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UNIT-I

ANALOG MODULATION
PART A
1. What is modulation?
Modulation is the process of changing any one parameter (amplitude, frequency or phase)
of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of the
modulating signal or message signal.
2. Define amplitude Modulation.
Amplitude Modulation is the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high
frequency carrier signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.
3. Give the expression for AM modulated wave.
Vam =Vc sin c t + m Vc cos (c - m ) t m Vc cos (c + m) t
where, Vam - amplitude of modulated signal
Vc - amplitude of carrier signal
c = 2 fc = carrier frequency
m = 2 fm = modulating signal frequency.
4. Define Modulation index and percent modulation for an AM wave.
Modulation index is a term used to describe the amount of amplitude change present in
an AM waveform .It is also called as coefficient of modulation.
Mathematically modulation index is m = Em/ Ec
Where m = Modulation coefficient
Em = Peak change in the amplitude of the output waveform voltage.
Ec = Peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier voltage.
Percent modulation gives the percentage change in the amplitude of the output wave
when the carrier is acted on by a modulating signal.
5. Give the bandwidth of AM?
Bandwidth (B) of AM DSBFC is the difference between highest upper frequency and
lowest lower side frequency.
B= 2fm(max)
fm(max) maximum modulating signal frequency.

6. Draw the spectrum of AM signal.


Vc
mVc/2

fc-fm

mVc/2

fc

fc+fm

frequency

7. Give the expression for modulation index in terms of Vmax and Vmin.
m = (Vmax Vmin)/( Vmax + Vmin)
8. Give the formula for AM power distribution.
Ptotal = Pc [1 + m2 / 2]
where, Ptotal total power m- modulation index , Pc carrier power
9. Give the expression for total current.
Itotal = Ic [1 + m2 / 2] 1/2
where, Itotal total Current m- modulation index, Ic carrier current
10. Give the types of AM Modulation.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

DSBSC-Double sideband suppressed carrier.


SSBSC- Single sideband suppressed carrier.
DSBFC- Double sideband full carrier.
VSBSC-Vestigial sideband suppressed carrier.

11. What are the disadvantages of conventional (or) double side band full carrier system?
In conventional AM, carrier power constitutes two thirds or more of the total transmitted
power. This is a major drawback because the carrier contains no information; the sidebands
contain the information. Second, conventional AM systems utilize twice as much bandwidth as
needed with single sideband systems.
12. Define Single sideband suppressed carrier AM.
AM Single sideband suppressed carrier is a form of amplitude modulation in which the
carrier is totally suppressed and one of the sidebands removed.

13. Define AM Vestigial sideband.


AM vestigial sideband is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one
complete sideband are transmitted, but only part of the second sideband is transmitted.
14. What are the advantages of single sideband transmission?
The advantages of SSBSC are
1. Power conservation
2. Bandwidth conservation
3. Noise reduction
15. What are the disadvantages of single side band transmission?
i. Complex receivers
ii. Tuning Difficulties
16. What is the advantage of low-level modulation?
An advantage of low-level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to
achieve a high percentage of modulation.
17. Define Low-level Modulation.
In low-level modulation, modulation takes place prior to the output element of the final
stage of the transmitter. For low level AM modulator class A amplifier is used. It requires less
power to achieve a high percentage of modulation.
18. Define High-level Modulation.
In high-level modulators, the modulation takes place in the final element of the final
stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude. For high level modulator class C
amplifier is used. It requires a much higher amplitude modulating signal to achieve a reasonable
percent modulation.
19. What is the advantage of low-level modulation?
An advantage of low-level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to
achieve a high percentage of modulation.
20. Define image frequency.
An image frequency is any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that,
if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local oscillator, will produce a cross product
frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency.

21. Define image frequency rejection ratio.


The image frequency rejection ratio is the measure of the ability of pre-selector to reject
the image frequency.
Mathematically, IFRR is
IFRR =(1+Q22)1/2
Where = (fim/fRF)-(fRF/fim), Q quality factor of pre-selector, fim-image frequency, fRF- RF
frequency
22. Define Heterodyning.
Heterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate
one frequency to another, using nonlinear mixing.
23. Define direct frequency modulation.
In direct frequency modulation, frequency of a constant amplitude carrier signal is
directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of
the modulating signal.
24. Define indirect frequency Modulation.
In indirect frequency modulation, phase of a constant amplitude carrier directly
proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the
modulating signal.
25. Define instantaneous frequency deviation.
The instantaneous frequency deviation is the instantaneous change in the frequency of the
carrier and is defined as the first derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation.
26. Define frequency deviation.
Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted
on by a modulating signal frequency. Frequency deviation is typically given as a peak frequency
shift in Hertz (f). The peak-to-peak frequency deviation (2 f) is sometimes called carrier
swing. The peak frequency deviation is simply the product of the deviation sensitivity and the
peak modulating signal voltage and is expressed mathematically as f =K1Vm Hz.
27. State Carson rule.
Carson rule states that the bandwidth required to transmit an angle modulated wave as
twice the sum of the peak frequency deviation and the highest modulating signal frequency.
Mathematically Carsons rule is B=2(f +fm) Hz.

28. Define Deviation ratio.


Deviation ratio is the worst-case modulation index and is equal to the maximum peak
frequency deviation divided by the maximum modulating signal frequency. Mathematically, the
deviation ratio is
DR= f (max) / fm(max)
29. Write down the comparison for frequency and amplitude modulation.
Amplitude Modulation
Frequency Modulation
1. Noise interference is more
2.
Amplitude
Modulation
is
the
process of changing the amplitude of a
relatively high frequency carrier signal
in proportion with the instantaneous
value of the modulating signal.

Noise interference is less


Frequency Modulation is the process of
changing the frequency of a relatively high
frequency carrier signal in proportion with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

3. The depth of modulation has limitation in But in FM the depth of modulation can be
AM.
increased to any value by increasing the
deviation.
4. Simple circuits used in transmitter and Uses more complex circuits in transmitter and
receiver.
receiver.
5. Power varies in AM depending on depth of The amplitude of FM is constant. Hence
modulation.
transmitter power remains constant in FM

30. Define Phase modulation.


Phase of a constant amplitude carrier is varied directly proportional to the amplitude of
the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal.
31. What are the advantages of angle modulation and also list its disadvantages.
Advantages:
i. Noise reduction.
ii. Improved system fidelity.
iii .more efficient use of power.
Disadvantages:
i. wider Bandwidth.
ii. uses more complex circuit in receiver and transmitter.
32. What is Phase deviation?
The relative angular displacement (shift) of the carrier phase (rad) in respect to reference
phase is called phase deviation()

33. Give the expression for bandwidth of angle-modulated wave in terms of Bessels table.
B= 2(n*fm)
n=no. of significant sidebands for m found using Bessels table.
34. Define deviation sensitivity for FM and PM and give its units.
FM: Change in output frequency occurs when amplitude changes in input signal.
Unit K1=(rad/s)/V.
PM: Change in output phase occurs when amplitude changes in input signal.
Unit K =(rad)/V.
35. If a modulated wave with an average voltage of 20Vp changes in amplitude 5V,
determine the maximum and minimum envelope amplitudes and the modulation
coefficients.
Vm = 20Vp
Vc = 5 V
m = Vmax Vmin / Vmax + Vmin
Vmax = Vm + Vc = 20+5= 25V
Vmin = Vm - Vc = 20-5= 15V
m= Vmax Vmin / Vmax + Vmin =25-15 /25+15 = 0.25
36. An FM transmitter has a rest frequency fc =96MHz and a deviation sensitivity K1 = 4
KHz/V. Determine the frequency deviation for a modulating signal Vm(t) = 8sin(2 2000t).
Determine the modulation index.
Vm=8V,
fm =2000Hz and
K1 =4 kHz /V
Frequency deviation = = K1Vm = 4 kHz/v * 8V = 32KHz
Modulation index = m = / fm = 32 KHz/2000Hz = 16
37. For an FM receiver with an input frequency deviation f=4 kHz and a
transfer ratio K= 0.01 V/k Hz, determine Vout.
Vout = K * f =0.01* 40 =0.4V
PART B
1. For an AM DSBFC wave with unmodulated carrier voltage of 10Vp and load resistance
of 10 ohms, and m=1determine (i) Power in carrier, (ii)Power in upper and lower
sidebands (iii)Total transmitted power.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.151

2. Derive the expression for total power in an AM DSBFC and draw the power spectrum.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.150
3.For an AM DSBFC transmitter with an unmodulated carrier power Pc=100w that is
simultaneously modulated by 3 modulating signals with coefficient of modulation m1=0.2,
m2=0.4 and m3=0.5, determine, Total coefficient of modulation, Upper and lower sideband
power, Total sideband power, Total transmitted power and then, Draw the output
spectrum.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.154
4. One input to an AM DSBFC modulator is 500 kHz carrier with peak amplitude of 20Vp.
The second input is a 10 kHz modulating signal whose amplitude is sufficient to produce a
7.5Vp change in the amplitude of the envelope. Determine the following (i) Upper and
lower side frequency,
(ii)Modulation co-efficient and percent modulation.,(iii)Maximum and minimum amplitude
of the envelope,(iv)Draw the output envelope,(v)Draw the output frequency spectrum.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.146
5. Derive Eusf and Elsf in terms of Vmax and Vmin.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.142

6. Derive the output expression for an AM DSBFC and also draw the AM spectrum.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.145
7. Explain in detail about the Bandwidth requirements of angle-modulated wave.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.286
8. Compare PM and FM.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.281

9. Determine the side band frequencies of an angle-modulated wave.


Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.282
10. Derive the expression for average power of an angle-modulated wave.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.293.

UNIT II
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
PART A
1. What is digital modulation?
When the information signal is digital and any one of the parameters (amplitude, phase or
frequency) of the analog carrier is varied proportional to the information signal is called ad
digital modulation.
2. What is information capacity?
It is the number of independent symbols that can be carried through a system in a given
unit of time.
3. Give the expression for Shannon limit for information capacity.
I= B log2 [1+ S/N]
Where, I= information capacity (bps)
B= bandwidth
S/N=signal to noise power ratio (unit less)
4. Give the Nyquist formulation for channel capacity.
fb =2B log2 M
Where, fb channel capacity (bps), B-minimum Nyquist bandwidth (Hz)
M- number of discrete level or voltage levels
5. Compare QASK and QPSK.
QPSK
1. Quadrature phase modulation
2.All signal points placed on circumference
of circle
3. Circuit is simple.
4.Noise immunity better then QASK
5. Error probability less than AQSK

QASK
Quadrature phase and amplitude modulation
Signal points are replaced symmetrically about
origin
Relatively complex
Poor than QPSK
Higher than QPSK

6. What are Antipodal signals?


In BPSK, the two symbols are transmitted with the help of following signals,
Symbol 1 => s1 (t) = 2P cos (2f0 t) Symbol 0 => s2 (t) = 2P cos (2f0 t + ). Here
observe that above two signals differ only in a relative phase shift of 1800. Such signals are
called antipodal signals.
7. Define minimum shift keying.
Minimum shift keying uses two orthogonal signal to transmit 0 and 1 in such a way
the difference between these two frequencies is minimum. Hence, there is no abrupt change in
the amplitude and the modulated signal is continuous and smooth.
8. Give the difference between standard FSK and MSK.
FSK
MSK
1. The two frequencies are integer multiple of Difference between two frequencies
base band frequency and at the same time minimum and at the same time they are
orthogonal.
orthogonal.
2. Bandwidth (BW) = 4fb
BW = fb/2
3. Has discontinuities when phase changes
Phase discontinuities are removed by
from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0.
smooth phase transition.
9. What are the advantages of M-ary signaling scheme?
i. M-ary signaling schemes transmit bits at a time.
ii. Bandwidth requirement of M-ary signaling schemes is reduced.
10. What does correlative coding mean?
Correlative coding allows the signaling rate of 2B0 in the channel of bandwidth B0. This
is made physically possible by allowing ISI in the transmitted signal in controlled manner. The
receiver knows this ISI. Hence effects of ISI are eliminated at the receiver. Correlative coding is
implemented by duobinary signaling and modified duobinary signaling.
11. Differentiate coherent and noncoherent methods.
Coherent (synchronous) detection: In coherent detection, the local
carrier generated at the receiver is phase locked with the carrier at the transmitter. The detection
is done by correlating received noisy signal and locally generated carrier. The coherent detection
is a synchronous detection.
Non- coherent (envelope) detection: This type of detection does not need receiver carrier to be
phase locked with transmitter carrier. The advantage of such a system is that the system becomes
simple, but the drawback is that error probability increases.
12. Define peak frequency deviation for FSK.
Peak frequency deviation (f) is the half the difference between either the mark and
space frequency. (f)=|fm-fs|/2.

13. Define bit rate.


In digital modulation, the rate of change at the input to the modulator is called the bit rate
(fb) and has the unit of bits per second (bps).
14. Define Baud rate.
The rate of change at the output of the modulator is called baud rate. Baud= 1/t s, where,
ts- time of one signaling element (seconds).
15. Compare binary PSK with QPSK.
BPSK
1. One bit forms a symbol.
2. Two possible symbols
3. Minimum bandwidth is twice of fb
4. Symbol duration = Tb.

QPSK
Two bits form a symbol.
Four possible symbols
Minimum bandwidth is equal to fb.
Symbol duration = 2Tb.

16. Define QAM.


Quadrature amplitude modulation is a form of digital modulation where the digital
information is contained in both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted carrier.
17. What is a constellation diagram?
It is also called as signal state-space diagram, similar to phasor diagram where, the
relative position of peaks of phasor is shown.
18. Bring out the differences between DPSK and BPSK.
DPSK
BPSK
1. It does not need a carrier at its receiver
It needs a carrier at receiver
More Bandwidth
2. Bandwidth reduced compared to BPSK
3. Probability of error or bit error rate more Comparatively low
than BPSK
4. Error propagation more, since it uses two Comparatively low, since it uses only single
bits for its reception
bit
5. Noise interference more
Comparatively low
19. What is bandwidth efficiency?
It is also called as information density or spectral efficiency, is the ratio of the
transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth required for particular modulation scheme.
20. What is an Offset QPSK?
Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is a modified form of QPSK where the bit waveforms on the I
and Q channels are offset or shifted in phase from each other by one-half of a bit time.

21. Mention any four advantage of digital modulation over analog modulation.
i. Maximum data rate
ii. Minimum probability of symbol error
iii. Minimum transmitted power.
iv. Minimum channel bandwidth.
v. Minimum circuit complexity
vi. Maximum resistance to interfering signals
22. Define carrier recovery.
It is the process of extracting a phase-coherent reference carrier from a receiver signal. It
is also called as phase referencing
23. What is DPSK?
Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) is an alternative form of digital modulation where
the binary input information is contained in the difference between successive signaling elements
rather than the absolute phase. It is not necessary to recover phase-coherent carrier.
24. What do you mean by ASK?
ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) is a modulation technique which converts digital data to
analog signal. In ASK, the two binary values(0,1) are represented by two different amplitudes of
the carrier signal.
S(t) = {ACos(2ft) binary 1
{0
binary 0
25. What is non-coherent detection?
This type of detection does not need receiver carrier to be phase locked (same phase)
with transmitter carrier. The advantage of such a system is that the system becomes simple, but
the drawback is that error probability increases.
PART-B
1. Explain FSK bit rate, baud, bandwidth and modulation index.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.369
2. Explain on-off keying (OOK) or ASK.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page. 368

3. Explain QPSK transmitter and receiver.


Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.381
4. Explain DPSK with an example.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.407
5. Explain BPSK (transmitter and receiver) and also discuss about the bandwidth.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.376
6. Discuss the operation of 16-QAM transmitters and receivers.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.398
7. Explain in detail about carrier recovery.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.404
8. Write short notes on QAM with signal constellation diagrams for 8 and 16 QAM.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.362-368.
9. Write short notes on QPSK with signal constellation diagrams for 8 and 16 QPSK.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.357-362.
10. Write about the bandwidth efficiency of various digital modulation techniques.
Refer: Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems Fifth edition,
Page No.370-372.