 2 f
4f
+ f (2)
9
3
3
3
3

s 
s 
s 
s 
q
q
4
4
4
4
1
1
2
4
5
= 1 + 4
+1+2
+ 1 + 4 (1)4 + 1 + 2
+1+4
+ 1 + 1 + (2)4 + 1
9
3
3
3
3
1
[1 + 4.025 + 2.189 + 5.657 + 4.080 + 11.809 + 4.123]
9
3.65
=

9. 4x =

10
4

1
4

Z1 p

1 + x4 dx


 
 
 

1
1
2
3
=
f (0) + 4 f
+2f
+4f
+ f (1)
12
4
4
4

s
s
s
 4
 4
 4 q
1
1
2
3
=
1+4 1+
+2 1+
+4 1+
+ 1 + (1)4
12
4
4
4
1
[1 + 4.008 + 2.062 + 4.589 + 1.414]
12
1.09
=

10. The problem needs to be fixed. The fourth derivative of e is 0 and thus this problem cannot be solved as it is
written.

163

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Applications of Definite
Integrals, Solution Key

Chapter Outline

164

5.1

5.2

VOLUMES

5.3

5.4

5.5

www.ck12.org

1.

Z1

x x2 dx

Area =
0.25
Z1

1
2

x dx

0.25

Z1

x2 dx

0.25

! 1

x

3

3
2
0.25
! 1
3
3
2x 2 x

3
3
0.25
! 1
3

3
2x 2 x

3
3 1
 4q 3

1

2
1 3
4
2 1

3 3
3
3
3
2

x3

1
2
1
+
3 24 192
64 16 + 1
=
192
49
=
192
=

165

## 5.1. Area Between Two Curves

www.ck12.org

2.

Z2

Z2

(0 cos 2x)dx =

cos 2x dx

Let u = 2x.
Then du = 2dx

1
du = dx
2
Integrating,

1
2

cos u du = 12 sin u.

Then

Z2

Area =

cos 2x dx

1
sin 2x| 2
4
2
1

=
sin sin
2
2
1
= (0 (1))
2
1
=
2

3.
166

www.ck12.org

## When x < 1, then |1 + x|+2 = 1 x + 2 = x + 3.

When x > 1, then |1 + x|+2 = 1 + x + 2 = x + 1.
Then

Z1 

Area =
5



Z5 
1
1
x + 7 (x + 3) dx +
x + 7 (x + 1) dx
5
5
1

Z1 

=
5


=

4
x + 4 dx +
5

Z5 


6
x + 6 dx
5


 1
 5
6 2
4 2

x + 4x + x + 6x

10
10
5

4
6
=
+ 4 10 + 20 15 + 30 + 6
10
10
= 24

4.
167

www.ck12.org

Z4

Z4

Area =

Z2

5
4
5

## = [sin x (cosc)]|04 + [ cos x sin x]| 4 + [sin x ( cos x)]|2

5
4

5
5

5
5
sin + cos sin 0 cos 0 cos
sin
+ cos + sin + sin 2 + cos 2 sin
cos
4
4
4
4
4
4
4 ! 4

!
!

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
+
01

+
+
+0+1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

8 2
=4 2
=
2

5.

x = y2
y = x2
y+2 = x
168

www.ck12.org

Z2

Area =

y + 2 (y2 )dy

 2
y3
y2
=
+ 2y

2
2
 1

8
1
4
1
2+
= +4
2
3
2
3
8 1
1
= 2+4 +2
3 2
3
9
=
2


6.

y2 = 4x + 4
y2 4 = 4x
1 2
y 1 = x
4
4x = 16 + y
1
x = 4+ y
4
169

www.ck12.org

Z5 

Area =
4



1
1 2
4+ y
y 1 dy
4
4

Z5 

=
4


1 2
1
5 + y y dy
4
4

 5

1
1 3
= 5y + y y

8
12
 4

4 64
5 125
20 +
= 25 +
8
12
8 12
243
3
=
= 30
8
8
7.

170

www.ck12.org

Z3

Area =

3
 
 

+ tan
3
3
3
3
!
!

3
3
38
3
=8
2
2

12 3
=6 3
=
2
8.

Z1

Area =

(y y3 )dy

y2 y4
=

2
4


 1

0

1
=
4
171

## 5.1. Area Between Two Curves

The area from y = 1 to y = 1 is 2

www.ck12.org
1
4

= 12 .

9.

k cos x = kx2
cos x = x2
cos x x2 = 0

Za

2=2


 a
kx3
2 = 2 k sinx

3
0

ka3
1 = k sina
00
3 

a3
1 = k sin a
3
1
0.8423
= sin(0.824)
k
3
1
0.547
k
k 1.83

10.
172

www.ck12.org

## First, find the area between y = x2 and y = 9.

The two functions intersect at x = 3 and x = 3.

Z3
3


 3
x3
(9 x )dx = 9x

3
2

= 27 9 + 27 9
= 36

Find k such
that
the
area
between
y
=
k
and
y
=
x

and y = k.
173

www.ck12.org

Zk

18 =

(k x2 )dx

 k

3
x
18 = kx

3
k
 3
 3
k
k

18 = k k
k k

3
3

( k)3
18 = 2k k 2
3
 3
 3
k
k
9=
3
2 3
9 = ( k)
3
27  3
=
k
2

=
k
3
2
9

=k
3
4

174

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 5. Applications of Definite Integrals, Solution Key

5.2 Volumes
Note: The graphs in this set of answers graph the functions on the coordinate plane so that you can find the limits of
integration. They do not show the actual rotation.
p
1. The curve y = 9 x2 is the top half of a circle with radius 3. The limits of integration are x = 3 and x = 3.
When rotated around the xaxis, we get a sphere of radius 3.

4
V = r3
3
4
= (3)3
3
= 36

2.

175

5.2. Volumes

www.ck12.org

Z2

V=

## [(3 + x)2 (1 + x2 )2 ]dx

Z2

[9 + 6x + x2 1 2x2 x4 ]dx

 2

3
5
3
2x
x
x

= 9x + 3x2 + x

3
3
5
1


8
16 32
1
2 1
= 18 + 12 + 2 + 9 3 + 1
3
3
5
3
3 5
117
=
5

3.

176

www.ck12.org

Z4

V=


 
2
2
2 sec x dx

Z4

[2 sec2 x dx]

4
= [2x tan x]

= 2



tan

4
=

 
  
2
tan
4
4
4

= 2 2
4.

Z1

V=

[(1)2 x2 ]dx


1
x3
= x
3 0

=
3
2
=
3
5.
177

5.2. Volumes

www.ck12.org

Z1

V=

[ 3 y]2 dy

5 1
y 3
= 5

3 0
1
3 5
= y3
5
0

3
=
5
6.

178

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 5. Applications of Definite Integrals, Solution Key

Z2

V=


[y + 2]2 [y2 ]2 dy

Z2

(y2 + 4y + 4 y4 )dy

 2
y5
y3 4y2
+
+ 4y
=

3
2
5
1



8
32
1
1
= +8+ +24+

3
5
3
5
 
72
=
5
72
=
5


7.

Z4

V=

(csc2 y 02 )dy

4
3

= cot y| 4
4  h
 i
3
= cot
cot
4
4
= +
= 2

8.

179

5.2. Volumes

www.ck12.org

Z2

V=


42 (y2 )2 dy

Z2

(16 y4 )dy



y5 2
= 16y

5 0


32
= 32
5
128
=
5

9.

Z3

V=

 
1
2y
dy
y

= 2y|31
= 2(3) 2
= 4

10.
180

www.ck12.org

Z1

V=

2y ( y) dy

Z3

2y 2 dy
1

2 5 1
= 2 y 2
5 0
4
= (1)
5
4
=
5

11.

181

5.2. Volumes

www.ck12.org

Z2

V=

2x(4x 4)dx

Z3

2(4x2 4x)dy

 2
4x3 4x2

= 2

3
2
1


32
4
= 2
8 +2
3
3
 
10
= 2
3
20
=
3


12.

Z1

V=

2y(y2 )dy

Z3

2y3 dy

1
y4
= 2
4
0

= 2 (1)
4

=
2
182

www.ck12.org

13.

Z1

V = 2

(1 y)y 3 dy

= 2

Z1 


1
4
y 3 y 3 dy

3 4 3 7
= 2 y 3 y 3
4
7


3 3
= 2

4 7
18
=
28
9
=
14

1
0

183

www.ck12.org

## 5.3 The Length of a Plane Curve

1.

p
1
1 3 2
(x + 2) 2 (2x) = x x2 + 2
3 2
Z3 r
 p
2
L=
1 + x x2 + 2 dx

f 0 (x) =

Z3 q

1 + x2 (x2 + 2)dx

Z3 p

1 + 2x2 + x4 dx

Z3 q

(1 + x2 )2 dx

Z3

(1 + x2 )dx


 3
x3
= x+

3
0

= 3+9
= 12

2.
184

www.ck12.org

1
1
y(x) = y3 + y1
6
2
1 2 1 2
0
y (x) = y y
2 s 2


Z2
1 2
1 2
y 2 dy
L=
1+
2
2y
1

Z2 r

1
1 1
1 + y4 + y4 dy
4
2 2
1
s
Z2
1 1 4
1
=
+ y + 4 dy
2 4
4y
1
s

Z2
1 2
1 2
=
y + 2 dy
2
2y
=

Z2 

1 2
1
=
y + 2
2
2y
1
 3
 2
y
1
=

6 2y


dy

8 1 1 1
= +
6 4 6 2
17
=
12

3. x =

Ry p

sec4 t 1dt

dx
dy

p
sec4 y 1.
185

www.ck12.org

Z4 r

L=

1+

p
2
sec4 y 1 dy

Z4 p

1 + sec4 y 1dy

Z4 p

sec4 ydy

Z4

sec2 y dy

=
4

= tan y|4
4
 

tan
= tan
4
4
= 1 (1)
=2
4.

x3 +y3 = 1

 23
2
y = 1x3

 12
1
2
dy
= x 3 1 x 3
dx
Using symmetry,

Z1

#1


 21 2 2
2
1
dx
1 + x 3 1 x 3

"

L=4
0

=4

Z1 h


i 12
2
2
dx
1 + x 3 1 x 3

=4

Z1 

x 3

 12

dx

=4

Z1 


1
x 3 dx

3 2 1
= 4 x3
2 0
=6
186

www.ck12.org

5. y = kx2
Let x = S.
Then
y = h and

h = kS2
h
=k
S2
dy
= 2kx
dx


h
=2 2
S


x

Then

L=

ZS q

1 + (2kx)2 dx

ZS r

=2

1+4

h2 2
x dx
S4

187

www.ck12.org

1.

Z1

S=

2(3x)

p
1 + 32 dx

= 6

Z1

10dx

x
0

= 6

! 1

10x

2
0

= 3 10

2.

Z9

S=


2
x

1 1
1+
x 2
2

2
dx

Z9

r
x
2 x + dx
4x

Z9 r

1
x + dx
4
1
 3 9
x + 14 2
= 2

3

2
1
"
 23 
3 #
4
1
1 2
= 9+
1+
3
4
4
"  3   3 #
4
37 2
5 2
=

3
4
4
= 2

112

3.
188

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 5. Applications of Definite Integrals, Solution Key

1
1
d
1
x
[(4 x2 ) 2 ] = (4 x2 ) 2 (2x) =
dx
2
4 x2
s

2
Z1
p

x
2
S = 2
4x
1+
dx
4 x2
1
s
Z1
p

x2
= 2
4 x2
1+
dx
4 x2
1
s
Z1
 4 x2
p
x2
4 x2
+
dx
= 2
4 x2 4 x2

Z1

p
r
2
4 x2

4
dx
4 x2

Z1

2(2)dx
1

= 4x|11
= 4 + 4
= 8
4.

Z3

S=

2(7y + 2)

p
1 + 72 dy

0
3

Z
= 2 50 (7y + 2)dy
0

3

7y2
= 2 50
+ 2y
2

0

63
+6
= 2 50
2

= 75 50


5.

Z8

S=

2(y3 )

q
1 + (3y2 )2 dy

Z8

= 2

(y3 )

p
1 + 9y4 dy

Let
189

## 5.4. Area of a Surface of a Revolution

www.ck12.org

u = 1 + 9y4
du
= 36y3
dy
1
du = y3 dy
36
x = 0, u = 1
x = 8, u = 36, 865
Then

2
S=
36

36.825
Z

u 2 du
1

2
=
36

u2
3
2

! 36.825

1

3
4
[(36.825) 2 1]
=
108
82, 358.05

6.

1
1
d
1
y
[(9 y2 ) 2 ] = (9 y2 ) 2 (2y) = p
dy
2
9 y2
v
!2
u
Z2
u
p
y
dy
S = 2
9 y2 t1 + p
9 y2
2
s
Z2
p

y2
= 2
9 y2
1+
dy
9 y2
2
s
Z2  p

y2
9 y2
1+
= 2 2
dy
9 y2
2
s
Z2  p
 9 y2
y2
9 y2
= 2 2
+
dy
9 y2 9 y2

Z2

= 2

s
p

2
9 y2

= 2

Z2

9dy

= 6(y)|22
= 12 + 12 = 24
190

9
dy
9 y2

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 5. Applications of Definite Integrals, Solution Key

7. Assume that the half circle is revolved around the yaxis. The proof that the surface area is 4r2 for a half circle
revolved around the xaxis is similar.

v
!2
u
p
u
y
t
S = 2
r2 y2
1+ p
dy
r2 y2
r
s
Zr
p

y2
dy
= 2
r2 y2
1+ 2
r y2
r
s
Zr  p

y2
= 2
r2 y2
1+ 2
dy
r y2
r
s
Zr  p
 r 2 y2
y2
= 2
r2 y2
+
dy
r 2 y2 r 2 y2
r
s
Zr  p

r2
= 2
r2 y2
dy
r 2 y2
Zr

r
Zr

= 2

r2 dy

= 2r(y)|rr
= 2r2 + 2r2 = 4r2

8.

191

## 5.4. Area of a Surface of a Revolution

www.ck12.org

k
f (x) = y = x + k
r
k
0
f (x) =
r

S = 2

Zr q

1 + | f 0 (x)|2 dx

Zr

 2
k
= 2 x 1 +
dx
r
0
Zr r
k2
= 2 x 1 + 2 dx
r
0
r
Zr
k2
= 2 1 + 2 x dx
r
0
r

 r
k2 x2
= 2 1 + 2

r
2
0
r
 2
2
k r
= 2 1 + 2
r
2
r
r 2 + k2
= r2
2
p r
= r r2 + k2

192

www.ck12.org

## 5.5 Applications from Physics, Engineering,

and Statistics
1.

Z10

W=

1
x2 + 1

dx

= tan1 (x)|10
0
= tan1 (10) tan1 (0)
= 1.471 J
2.

Z5

W=

cos

 x 
2

dx

x
2

du = dx
2
u=

2
du = dx

x = 1, then u =
x = 5, then u =

2
5
2

Z5

W=

cos

 x 
2

dx

1
5

Z2

cos u du

5
2
= [sin u] 2
2


2
5

=
sin
sin

2
2
2
= (1 1)

=0J

193

## 5.5. Applications from Physics, Engineering, and Statistics

35,780
Z

W=

www.ck12.org

mM
dr
r2

6,370

 35,780
r1
= GmM

1
6,370


1
1
+
= GmM
35, 780, 000 6, 370, 000


1
1
11
24
= (6.67 10 )(1000)(6 10 )
+
35, 780, 000 6, 370, 000


= 5.16 1010 J

4. a.

F(1) = 5
k(1) = 5
k=5
k = 5 N/m

b.

Z1.8

W=

5x dx
0

5x2
=
2


1.8
0

5(1.8)2
=
2
= 8.1 J

5.

F(3) =
k(3) = 30
k = 10
194

www.ck12.org

Z20

W=

10x dx
12

10x2
=
2


20
12

= [5x2 ]20
12
= 2000 720
= 8.1 J

6. Yes.

Zb

F=

wh(x)L(x)dx
a

Double w to 2w.
Rb

Rb

7.

1
d = x+4
4
w = 10
Z16

F = 9800


1
10
x + 4 dx
4

Z16

= 98, 000


1
x + 4 dx
4

x2
= 98, 000
+ 4x
8


16
0

## = 98, 000(32 + 64)

= 940, 800 N

8. a. The integral represents the probability that a randomly chosen light bulb will have a lifetime between 1000 and
5000 hours.
b. The integral represents the probability that a randomly chosen light bulb will have a lifetime of at least 3000 hours.
9.a.
195

## 5.5. Applications from Physics, Engineering, and Statistics

P(x 3) =

Zb
a

Z3

www.ck12.org

1 1 x
e dx

1 1x
e 8 dx
8

0
1

= [e 8 x ]30
3

= e 8 (1)
= 0.31
= 31%
b. We can safely assume that a customer will not have to wait more than 100 minutes.

Zb

## P(x > 10) =

1 1 x
e dx

a
Z100

1 1x
e 8 dx
8

10
1

= [e 8 x ]100
10
= e

100
8

10

(e 8 )

= 0.29
= 29%
10. a.

= 63.4 inches
= 3.2 inches
Since 63.4 is the average and the heights form a normal distribution, then P(x < 63.4) covers half of the probability.
Thus,
63.4
Z

0

(x63.4)
1
e (2(3.2)2 ) dx
3.2 2

= 50%
b.

P(63 x 65) =

Z65
63

= 24%
196

(x63.4)
1
e (2(3.2)2 ) dx
3.2 2

www.ck12.org

c.

## P(x > 72) =

72

(x63.4)
1
e (2(3.2)2 ) dx
3.2 2

= 0.36%
d.

Z60

P(x = 60) =
60

(x63.4)
1
e (2(3.2)2 ) dx
3.2 2

= 0%

197

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Transcendental Functions,
Solution Key

Chapter Outline
6.1

I NVERSE F UNCTIONS

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

## D ERIVATIVES AND I NTEGRALS I NVOLVING I NVERSE T RIGONOMETRIC F UNC TIONS

6.6

198

LH OSPITAL S R ULE

www.ck12.org

## 6.1 Inverse Functions

1. Solve for x first.

y = 3x + 1
y + 1 = 3x
y+1
=x
3
Switch x and y.

x+1
3
x
+
1
f 1 (x) =
3
y=

## 2. Solve for x first.

y=

3
x

y3 = x
Switch x and y.

x3 = y
f 1 (x) = x3
3. Solve for x first.

x1
3
3y = x 1
y=

3y + 1 = x
Switch x and y.

y = 3x + 1
f
4. Graph of h(x) =

(x) = 3x + 1

4x
6 :

199

## 6.1. Inverse Functions

www.ck12.org

The function has an inverse because any horizontal line you draw across the graph of the function intersects the
graph at exactly one place.
5. Graph of the function:

The function does not have an inverse because it has parts that are horizontal lines.
6. Graph of the function:
200

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 6. Transcendental Functions, Solution Key

The function has an inverse because any horizontal line you draw across the graph of the function intersects the
graph at exactly one place.
7. Find f 1 and g1 first.

f 1 :
y = x+4
x = y+4
x4 = y
f 1 (x) = x 4
g1 :
y = 2x 5
y + 5 = 2x
y+5
=x
2
x+5
=y
2
x+5
g1 (x) =
2

g1 (x 4)
(x 4) + 5
=
2
x+1
=
2
8.
201

## 6.1. Inverse Functions

www.ck12.org

( f o g)(x) = ( f o g)(x)
= f (g(x))
= f (2x 5)
= 2x 5 + 4
= 2x 1
Let y = 2x 1. Find ( f o g)1 (x):

y = 2x 1
y + 1 = 2x
y+1
=x
2
x+1
=y
2
x+1
( f o g)1 (x) =
2
9. f 0 (x) = 2(x 5) = 2x 10 > 0 on (5, ).

10. f 0 (x) = sin x < 0 on 0, 2 .

202

www.ck12.org

1.

1
216
6x = 63
6x =

x = 3
2.

ex = 3
lnex = ln 3
x = ln 3
3.

log2 z = 3
23 = z
8=z
4.

ln(x2 ) = 5
2lnx = 5
5
lnx =
2
5
x = e2
5.

3e5x = 132
e5x = 44
ln(e5x ) = ln44
5x = ln44
ln44
x=
5
x 0.757
203

## 6.2. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

www.ck12.org

6. e2x 7ex + 10 = 0
Let u = ex .
Then

u2 7u + 10 = 0
(u 5)(u 2) = 0

u = 5 or u = 2
ex = 5 or ex = 2
x = ln 5 or x = ln 2
7.

4(3)x = 36
3x = 9
3x = 32
x=2
8.

lnx ln3 = 2
x
=2
ln
3
x
= e2
3
x = 3e2
9.



2
y = log10
2x


y
2
= log10
5
2x
y
2
10 5 =
2x
1
2x
y =
2
10 5
2
y = 2x
10 5
2
y

10 5
2

204

2 = x

2
=x
(10Y )5

www.ck12.org

10.

2x

y = 3e 3
2x
y
=e 3
3
y
2x
ln
=
3
 3y 
3ln
= 2x
3


y
3
=x
ln
2
3

205

www.ck12.org

## 6.3 Differentiation and Integration of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

1.

y = e6x
dy
= 6e6x
dx
2.

y = e3x 2x +6
2
2
dy
= e3x 2x +6 (9x2 4x)
dx
3.

 
1
y = ex ln
x
!
 
1
dy
1
= ex2 1 + ln
2ex
dx
x
x
 
1
2ex
= ex3 + ln
x
2

4.
ex ex
ex + ex
dy (ex + ex )(ex + ex ) (ex ex )(ex ex )
=
dx
(ex + ex )2
e2x + 2 + e2x (e2x 2 + ex )
=
(ex + ex )2
4
= x
(e + ex )2
y=

5.

y = cos(ex )
dx
= sin(ex ) (ex )
dy
6.
206

www.ck12.org

y = ln(sin(lnx))
dx
1
1
=
(cos(lnx))
dy sin(lnx)
x
tan(lnx)
=
x
7.

1
dx = ex dx
ex
= ex +C
Z

8.
Z

ex dx

e 2 dx

x
2
1
Let du = dx
2
2 du = x
u=

x
2

e dx = 2

eu du

= 2eu +C
x

= 2e 2 +C
9. Let

u = 4x2 6x + 7
du = (8x 6)dx
= 2(4x 3)dx

4x 3
1 du
dx =
4x2 6x + 7
2
u
1
= ln|u|+C
2
1 2
= |4x 6x + 7|+C
2
Z

10. Let

u = ex + ex
du = (ex ex )dx
207

## 6.3. Differentiation and Integration of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

ex + ex
dx
ex ex

www.ck12.org

1
du
u
= ln|u|+C

= ln|ex ex |+C
11,

Ze

1
dx = ln(x + e)|e0
x+e

= ln(2e) ln e
= ln2 + ln e ln e
= ln2
12. Let u = ex + 4. Then du = ex . If x = ln 3, then u = eln 3 + 4 = 3 + 4 = 7. If x = ln 3, then u = eln 3 + 4 =
3 + 4 = 1.

Zln
ln 3

ex
dx =
ex + 4

Zu2
u1

1
du
u

= ln|u|uu21
= ln(ex + 4)|ln
 ln 3 
1
= ln7 ln
+4
3
13
= ln7 ln
!3
7
= ln 13
3

21
= ln
3

208

www.ck12.org

## 6.4 Exponential Growth and Decay

1. a. k = 0.018;t = 0 in the year 1990. Find the population when t = 10 (year 2000).

y = Cekt
249 = Ce0.018(0)
249 = C(1)
249 = C

Thus, y = 249e0.018t .
When t = 10,

y = 249e0.018(10)
y = 298.1

## The population was 298.1 million in 2000.

b. 1 billion = 1000 million

y = 249e0.018(t)
1000 = 249e0.018(t)
1000
= e0.018(t)
249


1000
ln
= 0.018t
249

ln 1000
249
=t
0.018
77 = t

## The population will reach 1 billion in 1990 + 77 = 2067

2. y = Cekt
At time t1 , A1 = Aekt1 .
At time t2 , A2 = Aekt2 .
Divide the first equation by the second equation:
209

www.ck12.org

A1 Aekt1
=
A2 Aekt2
A1 ekt1
=
A2 ekt2
A1
= ekt1 kt2
2
A
 


A1
kt1 kt2
ln
=
ln
e
A2
 
A1
ln
= k(t1 t2 )
A2
A1
1
ln 2 = k
(t1 t2 ) A
3.

## T (t) = (T0 Tr )ekt + Ty

T (3) = (23 11)e0.417(3) + 11
T (3) = 14.4C
4.

22 + Tr = (40 + Ty Ty )ek(320) + Ty
22 = 40ek(320)
22
= ek(320)
40
22
ln = k(320)
40
22
ln 40
=k
320
0.00187 = k

12 + Ty = (22 + Ty Ty )e0.00187t + Ty
12 = 22e0.00187t
12
= 0.00187t
22
12
ln = 0.00187 t
22
ln 12
22
=t
0.00187
324.14 = t
It takes about 324 seconds or about 5 minutes.
210

www.ck12.org

5.
ln2
k
ln2
k=
t1

t1 =
2

ln2
140
= 0.005
=

y = Cekt
y = 10e0.005(70)
= 7.04
6. a.
I
1012
I
130 = 10log 12
10
I
13 = log 12
10
I
1013 = 12
10
10 = I
= 10log

b.
I
1012
2(106 )
= 10log
1012
2
= 10log 6
10
= 63 dB

= 10log

7. For dB = 0,
I
1012
I
0 = log 12
10
I
100 = 12
10
1012 = I
0 = 10log

211

www.ck12.org

## Thus, I = 1012 for one mosquito.

For 1000 mosquitoes,

1000 1012
1012
= 10log1000

= 10log

= 10(3)
= 30 dB
8. For one machine:

I
1012
I
9 = log 12
10
I
9
10 = 12
10
3
10 = I
90 = 10log

2(103 )
1012
2
= 10log 9
10
= 93.01 dB

= 10log

212

www.ck12.org

## 6.5 Derivatives and Integrals Involving Inverse

Trigonometric Functions
1.

dy
1

=
(2x)
dx |x2 | x2 1
2x
=
x x4 1
2.

dy
=
dx

tan1 x(0) 1

1
1+x2

(tan1 x)2
1
=
(1 + x2 )(tan1 x)2

3.

dy
dx

4.

dy
dx

= 1 8x (4e4x )
1e

5.

dy
dx

= 1 8x (4e4x )
1e

1
cos1 x

1 x2

6.

dx
q
=
1 2
9 1 9x

1
=
3

dx
q
3 1 19 x2
dx

1 91 x2
 
1 1 1
= sin
x +C
3
3
7.

R3
1

R3

 dx 

dx
=
x(x+1) 1 x x 2 +1

Let

x
1 1
du = x 2 dx
2
u=

If x = 3, then u =

3. If x = 1, then u = 1.
213

## 6.5. Derivatives and Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Z3
1

Z3

1
dx
 =2
du
 2
2
(u + 1)
x ( x) + 1
1

= 2 tan1 (u)|1 3

= 2 tan1 3 2 tan1 1


=2
2
3
4
2
=
12

=
6

8.

R x3
R
R
dx = x2x+1 dx x23+1 dx
x2 +1

## Let u = x2 + 1. Then du = 2x dx.

x
dx
2
x +1

3
1 1
dx =
du 3 tan1 x +C
2
x +1
2 u
1
= lnu 3 tan1 x +C
2
1
= ln(x2 + 1) 3 tan1 x +C
2
Z

Z0

x
1
dx =
2
1+x
2

Z1

1
du
u

1
=
2

Z1

1
du
u
4
4
1
= lnu
2
1

1
= ln4
2
= ln 4
= ln2

214

www.ck12.org

www.ck12.org

x
= cot1 x
1
3x
m6 BQD = cot1
4
m6 AQC = cot1

= m6 AQC m6 BQD
3x
= cot1 x cot1
4
! 
d
1
1
1
=


3x 2
dx
1 + x2
4
1+
4

215

## 6.5. Derivatives and Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions

www.ck12.org

! 
1
1
1

=0

2
2
1+x
4
1 + 3x
4


1
1
 =0


96x+x2
1 + x2
4 1+
16

1
1

2 = 0
2
96x+x
1+x
4+
4

1
1
=
2
2
96x+x
1+x
4+ 4
1
1
= 16+96x+x2
2
1+x
4

4
1
=
2
1+x
25 6x + x2
2
25 6x + x = 4 + 4x2
3x2 6x + 21 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

p
36 4(3)(21)
x=
6
p
6 36 4(3)(21)
=
6

6 288
=
6

= 1 2 2
6

The angle is maximized for x = 1 + 2 2. It is clear from the picture that the maximum angle will not occur at the
endpoints.
Since x is a distance, we still have to find point P.

216

www.ck12.org

1.

tan

0
0

tan
sec2
1
= lim
= lim
=1
0
0
0 cos2
1
lim

lnx =
2. tan
x

0
0

1
lnx
1
1
x
lim
= lim
= lim
=
x1 tan x
x1 sec2 (x)
x1 x sec2 (x)

3.

e10x e6x
x

0
0

e10x e6x
10e10x 6e6x
= lim
= 10 6 = 4
x0
x0
x
1
lim

4.

sin x
x

0
0

sin x
cos x
= lim
= 1
x x
x 1
lim

5.

xex
1ex

0
0

xex
ex xex
=
= 1
x0 1 ex
ex
lim

6. a.
Zx

t
1

Zx

dt =
1k

t k1 dt

x
t k
=
k

xk 1
=
k k
xk 1
=
k
b.
217

## 6.6. LHospitals Rule

www.ck12.org

xk 1
lim
= lim
k0
k0
k

Zx

1
t 1k

dt

Zx

1
dt
t1

= ln t|x1
= ln x
7.

f 0 (x) = sin x
g0 (c) = cos x

f 2 f (0) cos
f 0 (c)

=
=
g0 (c)
g 2 g(0)
sin
Find c such that

f 0 (c)
g0 (c)

The value of c is 4 .

218

sin c
cos c

= 1, or tan c = 1.

2  cos 0

2 sin 0

1
= 1
1

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

C HAPTER

Integration Techniques,
Solution Key

Chapter Outline
7.1

I NTEGRATION BY S UBSTITUTION

7.2

I NTEGRATION BY PARTS

7.3

## I NTEGRATION BY PARTIAL F RACTIONS

7.4

T RIGONOMETRIC I NTEGRALS

7.5

T RIGONOMETRIC S UBSTITUTIONS

7.6

I MPROPER I NTEGRALS

7.7

219

www.ck12.org

## 7.1 Integration by Substitution

1. Let u = x 8. Then du = dx.
Z

3
dx =
(x 8)2

3
du
u2

3u1
+C
1
3
=
+C
x8

## 2. Let u = 2 + x. Then du = dx.

Z

2 + xdx =

(2 + x) 2 dx
Z

u 2 du
3

u2

+C

3
2

2 3
= u 2 +C
3
3
2
= (2 + x) 2 +C
3
3. Let u = 2 + x. Then du = dx.
Z

dx =
2+x

(2 + x) 2 dx
Z

u 2 du
1

u2

+C

1
2
1

= 2u 2 +C

= 2 2 + x +C
4.
x2
1
= x1
x+1
x+1

Z
Z 
2
x
1
dx =
x1
dx
x+1
x+1
x2
= x ln|x + 1|+C
2
220

www.ck12.org

## 5. Let u = ex + 2. Then du = ex dx.

ex
1
dx =
du
x
e +2
u
= ln|u|+C

= ln|ex + 2|+C
6.

3 t +5
3 5
= 1 +
t
t2 t

Z 
Z
3 5
3 t +5
dt =
dt
1 +
t
t2 t
1

3t 2
1
2

+ 5ln|t|+C

= 6 t + 5ln|t|+C
7. Let u = 3x 1. Then du = 3 dx.

dx = 2
3x 1

1 1[ 2
u du
3

Z
1

2 u2
= 1 +C
3 2
4
3x 1 +C
=
3
8. Let u = sin x. Then du = cos x dx.

sin x cos x dx =

u du

u2
+C
2
1
= sin2 x +C
2
=

## 9. Let u = cos x. Then du = sin x dx.

cos x

Z
p
1 cos2 xdx = u du

u2
+C
2
1
= cos2 x +C
2
=

221

## 7.1. Integration by Substitution

www.ck12.org

sin5 x cos x dx =

u5 du

u6
+C
6
1
= sin6 x +C
6

1
cos u du
16
1
= sin u +C
6

1
= sin 4x4 + c
6

x3 cos(4x4 )dx =

1
sec2 u du
2
1
= tan u +C
2
1
= tan(2x + 4) +C
2

## 13. Let u = x2 . Then du = 2x dx.

Then if x = 0, then u = 0 and if x = 2, then u = 4.
Z2

1
xe dx =
2
x2

Z4

eu du

1
= [eu ]40
2
1
= [e4 1]
2
14. Let u = x2 . Then du = 2x dx.

If x = 0 then u = 0. If x = , then u = .

1
x sin x dx =
2

sin u du
0

1
= [cos u]0
2
1
= (cos cos 0)
2
1
= (1 1)
2
=2
222

www.ck12.org

## 15. Let u = x + 5. Then du = dx and x = u 5.

If x = 0, then u = 5. If x = 1 then u = 6.

Z1

Z6

x(x + 5) dx =
0

(u 5)u4 du

Z6

(u5 5u4 ) du

u6
u5
=
5
6
5


6
5

56
= 7776 7776
55
6
5
= 520
6


223

www.ck12.org

## 7.2 Integration by Parts

1. Let u = 3x and dv = ex dx.
Then du = 3 dx and v = ex .

3xe dx = uv

v du

= 3xex 3

ex dx

= 3xex 3ex +C
2. Let u = x2 and dv = ex dx.
Then du = 2x dx and v = ex .

x2 ex dx = uv

v du

2 x

= x e

2xex dx

## Let u = 2x and dv = ex dx.

Then du = 2 dx and v = ex .

x2 ex dx = x2 ex +

2xex dx
Z

2 x

+ (uv v du)


Z
2 x
x
x
= x e + 2xe 2xe dx


= x2 ex 2xex + 2(ex ) +C
= x e

= x2 ex 2xex 2ex +C
3. Let u = ln(3x + 2) and dv = 1 dx. Then du =

3
3x+2 dx

and v = x.

ln(3x + 2)dx = uv

v du

3
dx
3x + 2
Z
3x
= xln|3x + 2|
dx
3x + 2
Z

= xln|3x + 2|

Let u = 3x + 2 and x =
224

u2
3 .

Then du = 3 dx.

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

3x
dx
Z3x + 2 
u2
= xln|3x + 2|
du
3u
Z 
 
1
2
= xln|3x + 2|

du
3 3u
1
2
= xln|3x + 2| u + ln|u|
3
3
2
1
= xln|3x + 2| (3x + 2) + ln|3x + 2|
3
3

1x
Z

sin1 xdx = uv

v du

= x sin1 x

dx
1 x2

dx
1 x2

## Let u = 1 x2 . Then du = 2x dx.

Z

1
1
u 2 du
2
1
1 u2
1
= x sin x + 1 +C
2 2
p
= x sin1 x + 1 x2 +C

= x sin1 x +

5.

R

Z

sec x dx =

sec2 x sec x dx

= uv

v du

= (sec x)(tan x)
= (sec x)(tan x)
= (sec x)(tan x)
Z

## sec3 x dx = (sec x)(tan x) +

(tan2 x) sec x dx

(sec2 x 1) sec x dx

sec x dx +

sec x dx

sec x dx

## = (sec x)(tan x) + ln|sec x + tan x|

1
1
sec3 x dx = (sec x)(tan x) + ln|sec x + tan x|+C
2
2
225

www.ck12.org

## 6. Let u = ln(3x) and dv = 2x dx. Then du =

3
3x dx

= 1x dx and v = x2 .

2xln(3x)dx = uv

v du

x2
dx
Z x
= x2 ln(3x) x dx
2

= x ln(3x)

x2
2
2
x
= x2 ln(3x) +C
2
= x2 ln(3x)

(lnx)2
dx =
x

u2 du

u3
+C
3
(lnx)2
=
+C
3

## 8. Let u = 5x 2. Then du = 5 dx and x =

u+2
5 .

1
5x 2dx =
5

1
=
5
=

1
5

u+2
5

u du

u 2 2u 2
+
du
5
5
!
5
3
u2
2u 2
 + 3
5 2
5 52
5

2(5x 2) 2 2(5x 2) 2
=
+
+C
125
75
Let u = x and dv =

5x 2dx.Then du = dx and v =

1 (5x2) 2
3
5
2

## 9. Let u = x2 and dv = e5x dx.

226

3
2
2
15 (5z 2) .

3
3
2
2
5x 2dx = x(5x 2) 2
(5x 2) 2 dx
15
15
5
3
2
2
1 (5x 2) 2
2
= x(5x 2)
5
15
15 5
2
3
5
2
4
= x(5x 2) 2
(5x 2) 2 +C
15
375

www.ck12.org

TABLE 7.1:
Alternate signs
+

x2
2x
2
0

## dv and its antiderivatives

e5x
1 5x
5e
1 5x
25 e
1 5x
125 e

1
2
2 5x
x2 e5x dx = x2 e5x xe5x +
e +C
5
25
125

TABLE 7.2:
Alternate signs
+

x2
2x
2
0

Z1

ex
ex
ex
ex

## x2 ex dx = (x2 ex 2xex + 2ex )|10

= e 2e + 2e (2)
= e2
11. Let u = ln(x + 1) and dv = 1 dx. Then du =

1
x+1 dx

Z3

ln(x + 1)dx =

and v = x.

xln(x + 1)|31

Z3

x
dx
x+1

xln(x + 1)|31

Z3 


1
1
dx
x+1

## = [xln(x + 1) x + ln(x + 1)]31

= 3ln4 3 + ln4 (ln2 1 + ln2)
= 4ln4 2 2ln2
= 8ln2 2ln2 2
= 6ln2 2

227

www.ck12.org

## 7.3 Integration by Partial Fractions

1.
1

A
B
+
x+1 x1
1 = A(x 1) + B(x + 1)

x2 1

Let x = 1.

1 = A(1 1) + B(x + 1)
1 = B(2)
1
=B
2
Let x = 1.

1 = A(x 1) + B(1 + 1)
1 = A(2)
1
=A
2
Z

1
dx =
2
x 1

Z 


A
B
+
dx
x+1 x1
!
1
21
+ 2
dx
x+1 x1

1
1
= ln|x + 1|+ ln|x 1|
2
2

1 x 1
+C
=
2 x+1
2.
x
A
B
=
+
x2 2x 3 x 3 x + 1
x = A(x + 1) + B(x 3)
Let x = 3.

3 = A(3 + 1) + B(3 3)
3 = A(4)
3
=A
4
228

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

Let x = 1.

x = A(x + 1) + B(1 3)
1 = B(4)
1
=B
4

x
dx =
2
x 2x 3

3
4

x3

dx +

1
4

x+1

dx

1
3
= ln|x 3|+ ln|x + 1|+C
4
4
3.

A
B
C
+
+
x x+2 x1
1 = A(x + 2)(x 1) + Bx(x 1) +Cx(x + 2)

x3 + x2 2x

Let x = 0.

1 = A(2)(1)
1
=A
2
Let x = 2.

1 = B(2)(3)
1
=B
6
Let x = 1.

1 = C(1)(3)
1
=C
3

1
dx =
3
x + x2 2x

Z 1
2

dx +

1
6

x+2

dx +

1
3

x1

dx

1
1
1
= ln|x|+ ln|x + 2|+ ln|x 1|+C
2
6
3
4.
229

www.ck12.org

x3
dx =
2
x +4
=

x dx

4x
dx
x2 + 4

x2
2ln|x2 + 4|+C
2

5.
Z1
0

d =
1+

Z1 


1
d
1+

= [ ln|1 + |]10
= 1 ln(2)

6.

x1
x2 (x + 1)

A B
C
+ +
2
x
x x+1

Let x = 1.

2 = C(1)
2 = C

Let x = 0.

1 = A(1)
1 = A

## x 1 = A(x + 1) + Bx(x + 1) +Cx2

2 1 = (2 + 1) + B(6) (2)(4)
1 = 3 + 6B 8
12 = 6B
2=B
230

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

Z5

x1
dx =
2
x (x + 1)

Z5

1
dx +
x2

Z5

2
dx
x

Z5

2
dx
x+1

1
1
5
1 5
(x )|1 + 2ln|x||1 2ln|x + 1||51
1

1
1 + 2ln5 + 0 2(ln6 ln2)
5
4
= + 2ln5 2ln3
5
5
4
= + 2ln
5
3

## 7. Let u = sin . Then du = cos .

A
B
+
u+5 u1
1 = A(u 1) + B(u + 5)

u2 + 4u 5

Let u = 1.

1 = B(1 + 5)
1 = 6B
1
=B
6
Let u = 5.

1 = A(5 1)
1 = 6A
1
=A
6
Then

1
du =
2
u + 4u 5

1
6

u+5

du +

1
6

u1

du

1
= (ln|u + 5|ln|u 1|) +C
6
1
= (ln|sin + 5|ln|sin 1|) +C
6

1 sin 1
= ln
+C
6 sin + 5
8. Let u = e and du = e d.
231

## 7.3. Integration by Partial Fractions

www.ck12.org

3e
d =
e2 1

u2 1

du

Then

A
B
+
u+1 u1
3 = A(u 1) + B(u + 1)

u2 1

Let u = 1.

3 = B(1 + 1)
3 = 2B
3
=B
2
Let u = 1.

3 = A(2)
3 = 2A
3
=A
2

3
23
2
du +
du
u+1
u1
3
3
= ln|u + 1|+ ln|u 1|+C
2
2
3
3

2
2

3
du =
2
u 1

9.

Zln 4
ln 3

1
dx =
2 + ex

Zln 4
ln 3

Zln 4

=
ln 3

232

1
ex (2ex + 1)
ex
dx
2ex + 1

dx

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

Zln 4
ln 3

ex
2ex + 1

dx =

Z4

du
2u + 1

1
1
4
= ln|2u + 1|
2
3

1
3
=
ln ln7
2
2


1
3
=
ln7 ln
2
2
1 14
= ln
2 3
10.

A
B
+
ax a+x
1 = A(a + x) + B(a x)

a2 x2

Let x = b.

1 = A(a + a)
1
=A
2a
Let x = a.

1 = B(a (a))
1 = 2aB
1
=B
2a

1
dx =
a2 x 2

1
2a

dx +

1
2a

dx
ax
a+x
1
1
= ln|a x|+ ln|a + x|
2a
2a
1 a + x
= ln
+C
2a a x

233

www.ck12.org

## 7.4 Trigonometric Integrals

1. Let u = cos x. Then du = sin x dxx.
Z

cos4 x sin x dx =

u4 du

u5
+C
5
cos5 x
+C
=
5
=

sin2 5d =
=
=
=
=

1
sin2 u du
5
Z
1 1
(1 cos 2u)du
5 2

1
1
u sin 2u +C
10
2


1
1
5 sin(2 5) +C
10
2
1
1
sin(10) +C
2
20
Z

## 3. Let u = sin 2z. Then du = 2 cos 2z dz.

Z

sin2 2z cos3 2z dz =

## sin2 2z cos3 2z(1 sin2 2z)dz

sin 2z cos 2z dz

sin4 2z cos 2z dz

1
1
u2 du
u4 du
2
2
u3 u5
= +C
6 10
sin3 2z sin5 2z
=

+C
6
10
Z

4.
Z

sin x cos

Let u = cos
234

x
2


. Then du = 12 sin

x
2

x

dx.

x
x
cos
cos
dx
2
2
2
Z
x x
= 2 cos2
sin
dx
2
2
Z

dx =

2 sin

x

www.ck12.org

2 cos

x
2

sin

x
2

dx = 4

u2 du

4u3
+C
3
x
4
= cos3
+C
3
2

u5 du

=
=
=

u3 du

u6 u4
+C
6
4
sec6 x sec4 x
=

+C
6
4
=

6.

=

## (sec5 x 2 sec3 x + sec x)dx

sec3 x tan x 3
sec x tan x
1
+
sec3 x dx 2
2
sec x dx + ln|sec x + tan x|+C
4
4
2
2


Z
sec x tan x
sec3 x tan x 3 sec x tan x 1
+
+
sec x dx 2
ln|sec x + tan x|+ ln|sec x + tan x|+C
=
4
4
2
2
2
sec3 x tan x 5 sec x tan x 3
=

+ ln|sec x + tan x|
4
8
8
Z

7.

tan x sec4 x dx =

Z
Z

tan 2 x sec4 x dx
1

## tan 2 x(tan2 x + 1) sec2 xdx

Z h
i
5
1
=
tan 2 x sec2 x + tan 2 x sec2 x dx
=

235

## 7.4. Trigonometric Integrals

www.ck12.org

Z h

Z
Z
i
5
1
5
1
tan 2 x sec2 x + tan 2 x sec2 x dx = u 2 du + u 2 du
7

u2
7
2

u2
3
2

+C
3

2 tan 2 x 2 tan 2 x
+
+C
=
7
3
8. Let u = 2x . Then du = 12 dx. If x = 0, then u = 0. If x = 2 , then u = 4 .

Z2

tan5

x
2

Z4

dx =

2 tan5 u du

2 tan4 u
4

4
2

Z4

tan3 u du

!4
Z2
2
2 tan4 u 4

=2
+ 2 tan u du
2
2
0
0
!2

2
8

=
2ln|cos u|04
16
2
 
8

=
1 2ln cos
0
16
4

2
1

= 2ln

2
2

4
1
= + ln
2
2
1
= + ln2
2

9.

236

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

Z4

Z4

V =

cos2 x dx

sin2 x dx




1
x 4
x 4
1
cos x sin x +
cos x sin x +
2
2
2
2 0
  0


1
1
+
+
=
4 8
4 8
 
1
=
2

=
2


10.
a.

x+cot x
csc x dx = csc x csc
csc x+cot x dx

1
du
u
= ln|u|+C

csc xdx =

## = ln|csc x + cot x|+C

b.

1
dx
sin x
Z
sin x
=
dx
2
sin
x
Z
Z

csc x dx =

sin x
dx
(1 cos x)(1 + cos x)

237

## 7.4. Trigonometric Integrals

www.ck12.org

sin x
dx =
(1 cos x)(1 + cos x)

du
(1 u)(1 + u)
Z
Z
A
B
=
du +
du
1u
1+u
=
Z

1
2

1u

du

1
2

1 cos x

du

1
2

1+u
Z

du

1
2

1 + cos x

du

1
1
= |1 cos x| |1 + cos x|+C
2
2
1 1 cos x
=
+C
2 1 + cos x
r
1 cos x
+C
= ln
x
1+xcos


= ln tan
+C
2
OR

r
ln

1 cos x
+C = ln
1 + cos x

(1 cos x) (1 cos x)

+C
(1 + cos x) (1 cos x)

(1 cos x)2
+C
1 cos2 x

1 cos x
+C
= ln
sin x

1
cos x

= ln

+C
sin x sin x
= ln|csc x cot x|+C

= ln

238

www.ck12.org

## 7.5 Trigonometric Substitutions

1. Let x = 2 sin . Then dx = 2 cos d.

Z p

4 x2 dx

Z p

4 4 sin2 2 cos d

4 cos2 2 cos d

=
Z

4 cos2 d

Z 
1
= 4
(1 + cos(2)) d
2
=

=2

d + 2

cos(2)d

sin(2)
+C
2
= 2 + sin(2) +C
x
= 2 sin1
+ 2 sin cos +C
2

 
4 x2
1 x
= 2 sin
+x
+C
2
2
= 2 + 2

3 sec2

d
9 + 9 tan2
Z
3(sec2 )

=
d
9 sec2
Z
3(sec2 )
=
d
Z 3 sec

dx =
9 + x2

sec d

p

1

2

9 + x + x +C
= ln
3

239

www.ck12.org

sin3 cos
p
d
1 sin2
Z
sin3 cos
d
=
cos
Z

x3

dx =
1 x2

sin3 d

=
Z

sin (sin2 )d

sin(1 cos2 )d

=
=
Z

sin d

sin cos2 d

cos3
+C
3

3
1 x2
p
= 1 x2 +
+C
3
p
(1 x2 ) 1 x2
+C
= 1 x2 +
3

p
1 x2 x2 1 x2
= 1 x2

+C
3
3

2 1 x2 x2 1 x2

+C
=
3
3
= cos +

p
4. 1 9x2 = 3

1
x2
9

dx =
1 9x2
=

3
1
3

1
3

1
9

dx
x2
1
3

q
1

q3

1
9

cos

cos
1
9

91 sin2
d

cos2

1 31 cos
d
3 13 cos
Z
1
=
d
3
1
=
3
1
= sin1 (3x) +C
3
Z

240

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

x3

Z
p
p
4 x2 dx = 8 sin3 4 4 sin2 2 cos d
Z

Z

8 sin3 4 cos2 d

Z 
1
= 4
(1 + cos(2)) d
2
=

=2

d + 2

cos(2)d

sin(2)
+C
2
= 2 + sin(2) +C
x
= 2 sin1
+ 2 sin cos +C
2

 
4 x2
1 x
= 2 sin
+x
+C
2
2
= 2 + 2

Now sec =

x
6

6 sec tan

d
36 sec2 36
Z
6 tan
=
d
36 sec 6 tan
Z
1
1
=
d
36 sec
Z
1
cos d
=
36
1
sin +C
=
36

dx =
2
x x2 36

36 sec2

Then

sin2 = 1 cos2
r
36
sin = 1 2
x
r
2
x 36
=
2
x
x2 36
=
x
Thus,

1
dx
x2 x2 36

1
36

x2 36 +C.
x

241

## 7.5. Trigonometric Substitutions

www.ck12.org

1
dx =
2
(x + 25)2

1

4 dx
x2 + 25

5 sec2

d
( 25 + tan2 + 25)4
Z
5 sec2
=
d
(5 sec )4
Z
d
=
625 sec2
Z
1
=
cos2 d
125 

1
1
=
+ sin 2 +C
125 2 4


1
1
=
+ 2 sin cos +C
125 2 4
 


x
1
1
1
x
5

=
tan1
+
250
5
125 2
x2 + 25
x2 + 25




x
1
1
x
tan1
+
=
2
250
5
50 x + 25
Z

## 8. Let x = 4 sin . Then dx = 4 cos d. For x = 0,

Z4

Z2
p
p
3
2
x
16 x dx = 64 sin3 16 16 sin2 (4 cos )d

Z2

Z2

= 1024

sin3 (cos2 )d

cos5 cos3
= 1024

5
3


1 1
= 1024 +
5 3
2048
=
15


 2
0

Z0

242

Z1 p
p
2x
e
1 e dx =
1 u2 du
x

www.ck12.org

Z p

1 sin cos d =

cos cos d
1
2

cos2 d

=
=
=
=
=

sin(2) 1
+

2
4
1
1
1

+ sin cos
2 2
1
1
sin1 u 1 p

+ u 1 u2
2
2
e


1
sin1 e 1 p
1
1 e2
+ (1)(0)
e
2 2
2
2
2
1   sin1 e 1 p

1 e2
e
2 2
2
2

10.

243

## 7.5. Trigonometric Substitutions

Z1

SA = 2

www.ck12.org

x2 (1 + (2x)2 )dx

Z1

= 2

x2 (1 + 4x2 )dx

1
p
1
1 p
1
2 32
2
2
x(1 + 4x ) x 1 + 4x ln(2x + 1 + 4x )
= 2
16
32
64
0




3
1
1
1
= 2
(1 + 4) 2
1 + 4 ln 2 + 1 + 4
16
32
64



5
1
1 
6
5 ln 2 + 1 + 4
= 2
16
32
64




9
1
= 2
5 ln 2 + 1 + 4
32
64


244

www.ck12.org

## 7.6 Improper Integrals

Review Questions
1. a. This is improper because there is an infinite discontinuity between the limits of integration at x = 3.
b. This is not improper.
c. This is improper because there is an infinite discontinuity at x = 0.
d. This is improper because the integral has an infinite interval of integration.
e. This is not improper.
2.

l
R 1
x1.001
1
dx
=
lim
l
2.001
1.001 1 = 1.001
x
l

3.
Z2


1
1

## dx = lim [ln|x 1|ln|x + 1|]2

l
l
x1 x+1
= ln3 0 lim [ln|l 1|ln|l + 1|]
l

l 1

= ln3 ln
l +1

l 1 1

l 
= ln3 ln

l 1 + 1l
= ln3 0
= ln3

4.
Z0

5x


1 5x 0
e

5
l

1
1
l e5l
5
5

e dx = lim

= lim

1
0
5
1
=
5

6.

R2

245

## 7.6. Improper Integrals

www.ck12.org

7.

Z1
0

dx = sin1 x|10
1 x2
= sin1 1 sin1 0

= 0
2

=
2

8. a.

(ex )2 dx

V =
0

e2x dx


e2x
=
2
 0

1
= 0+
2

=
2


b.

A = 2

q
f (x) 1 + [ f 0 (x)]2 dx

= 2

ex

q
1 + [ex ]2 dx

ex

p
1 + e2x dx

= 2
0

246

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

A = 2

ex

p
1 + e2x dx

Z0

= 2

Z0

= 2

sec2 u

p
1 + tan2 u du

sec3 u du


1
1
sec u tan u + ln|sec u + tan u|
2
2


0 

2x 12 x
2x 21
x
= 2 (1 + e ) e + ln (1 + e ) + e

= [2 + ln( 2 + 1)]


= 2

247

www.ck12.org

## General and Particular Solutions

1. The slope field has an infinite number of horizontal lines with the equation y = 1 c where c is any constant.
Sample solution curve:

2. The slope field has an infinite number of lines with the equation y = x + c where c is any constant.
Solution curve through (1, 0):

248

www.ck12.org

1.

dy
dx

p
9 x2 , y(0) = 3

dy =

Z p

9 x2 dx

 
1
xp
9
1
x +C
y=
9 x2 + sin
2
2
3
 
9 1 1
3 = sin
x +C
2
3
 
9
1
C = 3 + sin1
x
2
3
 
 
xp
9 1 1
9 1 1
2
y=
9 x + sin
x + 3 + sin
x
2
2
3
2
3
2.

dy
dx

= 1
1 + x + x2
Z

dx
1 + x + x2
Z
1
q
y=
du
u2 + 34
!
1 2 3
y = sin h
u
3

!
1
1 2 3
y = sin h
x+
3
2
Z

dy =

1.

dy
1
= y , y(0) = 0
dx Ze

ey dy =

dx

ey = x +C
y = ln|x +C|
0 = ln|0 +C|
0 +C = 1
C=1
y = ln|x + 1|
249

## 7.7. Ordinary Differential Equations

www.ck12.org

2.
dy
= x(y2 + 1)
dx
Z
Z
dy
=
x dx
y2 + 1
x2
tan1 y = +C
2 

x2
y = tan
+C
2
3.
x
dy
= p
dx
1 y2
Z p

1 y2 dy

x dx

x2
1 p
1
y 1 y2 + sin1 y = +C
2
2
2

## Exponential and Logistic Growth

1.

P(t) = P(0)ekt
P(0) = 10, 000
P(2) = 30, 000
P(t) = 10, 000ekt
30, 000 = 10, 000e2k
3 = e2k
ln3 = 2k
ln3
=k
2
0.55 = k

P(t)10, 000e0.55t
100, 000 = 10, 000et
10 = e0.55t
ln10 = 0.55t
ln10
=t
0.55
4.18 = t
250

www.ck12.org

2.

## Numerical Methods (Eulers Improved Euler, Runge-Kutta)

1. Euler:

yn+1 = yn + h f (xn , yn )

y1 = y0 + h f (x0 , y0 )
= 1 + 0.2(1)
= 1.2
y2 = y1 + h f (x1 , y1 )

= 1.2 + 0.2(1.2)
= 1.2 + 0.234
= 1.44
y3 = y2 + h f (x2 , y2 )

= 1.44 + 0.2(1.44)
= 1.44 + 0.288
= 1.728
y4 = y3 + h f (x3 , y3 )

= 1.728 + 0.2(1.728)
= 2.0736
y5 = y4 + h f (x4 , y4 )

= 2.0736 + 0.2(2.0736)
= 2.48832

y(1) = e 2.7182818
|approximathion e|= |2.48832 2.7182818|= 0.23

Improved Euler:
251

## 7.7. Ordinary Differential Equations

yi+1 = yi +

y1 = y0 +

www.ck12.org

h
f (xi , yi ) + f (xi , yi + h f (xi , yi ))
2

h
f (x0 , y0 ) + f (x0 , y0 + h f (x0 , y0 ))
2
= 1 + 0.1(1 + 1.2)
= 1.22

h
f (x1 , y1 ) + f (x1 , y1 + h f (x1 , y1 ))
2
= 1.22 + 0.1(1.22 + (1.22 + 0.2(1.22)))

y2 = y1 +

= 1.22 + 0.2664
= 1.4884

h
f (x2 , y2 ) + f (x2 , y2 + h f (x2 , y2 ))
2
= 1.4484 + 0.1(1.4484 + (1.4484 + 0.2(1.4484)))

y3 = y2 +

= 1.4484 + 0.327448
= 1.815848

h
f (x3 , y3 ) + f (x3 , y3 + h f (x3 , y3 ))
2
= 1.815848 + 0.1(1.815848 + (1.815848 + 0.2(1.815848)))

y4 = y3 +

= 1.815848 + 0.3994656
= 2.21533456

h
f (x4 , y4 ) + f (x4 , y4 + h f (x4 , y4 ))
2
= 2.21533456 + 0.1(2.21533456 + (2.21533456 + 0.2(2.21533456)))

y5 = y4 +

= 2.21533456 + 0.4873736032
= 2.71027081632

y(1) = e 2.7182818
|approximathion e|= |2.71027081632 2.7182818|= 0.008

Runge-Kutta:
252

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 7. Integration Techniques, Solution Key

h
yn+1 = yn + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6

n k1 = f (xn , yn )


h
h
k2 = f xn + , yn +
2
2
k3 = f (xn+1 , yn + hk2 )
1 k1 = 1



h
h
0.2
, y0 + k1 =
(1) = 1.1
2
2
2
k3 = f (h, y0 + hk2 ) = 0.2(1.1) = 1.22
k2 = f

2 k1 = 1.23


h
h
0.2
k2 = f x1 + , y1 + k1 = 1.23 +
(1.23) = 1.353
2
2
2
k3 = f (x2 , y1 + hk2 ) = 1.23 + (0.2)(1.353) = 1.5006
3 k1 = 1.50142


h
h
0.2
k2 = f x3 + , y3 + k1 = 1.50142 +
(1.50142)
2
2
2
= 1.651562

h
y1 = y0 + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6
0.2
= 1+
[1 + 4(1.1) + 1.22]
6
= 1.23
h
y2 = y1 + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6
0.2
= 1.23 +
[1.23 + 4(1.353) + 1.5006]
6
= 1.50142
h
y3 = y2 + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6
= 1.50142
0.2
[1.50142 + 4(1.651562) + 1.8317324]
6
= 1.832733

=+

## k3 = f (x4 , y3 + hk2 ) = 1.50142 + (0.2)(1.651562)

= 1.8317324
4 k1 = 1.832733


h
0.2
h
(1.832733)
k2 = f x3 + , y3 + k1 = 1.832733 +
2
2
2
= 2.0160063

h
y4 = y3 + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6
= 1.832733
0.2
[1.832733 + 4(2.0160063) + 2.235934]
6
= 2.23716

## k3 = f (x4 , y3 + hk2 ) = 1.832733 + (0.2)(2.0160063)

= 2.235934
5 k1 = 2.23716


h
h
0.2
k2 = f x4 + , y4 + k1 = 2.23716 +
(2.23716)
2
2
2
= 2.460876

h
y5 = y4 + [k1 + 4k2 + k3 ]
6
= 2.23716
0.2
[2.23716 + 4(2.460876) + 2.7293352]
6
= 2.73082664

## k3 = f (x5 , y4 + hk2 ) = 2.23716 + (0.2)(2.4608763)

= 2.7293352

y(1) = e 2.7182818
|approximathion e| = |2.73082664 2.7182818|= 0.012

253

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

## 8 Infinite Series, Solution Key

Chapter Outline

254

8.1

S EQUENCES

8.2

I NFINITE S ERIES

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

P OWER S ERIES

8.7

8.8

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

8.1 Sequences
1. an = (1)n 2
2. The sequence is convergent.


lim

4 3
+
n n2


=0

## 3. The sequence is convergent.



7
= 60 = 6
lim 6
n
n

4. No limit exists because the sequence oscillates (or goes back and forth) between 5 and 5.
6

4 n6
n

3n
n6

7
n6

= limn

7
n6
3
n5

= limn

4n5 n7
3

## The sequence is divergent.

6. The sequence is convergent. The limit is 0.
7. No limit exists because the sequence oscillates and n gets larger as n gets larger.
8. No limit exists because the sequence oscillates and

3n4 2
2n4 +6n2 4n

## gets larger as n gets larger.

9. The sequence is convergent because the term en grows faster than 6n2 . The denominator is growing faster than
the numerator, so the sequence is convergent.
10. By definition of absolute value, |an | an |an |. Then take limits of all three terms:

n+

n+

n+

n+

n+

n+

0 lim an 0
n+

## By the Sandwich/Squeeze Theorem, limn+ an = 0 also.

11.
255

8.1. Sequences

www.ck12.org

y0 = 1 + y
y(0) = 0
y0 = 0
Zx

y1 = y0 +

(1 + y0 )dt
0

Zx

= 0+

dt
0

=x
Zx

y2 = y0 +

(1 + y1 )dy
0

Zx

= y0 +

(1 + t)dt
0

x

t2
= 0+ t +
2 0
= x+

x2
2
Zx

y2 = y0 +

(1 + y2 )dy

0
Zx 

t2
= 0+
1+t +
2
0


x
t2 t3
= t+ +
2
6 0
= x+

{yn (x)}3n=0

12.
256


dt

x2 x3
+
2
6

x2
x2 x3
= 0, x, x + , x + +
2
2
6


www.ck12.org

## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

y0 (x) = 1 + x2
y(0) = 0
y0 = 0
Zx


1 + y20 dt

y1 = y0 +
0

Zx

dt
0

=x
Zx

y2 = y0 +

(1 + y21 )dt

Zx

= 0+

(1 + t 2 )dt

x

t3
= t+
3 0
= x+

x3
3
Zx

y3 = y0 +

2

t3
dt
1+ t +
3

Zx 

2t 4 t 6
1+t +
+
3
9

= 0+


dt

t 3 2t 5 t 7
=t+ +
+
3
15 63

{yn (x)}3n=0

x3 2x5 x7
x3
+
= 0, x, x + , x + +
3
3
15 63


13.
257

8.1. Sequences

www.ck12.org

y0 (x) = y 3
1
y(0) =
8
1
y0 =
8
Zx

y1 = y0 +

(y0 ) 3 dt
0

1
+
8

Zx   13

1
8

dt

1
+
8

Zx

1
dt
2
0
 x
1
1
= +
t
8
2 0
1 x
= +
8 2
1
Zx 
1 t 3
y2 = y0 +
+
dt
8 2
0

 4 x
1 3 1 t 3
= +
+

8 2 8 2
0

 34
 4
3 1 3
1 3 1 x

= +
+
8 2 8 2
2 8

 43
1
3 1 x
=
+
+
32 2 8 2
=

(
{yn (x)}2n=0

258

3
1 1 x 1
, + , +
8 8 2 32 2

1 x
+
8 2

 43 )

www.ck12.org

## 8.2 Infinite Series

1. Divide 1 by 11.

1
= 0.0909090909 . . . .
11
Thus,

1
11

9
100

9
+ 10,000
+.... =

9
102

+ 1094 + . . . + 1092k + . . ..

2.

1
2
1 1
1
s2 = + =
2 4
4
1 1 1
3
s3 = + =
2 4 8
8
1 1 1
1
5
s4 = + +
=
2 4 8 16
8

s1 =

3.

3
3
3
3
sn = 3 + + 2 + 3 + . . . . + n1
10
10
10
10


1
3
3
1
3
3
sn =
3 + + 2 + 3 + . . . . + n1
10
10
10 10
10
10
3
3
3
3
3
3
sn =
+ 2 + 3 + 4 +L+ n
10
10 10
10
10
10
3
+ 1032 + 1033 + . . . . + 103n1
Then sn = 3 + 10



3
3
3
3
3
3
sn =
+
+
+
+L+ n
10
10 102 103 104
10

sn

1
3
sn = 3 n
10
10
7
1
sn = 3 n
10
10

10
1
sn =
3 n
7
10

Then
259

## 8.2. Infinite Series

www.ck12.org



10
1
lim sn = lim
3 n
n
n 7
10
30
10
lim sn = (3) =
n
7
7
The series converges.
4. a = 3, r = 2

3 k1
5. The series
is a geometric series with a = 1 and r = 53 . |r|=
k=1 5
converges. The sum is 11 3 = 52 .

3
5

## < 1 and so, the geometric series


2 k1

2
6. The series +
is a geometric series
k=4 3
3 . |r|=
 1 with23a= 13and23r = 34
1
4
8
converges. The sum is 1 2 1 9 + 27 = 5 27 = 5 27 = 27 .
( 3)
3
3

2
3

## < 1 and so, the geometric series

k
k
1
7.
k=1 k3 3 diverges by the nth-Term Test: limk k3 3 = limk 1 3 = 1 6= 0.
k3

4k+2

4k1


4 k1

3
3
. This is a geometric series with a = 64 and r = 94 . The series
8.
k=1 9k1 = 4 k=1 4 9k1 = k=1 64 9
576
64
64
converges. The sum is 1 4 = 5 = 5 .
(9)
9




k1
1
1
2 k1
9.
23
+ 5k1
+
=
k=2
k=2 5k1
k=2 3





1
1
1
2 k1
2
1
5
1
2 k1
3
=
+

1
=

and
=

1
=

1
=
.
Then

(1)
=

1
k1
k1
k=2 5
k=2
k=2
3
5
5
4
4
3
5
1 5
1( 32 )

2 k1
1
2
1
3
+

k=2 3
k=2 5k1 = 5 + 4 = 20 .

10. Since
k=1 vk is divergent, then k=1 vk = + or k=1 vk = . Since k=1 uk is convergent, k=1 uk is finite.

Then
k=1 (uk + vk ) = k=1 uk + k=1 vk is the sum of something finite and something infinite. Thus, k=1 (uk + vk )

is infinite and diverges. Likewise, k=1 (uk vk ) = k=1 uk k=1 vk is the difference of something finite and
something infinite and hence is still infinite and divergent.

5 k1
k=1 2 3

4
4
k=1 k k+1

260

www.ck12.org

## 8.3 Series Without Negative Terms

1. Sample answer: 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, . . .
2. Sample answer: 200, 20, 2, . . .
3. No, the nondecreasing sequence is not bounded. For any number M, there is a point in the sequence such that the
rest of the sequence is greater than M. The terms of the sequence are not bounded by any value of M.
n 2 o
4. 2n5n2 +7 is bounded and nonincreasing. It converges to 52

1 k1
4

5.
k=1
6.
k=1

## diverges by Comparison test (using

k=1

(4k+1) 2

1
1

1
1 14


1 + 41 =

1
3
4

54 = 34 54 =

1615
12

1
12 .

, a divergent pseries).

(4k) 2

2
2
7.
k=1 3k5 4 converges by the Limit Comparison Test (using k=1 3k5 , which is a convergent pseries).

5
5
5
8.
k=1 (k+1)(k+3) = k=1 k2 +4k+4 converges by the Limit Comparison Test (using k=1 k2 , which is a convergent
pseries).
7
is a divergent pseries.
9.
5
k=1
k2
3

k +4k +1
1
10.
k=1 3k6 +2k4 converges by the Limit Comparison Test (using k=1 3k3 , which is a convergent pseries).

11.
k=1

1
5

## converges by the Integral Test.

(3k1) 2

12. Maria is correct that the series converges. She made an error by saying that the value of the related integral gives
3
3
3
the sum of the infinite series. However,
k=1 k2 = 3 + 2 + 9 + L is greater than 3.

261

www.ck12.org

1.

1
4

2
14

3
30

lim

k 3k2 + k

=0

## The series converges by the Alternating Series Test.

2.

3
2

6
4

9
8

12
16 K

lim

k
4
4
= 4 12 + 27
=
3. s3 = 41 48 + 27

4. s3 = 51 + 54 59 =

180+4520
36

1
5. s4 = 11 12 + 16 24
=

21627+8
54

197
54

= 155
54 ; u4 =

2412+41
24

15
24 ;

3k
=0
2k

u5 =

5
16 ;
1
5!

5
16 .

## = 120; Thus, |s4 S|<

6.

1
= 0.05
n+1
0.05n + 0.05 = 1
0.05n = 0.95
n = 19
7.

1
= 0.005
n+1
0.005n + 0.005 = 1
0.005n = 0.995
n = 199
8.

1
= 0.0001
n+1
0.0001n + 0.0001 = 1
0.0001n = 0.9999
n = 9999
262

1
120 .

www.ck12.org

9.

3k
k+1 3k

(1)
=

k
k
2
k=1
k=1 2

uk+1
=
uk

3(k+1)
2k+1
3k
2k

3(k + 1) 2k
k+1

=
1
k+1
2
3k
2k

3k
=0
k0 2k
lim

## The series converges absolutely.

(1)k+1 k

k
10.
k=1 2k2 +3 = k=1 2k2 +3
k+1

(1) k
1
The series behaves like the series
k=1 2k , which converges conditionally. Thus, k=1 2k2 +3 converges conditionally.

(4)k+1
(4)k+1
4k+1
is divergent.
11.
=

2
k=1 7k2 , which is divergent. Thus, k=1 7k2
k=1
7k

(1)k+1

(1)k+1

1
7
1
12.
=
.
This
is
a
pseries
with
p
=
converges.
Thus,
.
The
series
k=1 7
k=1 7
k=1 7
7
k=1
2
k2
k2
k2
k2
converges absolutely.

263

www.ck12.org

Tests
Ratio Test
1.
(n+1)3
n+1
lim 2
n (n)3
2n

(n + 1)3 2n
n3
1

=
lim
= <1
3
3
n 2n+1
n
n
2n
2

= lim

## The series is absolutely convergent.

2.
e2(n+1) (n + 1) !
= lim ne2 =
n
n
e2n n!
lim

3.
1
n+1
lim 1
n
n

n
= lim
= lim 1 = 1
n
n + 1 n

## The test is inconclusive.

n1
n1

1
1
1
(1)
However, by the alternating series test
,
converges.
Also,
(1)
=
n=1
n=1
n=1 n is a
n
n
n1
1
is conditionally convergent.
p-series with p = 12 . This series diverges. Thus,
n=1 (1)
n
4.

2
3
4
5
n

+ L = (1)n1
1.3 2.4 3.5 4.6
1.3 + 1.1 (n 2)
n=2


n+1
1.3 + 1.1 (n 2)
n+1
1.3+1.1(n1)
lim
= lim

n
n
n 1.3 + 1.1 (n 1)
n
1.3+1.1(n2)

2
1.3n + 1.3 + 1.1 n 2n + 1.1 (n 2)
= lim
n
1.3n + 1.1n2 1.1n
1.3n + 1.3 + 1.1 n2 2n + 1.1 (n 2)
= lim
n
1.3n + 1.1n2 1.1n
2
1.1n
= lim
n 1.1n2

## We cannot use the ratio test.

h
i
n
Note also that limn 1.3+1.1(n2)
=
264

1
1.1 .

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

n1

lim (1)



n
n
n1
= lim (1)
1.3 + 1.1 (n 2) n
1.1n 0.09
n
n1
= lim (1) lim
n
n 1.1n 0.09
n
= lim (1)n1 lim
n
n 1.1n
1
n1
=
lim (1) .
1.1 n

1.
s
lim

## The series converges.

s
n
(1)n ln n
n
2. limn
= limn
n

ln n
n

n
n2 + 1

n


= lim

n
n2 + 1


=0

=0

by LHopitals Rule.
The series converges.
3.
r
lim

n
53+2n

n
3
n

5 52

4.
5.

1.

dx
x(lnx) p

1
p1 ,
(lnx)

1p
0

## which is convergent for p > 1.

1
2. Use the Limit Comparison Test with
n=1 n2 .
 1 2
sin2 ( n1 )
sin( n )
= 1. The series converges.
limn 1 = limn
1
n2

"
#

 
(1)n1 n
n
3. limn n+1 = limn n+1 = limn 1 1 = 0 The series converges by the Alternating Series
n+
n

Test.
265

## 8.5. Ratio Test, Root Test, and Summary of Tests

www.ck12.org

1
n
n
n
n
4. limn [( 5 3)n ] n = limn [( 5 3)n ] = 0 The series converges by the Root Test.

n
n
5. limn ( 5 3)n = 0 The series converges.

6. Use the ratio test. A series converges if aan+1
< 1.
n

n+13n+1n+1
2 +c
<1

n

2n3+c
n
n+1 n

3 (2 + cn )

3n (2n+1 + cn+1 ) < 1
n
3(2n ) 1 + 2cn
 <1

n+1
(2n ) 2 + c2n


cn
cn+1
3 1+ n < 2+ n
2
2
n
3c
cn+1
3+ n < 2+ n
2
2
n+1
3cn
c
1< n n
2
2
n
n
2 < c (c 3)
The last inequality is true for c > 3 if n is large enough as cn will dominate as n . However, this inequality will
always hold for c 3 > 1, or c > 4.

266

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## Power Series and Convergence

1.
1
1
1
1

=
=
=
1 x 1 (x + 2) + 2 3 (x + 2) 1 x+2
3

n=0

x+2
3

n

## The radius of convergence is:

x+2

3 <1
|x + 2| < 3
3 < x + 2 < 3
5 < x < 1
2.
n+1 2n+1

2 x

2n xn < 1
2x2 < 1
1
x2 <
2
2
|x| <
2
The series converges if |x|<

n=0
2
2

## Interval and Radius of Convergence

1.

(n + 1) xn+1 nxn+1 + xn+1

=
= x + 1 x

n
n
nx
nx
n

As n , x + 1n x |x|.
267

## 8.6. Power Series

www.ck12.org

The series is absolutely convergent for |x|< 1. The radius of convergence is 1. If |x|= 1,
n=1 n is a divergent series.
The interval of convergence is (1, 1).
(1)n+1 xn+1
n+1 n xn+1

1
= n

2. (1)
n xn
x
n+1 = 1 + n (x)

n


As n , 1 + 1n (x) |x|.
The series is absolutely convergent for |x|< 1. The radius of convergence is 1. If |x|= 1, is a divergent series. The
interval of convergence is (1, 1).
(n+1)

x 3

(n+1)! n! x (n+1)
n
1

3

3. n = n (n+1)! = 1n xn+1 3 = 1n x 3
x3
xn!3

1

As n , n1 x 3 0.
The radius of convergence is 0.




n + 1(xx0 )n+1 n + 1

4.
=
(x x0 )
n

n(xx0 )
n




n
+
1

As n ,
(x x0 ) |(x x0 )|.
n
The series is absolutely convergent for

|x x0 | < 1
1 < x x0 < 1
1 + x0 < x < 1 + x0
The radius of convergence is |x0 |. At x = 1 + x0 , the series is an alternating pseries with p = 12 , which is
conditionally convergent. At x = 1 + x0 the series is a pseries with p = 21 , which is divergent. The interval of
convergence is [1 + x0 , 1 + x0 ).
5. 5 Rc 7
a. converges
b. converges
c. diverges
d. diverges
e. converges

1.

1
1
=
= (x 1)n
2 x 1 (x 1) n=0

x
x
=
= (x 1)n
2 x 1 (x 1) n=0

268

www.ck12.org

## The radius of convergence is 1. The interval of convergence is (1, 1].

2
1
1
1
. (1x)
3 is the one-half the derivative of (1x)2 . (1x)3
(1x)3
1
2 n2 = 1 n(n 1)xn . The radius of convergence is 1.
2 n=2 n(n 1)x x
2 n=2

2. The derivative of
Thus,

x2
(1x)3

3.The derivative of
The derivative of

1
(1x)2

1
(1x)2

1
(1x)3

is

is

is

2
.
(1x)3

3
.
(1x)4

Thus,

2x
(1x)3

n2 .
= 12
n=2 n(n 1)x

n2 = n(n 1)xn1 .
=
n=0
n=2 n(n 1)xx

Thus,

3x2
2 n3
=
n(n

1)(n

2)x
x
=

n (n 1) (n 2)xn1
(1 x)3 n=3
n=3

3x2
2x
n1
+
=
n(n

1)x
+
n(n 1)(n 2)xn1

n=3

## Term-by-Term Integration of Power Series

1.
2.

tan
Z

tan

x3 x5 x7
(1)n x2n+1
x = x + +K =
3
5
7
2n + 1
n=0

xdx =

n=0

(1)n x2n+1
(1)n x2n+2
dx =
+C
2n + 1
n=0 (2n + 1) (2n + 2)

3.

## Series Multiplication of Power Series

1.
 1
f (x) = 1 + 3x + 2x2 2 , f (0) = 1
 3
1
3
f 0 (x) = 1 + 3x + 2x2 2 (3 + 4x) , f 0 (0) =
2
2
5

 3
3
1
19

2
f 00 (x) =
1 + 3x + 2x2 2 (3 + 4x) 1 + 3x + 2x2 2 (4) , f 00 (0) =
4
2
4
 7
 5
15
3
3
000
2 2
2 2
f (x) =
1 + 3x + 2x
(3 + 4x) + 1 + 3x + 2x
(2) (3 + 4x)
4
 8
 5
3
63
2
1 + 3x + 2x2 2 , f 000 (0) =
2
16
3
19
63
f (x) = 1 x + x2 x3
2
8
18
2.
269

## 8.6. Power Series

f (x) =
f 0 (x) =

www.ck12.org

1
(1 rx) (1 sx)
r
2

(1 rx) (1 sx)
r3

s
(1 rx) (1 sx)2
6r2 s

6rs2
6s3
+
+
(1 rx)4 (1 sx) (1 rx)3 (1 sx)2 (1 rx)2 (1 sx)3 (1 rx) (1 sx)4
r4
24r3 s
24r2 s2
24rs2
24s4
f 000 (x) =
+
+
+
+
(1 rx)5 (1 sx) (1 rx)4 (1 sx)2 (1 rx)3 (1 sx)3 (1 rx)2 (1 sx)4 (1 rx) (1 sx)5
f 00 (x) =

Power series:

r 6= s
1
1
1
1
x+
x2 +
x3 +
x4 + L
(1 r) (1 s)
(1 2r) (1 2s)
(1 3r) (1 3s)
(1 4r) (1 4s)
r=s
1
1
1
1
x+
x2 +
x3 +
x4 + L
1+
2
2
2
(1 r)
(1 2r)
(1 3r)
(1 4r)2
1+

270

www.ck12.org

## Taylor and Maclaurin Polynomials

1.
f (x) = ex , f (0) = 1
f 0 (x) = ex , f 0 (0) = 1
f 00 (x) = ex , f 00 (0) = 1
f 000 (x) = ex , f 000 (0) = 1

## T3 (x) = f (0) + f 0 (0) (x 0) +

= 1+x+

f 000 (0)
f 00 (0)
(x 0)2 +
(x 0)3
2!
3!

x2 x3
+
2
6

2.

f (x) = ln x, f (1) = 0
1
f 0 (x) = , f 0 (1) = 1
x
1
00
f (x) = 2 , f 00 (1) = 1
x
2
f 000 (x) = 3 , f 000 (1) = 2
x
6
(4)
f (x) = 4 , f (4) (1) = 6
x

f 000 (1)
f (4) (1)
f 00 (1)
(x 1)2 +
(x 1)3 +
(x 1)4
2!
3!
4!
1
2
6
= 0 + 1 (x 1) (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 (x 1)4
2!
3!
4!
1
1
1
2
3
= 1 (x 1) (x 1) + (x 1) (x 1)4
2
3
4

3.
271

## 8.7. Taylor and Maclaurin Series

www.ck12.org

f (x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 , f (1) = 1
f 0 (x) = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 , f 0 (1) = 2
f 00 (x) = 2 + 6x + 12x2 , f 00 (1) = 8
f 000 (x) = 6 + 24x, f 000 (1) = 18
f (4) (x) = 24, f (4) (1) = 24

f 00 (1)
f 000 (1)
f (4) (1)
(x + 1)2 +
(x + 1)3 +
(x + 1)4
2!
3!
4!
8
18
24
= 1 + (2) (x + 1) + (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 + (x + 1)4
2!
3!
4!
2
3
4
= 1 2 (x + 1) + 4 (x + 1) 6 (x + 1) + (x + 1)

1.
f (x) =
f 0 (x) =
f 00 (x) =
f 000 (x) =
f (4) (x) =

1
, f (0) = 1
1x
1
, f 0 (0) = 1
2
(1 x)
2
, f 00 (0) = 2
3
(1 x)
6
, f 000 (0) = 6
(1 x)4
24
, f (4) (0) = 24
5
(1 x)

## The Taylor series of the function is:

1 + (x 0) +

6
24
2
(x 0)2 + (x 0)3 + (x 0)4 + L = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + L
2!
3!
4!

2.

f (x) = ex , f (1) = e
f 0 (x) = ex , f 0 (1) = e
f 00 (x) = ex , f 00 (1) = e
f 000 (x) = ex , f 000 (1) = e
f (4) (x) = ex , f (4) (1) = e
The Taylor series is:
272

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

e
24
e
e + e (x 1) + (x 1)2 + (x 1)3 + (x 1)4 + L = e
2!
3!
4!

(x 1)n
n!
n=0

!
.

3.
1
1
f (x) = , f (2) =
x
2
1
1
f 0 (x) = 2 , f 0 (2) =
x
4
1
2
00
00
f (x) = 3 , f (2) =
x
4
3
6
f 000 (x) = 4 , f 000 (2) =
x
8
24
3
(4)
(4)
f (x) = 5 , f (2) =
x
4
The Taylor series is:

 
 
 
 
1
1 1
1
3
1 3
1
2
3
+
(x 2) +
(x 2) +

(x 2) +
(x 2)4 + L
2
4
2 4
6
8
24 4
1 1
1
1
1
= (x 2) + (x 2)2 (x 2)3 + (x 2)4 + L.
2 4
8
16
32

## Convergence of Taylor and Maclaurin Series

1.
2.

f (x) =
f 0 (x) =
f 00 (x) =

an (x x0 )n

n=0

nan (x x0 )n1

n=1

n (n 1) an (x x0 )n2

n=2

M
f (k) (x) =

n (n 1) . . . (n k + 1) an (x x0 )nk+1
n=k

Then
273

## 8.7. Taylor and Maclaurin Series

www.ck12.org

f (x0 ) =
f 0 (x0 ) =
f 00 (x0 ) =

an (x0 x0 )n = a0

n=0

n=1

n=2

M
f (k) (x0 ) =

## n (n 1) . . . (n k + 1) an (x0 x0 )nk+1 = k (k 1) . . . (2)(1)a1

n=k

Solving

a0 = f (x0 )
f 0 (x0 )
1
f 00 (x0 )
a2 =
6
M
a0 =

a2 =

Thus, f (x) =
n=0 an (x x0 ) = n=0

f (k) (x0 )
k!

.
n!

## Taylors Formula with Remainder, Remainder Estimation, Truncation Error

1.
f (x) = sin x
f 0 (x) = cos x
f 00 (x) = sin x
f 000 (x) = cos x
f (4) (x) = sin x
f (0) = 0
f 0 (0) = 1
f 00 (0) = 0
f 000 (0) = 1
f (4) (0) = 0
Then
274

www.ck12.org

## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

1 0
1
1
f (0)x + f 00 (0)x2 + f 000 (0)x3 + K
1
2!
3!
x3
x5
= 0+x+0 +0+ +K
3!
5!
n 2n+1

(1) x
=
n=0 (2n + 1) !

sin x = f (0) +

## By definition, this is the Maclaurin series since x0 = 0.

2.
f (x) = cos x
f 0 (x) = sin x
f 00 (x) = cos x
f 000 (x) = sin x
 1
f
=
3
2

3
=
f0
3
2

1
f 00
=
3
2
  3
f 000
=
3
2

Then
1 
1   2 1 000   3
+ f0
(x) + f 00
x + f
x +K
3
1
3
2!
3
3!
3 !




1
 1
3
3
1 
2 1
3 
=
x

x
+
+K
2
2
3
2!
2
3
3!
2
3

cos(x) = f



## It matches the Taylor series at x = 3 .

3.

1+x
1
1
f 0 (x) = (1 + x) 2
2
3
1
00
f (x) = (1 + x) 2
4
5
3
f 000 (x) = (1 + x) 2
8
7
15
f (4) (x) = (1 + x) 2
16
9
105
(5)
f (x) =
(1 + x) 2
32
f (x) =

275

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105
9
105
(5) 105
29

(1 + x) =
(1 + 0.1) 2
for |x| 0.1.
f (x) =
32
32
32
Then

 
105
1
|x|5
R5 (x)
32
5!



105
1
|x|5

32
120
7
(0.1)5

256

## Combining Series, Eulers Formula

1.
f (x) = sin x cos x, f (0) = 0
f 0 (x) = cos2 x sin2 x, f 0 (0) = 1
f 00 (x) = 2 cos x sin x 2 sin x cos x = 4 sin x cos x, f 00 (0) = 0
f 000 (x) = 4 cos2 x, f 000 (0) = 4
f (4) (x) = 8 cos x sin x, f (4) (0) = 0

f 5 (x) = 8 cos2 x sin2 x , f (5) (0) = 8

1
1
(4) x3 + (8) x5 + L
3!
5!

## (1)n x2n+1 22n

=
(2n + 1) !
n=0

sin x cos x = 1x +

(2n + 1) !
2 n=0

1 (1)n (2x)2n+1
(2n + 1) !
2 n=0

## f (x) = sin 2x, f (0) = 0

f 0 (x) = 2 cos 2x, f 0 (0) = 2
f 00 (x) = 4 sin 2x, f 00 (0) = 0
f 000 (x) = 8 cos 2x, f 000 (0) = 8
f (4) (x) = 16 sin 2x, f (4) (0) = 0
f 5 (x) = 32 cos 2x, f (5) (0) = 32
276

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(1) (2x)2n+1
(2n + 1) !
n=0

sin 2x =

## The function is sin x cos x one-half of sin 2x.

2.
f (x) = xex , f (0) = 0
f 0 (x) = ex xex , f 0 (0) = 1
f 00 (x) = 2ex + xex , f 00 (0) = 2
f 000 (x) = 3ex xex , f 000 (0) = 3
f (4) (x) = 4ex + xex 16 sin 2x, f (4) (0) = 4

f 0 (0)
f 00 (0) 2 f 000 (0) 3
x
=
f
(0)
+
x
+
x +
x +K
ex
1!
2!
3!
x3 x4
= x x2 +
2! 3!

(1)n+1 (x)n
=
(n 1) !
n=1
(1)n (x)n+1
(n) !
n=0

3. By Eulers formula,

(1)m (x)2m
(1)m (x)2m+1
+i
.
(2m) !
(2m + 1) !
m=0
m=0

cos x + i sin x =

2m

(1) (x)
Thus, cos x =
m=0
(2m)!

2m

2m+1

(1) (3x)
(1) (x)
and cos 3x =
. Also, sin x =
m=0
m=0 (2m+1)!
(2m)!

2m+1

(1) (3x)
and sin 3x =
m=0
(2m+1)!

4.
By Eulers formula,
m

2m

2m+1

2m

(1) (x)
(1) (n)
(1) (x)

n
n
cos x+i sin x =
+i
xn and
m=0
m=0 (2m+1)! . Then n=0 (cos n) x = n=0 m=0
n=0 (sin n) x =
(2m)!
(2m)!

n=0 m=0

(1)m (n)2m+1 n
x .
(2m+1)!

277

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Binomial Series
r
k

## 1.(1 + x)r = nk=0

 k
x
1

For f (x) = 1
= (1 + x) 2 , r = 21 . Using the formula on page 442,
1+x
 1
 1

2
k 2 +k 1
= (1)
.
k
k




 1
12 32 12 k + 1
2
=
Then we replace
k
k!
 3

1
2 2 2k+1
2
=
k!
k
(1) (1) (3) (2k 1)
=
(2k ) k!

Then (1 + x) 2 = nk=0
2.

1
(2x)2

use

1
(1x)m

1
1
4

(1 2x )

=
k=0

(1)k (2k1)! k
x
(2k+1 )k!(k1)!

(1)k (2k 1) !
(2k ) k! (2 4 6 k 2(k 1))

(1)k (2k 1) !
(2k+1 ) k! (k 1) !

## for |x| < 1.

4
2

(1 2x )

2+k1 k
x , replacing x with
k

Then

x
2

and using m = 2.

1
2

(2 x)

2
1 2x


2 + k 1  x k
=4
k
2
k=0
 

k+1
x k
=4
2
k
k=0



k+1
xk
=
k
2k 2
k=0
(k + 1) xk
2k2
k=0

278

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## Chapter 8. Infinite Series, Solution Key

3.
 
1
1
f (x) = 1 + x + x
, f
=
2
2
 
1

1
1
2 2
0
0
1+x+x
(1 + 2x) , f
f (x) =
=0
2
2
 

1
1
1
1
2
00
2 1
2 2
00
f (x) = 1 + x + x
(1 + 2x) + 1 + x + x
, f
=
4
2
2
 
1
f 000 =
=0
2
 
1
1
f (4) =
=
2
2
2

1+x+x

 12

 21

1 1
= +
2
n=0 2
=



 

1
1 2 1 1
1 4
+
x+
x+
2!
2
2 4!
2

1 2n

1 x+ 2
(2n) !
2 n=0

## The power series works for

1
x + 1

2
1
1 x + 1
2
3
1
x
2
2

Choosing Centers
1. Use ln (1 + x) , |x| < 1.

x2 x3
+ ...
2! 3!
ln (0.9) = ln (1 + (0.1))

ln (1 + x) = x +

x2 x3
+
2! 3!
= 0.1 0.005 0.00167

ln (1 + (0.1)) x +

= 0.1050167
0.1050
2.
279

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



2 (1)n 
2
(1)
2n
2n+1

sin x =
x
+
x
, |x|
(2n) !
4
(2n + 1) !
4
4
n=0 2
n=0 2
!
!
# "
#
"
 

0

3
2
2 1
2
2 (1) 
2 (1)1 
0.8
0.8

0.8
+
+
sin (0.8)
2
2
2
4
2
1!
4
2
3!
4
"
#
"
#

2
(0.0146)2
(0.0146)3
=
1
0.0146
2
2
2

2
=
(0.01449)
2
= 0.717356

3.

1
(10x)3

1
3
[10(1 10x )]


Power series for

1
3
(1 10x )

103

1
3
(1 10x )


, |x| 10


:


x 3
f (x) = 1
, f (0) = 1
10
3 
x 4
3
f 0 (x) =
1
, f 0 (0) =
10
10
10
3
3
4 
x 5
00
00
f (x) =

1
, f (0) =
10 10
10
25

6
x
3
4
5
3
1
f 000 (x) =

, f 00 (0) =
10 10 10
10
500

1
103
93

 atx = 1.
x 3
1 10

 

 
1 3
1
3
3
3
2
x +
x3
10
1+ x+
10
2 25
6 500
x=1

 


3
1 3
1
3
3
10
1+ +
+
10 2 25
6 500
103 (1.361)
= 0.01361

280

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## Evaluating Nonelementary Integrals

1.
un

eu =

n!

n=0

n
x2
dx
n!

n!

x2

e =
Z

n=0
2n
x
n=0

n=0

=
Z0

e
1

x2

dx

x2n
dx
n!

x2n+1

n=0 n! (2n + 1)

x2n+1 1
dx =

n=0 n! (2n + 1) 0

x3
x5
x7
x9
x11 1
x +

3 5 2! 7 3! 9 4! 11 5 0
1
1
1
1
1

= 1 + +
3 10 42 216 1320
0.746729
2.
(1)n u2n+1
sin u =
n=0 (2n + 1) !

sin x dx =
Z

2n+1
(1)n x2
(2n + 1) ! dx
n=0

(1)n x4n+2
dx
n=0 (2n + 1) !

(1)n x4n+3

281