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Part two

Steel classification

Lucchini RS Steel Mill.

Comparison tables

2
Lucefin
Group

Part two Steel classification


EUROPA

EN
Non-alloy structural steels
S235JR
S235JR

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

Fe 360 BFN

Q235B

40 B

St3sp

E 24-4

40 D

St3ps

A 414 g A

E 28-2

43 B

St4ps

A283 g D

E 28-3

43 C

E 36-3

50 C

St4sp

A441

50 D

17G1S

A 350 LF2

RSt 37-2

USA
AISI
SAE

1.0038

S235J2

S235J2

Fe 360 D

Q235A

St 37-3 U
1.0116

S275JR

S275JR

Fe 430 B

Q255A

St 44-2
1.0044

S275J0

S275J0

Fe 430 C

St 44-3 U
1.0143

S355J0

S355J0

Fe 510 C

St 52-3 U
1.0553

S355J2

S355J2

Fe 510 D

St 52-3 N
1.0553

E295

E295

Fe 490

Q275

St 50-2

A 50-2

St5ps

A 60-2

St6ps

1.0050

E335

E335

Fe 590

HRB335

St 60-2
1.0060

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

EN
Free-cutting steels
11SMn30
11SMn30

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

9SMn28

S250

230M07

CF9SMn28

USA
AISI
SAE
1215

1.0715

11SMnPb30

11SMnPb30

CF9SMnPb28 Y15Pb

9SMnPb28

S250Pb

(AS14)

12L15

1.0718

11SMn37

11SMn37

CF9SMn36

9SMn36

S300

1214

S300Pb

12L14

1.0736

11SMnPb37

11SMnPb37

CF9SMnPb36

9SMnPb36
1.0737

10SPb20

10SPb20

CF10SPb20

Y12Pb

10SPb20

10PbF2

AS14

11L08

1.0722

35SPb20

35SPb20

35SPb20

35SPb20

35SPb20

35SPb20

1.0756

36SMn14

36SMn14

35SMn10

36SMn14

36SMn14

1.0764

36SMnPb14

36SMnPb14

35SMnPb10

36SMnPb14

35MF6Pb

(AS35G2)

1.0765

46S20

46S20

46S20

45S20

45Mf4

46S20

46SPb20

46SPb20

(1146)

1.0727

46SPb20

46SPb20

46SPb20

45SPb20
1.0757

(AS45G2)

(11L46)

Part two Steel classification


Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

EN
Case-hardening steels
C10E
C10E

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

C10

10

XC10

045M10

10

1010

C15E

C15E

C15

15

XC12

080M15

15

1015

C16E

C16E

C15

15AL

XC18

080M15

XC18

C16E

C20

20

XC16

070M20

20

1023

16MnCr5
16MnCr5Pb
20MnCr5
20MnCr5Pb
17NiCrMo6-4

16MnCr5

16MnCr5

15CrMn

16MC5

590M17

18ChG

5115

20MnCr5

20MnCr5

20CrMn

Ck10
1.1121
Ck15
1.1141
C16E
1.1148
Ck22
1.1151
16MnCr5
1.7131
20MnCr5
1.7147
17NiCrMo6-4
1.6566

20Ch

5120

18NiCrMo5
18NiCrMo5Pb
20NiCrMo2-2

17NiCrMo6-4 18NiCrMo5

17NiCrMo6-4

20NiCrMo2-2 20NiCrMo2

16NiCr4
16NiCr4Pb
16NiCr11

16NiCr4

16NiCrMo12

14NiCrMo13-4 16NiCrMo12

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

16NiCr12

16CrNi4
16NiCr4Pb
16NiCr11

ITALIA

20CrNiMo

12CrNi3

CINA

EN
UNI
GB
Nitriding steels
34CrAlNi7-10
34CrAlNi7-10 34CrAlNi7-10
41CrAlMo7-10

41CrAlMo7-10 41CrAlMo7

38CrMoAl

20MC5

1016

18NCD6

815M17

21NiCrMo2
1.6523
15CrNi6
1.5919
14NiCr10
1.5732
16NiCrMo12-6
1.6782

20NCD2

805M20

20ChGNM

8620

16NC4

637M17

12ChN2

4320

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

34CrAlNi7
1.8550
41CrAlMo7
1.8509

(4317)

16NC11

3415

16NCD13

USA
AISI
SAE
K52440

40CAD6.12

905M39

38Ch2MJua

K24065

4
Lucefin
Group

Part two Steel classification


EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

EN
UNI
Quenching and tempering steels
Carbon steels for quenching and tempering
C22E/C22R
C22E C22R C20

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

20

XC18

070M20

20

1020

C30E/C30R

C30E C30R

C30

30

XC32

080M30

30

1030

C35E/C35R

C35E C35R

C35

35

XC38H1

080M36

35

1034

XC38H1

C35E C35R

C35

XC38H1

080M36

38

1035

C40E/C40R

C40E C40R C40

40

XC42H1

80M40

40

1040

C45E/C45R

C45E C45R C45

45

XC48H1

080M46

45

1045

C50E/C50R

C50E C50R C50

50

080M50

50

1050

C55E

C55E

C55

55

070M55

55

1055

C60E/C60R

C60E C60R C60

60

Ck22
1.1151
Ck30
1.1178
Ck35
1.1181
Ck35
1.1181
Ck40
1.1186
Ck45
1.1191
Ck50
1.1206
Ck 55
1.1203
Ck60
1.1221

070M60

60

1060

ASTM non-alloy steels for quenching and tempering


ASTM A 105
ASTM A 350 LF2 S355J2

Fe 510D

16Mn

Cm22
1.1149
Cm30
1.1179
Cm35
1.1180
Cm35
1.1180
Cm40
1.1189
Cm45
1.1201
Cm50
1.1241

XC55 H1
Cm60
1.1223

C21
1.0432
St52.3N
1.0553

A 105
50D

20G

A 350 LF2

530M40

40Ch

5140

35ChM

4135

38ChM

4140

50Ch

4150

Alloy steels
41Cr4

41Cr4

41Cr4

40Cr

34CrMo4

34CrMo4

34CrMo4

30CrMo

42CrMo4
42CrMo4Pb
50CrMo4

42CrMo4

42CrMo4

42CrMo

50CrMo4

50CrMo4

ZG50CrMo

39NiCrMo3
39NiCrMo3Pb
34CrNiMo6

39NiCrMo3
34CrNiMo6

39NiCrMo3
39NiCrMo3Pb
35NiCrMo6

40NiCrMo7

40NiCrMo7

40NiCrMo7

30CrNiMo8

30CrNiMo8

Self-hardening steel
36NiCrMo16
36NiCrMo16 34NiCrMo16

41Cr4
1.7035
34CrMo4
1.7220
42CrMo4
1.7225
50CrMo4
1.7228
39NiCrMo3
1.6510
34CrNiMo6
1.6582
40NiCrMo8
1.6562
30CrNiMo8
1.6580
36NiCrMo16
1.6773

42C4
34CD4
42CD4

708M40

40NCD3

816M40

40ChN2MA 9840

35NCD6

817M40

38Ch2N2MA 9840
30ChNML

30CND8

823M30

35NCD16

835M30

E4340

30ChN2MA (320L43)

Part two Steel classification


Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

EN
Creep-resisting steels
P235GH
P235GH

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

A37CP

141-360

42CrMo4

42CrMo4

42CrMo4

42CD4

708M40

40CrMoV4-6

40CrMoV4-6 40CrMoV4-6

10CrMo9-10

10CrMo9-10

12CrMo9 10 KG 12Cr2MoG

P235GH
1.0345
42CrMo4
1.7225
40CrMoV4-6
1.7711
10CrMo9-10
1.7380

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

ITALIA

Fe360 1 KW

EN
UNI
Flame and induction-hardening steels
C43
C43
C48
C48
Cf53
C53
C53
36CrMn4

36CrMn4

41CrMo4

37Cr4
appr.
41CrMo4

50CrMo4

50CrMo4

50CrMo4

40NiCrMo3

Lucefin
Group

41CrMo4

42CrMo

A285 g A
40ChML

670-860

A193-B7
A193 B16

12CD9-10

622/B3

10Ch2M

A182 F22
USA
AISI
SAE

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

Cf53
1.1213
35Cr4
37Cr4
1.7034
40Cr
41CrMo4
1.7223
ZG50CrMo4 50CrMo4
1.7228

XC48 TS

070M55

38C4

1049
(1050)
38ChA

5135

40Ch

4142

50Ch

4150

40NiCrMo3
EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

070M60

60

1060

251A58

55S2

9255

60S2G

9261H
9262
6150

EN

UNI

GB

DIN

Spring steels
C60E

C60E

C60

60

56Si7

56Si7

55Si7

55Si2Mn

60SiCr8

60SiCr8

60SiCr8

60Si2CrA

51CrV4

51CrV4

50CrV4

50CrVA

52SiCrNi5

ZG50CrMo

Ck60
Cm60
1.1221 1.1223
55Si7
1.5026
60SiCr7
1.7108
50CrV4
1.8159
52SiCrNi5
1.7117

52SiCrNi5

Lucefin
Group

USA
AISI
SAE

55S7
61SC7
50CV4

735A50

50ChGF

52SiCrNi5

EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

ShCh15

52100

EN

UNI

GB

Bearing steels
102Cr6

102Cr6

100Cr6

Cr2

100CrMo7

100CrMo7

X82WMoCrV6-5-4 X80WMoCrV654

100Cr6
1.3505
100CrMo7
GC18Mo 100CrMo7
1.3537
X82WMoV65
X82WMoCrV6-5-4
1.3553

100Cr6
100CD7
Z85WCDV6

A485(3)
85Ch4M
5F2V6L

A597
CM2

Part two Steel classification

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

EN
Hot-work tool steels
X37CrMoV5-1
X 37CrMoV5-1
X40CrMoV5-1

X40Cr14

X40Cr14

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

RUSSIA USA
AISI
GOST
SAE

Z 38CDV5

B-H 11

4Ch5MFS H 11

Z 40CDV5

B-H 13

4Ch4VMFS H 13

55NCDV7

BH 224

4ChMNFS A681 L6

X40Cr14

X40Cr14

4Cr5MoSiV X 38CrMoV5-1
1.2343
X40CrMoV5.1.1KU 4Cr5MoSiV1 X 40CrMoV5-1
1.2344
40NiCrMoV16KU
35NiCrMo16
1.2766
56NiCrMoV7KU
5CrNiMo
56NiCrMoV7
1.2714
X40Cr14
X40Cr14
1.2083

40NiCrMoV16 KU
55NiCrMoV7

CINA

X37CrMoV5.1KU

X 40CrMoV5-1

55NiCrMoV7

ITALIA

Y35NCD16

(420)

40CrMnMoS8-6
32CrMoV12-28

32CrMoV12-28

32CrMoV12-28

X38CrMoV5-3

X38CrMoV5-3

X38CrMoV5-3

54NiCrMoV6

54NiCrMoV6

1.2312
32CrMoV12-28 32CDV12-28 32CrMoV12-28 3Ch3MF H10
1.2365
X38CrMoV5-3 Z38CDV5-3 X38CrMoV5-3
1.2367
54NiCrMoV6
1.2711
40CrMnNiMo8-6-4
1.2738
45NiCrMo16
45NiCrMo16 45NiCrMo16 45Ch2N4MA
1.2767
35NiCrMoV12-5
38ChN3MFA
1.6959

40CrMnNiMo8-6-4 40CrMnNiMo8-6-4 40CrMnNiMo8-6-4


45NiCrMo16

45NiCrMo16

35NiCrMoV12-5

35NiCrMoV12-5

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

EN
Cold-work tool steels
35CrMo7
35CrMo7

45NiCrMo16

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

35CrMo8KU

5CrMnMo

40CrMnMo7
1.2311
40CrMnMo7
35CrMo8
35CrMo8KU
(5CrMnMo) 40CrMnMo7
1.2311
100CrMo7
100CrMo7
100CrMo7
GCr18Mo 100CrMo7
1.3537
110W4 KU
110W4KU
120WV4
1.2516
90MnCrV8
90MnCrV8
90MnCrV8KU
9Mn2V
90MnCrV8
1.2842
X38CrMo16
X38CrMo16
X38CrMo16 1KU
X38CrMo16
1.2316
X153CrMoV12 X153CrMoV12 X155CrVMo121 Cr12MoV X155CrVMo121
1.2379
X210Cr12
X210Cr12
X205Cr12KU
C12
X210Cr12
1.2080
58SiMo8 KU
58SiMo8KU
60WCrV8
60WCrV8
58WCr9KU
6CrW2Si
60WCrV7
1.2550
C45U
C45U
C45U
(45)
1.1730

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

EN
High-speed steels
HS 6-5-2-5
HS 6-5-2-5
HS 2-9-1-8
HS 6-5-2C
HS 10-4-3-10

100CD7

485(3)
B-F1

90MV8

B-O2

A681 A10
9G2F

X160CrMoV12 1

BD 2

Ch12MF

A681 D2

Z200C12

BD 3

Ch12

A681 D3

6ChV2S

A681 S-1

(45)

(1045)

55WC20
Y3 42

C45U

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

Z90WDKCV
06-05-05-04-02
Z110DKCWV
09-08-04-02-01
Z90WDCV
06.05.02
Z130WKCDV
10.10.04.04.03

BM35

R6M5K5

BM42

R2AM9K5

BM2

R6AM5

BT42

R9M4K8

W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5 S 6-5-2-5
1.3243
HS 2-9-1-8 HS 2-9-1-8 W2Mo9Cr4VCo8 S 2-10-1-8
1.3247
HS 6-5-2C
HS 6-5-2
CW6Mo5Cr4V2
S 6-5-2
1.3343
HS 10-4-3-10 HS 10-4-3-10
HS 10-4-3-10
1.3207

O-2
A681 D4

ITALIA

HS 6-5-2-5

USA
AISI
SAE

USA
AISI
SAE
A600
M36
A600
M42
A600
M-2
A600
M44

Part two Steel classification


Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

EN
Stainless steels
AISI 303 X8CrNiS18-9
AISI 304
AISI 316
AISI 416
AISI 420
AISI 430
AISI 431

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

Z8CNF18-09

303S31

2Ch18N10E

303

Z5CN18-09

304S15

07Ch18N10

304

X10CrNiS18-9
1.4305
X5CrNi18-10
X5CrNi18-10
0Cr18Ni9
X5CrNi18-10
1.4301
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 X5CrNiMo17-12 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 X5CrNiMo17-12-2
1.4401
X12CrS13
X12CrS13
Y1Cr13
X12CrS13
1.4005
X20Cr13
X20Cr13
2Cr13
X20Cr13
1.4021
X6Cr17
X8Cr17
1Cr17
X6Cr17
1.4016
X17CrNi16-2
X17CrNi16-2
1Cr17Ni2
X17CrNi16-2
1.4057

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

X10CrNiS18-09 Y1Cr18Ni9

Z7CND17-12-02 316S31

08Ch17N13M2 316

Z11CF13

416S21

416

Z20C13

420S37

20Ch13

420

Z8C17

430S17

12Ch17

430

Z15CN16-02

431S29

17Ch17N2

431

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

UK

RUSSIA

EN
Steels for crome-plating
S355J2
S355J2

UNI

GB

DIN

AFNOR

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

50D

17G1S

A350LF2

C45E

C45E C45R

C45

XC48H1

080M46

45

1045

Cf53

C53

C53

XC48 TS

070M55

20MnVS6

Fe510D
45

20MnV6

20MnV
42CrMo

St52-3 N
1.0553
Ck45
Cm45
1.1191 1.1201
Cf53
1.1213
20MnV6
1.5217
42CrMo4
1.7225
36CrNiMo4
1.6511
50CrMo4
1.7228

A381

42CrMo4

42CrMo4

42CrMo4

39NiCrMo3

39NiCrMo3

39NiCrMo3

50CrMo4

50CrMo4

50CrMo4

ZG50CrMo

Lucefin
Group

EUROPA

ITALIA

CINA

GERMANIA

FRANCIA

GB

DIN

AFNOR

EN
UNI
Structural and constructional steels
SAE 1141
SAE 1116
SAE 1117
(15S10)
SAE 1018
C18

20

SAE 1045

C45E

C45

45

CB 4 FF

CB4 FF KD

CB4 FF

CB 20 FF

C21 KD

CB20 FF

20g

C20

C22

C20

20

St 45.8
1.0405
CK45
1.1191
C4 C
1.0303
C22 C
1.1152
C22
1.0402

1050

42CD4

708M40

38ChM

4140

40NCD3

816M40

40ChN2MA 9840
50Ch

4150

UK

RUSSIA

BS

GOST

USA
AISI
SAE

(214A15)
080A17 18G

1141
1116
1117
1018

XC48H1

080M46

45G

1045

C20

070M20

20A

M1020

NON-ALLOY STRUCTURAL STEELS

S235JR S235J2 S275JR S275J0 S355J0 S355J2 E295 E335

S235JR

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S235JR
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0038

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
max
max
max
0.17 c)
1.40
0.035
0.035
0.012 a)
0.40
c)
0.19
1.50
0.045
0.045
0.014 b)
0.45
Method of deoxidation FN rimming steel not permitted.
S235JR n 1.0122 P% - S% max 0.040 cast analysis
c) for nominal thickness > 40 mm to 100 mm max 0.20 of ladle / 0.23 of the product;
for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming

Soft
Isothermal
annealing
annealing
1200-850
690-720 furnace
(HB max 140)
In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and Tempering
920
air
540-650 air

Normal
treatment
Natural

Quenching
and Tempering
920
water
540-665 air

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S235JR 1.0038
Testing at room temperature
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:
C%
Mn%
Si%
~ 0.10 ~ 0.50 ~ 0.20
Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3
725
880

A% L

A% T

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
480
260

HB

to
N/mm2
from
to
min
min
reference only
16
235
3
40
26
24
104-154
3
16
40
225
40
63
25
23
104-154
100
40
63
215
63
100
24
22
103-152
150
63
80
215
100
150
22
22
100-149
80
100
215
150
250
21
21
Mod. of Elasticity N/mm2
100
150
195
from
to
Kv + 20 C J min d)
E long.
G tang.
150
200
185
150
27
198000
76000
200
250
175
150
250
27
d) For thickness > 100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. The impact properties are verified only when specified in the order
from

to
3
100
150
250

N/mm2
360-510
360-510
350-500
340-490

Cast analysis
Product analysis

from

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-2: 2008 S235JRC 1.0122


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R e)
Rp 0.2 e)
A%
HB
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
5 f)
10
470-840
355
8
141-250
10
16
420-770
300
9
125-231
16
40
390-730
260
10
114-224
40
63
380-670
235
11
110-203
63
100
360-640
215
11
104-198
e) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10%
and tensile strength can be 10%
f) for thickness below 5 mm the mechanical properties can be agreed upon before
order placement.
Values valid also for +C +SL

Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

360-510
360-510
360-510

102-140
102-140
102-140

Mod. of Elasticity N/mm2


Temperature
E long.
G tang.
20 C
170000
65000

10

Part two Non-alloy structural steels

S235JR
Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001 S235JRG2 1.0038
Tensile test at room temperature Kv at room temperature
size mm
R
Re
A% L
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
100
340
215
24
100
250
340
175
23
250
500
340
165
23
EUROPE EN
S235JR

ITALY UNI
Fe 360 B

CHINA
Q235B

GERMANY DIN
RSt 37-2

Technical card Trafilix



A% T
min
17
17
FRANCE AFNOR

Kv L
J min
35
30
27
UK BS
40 B

Kv T
J min
20
15
RUSSIA
St3sp

HB
min
100
100
100
USA AISI/SAE
A 252

11

S235J2

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S235J2
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0117

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
max
max
max
max
0.17 a)
1.40
0.025
0.025
0.19 a)
1.50
0.035
0.035
Method of deoxidation FF fully killed steel
a) for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
Temperature in C
Hot forming
Normal
treatment
1200-850
Natural

Soft
annealing
690 air

N%

Cu%
max
0.40
0.45

Al%
Cast analysis
Product analysis

Isothermal
annealing

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:
C%
Mn%
Si%
~ 0.10 ~ 0.50 ~ 0.20

In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and tempering
920
air
540-650 air

Quenching
and tempering
920
water
540-665 air

Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3
725
880

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S235J2 1.0117
Testing at room temperature, impact 20C
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
from

to
3
100
150
250
400

N/mm2
360-510
360-510
350-500
340-490
330-480

from

to
16
40
63
80
100
150
200
250
400

N/mm2
235
225
215
215
215
195
185
175
165

A% L

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
480
260

HB

A% T

reference only
104-154
104-154
103-152
100-149
94-146

from
3
40
63
100
150
250
from

to
min
min
40
26
24
3
16
63
25
23
100
40
100
24
22
150
63
150
22
22
250
80
250
21
21
100
400
21
21
150
to
Kv 20 C J min b)
200
150
27
250
150
250
27
250
400
27
b) For thickness > 100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. (A normalization treatment is advised)

Cold-drawn +C
Hot-rolled Peeled Reeled +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
N/mm2
N/mm2
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards, (please refer to the same values of quality S235JRC EN 10277-2)
Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001 S235J2G3 1.0016
Tensile test at room temperature Kv at - 20C (A normalization treatment is advised)
size mm
R
Re
A% L
A% T
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2
min
min
100
340
215
24
100
250
340
175
23
17
250
500
340
165
23
17
EUROPE EN ITALY UNI
S235J2
appr. Fe 360 D

CHINA
Q235A

GERMANY DIN
appr. St 37-3 U

FRANCE AFNOR
appr. E 24-4

Kv L
J min
35
30
27

Kv T
J min
20
15

UK BS
RUSSIA
appr. 40 D St3ps-5

HB
min
100
100
100
USA AISI/SAE
appr. A 515

S275JR

12

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S275JR
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0044

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
max
max
max
0.21 c)
1.50
0.035
0.035
0.012 a)
0.40
c)
0.24
1.60
0.045
0.035
0.014 b)
0.45
Method of deoxidation FF rimming steel not permitted.
c) maximum 0.22 ladle analysis, max 0.25 product analysis for thickness > 40 mm to 100 mm;
for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming
1150-850

Normal
treatment
Natural

Soft
annealing
650-700 air

Isothermal
annealing

Cast analysis
Product analysis

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:
C%
Mn%
Si%
0.19
0.65

In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and tempering
880-900 air
550-660 air

Quenching
and tempering
860-900 water
550-660 air

Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S275JR 1.0044
Testing at room temperature Kv + 20C
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
N/mm2

A% L

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf

A% T

HB

N/mm2

to
from
to
min
min
reference only
16
275
3
40
23
21
128-172
3
16
40
265
40
63
22
20
122-162
100
40
63
255
63
100
21
19
119-158
150
63
80
245
100
150
19
19
110-158
80
100
235
150
250
18
18
Mod. of Elasticity N/mm2
100
150
225
from
to
Kv + 20 C J min d)
E long.
G tang.
150
200
215
10
150
27
210000
80000
200
250
205
150
250
27
d) For thickness > 100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. The impact properties are verified only when specified in the order
from

to
3
100
150
250

from

430-580
410-560
400-540
380-540

Cold-drawn +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
EUROPE EN
S275JR

ITALY UNI
Fe 430 B

CHINA
Q255A

GERMANY DIN
St 44-2

Hot-rolled Peeled Reeled +SH


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

FRANCE AFNOR
E 28-2

UK BS
43 B

RUSIA
St4kp-2

USA AISI/SAE
1020

13

S275J0

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S275J0
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0143

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
max
max
max
0.18 c)
1.50
0.040
0.040
0.009 a)
0.40
c)
0.21
1.60
0.050
0.050
0.011 b)
0.45
Method of deoxidation FN rimming steel not permitted.
c) max 0.20 ladle analysis, max 0,22 product analysis for thickness > 150 mm;
for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) ithe max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming

Normal
Soft
Isothermal
treatment
annealing
annealing
1200-850
Natural
690 air
In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and tempering
920
air
540-650 air

Quenching
and tempering
920
water
540-665 air

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:

Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S275J0 1.0143
Testing at room temperature Kv 0C
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
from

to
3
100
150
250

N/mm2

from

Cast analysis
Product analysis

A% L

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf

A% T

N/mm2

to
from
to
min
min
16
275
3
40
23
21
3
16
40
265
40
63
22
20
100
40
63
255
63
100
21
19
150
63
80
245
100
150
19
19
80
100
235
150
250
18
18
100
150
225
from
to
Kv 0 C J min d)
150
200
215
10
150
27
200
250
205
150
250
27
d) For thickness > 100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. (A normalization treatment is advised)
430-580
410-560
400-540
380-540

Cold-drawn +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
EUROPE EN
S275J0

ITALY UNI
Fe 430 C

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
St 44-3 U

HB
reference only
128-172
122-162
119-158
110-158

Hot-rolled Peeled Reeled +SH


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

FRANCE AFNOR
E 28-3

UK BS
43 C

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

S355J0

14

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S355J0
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0553

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
max
max
max
max
0.20 c)
0.55
1.60
0.030
0.030
0.012 a)
0.40
0.23 c)
0.60
1.70
0.040
0.040
0.014 b)
0.45
Method of deoxidation FN rimming steel not permitted.
c) max 0.22 by ladle analysis, max 0.24 of the product for thickness > 30 mm to 100 mm;
for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850

Normal
treatment
Natural

Soft
annealing
700 air

Isothermal
annealing

Cast analysis
Product analysis

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:
C%
Mn%
Si%
~ 0.18 ~ 1.20 ~ 0.30

In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and tempering
920
air
550-650 air

Quenching
and tempering
880-900 water
550-650 air

Pre-heating
welding
100
Ac1
Ac3

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S355J0 1.0553
Testing at room temperature Kv 0C
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
from
3
100
150

to
3
100
150
250

N/mm2
510-680
470-630
450-600
450-600

from
16
40
63
80
100
150
200

to
16
40
63
80
100
150
200
250

N/mm2
355
345
335
325
315
295
285
275

from
3
40
63
100
150

to
40
63
100
150
250

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf

A% L

A% T

HB

min
22
21
20
18
17

min
20
19
18
18
17

reference only
154-208
141-192
135-178
135-178

from
to
Kv 0 C J min d)
10
150
27
150
250
27
d) For thickness > 100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. (A normalization treatment is advised)
Cold-drawn +C
Hot-rolled Peeled Reeled +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards (please refer to the same values of quality S355J2C EN 10277-2)
EUROPE EN
S355J0

ITALY UNI
Fe 510 C

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
St 52-3 U

FRANCE AFNOR
E 36-3

UK BS
50 C

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

S355J2

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
S355J2
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0577
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
max
max
max
max
max
max
0.20 a)
0.55
1.60
0.025
0.025
0.23 a)
0.60
1.70
0.035
0.035
Method of deoxidation FF fully killed steel.
S355J2 n 1.0579 P% - S% max 0.030 cast analysis
a) max 0.22 by ladle analysis, max 0.24 of the product for thickness > 30 mm to 100 mm;
for nominal thickness > 100 mm the C content must be agreed upon
Temperature C
Hot forming

Cu%
max
0.40
0.45

Soft
Isothermal
annealing
annealing
1100-850
700 air
(HB max 180)
In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Normalizing
and tempering
920
air
550-650 air

Normal
treatment
Natural

Quenching
and tempering
880-900 water
550-650 air

N/mm2
355
345
335
325
315
295
285
275
265

Al%
Cast analysis
Product analysis

Temperature values are valid


for analysis close to:
C%
Mn%
Si%
~ 0.18 ~ 1.20 ~ 0.30
Pre-heating
welding
100
Ac1
Ac3

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temp. of tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 S355J2 1.0577
Testing at room temperature Kv 20C
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
N/mm2
510-680
470-630
450-600
450-600
450-600

15

A% L

A% T

Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf

HB

to
min
min
reference only
40
22
20
154-208
3
16
63
21
19
141-192
100
40
100
20
18
135-178
150
63
150
18
18
135-178
250
80
250
17
17
135-178
100
400
17
17
Mod. of Elasticity N/mm2
150
to
Kv 20 C J min b)
E long.
G tang.
200
150
27
220000
84000
250
150
250
27
250
400
27
b) For sections with a nominal thickness >100 mm the values shall be agreed upon. (A normalization treatment is advised)
from

to
3
100
150
250
400

from

to
16
40
63
80
100
150
200
250
400

from
3
40
63
100
150
250
from

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-2: 2008 S355J2C 1.0579


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A%
HB
R
HB
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm2
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 d)
10
630-950
520
6
192-286
10
16
580-880
450
7
172-263
16
40
530-850
350
8
156-253
470-630
146-187
40
63
500-770
335
9
152-231
470-630
146-187
63
100
470-740
315
9
141-224
470-630
146-187
c) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
d) for thickness below 5 mm the mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Values valid also for +C +SL

16

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card Trafilix

S355J2
Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001 S355J2G3 1.0570
Tensile test at room temperature Kv at - 20C (A normalization treatment is advised)
size mm
R
Re
A% L
A% T
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
490
315
20
100
250
450
275
18
12
250
500
450
265
18
12
EUROPE EN
S355J2

ITALY UNI
Fe 510 D

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
St 52-3 N

FRANCE AFNOR

Kv L
J min
35
30
27
UK BS
50 D

Kv T
J min
20
15
RUSSIA
17G1SSD

HB
min
149
135
135
USA AISI/SAE
A350LF2

17

E295

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
E295 (Fe 490 Fe 50 St 50-2 C 30E C 35E)
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0050

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
0.045
0.045
0.009 a)
0.055
0.055
0.014 b)
Method of deoxidation FN rimming steel not permitted.
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming

Mn%

Normal
treatment
Natural

Cast analysis
Product analysis

Soft
annealing
700 air

Isothermal
Temperature values are valid
annealing
for analysis close to:
1150-850
850 furnace cooling to
C%
Mn%
Si%
650, after air
~ 0.30 ~ 0.60 ~ 0.30
In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
Normalizing
Quenching
Stress
welding
after welding
and tempering and tempering
relieving
100
slow cooling
880
air
860
water
50 under the
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
540-650 air
550-650 air
temp. of tempering
730
810
400
180

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 E295 1.0050 (A normalization treatment is advised)
Testing at room temperature
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
A% L
A% T
from
3
100
150

to
3
100
150
250

N/mm2
490-660
470-610
450-610
440-610

from
16
40
63
80
100
150
200

to
16
40
63
80
100
150
200
250

N/mm2
295
285
275
265
255
245
235
225

from
3
40
63
100
150
from
10
150

to
40
63
100
150
250
to
150
250

min
min
20
18
19
17
18
16
16
15
15
14
Kv + 20 C J min

HB
reference only
149-202
141-183
135-183
132-183

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-2: 2008 E295GC 1.0533


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 d)
10
650-950
510
6
200-286
10
16
600-900
420
7
178-271
16
40
550-850
320
8
159-253
470-610
140-181
40
63
520-770
300
9
155-231
470-610
140-181
63
100
470-740
255
9
141-224
470-610
140-181
c) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
d) for thickness below 5 mm the mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Values valid also for +C +SL
EUROPE EN ITALY UNI
E295
Fe 490

CHINA
Q275

GERMANY DIN
St 50-2

FRANCE AFNOR
A 50-2

UK BS

RUSSIA
S15ps-2

USA AISI/SAE

E335

18

Part two Non-alloy structural steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
E335 (Fe 590 Fe 60 St 60-2 C 40E C 45E)
According to standards EN 10025-2: 2004
Number
1.0060

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
N%
Cu%
Al%
max
max
max
0.045
0.045
0.012 a)
0.055
0.055
0.014 b)
Method of deoxidation FN rimming steel not permitted.
a) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.020%
b) the max value does not apply if the chemical composition shows a minimum total Al content of 0.015%
Temperature C
Hot forming

Mn%

Normal
treatment
Natural

Cast analysis
Product analysis

Soft
annealing
690 air

Isothermal
Temperature values are valid
annealing
for analysis close to:
1100-850
820 furnace cooling to
C%
Mn%
Si%
660, after air
~ 0.40 ~ 0.60 ~ 0.30
In some cases the piece can be normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
Normalizing
Quenching
Stress
welding
after welding
and tempering and tempering
relieving
250
slow cooling
870
air
840
water
50 under the
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
550-650 air
550-650 air
temp. of tempering
730
780
360
140

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod EN 10025-2: 2004 E335 1.0060 (A normalization treatment is advised)
Testing at room temperature
size mm
R
size mm
ReH min
size mm
A% L
A% T
from
3
100
150

to
3
100
150
250

N/mm2
590-770
570-710
550-710
540-710

from
16
40
63
80
100
150
200

to
16
40
63
80
100
150
200
250

N/mm2
335
325
315
305
295
275
265
255

from
3
40
63
100
150
from
10
150

to
40
63
100
150
250
to
150
250

min
min
16
14
15
13
14
12
12
11
11
10
Kv + 20 C J min

HB
reference only
176-231
169-218
159-218
158-218

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-2: 2008 E335GC 1.0543


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A%
HB
R
HB
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm2
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 d)
10
700-1050
540
5
213-319
10
16
680-970
480
6
208-293
16
40
640-930
390
7
198-278
570-710
169-211
40
63
620-870
340
8
190-260
570-710
169-211
63
100
570-810
295
8
169-243
570-710
169-211
c) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
d) for thickness below 5 mm the mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Values valid also for +C +SL
EUROPE EN ITALY UNI
E335
Fe 590

CHINA
HRB335

GERMANY DIN
St 60-2

FRANCE AFNOR
A 60-2

UK BS

RUSSIA
St6ps-2

USA AISI/SAE

FREE-CUTTING STEELS

11SMn30 11SMnPb30 11SMn37 11SMnPb37


10SPb20 35SPb20 36SMn14 36SMnPb14 46S20 46SPb20

11SMn30

20

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
11SMn30
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0715

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
0.14
0.05
0.90-1.30
0.02
+ 0.01
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

Natural forming
condition

1250-950

Normalizing
900
air

Core
hardening
880
water

P%
max
0.11
+ 0.02

S%

Pb%

Mo%

Ni%

0.27-0.33
0.03

Soft
annealing
680
air
Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

Mechanical proper ties


Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
380-570
112-169
10
16
380-570
112-169
16
40
380-570
112-169
40
63
370-570
109-169
63
100
360-520
107-154

Carburizing
(880-950)

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

Hardening on
carburized surface
(770-810)

Stress
relieving
(180-200)

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered

N/mm2

R
N/mm2 min

Rp 0.2
min

A%

HB

Not suitable for heat treatment

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH

Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for
N/mm2
5 b)
10
510-810
440
6
154-243
10
16
490-760
410
7
149-226
16
40
460-710
375
8
139-218
380-570
112-169
40
63
400-650
305
9
119-200
370-570
112-169
63
100
360-630
245
9
104-192
360-520
107-154
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
11SMn30

ITALY UNI
CF 9SMn28

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
9SMn28

FRANCE AFNOR
S250

UK BS
230M07

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1214

21

11SMnPb30

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
11SMnPb30
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0718

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
0.14
0.05
0.90-1.30
0.02
+ 0.01
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.11
+ 0.02

Natural forming
condition

1250-950

Normalizing
900
air

Core
hardening
880
water

S%

Pb%

0.27-0.33
0.03

0.20-0.35
+ 0.03 0.02

Soft
annealing
680
air
Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
380-570
112-169
10
16
380-570
112-169
16
40
380-570
112-169
40
63
370-570
109-169
63
100
360-520
107-154

Mo%

Carburizing
(880-950)

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface
(770-810)

Stress
relieving
(180-200)

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered


R
N/mm2

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min

A%
min

HB

Not suitable for heat treatment

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH  
Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for informazione
N/mm2
5 b)
10
510-810
440
6
154-243
10
16
490-760
410
7
149-226
16
40
460-710
375
8
139-218
380-570
112-169
40
63
400-650
305
9
119-200
370-570
112-169
63
100
360-630
245
9
104-192
360-520
107-154
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
11SMnPb30

ITALY UNI
CF 9SMnPb28

CHINA
Y15Pb

GERMANY DIN
9SMnPb28

FRANCE AFNOR
S250Pb

UK BS

RUSSIA
(AS14)

USA AISI/SAE
12L14

11SMn37

22

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
11SMn37
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0736

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
0.14
0.05
1.00-1.50
0.02
+ 0.01
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.11
+ 0.02

900
air

Pb%

Mo%

Ni%

0.34-0.40
0.04

Natural forming
condition

Soft
annealing
680
air

Carburizing

Core
hardening
880
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

1250-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
380-570
112-169
10
16
380-570
112-169
16
40
380-570
112-169
40
63
370-570
109-169
63
100
360-520
107-154

Hardening on
carburized surface

Stress
relieving

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered


R
N/mm2

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min

A%
min

HB

Not suitable for heat treatment

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH  
Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 b)
10
510-810
440
6
154-243
10
16
490-760
410
7
149-226
16
40
460-710
375
8
139-218
380-570
112-169
40
63
400-650
305
9
119-200
370-570
112-169
63
100
360-630
245
9
104-192
360-520
107-154
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
11SMn37

ITALY UNI
CF 9SMn36

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
9SMn36

FRANCE AFNOR
S300

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

23

11SMnPb37

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
11SMnPb37
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0737

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
0.14
0.05
1.00-1.50
0.02
+ 0.01
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.11
+ 0.02

900
air

Pb%

Mo%

0.34-0.40
0.04

0.20-0.35
+ 0.03 0.02

Natural forming
condition

Soft
annealing
680
air

Carburizing

Core
hardening
880
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

1250-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
380-570
112-169
10
16
380-570
112-169
16
40
380-570
112-169
40
63
370-570
109-169
63
100
360-520
107-154

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface

Stress
relieving

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered


R
N/mm2

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min

A%
min

HB

Not suitable for heat treatment

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH  
Values valid also for +C + SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 b)
10
510-810
440
6
154-243
10
16
490-760
410
7
149-226
16
40
460-710
375
8
139-218
380-570
112-169
40
63
400-650
305
9
119-200
370-570
112-169
63
100
360-630
245
9
104-192
360-520
107-154
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
11SMnPb37

ITALY UNI
CF 9SMnPb36

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
9SMnPb36

FRANCE AFNOR
S300Pb

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
12L14

10SPb20

24

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
10SPb20
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0722

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.07-0.13
0.40
0.70-1.10
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

Natural forming
condition
(HB max 160)

Soft
annealing
690
air

Core
hardening
880
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

1250-950

Normalizing
900
air

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

S%

Pb%

Mo%

0.15-0.25
0.03

0.20-0.35
+ 0.03-0.02

Carburizing
880-980

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
360-530
107-156
10
16
360-530
107-156
16
40
360-530
107-156
40
63
360-530
107-156
63
100
350-490
105-146

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface
770-810
water, oil, polymer

Stress
relieving
180
200

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
720
815

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
485
270

Hot-formed quenched and tempered


R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH

Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
N/mm2
5 b)
10
520-780
410
7
155-232
10
16
490-740
390
8
149-224
16
40
460-720
360
9
139-223
360-530
107-156
40
63
410-660
295
10
122-202
360-530
107-156
63
100
380-630
235
11
110-192
350-490
105-146
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Modulus elasticity
N/mm2
200000
EUROPE EN
10SPb20

Thermal conductivity
W/(mK)
47

ITALY UNI
CF 10SPb20

CHINA

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
440
GERMANY DIN
10SPb20

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

FRANCE AFNOR
10PbF2

UK BS

Melting temperature
C
1500-1540
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
11L08

25

35SPb20

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
35SPb20
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0756
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.32-0.39 0.40
0.70-1.10
0.03
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

860
air

Pb%

Mo%

0.15-0.25
0.03

0.15-0.35
+ 0.03 0.02

Natural forming
condition

Soft
annealing
680
air

Carburizing

Core
hardening
840
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

Stress
relieving
540-680
air

1230-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
5
10
550-720
159-223
10
16
550-700
159-213
16
40
520-680
154-201
40
63
520-670
154-198
63
100
500-650
149-193

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface

Stress
relieving

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered +QT EN 10087: 2000


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
630-780
430
15
192-232
630-780
430
15
192-232
600-750
380
16
178-225
550-700
320
17
159-213
550-700
320
17
159-213

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
5 b)
10
640-880
480
6
198-263
10
16
590-830
400
7
176-249
16
40
560-800
360
8
162-240
520-680
154-201
40
63
530-760
340
9
156-226
520-670
154-198
63
100
510-680
300
9
154-208
500-650
149-193
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement

Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT EN 10277-3: 2008 Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A% c) HB c)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
700-900
490
9
213-271
10
16
700-900
490
11
213-271
16
40
600-750
380
16
178-225
650-850
455
12
200-253
40
63
550-700
320
17
159-213
570-770
400
13
169-231
63
100
550-700
320
17
159-213
550-750
385
14
159-225
c) Values valid also for +C +QT+SL and +QT +C + SL
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
35SPb20

ITALY UNI

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
35SPb20

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

36SMn14

26

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
36SMn14
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0764
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.32-0.39 0.40
1.30-1.70
0.03
+ 0.03
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

Natural forming
condition

900
air

Pb%

Mo%

Ni%

0.10-0.18
0.03

(HB 163-222)

Soft
annealing
680
air

Core
hardening
880
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

1250-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
580-770
172-231
10
16
580-770
172-231
16
40
560-750
166-222
40
63
560-740
166-219
63
100
550-740
163-219

Carburizing
850-900

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

Hardening on
carburized surface
770-810
water, oil, salt bath
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
710
770

Stress
relieving
180-200
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
345
130

Hot-formed quenched and tempered +QT EN 10087: 2000


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
700-850
480
14
213-253
700-850
460
14
213-253
670-820
420
15
203-246
640-790
400
16
198-237
570-720
360
17
169-223

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
5 b)
10
660-960
500
6
202-290
10
16
620-920
440
6
190-275
16
40
600-900
390
7
178-271
560-750
166-222
40
63
580-840
360
8
172-250
560-740
166-219
63
100
560-820
340
9
162-246
550-740
163-219
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement

Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT EN 10277-3: 2008 Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT + C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A% c) HB c)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
750-1000
525
6
225-298
10
16
740-990
520
6
224-297
16
40
670-820
420
15
203-246
720-970
505
8
223-293
40
63
640-790
400
16
198-237
680-930
475
9
208-278
63
100
570-720
360
17
169-223
580-840
405
9
172-250
c) Values valid also for +C +QT+SL and +QT +C + SL
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
36SMn14

ITALY UNI
35SMn10

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
36SMn14

FRANCE AFNOR
36SMn14

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

27

36SMnPb14

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
36SMnPb14
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0765
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.32-0.39 0.40
1.30-1.70
0.03
+ 0.03
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

Natural forming
condition

900
air

Pb%

0.10-0.18
0.03

0.15-0.35
+ 0.03 0.02

(HB 163-222)

Soft
annealing
680
air

Core
hardening
880
water

Core
hardening
890 oil or
polymer

1250-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
PTesting at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
580-770
172-231
10
16
580-770
172-231
16
40
560-750
166-222
40
63
560-740
162-219
63
100
550-740
163-219

Mo%

Carburizing
850-900

Stress
relieving
150-200
furnace cooling

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface
770-810
water, oil, salt bath
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
710
770

Stress
relieving
180-200
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
345
130

Hot-formed quenched and tempered EN 10087: 2000


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
700-850
480
14
213-253
700-850
460
14
213-253
670-820
420
15
203-246
640-790
400
16
198-237
570-720
360
17
169-223

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Values valid also for +C +SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
5 b)
10
660-960
500
6
202-290
10
16
620-920
440
6
190-275
16
40
600-900
390
7
178-271
560-750
166-222
40
63
580-840
360
8
172-250
560-740
166-219
63
100
560-820
340
9
162-246
550-740
163-219
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement

Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT EN 10277-3: 2008 Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT + C

size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A% c) HB c)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
2
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
750-1000
525
6
225-298
10
16
740-990
520
6
224-297
16
40
670-820
420
15
203-246
720-970
505
8
223-293
40
63
640-790
400
16
198-237
680-930
475
9
208-278
63
100
570-720
360
17
169-223
580-840
405
9
172-250
c) Values valid also for +C +QT+SL and +QT +C + SL
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
36SMnPb14

ITALY UNI
35SMnPb10

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
36SMnPb14

FRANCE AFNOR
35MF6Pb

UK BS

RUSSIA
(AS35G2)

USA AISI/SAE

46S20

28

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
46S20
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0727
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.42-0.50 0.40
0.70-1.10
0.03
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

860
air

Pb%

Mo%

Ni%

0.15-0.25
0.03

Natural forming
condition

Soft
annealing
680
air

Carburizing

Core
hardening
840
water

Core
hardening
860 oil or
polymer

Stress
relieving
540-680
air

1250-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
590-800
176-240
10
16
590-780
175-232
16
40
590-760
175-225
40
63
580-730
172-216
63
100
560-710
166-211

Hardening on
carburized surface

Stress
relieving

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered +QT EN 10087: 2000


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
700-850
490
12
213-253
700-850
490
12
213-253
650-800
430
13
200-240
630-780
370
14
192-232
630-780
370
14
192-232

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Values valid also for +C + SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
5 b)
10
740-980
570
5
224-295
10
16
690-930
470
6
210-278
16
40
640-880
400
7
198-263
590-760
175-225
40
63
610-850
380
8
183-253
580-730
172-216
63
100
580-820
340
8
172-246
560-710
166-211
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT EN 10277-3: 2008 Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT + C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A% c) HB c)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
850-1000
595
8
253-298
10
16
800-950
560
9
240-286
16
40
650-800
430
13
200-240
700-850
490
10
213-253
40
63
630-780
370
14
192-232
700-850
490
11
213-253
63
100
630-780
370
14
192-232
650-850
455
11
200-253
c) Values valid also for +C +QT+SL and +QT +C + SL
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
46S20

ITALY UNI

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
45S20

FRANCE AFNOR
45MF4

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1146

29

46SPb20

Part two Free-cutting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
46SPb20
According to standards EN 10087: 2000
Number
1.0757
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.42-0.50 0.40
0.70-1.10
0.03
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.06
+ 0.008

860
air

Pb%

Mo%

0.15-0.25
0.03

0.15-0.35
+ 0.03 0.02

Natural forming
condition

Soft
annealing
680
air

Carburizing

Core
hardening
840
water

Core
hardening
860 oil or
polymer

Stress
relieving
540-680
air

1230-950

Normalizing

S%

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed natural forming condition EN 10087: 2000
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
size mm
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
reference only
5
10
590-800
175-240
10
16
590-780
175-232
16
40
590-760
175-225
40
63
580-730
172-216
63
100
560-710
166-211

Ni%

Hardening on
carburized surface

Stress
relieving

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf

Hot-formed quenched and tempered +QT EN 10087: 2000


Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
700-850
490
12
213-253
700-850
490
12
213-253
650-800
430
13
200-240
630-780
370
14
192-232
630-780
370
14
192-232

Cold-drawn +C EN 10277-3: 2008


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Values valid also for +C + SL
Values valid also for +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
5 b)
10
740-980
570
5
224-295
10
16
690-930
470
6
210-278
16
40
640-880
400
7
198-263
590-760
175-225
40
63
610-850
380
8
183-253
580-730
172-216
63
100
580-820
340
8
172-246
560-710
166-211
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT EN 10277-3: 2008 Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT + C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R c)
Rp 0.2 c)
A% c) HB c)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
850-1000
595
8
253-298
10
16
800-950
560
9
240-286
16
40
650-800
430
13
200-240
700-850
490
10
213-253
40
63
630-780
370
14
192-232
700-850
490
11
213-253
63
100
630-780
370
14
192-232
650-850
455
11
200-253
c) Values valid also for +C +QT+SL and +QT +C + SL
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
EUROPE EN
46SPb20

ITALY UNI

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
45SPb20

FRANCE AFNOR
46SPb20

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
41L50

CASE-HARDENING STEELS

C10E C15E C16E XC18 16MnCr5 20MnCr5 17NiCrMo6-4


18NiCrMo5 20NiCrMo2-2 16NiCr4 16NiCr11 16NiCrMo12

C10E

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C10E
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.1121

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
0,07-0,13
0,40
0,30-0,60
0,035
0,035
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
C 10R n 1.1207 S% 0.020-0.040 Deviations on the product 0.005
C10 n 1.0301 P% - S% max 0.045
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850
Soft
annealing
660-700
air
(HB max 131)

920
air
Isothermal
annealing
930 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB 100-150)

Core
hardening
880-920
water
Natural

(HB max 150)

31

Carbonitriding
750-930
gas
Hardenability
test

Mo%

Ni%

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
900-950
780-820
150
water
200
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
100
Slow cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms * core
** carb. surface
725
880
480* 220**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
540-930
345
12
35
158-278
30*
390-640
245
15
35
114-198
* The values of 30 are for information only.

32

Part two Case-hardening steels

C10R 1.1207 EN 10277-4: 2008


Cold-drawn +C c)
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
460-760
350
8
139-226
10
16
430-730
300
9
128-224
16
40
400-700
250
10
119-213
40
63
350-640
200
12
103-198
63
100
320-580
180
12
92-172

Technical card Trafilix


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

310-550
310-550
310-550

92-163
92-163
92-163

size
Soft annealing +A +SH,
Soft annealing +A +C
mm
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled, Ground +SL
Cold-drawn
from to
HB max
HB max
5 b)
10
225
10
16
216
16
40
131
207
40
63
131
190
63
100
131
172
a)
for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
a)
for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
a)
values valid also for +C +SL
Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
11
540-930
345
12
11
25
440-685
275
14
25
40
390-590
245
16
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
min No indications are shown in
max the reference standards

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
450

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
65

Specific electric resist.


ohmmm2/m
0.11
EUROPE EN
C10E

ITALY UNI
C10

Density
kg/dm3
7.86

11

13

20

25

30

Kv L
J min

35

Mod. of elasticity longitudinal


E N/mm2 a +20 C
200000

40

HB
for inform.
158-278
132-209
114-176

45

50

Mod. of elasticity tangential


G N/mm2 a +20 C
76760

Thermal expansion [(m/mK) 106 C1]


100 C
200 C
11.0
11.8

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
9.09
CHINA
10

15

Kcu L
J min
35
40
40

GERMANY DIN
Ck10

FRANCE AFNOR
XC10

UK BS
045M10

RUSSIA
10

USA AISI/SAE
1010

33

Part two Case-hardening steels


C10E
Heat
treatment
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U
+N
+U natural
+N normalized

Temperature (+ ...C) - min. values


20
200
300
350
276
245
0.10
0.14
505
607
1245
657
0.14
0.90
14.08
1.40
0.84
0.62

Fatigue behaviour
400

450

500

600
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
low cycle fatigue

C% Depth diagram
Carburizing at 930 C for 3 h in salt bath
1,00

0,90
0,80

0,70

% carbon

0,60

0,50

0,40

0,30

0,20

0,10

0,00
mm

0,01

0,02

0,03

0,04

0,05

0,06

0,07

0,08

0,09

effective depth of case-hardened layer

0,10

0,11

0,12

0,13

C15E

34

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C15E
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.1141

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
max
max
max
0.12-0.18
0.40
0.30-0.60
0.035
0.035
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
C 15R n 1.1140 S% 0.020-0.040 Deviations on the product 0.005.
C15Pb Pb = 0.15-0.35
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850
Soft
annealing
690
air
(HB max 143)

890-920
air
Isothermal
annealing
930 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB 115-145)

Core
hardening
880-920
water
Intermediate
annealing
650-700
air

Cr%

Carbonitriding
750-930
gas
Natural

(HB 170)

Mo%

Ni%

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
900-950
780-820
150
water
200
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
100
Slow cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
* core
** carb. surface
725
880
460* 220**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
740-1180
440
9
22.5
224-354
30*
540-780
295
13
30
158-232
* The values of 30 are for information only.
Tensile strength after hardening and tempering at +200C Lucefin experience
mm
d 16
16 d 40
R N/mm2 min
800
600
Heat
Temperature (+ ...C) - min. values
treatment
20
200
300
350
+A
249
+N
269
+A
0.19
+N
0.18
+A
824
+N
813
+A
807
+N
984
+A
0.12
+N
0.13
+A
0.42
+N
0.81
+A
0.53
+N
0.58
+N
170
+A annealed +N normalized

Fatigue behaviour
400

450

500

600
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue limit N/mm2 high cycle fatigue

35

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

C15R 1.1140 EN 10277-4: 2008


Cold-drawn +C c)
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
800-800
380
7
152-240
10
16
480-780
340
8
146-232
16
40
430-730
280
9
128-224
40
63
380-670
240
11
110-203
63
100
340-600
215
12
100-178

330-600
330-600
330-600

98-178
98-178
98-178

size
Soft annealing Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +A +SH,
Soft annealing +A +C
mm
Ground +SL
Cold-drawn
from to
HB max
HB max
5 b)
10
238
10
16
231
16
40
143
216
40
63
143
198
63
100
143
178
a)
for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b)
for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c)
values valid also for +C +SL
Forged UNI 8550: 1984 Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from to
N/v
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
11
735-1180
440
19
11
25
540-785
345
11
25
40
490-735
295
14
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
Jominy test HRC for information only
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
min 39
35
31
27
max 45
42
35
33
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

6
22
28

7
20
26

Kv L
J min

HB
for inform.
224-354
158-234
149-224

24

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

250-500

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
C15E

5
25
32

Kcu L
J min
22.5
30
35

ITALY UNI
C15

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
15

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
58
GERMANY DIN
Ck15

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.11

FRANCE AFNOR
XC12

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
9.09
RUSSIA
15

USA AISI/SAE
1015

C16E

36

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C16E
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.1148

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
0.12-0.18
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.035
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
C 16R n 1.1208 S% 0.020-0.040 0.005.
C16Pb Pb = 0.15-0.35
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850
Soft
annealing
650-700
air
(HB max 156)

890-920
air
Isothermal
annealing
910 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB 120-148)

Core
hardening
880-920
water
Intermediate
annealing

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Carbonitriding
740-930
gas
Hardenability test

Mo%

Ni%

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
900-950
780-820
150
water
200
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
100
Slow cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
* core
** carb. surface
725
850
450* 230**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
UNI 5331: 1964. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
test blanks R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
mm
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
25
700-1100
450
7
44

HB
reference only
213-331

37

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH 
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min

C16R 1.1208 EN 10277-4: 2008


Cold-drawn +C c)
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
520-820
400
7
154-247
10
16
500-800
360
8
152-240
16
40
450-750
300
9
135-228
40
63
400-690
260
11
119-210
63
100
360-620
235
12
106-210

350-620
350-620
350-620

105-184
105-184
105-184

size
Soft annealing Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +A +SH,
Soft annealing +A +C
mm
Ground +SL
Cold-drawn
from to
HB max
HB max
5 b)
10
242
10
16
238
16
40
156
222
40
63
156
204
63
100
156
184
a)
for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b)
for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c)
values valid also for +C +SL
Forged properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 5331: 1964. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
Kcu L
Kv L
HB
test blanks
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
J min
J min
for inform.
25
700-1100
450
7
44
213-331
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
min No indications are shown
max in the reference standards
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

11

13

15

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

20

25

250-500

30

35

40

45

50

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
C16E

ITALY UNI
C15

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
58
GERMANY DIN

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.11

FRANCE AFNOR
XC18

UK BS
080M15

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
9.09
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1015

XC18

38

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
XC18
According to standards NF A 35-551: 1986
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.16-0.22
0.15-0.35 0.40-0.70
0.01
+ 0.02
0.03
Permissible deviations on the product.
Can be supplied with the addition of sulphur S = 0.020-0.040%
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.25% XC 18 Pb
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 160)

875-900
air
Isothermal
annealing
880 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air

Core
hardening
870-910
water
Intermediate
annealing

Carbonitriding
750-930
gas
Hardenability test

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
880-930
770-810
150
water
200
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
100
Slow cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
730
845
440
220

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties, normalized condition NF A 35-551: 1986. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
410-490
255
28
45
16
40
400-490
245
27
45
40
100
390-490
225
26
42.5
100
160
380-480
215
25
40
160
250
370-480
205
24
40

HB
reference only
122-149
119-149
114-149
110-146
108-146

Hot-rolled mechanical properties, quenched and tempered condition after carburizing NF A 35-551: 1986. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
reference only
16
880-1270
600
8
20
263-373
16
40
690-1030
480
12
30
210-311

39

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix

XC18
Cold-drawn + C 070M20 BS 970 pt.3:1991. Reference only. Values are valid also for +C +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
6
13
560
420
10
162
13
16
530
390
12
156
16
40
490
340
12
149
40
63
480
290
13
146
63
76
450
280
14
135
Forged normalized +N NF A 35-551: 1986. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
160
380-480
215
25
160
250
370-480
205
24

A% Q
min

Forged quenched and tempered after carburizing NF A 35-551: 1986. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
16
880-1270
600
8
16
40
690-1030
480
12
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
min No indications are shown
max in the reference standards
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

11

13

15

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

20

25

250-500

Kv L
J min

HB
for inform.
110-146
108-146

Kcu L
J min
20
30

Kv L
J min

HB
for inform.
263-373
210-311

30

35

40

45

50

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
C16E

Kcu L
J min
40
40

ITALY UNI
C20

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
58
GERMANY DIN
Ck22

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.11

FRANCE AFNOR
XC18

UK BS
070M20

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
9.09
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1016

16MnCr5

40

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
16MnCr5
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.7131
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
max
max
max
0.14-0.19
0.40
1.00-1.30
0.025
0.035
0.80-1.10
0.02
+ 0.03
0.05
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
16MnCrS5 n 1.7139 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35%
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850

880
air
(HB 138-187)
Isothermal
annealing
870 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air

Core
hardening
860-900
oil, polymer,
salt bath
Spheroidizing

Soft
annealing +A
750-770 slowly
730-750 furnace
15 C/h
cooling 50 C/h to
until 680 pause
680 pause
after slowly 400,
cooling to 400
pause, after, air
after, air
(HB max 207)
(HB 156-207)
(HB 140-187)
Transformation annealing +FP
950-1000 quick cooling to 630-650 holding about 3 h
after, air (HB140-187)

Ni%

Carbonitriding

Carburizing

Hardening
carb. surface
810-840 oil,
polymer, salt
bath (160-250 C)

Stress
relieving
150
200

750-930
gas

900-950

Hardenability
test
870
water

Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms * core
** carb. surface
740
840
400* 200**
As-rolled
Stress relieving
600-620
(HB max 230)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
1030-1370
735
8
25
311-394
30*
740-1030
490
9
25
224-311
63*
640-930
440
10
25
198-278
* The values of 30 and 63 are for information only.
Hot-rolled condition untreated Lucefin experience
size
R
Rp 0.2
A%
mm
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
from 10 to 100 560-720
350
15

C%
min
25

Kcu
J min

HB
max
207

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 870 C in oil
HB
390
385
385
385
385
381
376 362
348 319
HRC
42
41.5 41.5 41.5 41.5 41
40.5 39
37.5 34
R
N/mm2
1340 1335 1330 1330 1320 1300 1260 1210 1150 1050
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1020 1060 1110 1140 1145 1140 1110 1070 1010 930
A
%
12.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.0 12.0
12.5 13.0 14.0 15.5
C
%
52.0 52.0 53.0 54.0 55.0 57.0
59.0 61.0 63.0 64.0
Kv
J
42
46
46
45
42
40
42
62
90
124
HRC carburized
64
63
62
60.5 59
57
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

286
30
950
830
17.5
68.0
135

240
22.5
800
710
20.0
72.0
155

213

200

700
620
23.0
75.0
180

650
560
25.5

550

600

650

700

194

41

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix


Heat treatment for +FP +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Cold-drawn
HB

16MnCrS5 1.7139 EN 10277-4: 2008


size
Soft
Soft
Heat treatment for +FP +SH
mm
annealing +A +SH, +SL
annealing +A +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
Cold-drawn
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
from
to
HB max
HB max
HB
5 a)
10
260
10
16
250
16
40
207
245
140-187
40
63
207
240
140-187
63
100
207
240
140-187
a)
for thickness below 5 mm, hardness test, can be agreed upon before order placement
Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
11
1030-1375
735
8
11
25
785-1080
540
9
25
50
685-930
490
10
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10084: 2008 Jominy test HRC grain size G 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
39
36
31
28
24
21
max
47
46
44
41
39
37
35
33
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Kcu T
J min

20

25

30

35

40

31

30

29

28

27

250-500

HB
for inform.
311-395
234-327
209-278

Kv L
J min

45

50

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
16MnCr5

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

Kcu L
J min
25
30
30

140-240
140-235
140-235

ITALY UNI
16MnCr5

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
15CrMn

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
41
GERMANY DIN
16MnCr5

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.16

FRANCE AFNOR
16MC

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
6.25
RUSSIA
16HG

USA AISI/SAE
5115

20MnCr5

42

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
20MnCr5
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.7147
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
max
max
max
0.17-0.22
0.40
1.10-1.40
0.025
0.035
1.00-1.30
0.02
+ 0.03
0.05
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
+ 0.05
20MnCrS5 n 1.7149 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35%
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-850

Soft
annealing +A
750-770 slowly.
15 C/h
until 680 pause
after slowly 400
pause after air
(HB max 217)

860-880
air
(HB 140-201)
Isothermal
annealing
860 furnace
to
650 after, air

(HB 170-217)

Core
hardening
860-900
oil, polymer,
salt bath
Spheroidizing
720-740 furnace
cooling to
680 pause
cooling to 300
after, air
(HB 152-201)

Transformation annealing +FP


950-1000 quick cooling to 620-650 holding about 3 h
after, air (HB 152-201)

Carbonitriding
750-930
gas
Hardenability
test
870
water

Ni%

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
880-930
810-840
150
oil, polymer
200
salt bath
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
* core
** carb. surface
730
830
390*
200**
As-rolled

Stress relieving
600-620

(HB max 295)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
1230-1570
930
7
17.5
363-438
30*
930-1230
690
8
20
278-363
63*
780-1080
540
9
25
232-327
* The values of 30 and 63 are for information only.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 870 C in oil
HB
426
426
421
421
415
409
395 381
362 336
HRC
45.5 45.5 45
45
44.5 44
42.5 41
39
36
R
N/mm2
1500 1500 1490 1480 1460 1430 1370 1300 1210 1100
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1060 1140 1190 1230 1240 1240 1220 1180 1090 960
A
%
11.5 11.9 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.8
11.9 12.2 12.8 14.0
C
%
48
49
50
52
53
55
56
58
60
62
Kv
J
38
40
40
40
38
38
32
34
75
75
HRC carburized
64.5 64
63
60.5 59
57
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

294
31
980
850
16.0
64
100

261
26.5
875
750
18.8
67
128

240
22.5
795
670
21.8
70
145

224
740
600
23.2
72
155

550

600

650

700

43

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix


Heat treatment for +FP +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Cold-drawn
HB

20MnCrS5 1.7149 EN 10277-4: 2008


size
Soft
Soft
Heat treatment for +FP +SH
mm
annealing +A +SH, +SL
annealing +A +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
Cold-drawn
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
from
to
HB max
HB max
HB
5 a)
10
270
10
16
260
16
40
217
255
152-201
40
63
217
250
152-201
63
100
217
250
152-201
a)
for thickness below 5 mm, hardness test, can be agreed upon before order placement
Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from
to
N/mm2mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
11
1225-1570
930
7
11
25
930-1225
685
8
25
50
785-1080
540
9
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10084: 2008 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
41
39
36
33
30
28
26
25
max
49
49
48
46
43
42
41
39
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
75000
175000

67000

155000

59000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
20MnCr5

ITALY UNI
20MnCr5

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
20CrMn

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

20
23
37

25
21
35

250-500

Kcu L
J min
17.5
20
25

152-250
152-245
152-245

Kcu T
J min

Kv L
J min

30

35

40

34

33

32

45

HB
for inform.
361-438
278-361
234-327

50

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
14.1

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
41
GERMANY DIN
20MnCr5

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.16

FRANCE AFNOR
20MC5

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
6.25
RUSSIA
20HG

USA AISI/SAE
5120

17NiCrMo6-4

44

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
17NiCrMo6-4
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.6566

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
max
0.14-0.20
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.025
0.035
0.80-1.10
0.15-0.25
1.20-1.50
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.03
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
17NiCrMoS6-4 n 1.6569 S% 0.020-0.040 0.005%.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35% or sulphur (S) max 0.10%
Temperature C
Hot forming Normalizing
1100-900

Soft
annealing
700
air

880
air

Isothermal
annealing
850 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB max 229) (HB 179-229)

Core
hardening
830-870
oil, polymer
salt bath
Annealing
+FP
900-1000

(HB 149-201)

Hardening
carb. surface
780-820
oil, polymer
salt bath
Hardenability test
880
water

Stress
relieving
150
180

Intermediate Carburizing
annealing
650-700
880-980
air

Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part
and before carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms * core
** carb. surface
730
815
360* 180**

Mechanical properties
Mechanical properties for Hot forming according to standards Stalschlssel 2007
after hardening 850C oil + stress relieving 200C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R min
Rp 0.2
A%
Kcu
HB
Lucefin experience
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
J min
min
Quenching 850C oil Tempering 200C air
16
1200
359
dim.
R
Rp 0.2
A
Kv +20 C
16
40
1000
298
mm
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
J
40
100
900
271
60
1248
942
13.6 64-52-52
17NiCrMoS6-4 1.6569 EN 10277-4: 2008
size
Soft
Soft
Heat treatment for +FP +SH
mm
annealing +A +SH, +SL
annealing +A +C
perlite-ferrite structure
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
Cold-drawn
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
from
to
HB max
HB max
HB
5 a)
10
275
10
16
265
16
40
229
260
149-201
40
63
229
255
149-201
63
100
229
255
149-201
a)
for thickness below 5 mm, hardness test, can be agreed upon before order placement

Heat treatment for +FP +C


perlite-ferrite structure
Cold-drawn
HB

149-250
149-245
149-245

45

Part two Case-hardening steels


17NiCrMo6-4
EN 10084: 2008 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
mm
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min 40
40
37
34
30
28
max 48
48
47
46
45
44
min 43
43
40
38
35
33
max 48
48
47
46
45
44
min 40
40
37
34
30
28
max 45
45
44
42
40
39
EUROPE EN
17NiCrMo6-4

ITALY UNI

CHINA

13
27
42
32
42
27
37

15
26
41
31
41
26
36

GERMANY DIN
17NiCrMo6-4

20
24
38
29
38
24
33

25
23
36
27
36
23
32

30
22
35
26
35
22
31

FRANCE AFNOR

35
21
34
25
34
21
30
UK BS

40

45

33
24
33

grades
H = normal
HH = restricted
scatter bands
HL = restricted
scatter bands

29
RUSSIA
17HGN1M

USA AISI/SAE

18NiCrMo5

46

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
18NiCrMo5
According to standards UNI 7846: 1978
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.15-0.21
0.15-0.40 0.60-0.90
0.70-1.00
0.15-0.25
1.20-1.50
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35% or sulphur (S) 0.020-0.035%
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1100-900

880
air

Soft
annealing
700 slowly
15 C/h until 600
after, air
(HB max 240)

Isothermal
annealing
850 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB 150-220)

Core
hardening
840-870
oil, polymer
salt bath
Annealing
+FP
950-1000
quick cooling

Carbonitriding

Hardenability
test
850
water

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
880-930
800-830
150-180
oil, polymer
salt bath
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
* core
** carb. surface
730
815
360* 180**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
1230-1520
980
8
30
363-432
30*
980-1270
735
9
32.5
295-373
63*
830-1130
635
10
35
249-339
* The values of 30 and 63 are for information only.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
415
415
415
409
404
395
381 362
344 327
HRC
44.5 44.5 44.5 44
43.5 42.5
41
39
37
35
R
N/mm2
1460 1460 1450 1430 1400 1360 1300 1230 1150 1080
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1070 1120 1170 1210 1210 1190 1150 1100 1040 960
A
%
13.5 13.6 13.5 13.2 13.0 12.8
12.8 12.9 13.8 15.0
C
%
57.0 58.0 59.0 60.0 60.0 60.0
60.0 60.0 61.0 63.0
Kv
J
64
64
62
62
64
46
46
46
75
94
HRC carburized
64
63.5 62
60
59
56
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

301
32
1000
860
17.0
65.0
125

271
28
900
790
19.5
68.0
148

237
22
790
700
22.0
72.0
166

218
710
610
24.0
74.0
180

550

600

650

700

47

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix

18NiCrMo5
Cold-drawn + C 815M17 BS 970-3: 1991
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
19
1080
8

HB
min
327

Kv
J min
22

Testing after quenching, case hardened layer. Quenching 830C oil tempering 200C air
Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
11
1225-1520
980
8
11
25
1030-1325
785
9
25
40
930-1230
735
9
40
100
785-1080
590
10
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
UNI 7846: 1978 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
39
38
36
34
31
29
max
49
48.5 48
46.5 45
43.5
Temperature
Testing at C
20

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
17NiCrMo6-4

ITALY UNI
18NiCrMo5

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

13
27
41

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

15
20
25.5 23
40
37

25
21
35.5

250-500

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
41
GERMANY DIN

Kcu L
J min
30
32.5
32.5
35

Kcu T
J min

30
20.5
34.5

35
20
33.5

HB
for inform.
361-432
311-384
278-363
234-327

40

45

50

33

32.5

32

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.16

FRANCE AFNOR
18NCD6

Kv L
J min

UK BS
815M17

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
6.25
RUSSIA
19HNM

USA AISI/SAE
4317

20NiCrMo2-2

48

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
20NiCrMo2-2
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.6523

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
0,17-0,23
0,40
0,65-0,95
0,025
0,035
0,35-0,70
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
20NiCrMoS2-2 n 1.6526 S% 0.020-0.040 0.005%.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35%
Temperature C
Hot forming

Natural state

Normalizing

1100-900

(HB max 230)

Soft
annealing
700 furnace cooling
10 C/h until 600
after, air
(HB max 212)

Isothermal
annealing
850 furnace
cooling to 650
after, air
(HB 161-212)

860-880
air
salt bath
Annealing
+FP
950-1000
quick cooling

Core
hardening
850-880
oil, polymer
Hardenability
test
870
water

(HB 149-194)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks
after core hardening UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
11
1180-1570
930
7
30*
830-1130
590
10
63*
690-980
490
11
* The values of 30 and 63 are for information only.

C%
min

Mo%

Ni%

0,15-0,25 0,40-0,70
0.03
0.05

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
880-930
800-830
150
oil, polymer
200
salt bath
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part
and before carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms *core
** carb. surface
735
820
380* 200**

HB

Kcu
J min
27.5
30
30

354-438
249-339
210-295

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 860 C in oil
HB
415
409
409
404
390
385
376 357
344 319
HRC
44.5 44
44
43.5 42
41.5
40.5 38.5 37
34
R
N/mm2
1440 1430 1425 1410 1340 1335 1270 1200 1140 1050
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1060 1110 1160 1180 1180 1170 1135 1080 1025 950
A
%
11.2 11.8 12.0 12.0 11.8 11.2
11.4 12.0 13.5 15.2
C
%
51
52
53
54
55
56
60
61
62
63
Kv
J
46
46
46
46
45
46
64
62
86
100
HRC carburized
64
63.5 62
60.5 59
57.5
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
Effective depth of case-hardened layer
Depth
mm
0.25
HRC
Time of case-hardening h
1

0.30

0.40

0.50
50
4

294
31
975
870
17.0
65
126

264
27
885
785
19.0
67
146

240
22.5
800
700
22.0
72
170

700
600
24.5
74
194

550

600

650

700

0.60

0.65

213

49

Part two Case-hardening steels

Technical card Trafilix


Heat treatment for +FP +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Cold-drawn
HB

20NiCrMoS2-2 1.6526 EN 10277-4: 2008


size
Soft
Soft
Heat treatment for+FP +SH
mm
annealing +A +SH, +SL
annealing +A +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
Cold-drawn
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
from
to
HB max
HB max
HB
5 a)
10
270
10
16
260
16
40
212
255
149-194
40
63
212
255
149-194
63
100
212
255
149-194
a)
for thickness below 5 mm, hardness can be agreed upon before order placement
Forged 20NiCrMo2 UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min min
min
min
11
1175-1570
930
9
11
25
885-1225
640
10
25
40
785-1080
590
10
40
60
685-980
490
11
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10084: 2008 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
41
37
31
25
22
20
max
49
48
45
42
36
33
31
30
Mod. of elasticity N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
20NiCrMo2-2

ITALY UNI
20NiCrMo2

CHINA
20CrNiMo

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

GERMANY DIN
21NiCrMo2

Kcu L
J min
27.5
30
30
32

149-240
149-235
149-235

Kcu T
J min

20

25

30

35

40

27

25

24

24

23

250-500

45

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

FRANCE AFNOR
20NCD2

UK BS
805M20

HB
for inform.
352-438
265-361
234-327
209-295

Kv L
J min

RUSSIA
20HGNM

50

Density
kg/dm3
7.86
USA AISI/SAE
8620 appr.

Transformation diagram for isothermal cooling - time - temperature


850
Af
austenite
750
As

HB 160

650
ferrite + carbides

austenite + ferrite

austenite + ferrite + carbides


500

temperature C

50%
400

300
time [s]

M 50

Ms
M 90
10

10 2

103

104

105

106

16NiCr4

50

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
16NiCr4
According to standards EN 10084: 2008
Number
1.5714

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
max
0.13-0.19
0.40
0.70-1.00
0.025
0.035
0.60-1.00
0.80-1.10
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) 0.15-0.35% 16NiCrS4 n 1.5715 sulphur (S) 0.020-0.040%
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request. Copper (Cu) max 0.40%
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1150-900

870
air

Soft
annealing
700
air

Isothermal
annealing
860 furnace
cooling to
650 after, air
(HB 166-217)

(HB max 217)

Core
hardening
840-880
oil, polymer
salt bath
Spheroidizing

(HB 156-207)

Carbonitriding
750-930
gas
Hardenability
test
870
water

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
870-950
810-840
150
oil, polymer
200
salt bath
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
250
550 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
* core
** carb. surface
735
825
380*
180**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening + stress relieving UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
1080-1470
835
9
30
327-417
30
830-1130
590
10
32.5
249-339
reference only
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
400
395
395
395
390
381
371 353
336 301
HRC
43
42.5 42.5 42.5 42
41
40
38
36
32
R
N/mm2
1380 1370 1370 1360 1340 1310 1250 1180 1100 1010
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1020 1070 1100 1200 1200 1100 1070 1020 940 850
A
%
13.0 13.0 13.2 13.2 13.4 13.6
13.8 14.2 15.5 17.0
C
%
55
58
59
60
62
63
63
63
64
65
Kv
J
66
66
66
64
64
46
45
46
75
110
HRC carburized
64
63
62
60
59
57
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

271
28
900
770
19.2
67
135

240
22.5
800
690
22.0
70
170

224

210

730
620
24.0
73
196

690
520
25.0
74

550

600

650

700

51

Part two Case-hardening steels


16NiCrS4 1.5715 EN 10277-4: 2008
size
Soft
Soft
Heat treatment for +FP +SH +SL
mm
annealing +A +SH, +SL
annealing +A +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
Cold-drawn
Peeled-Reeled, Ground
from
to
HB max
HB max
HB
5 a)
10
270
10
16
260
16
40
217
255
156-207
40
63
217
255
156-207
63
100
217
255
156-207
a)
for thickness below 5 mm, hardness can be agreed upon before order placement
Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
Kcu L
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min min
min
min
J min
11
1080-1470
835
9
30
11
25
880-1195
640
10
32.5
25
40
785-1080
590
10
32.5
40
60
735-980
540
11
32.5
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening and stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10084: 2008 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
39
36
33
29
27
25
23
22
max
47
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

Kv L
J min

25

30

35

40

30

29

28

28

250-500

156-245
156-240
156-240

45

HB
for inform.
327-417
263-356
234-327
224-295

50

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
16NiCr4

20
20
32

Kcu T
J min

Technical card Trafilix


Heat treatment for +FP +C
pearlite-ferrite structure
Cold-drawn
HB

ITALY UNI
16CrNi4

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
38
GERMANY DIN
15CrNi6

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.18

FRANCE AFNOR
16NC4

UK BS
637M17

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.56
RUSSIA
16HGN

USA AISI/SAE
3215 appr.

16NiCr11

52

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
16NiCr11
According to standards UNI 5331: 1964
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.12-0.18
0.35
0.30-0.60
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1100-900

850
air

Soft
annealing
680
furnace

Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace
cooling to
620 after, air
(HB 160-200)

(HB max 235)

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Core
hardening
830-860
oil, polymer
salt bath
Spheroidizing

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Carbonitriding

Cr%

Mo%

0.60-0.90
0.05

Carburizing
880-900

Hardenability
test
850
water

Ni%
2.50-3.00
0.07

Hardening
carb. surface
790-820
oil, polymer
salt bath

Stress
relieving
150
200

Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms * core
**carb. surface
715
790
360* 170**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening UNI 5331
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
25
1127-1422
882
9
30
Quenching at 850-870 C in oil. Tempering at 150-180 C

HB
for inform.
339-409

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 840 C in oil
HB
400
395
395
395
390
381
371 353
336 301
HRC
43
42.5 42.5 42.5 42
41
40
38
36
32
R
N/mm2
1380 1375 1370 1365 1340 1310 1250 1180 1100 1000
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1000 1050 1100 1130 1130 1120 1080 1040 960 870
A
%
14.2 13.8 13.6 13.4 13.4 13.6
13.8 14.2 15.8 17.2
C
%
60
60
60
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
Kv
J
75
75
75
68
66
54
46
45
64
82
HRC carburized
63.5 63
61.5 59
58
56
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

271
28
900
780
20.0
68
126

240
22.5
800
690
24.0
70
155

224

224

740
640
25.5
73
194

730
600
25.0
72
186

550

600

650

700

53

Part two Case-hardening steels


16NiCr11
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
Kcu L
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
J min
11
1130-1420
880
9
30
11
25
1030-1280
785
10
35
25
40
930-1180
735
11
35
40
100
835-980
640
11
35
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening and stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
UNI 8550: 1984 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
39
36.5 34
32
30
28.5
max
48
46.5 44.5 43
41.5 40
Temperature

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2

Testing at C

E long.

G tang.

20
100
200
300
400
500

210000
205000
195000
185000

80000
78000
75000
71000

11.1
12.1
12.9

165000

63000

14.1

EUROPE EN
16NiCr12

ITALY UNI
16NiCr11

CHINA
12CrNi3

13
27
39

15
20
26
23.5
37.5 35

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

GERMANY DIN
14NiCr10

25
21.5
32.5

Kcu T
J min

30
19.5
31

35
18
29.5

HB

HRC
for inform.
36.5-44
33-40.5
29-38
24.5-31

40
17.5
28.5

45
16.5
28

HB
339-406
311-375
278-354
250-295

50
16
27.5

Variation of mechanical properties according to the


thickness of quenched and tempered bars. Test at 1/2
radius. Trafilix experience
thickness
R
Rp 0.2
A
mm
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
10
1330
930
15.8
20
1175
830
16.0
30
1135
715
16.4
40
960
645
16.6
50
900
590
16.8
60
860
570
17.5
70
840
550
18.8
80
830
540
19.6
90
820
535
20.0
100
810
520
21.4

FRANCE AFNOR
16NC11

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
3415

16NiCrMo12

54

Part two Case-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
16NiCrMo12
According to standards UNI 7846: 1978
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.13-0.19
0.15-0.40 0.40-0.70
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1100-900

840
air

Soft
annealing
680
furnace

Isothermal
annealing
810 furnace
cooling to
620 after, air
(HB 190-236)

(HB max 250)

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Core
hardening
820-850
oil, polymer
salt bath
Spheroidizing

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Carbonitriding

Hardenability
test
850
water

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.80-1.10
0.05

0.30-0.40 2.70-3.20
0.04
0.07

Carburizing

Hardening
Stress
carb. surface
relieving
870-900
780-810
150
oil, polymer
200
salt bath
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
Welding must be made on the annealed part and before
carburizing
150-350
600 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms * core
** carb. surface
710
780
330* 150**

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening UNI 7846: 1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
test blanks N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
11
1230-1520
980
9
32.5
363-432
30*
1080-1370
785
10
35
327-394
63*
980-1270
735
10
42.5
295-373
* The values of 30 and 63 are for information only.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 840 C in oil
HB
426
421
421
415
409
404
385 381
357 327
HRC
45.5 45
45
44.5 44
43.5
42.5 41
38.5 35
R
N/mm2
1490 1480 1470 1460 1440 1420 1360 1300 1200 1090
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1300 1320 1330 1320 1300 1260 1200 1140 1050
A
%
12.0 12.0 11.8 11.2 10.4 10.0
10.6 11.5 12.8 14.6
C
%
50
52
55
55
56
56
56
56
57
59
Kv
J
42
43
46
66
66
46
42
42
46
76
HRC carburized
65
64.5 64
62
59
57
layer
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

301
32
1000
960
16.8
63
100

271
28
910
830
20.0
67
128

250
24.5
840
720
21.8
69
126

550

600

650

700

55

Part two Case-hardening steels


16NiCrMo12
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

Technical card Trafilix


Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

Forged UNI 8550: 1984. Reference only.


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
Kcu L
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
J min
11
1225-1520
980
8
32.5
11
25
1130-1500
835
9
35
25
40
1030-1325
735
10
37
40
100
930-1275
685
10
40
100 150
835-1130
635
11
40
Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after core hardening and stress relieving
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
UNI 7846: 1978 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
42
41.5 41
40.5 40
39
max
48
48
48
47.5 47.5 47
Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
14NiCrMo13-4

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
ITALY UNI
16NiCrMo12

CHINA

13
38.5
47

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

GERMANY DIN

15
20
38
36.5
46.5 45.5

250-500

25
35.5
44.5

HRC
HB
reference only
39-46
361-432
36.5-45.5 339-426
33-41.5
311-384
29-40
278-373
24.5-36.5 250-339

Kcu T
J min

30
34
44

35
33
43

40
32
42

45
31
41.5

50
30
41

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

FRANCE AFNOR
16NCD13

UK BS

RUSSIA
16HN3M

USA AISI/SAE
9314

NITRIDING STEELS

34CrAlNi7-10 41CrAlMo7-10

57

34CrAlNi7-10

Part two Nitriding steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
34CrAlNi7-10
According to standards UNI EN 10085: 2003
Number
1.8550
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0,30-0,37 0,40
0,40-0,70
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
650-700
air
(HB max 248)

P%
max
0,025
+ 0.005

Stress relieving
after machining
550-580
air
Isothermal
annealing

S%
max
0,035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Al%

1,50-1,80
0.05

0,15-0,25
0.03

0,80-1,20
0.10

Ni%
max
0,85-1,15
0.05

Quenching

Tempering

Nitrocarburizing

850-890
oil or polymer
Nitriding

570-660
air
Hardenability
test
900
water

570-580

500-520

Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
730
775

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition UNI EN 10085: 2003
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
J min
for information
16
40
900-1100
680
10
30
271-331
40
100
850-1050
650
12
30
253-319
100
160
800-1000
600
13
35
240-298
160
250
800-1000
600
13
35
240-298
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 880 C in oil
HB
534
534
525
518
504
489
468 448
432 404
HRC
53.5 53.5 53
52.5 51.5 50.5
49
47.5 46
43.5
R
N/mm2
1970 1970 1950 1900 1850 1800 1710 1620 1520 1400
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1440 1450 1520 1570 1550 1500 1440 1390 1300 1210
A
%
9.8
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
10.0 10.0 10.4 11.2
C
%
38
40
43
43
42
40
39
40
43
45
Kcu
J
12
14
14
12
11
9
8
7
9
12
Kv
J
8
11
11
8
7
6
5
4
6
8
DVM J
18
24
24
18
16
15
14
13
15
18
Test tempering at C 50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
High-temperature strength
R
N/mm2
840
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
620
A
%
22
C
%
68
Kv
J
140
Test temperature C
20

780
590
22
70
150
100

760
580
22
68
165
200

790
560
22
64
175
300

Final stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
340
125

700
480
24
76
150
400

Surface hardness in
quenched and tempered
and nitrided condition HV 1
950

376
40.5
1280
1100
13.6
50
20
17
33
550

327
35
1090
970
15.5
57
32
38
55
600

580
410
26
80
125
500

294
31
980
820
18.4
63
52
84
88
650

271
28
900
700

78
152
132
700

350
220
28
88
80
600

58

Part two Nitriding steels


Technical card Trafilix
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

34CrAlNi7-10
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards
Forged quenched and tempered DIN 17211: 1987. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
850-1050
650
12
100 250
800-1000
600
13
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
Jominy test HRC 34CrAlNi7 UNI 8552. Reference only.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11
min
48.5 48
47.5 46.5
45.5 44.5
max
59.5 59
58
57
56.5 56
Temperature

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
79000

Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

185000

71000

165000
155000

63000
59000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
34CrAlNi7-10

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

ITALY UNI

13
43.5
55.5

15
43
55

GERMANY DIN
34CrAlNi7

900

+
600

2,8

500

400

N%

780 C

650 C

(Fe2-3N)

4,5

+ ,

509 C
0,10%

+ ,

700

2,35
+ ,
(magnetic structure)
Fe4N

+ ,

30
34.5
50.5

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.31
UK BS

DVM L
J min
35
40

35
33
48.5

40
32
47

HB
for inform.
253-319
240-298

45
31.5
46

50
31
45

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
9.1
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.22
RUSSIA
24H2NMJu

USA AISI/SAE
K52440

Iron-Nitrogen equilibrium diagram


While operating in never-ending flow conditions the
gaseous ammoniac, at a temperature higher than 480
C, releases nitrogen and hydrogen which are absorbed and diffused in the sub-superficial steel layer.
The nascent nitrogen reacts with the steel elements
and creates very hard but very fragile nitrides.
The lack of alloy elements in the carbon steel leads to
the creation of lonely iron nitrides that gives the steel a
big fragility. In order to prevent this inconvenience it is
better to use steels containing Al, V, Cr, Mo that are
more similar to nitrogen than to iron.
The highest advised temperature for the nitriding is
580 C avoiding the eutectoid of 590 C.

907 C

25
37
52

FRANCE AFNOR

800

20
39
54

Kv L
J min
30
35

Rp 0.2
R
A
Kv
heat treatment on a round bar 15 mm dia.
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
J
680
800
20
150
600
780
20
155
590
780
20
165
580
780
20
175
500
700
22
155
400
590
25
125
220
360
30
100
Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
35

CHINA

A% Q
min

10

Diagram taken from: Technical report University of Missouri Rolla by Van L. Richards.
The same diagram is placed on Metal quality.it

Fe4 N = micro-crystals of ferrite and nitrides


Fe2-3 N = nitrides behaving like a barrier against
the diffusion of nitrose.

59

41CrAlMo7-10

Part two Nitriding steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
41CrAlMo7-10
According to standards UNI EN 10085: 2003
Number
1.8509
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.38-0.45
0.40
0.40-0.70
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-950
Soft
annealing
650-750
air
(HB max 248)

Stress relieving
after machining
550-570
air
Isothermal
annealing

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Al%

1.50-1.80
0.05

0.20-0.35
0.04

0.80-1.20
0.10

Quenching

Tempering

Nitrocarburizing

870-930
oil or polymer
Nitriding

580-700
air
Hardenability
test
900
water

570-580

480-570

Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
790
920

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition UNI EN 10085: 2003

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)


mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
for inform.
16
40
950-1150
750
11
25
286-347
40
100
900-1100
720
13
25
271-331
100
160
850-1050
670
14
30
253-319
160
250
800-1000
625
15
30
240-298
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 930 C in oil
HB
568
560
550
525
518
496
475 455
432 400
HRC
55.5 55
54.5 53
52.5 51
49.5 48
46
43
R
N/mm2
2100 2060 2030 1950 1900 1820 1740 1630 1530 1400
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1300 1350 1480 1520 1510 1490 1450 1380 1300 1190
A
%
7.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.2
9.0 10.5
C
%
28
28
35
38
39
39
38
37
39
44
Kv
J
28
38
46
64
64
64
64
54
64
80
Test tempering at C 50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
High-temperature strength
R
N/mm2
1010
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
860
A
%
18
C
%
58
Kv
J
76
Test temperature C
20
Thermal expansion
[(m/mK)106 C1]
Test temperature C

11.1
20 200

960
800
16
58
78
100

12.1
20 200

900
740
14
52
110
200

880
700
14
56
110
300

12.9
20 300

Final stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

830
620
20
74
118
400

135
20 400

Surface hardness in
quenched and tempered and
nitrided condition HV 1
950

376
40.5
1280
1080
12.0
51
96
550

336
36
1110
940
14.2
56
116
600

700
580
26
80
110
500

13.9
20 500

294
31
980
800
17.5
60
126
650

253
25
850
700
19.5
64
132
700

500
300
48
90
80
600

60

Part two Nitriding steels


Technical card Trafilix
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

41CrAlMo7-10
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown
in the reference standards

Forged quenched and tempered UNI 8552: 1984. Reference only.


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
100
930-1130
735
12
100 160
835-980
640
14
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial Mechanical properties obtained from test blanks
Jominy test HRC 41CrAlMo7 UNI 8552
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
min
53
52
51
50
max
60
60
59.5 59.5
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600
EUROPE EN
41CrAlMo7-10

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

ITALY UNI
41CrAlMo7

9
49
59

11
48
59

13
47.5
58.5

15
47
58

20
44.5
57

Rp 0.2
R
A
Kv
heat treatment cross-section 15 mm dia.
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
J
850
1000
18
85
800
990
16
90
750
980
16
110
700
960
17
120
620
880
19
122
550
750
22
110
280
500
38
85

CHINA
38CrMoA0

GERMANY DIN
41CrAlMo7

25
41
56.5

30
39.5
55

HB
for inform.
278-339
250-295

Kcu T
J min

35
37.5
53

40
36
51

45
35
49

50
33
47

Hardness HV05 after nitriding


to the depth of mm:
mm
HV min
HV max

0.01
950
1140

0.06 0.12 0.18


950 930 850
1140 1140 1110

0.25
800
1110

mm
HV min
HV max

0.5
210
750

0.6

0.7

0.8

400

350

350

350

FRANCE AFNOR
40CAD6.12

UK BS
905M39

RUSSIA
40X2MI-O

USA AISI/SAE
J24056-E71400

Hardness
profiles
Hardness profiles

0.7
0.6
42CrMo4
41CrAIMo7-10
31CrMoV9

0.5

Hardness HV

Nitriding
Depth
Nitriding depht
Nitriding depth HV 400 mm

Kcu L
J min
19.5
22.5

1200
1100
41CrAIMo7-10

1000
900

31CrMoV9

800
700

0.4

600
0.3

500
400

0.2

42CrMo4

300
200

0.1

100
0

0
0

10

20

30

40

50
60
Nitriding time h

Nitriding depth 400 HV as function of the nitriding time.


Plasma nitriding 510 C

0.1 0.2

0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


Distance from surface mm

Variation of Hardness with distance from surface.


Plasma nitriding 510 C

STEELS FOR QUENCHING AND TEMPERING

C22E C30E C35E XC38H1 C40E C45E C50E C55E C60E


ASTM A 105 ASTM A 350 LF2
41Cr4 34CrMo4 42CrMo4 50CrMo4 39NiCrMo3 34CrNiMo6 40NiCrMo7 30CrNiMo8
36NiCrMo16

C22E

62

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C22E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1151

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
0,17-0,24
0,40
0,40-0,70
0,030
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C22R n 1.1149 S% 0.020-0.040 0.005%.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1150-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 170)

S%
max
0,035
+ 0.005

Cr%
max
0,40

Mo%
max
0,10

Ni%
max
0,40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

890-920
air
Isothermal
annealing
880 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB max 160)

880
water
Natural

900 oil or
polymer
End quench
hardenability test

550-660
air
Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3
730
840

(HB max 185)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
440
220

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
over to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
430
240
24
16
100
16
100
410
210
25

HB
min
128
122

Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
500-650
340
20
50
16
40
8
20
470-620
290
22
50
50
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 30 mm after quenching at 880 C in water
HB
198
178
172
159
R
N/mm2
640
600
580
550
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
390
370
350
320
A
%
18
20
20
20
Z
%
45
50
52
58
Tempering at C
450
500
550
600

154
510
300
20
60
650

HB
referece only
152-200
141-190

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card Trafilix

C22E
Cold-drawn +C BS 970 pt.3: 1991 (070M20). Reference only.
Values are valid also for +C+SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
6
13
560
420
13
16
530
390
16
40
490
340
40
63
480
290
63
76
450
280

HB
min
162
156
149
146
135

A%
min
10
12
12
13
14

Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re a)
A% L A% T A% Q
2
from
to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
100
410
210
25
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
min No indications are shown
max in the reference standards
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600
700

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

Kv L
J min

10

250-500

HB
min
122

Kv T
J min

11

13

15

20

25

30

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
12.25
13.10
13.73
14.28
14.79
15.06
15.37

Heat
Temperature (+ ...C) - min. values
treatment
20
200
300
350
+U
267
+QT
279
+U
0.13
+QT
0.13
+U
580
+QT
613
+U
561
+QT
700
+U
0.08
+QT
0.09
+U
1.30
+QT
0.49
+U
0.65
+QT
0.69
+U natural +QT quenched and tempered
EUROPE EN
C22E

63

ITALY UNI
C20

CHINA
20

Fatigue behaviour
400

GERMANY DIN
Ck22

450

500

600
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
low cycle fatigue

FRANCE AFNOR
XC18

UK BS
070M20

RUSSIA
20

USA AISI/SAE
1020

C30E

64

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C30E
According to standards EN 10083-1: 1998
Number
1.1178

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
0.27-0.34
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.035
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C30R n 1.1179 S% 0.020-0.040 0.005%.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1150-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 190)

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%
max
0.40

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

880
air
Isothermal
annealing
880 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB max 140-180)

860
water
Natural

890 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test

550-660
air
Pre-heating
welding

(HB max 210)

Ac1
730

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
400
180

Ac3
810

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod properties for normalized condition C30 1.0528 EN 10083-2: 1998. Reference only.

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
HB
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
min
16
16
510
280
20
154
16
100
16
100
480
250
21
146
100
250
100 250
460
230
21
139
Hot-formed hot-rolled properties for quenched and tempered condition C30 1.0528 EN 10083-2: 1998
Reference only.

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
600-750
400
18
40
16
40
8
20
550-700
350
20
45
40
63
20
35
500-650
300
21
50
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, the 0.2% proof strength Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 860 C in water
HB
454
441
409
343
263
HRC
48
47
44
37
27
R
N/mm2
1640
1580
1430
1140
880
Tempering at C
100
200
300
400
500

225
20
750
600

HB
referece only
178-225
159-213
152-200

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card Trafilix

C30E
Cold-drawn +C (080M30) BS 970 pt.3: 1991. Reference only.
Values are valid also for +C+SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
6
13
620
460
13
16
600
450
16
40
570
400
40
63
560
345
63
76
530
320

HB
min
190
178
169
162
156

A%
min
9
10
11
12
12

Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re a)
A% L A% T A% Q
Kv L
2
from
to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
J min
100
480
250
21
100
250
460
230
21
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, the 0.2% proof strength Rp 0.2.
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
min No indications are shown
max in the reference standards

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
Testing at +20 C 210000
80000
Temperature

EUROPE EN
C30E

65

ITALY UNI
C30

CHINA
30

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

GERMANY DIN
Ck30

10

11

HB
min
146
139

Kv T
J min

13

15

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1 12.1 12.9
100
200
300

FRANCE AFNOR
XC32

UK BS
080M30

20

13.5
400
RUSSIA
30

25

13.9
500

30

14.1
600 C

USA AISI/SAE
1030

C35E

66

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C35E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1181

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.32-0.39
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
C35R n 1.1180 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%
C35 n 1.0501 P% - S% max 0.045
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 210)

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

880
air
Isothermal
annealing
840 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 140-195)

850
water
Natural

880 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
870
water

540-680
air
Pre-heating
welding
100
Ac1
Ac3
730
795

(HB max 220)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
380
160

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
550
300
18
16
100
16
100
520
270
19
100
250
100 250
500
245
19
Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
630-780
430
17
40
16
40
8
20
600-750
380
19
45
35
40
100
20
60
550-700
320
20
50
35
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in water
HB
467
448
412
343
268
HRC
49
47.5
44
37
27.5
R
N/mm2
1700
1610
1440
1140
890
Tempering at C
100
200
300
400
500

226
20
760
600

HB
min
159
155
152

HB
referece only
192-232
178-225
159-213

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

67

C35E 1.1181 C35R 1.1180 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
650-1000
510
6
200-298
10
16
600-950
420
7
178-286
16
40
580-880
320
8
172-263
520-700
154-207
40
63
550-840
300
9
159-250
520-700
154-207
63
100
520-800
270
9
155-240
520-700
154-207
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C +SL
C35E 1.1181 C35R 1.1180 EN 10277-5: 2008
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +QT +C c)
Cold-drawn + bonifica +C +QT and +C +QT +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
750-950
525
9
225-286
10
16
700-900
490
9
213-271
16
40
650-850
455
10
200-253
600-750
370
19
178-225
40
63
570-770
400
11
169-231
550-700
320
20
159-213
63
100
550-750
385
12
159-225
550-700
320
20
159-213
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +QT +C +SL

from
100
250
500

Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re c)
A% L A% T
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
520
270
19
250
500
245
19
15
500
480
220
19
15
1000
470
210
18
14

A% Q
min

Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-2: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re c)
A% L
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
100
70
550
320
20
100
250
70
160
490
290
22
250
500
160 330
470
270
21
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
c) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 48
40
33
24
22
20
max 58
57
55
53
49
41
34
31
28
EUROPE EN
C35E

ITALY UNI
C35

CHINA
35

GERMANY DIN
Ck35

Kv L
J min
30
25
20
17

Kv T
J min

A% T
min

A% Q
min

15
12
12

15
14

10

11

13

15

27

26

25

24

FRANCE AFNOR
XC38H1

UK BS
080M36

HB
min
155
152
146
141

Kv L
J min
35
31
25

20

Kv T
J min
20
16

HB
min
159
149
141

25

RUSSIA
35

USA AISI/SAE
1034

68
C35E
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
250
300
350
400
500
600

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
74000

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

185000

71000

12.9

175000

67000
13.9
59000

13.5

155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

11.1
12.1

14.1
Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
50

Heat
Temperature (+ ...C) - min. values
treatment
20
200
300
350
+N
275
220
185
165
+N
246
+N
218
+QT
328
+N
334
+QT
0.23
+N
0.25
+QT
1355
+N
1599
+QT
1050
+N
1545
+QT
0.11
+N
0.14
+QT
0.33
+N
0.90
+QT
0.47
+N
0.57
1) Creep rupture strength
+N normalized
+QT quenched an tempered

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.12

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
8.33

Fatigue behaviour
400
145
187
138

450

500

100
70

53
34

600
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
Creep rupture, 10.000 h N/mm2 1)
Creep rupture, 100.000 h N/mm2 1)
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
low cycle fatigue

XC38H1

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
XC38H1
According to standards NF A 35-552: 1986
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.35-0.40
0.15-0.35 0.50-0.80
0.02
0.02
0.03
Cr < 0.40% Ni < 0.40% Mo <0.10
XC38Pb H1 Pb% 0.15-0.25
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
695
air
(HB max 192)

69

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
max
max
max
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.10
0.40
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product. Cr+Ni+Mo max 0.45%.
XC38S H1 S% 0.020-0.040 cast analysis 0.020-0.045 product analysis

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

850-875
air
Isothermal
annealing
830 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 149-201)

835-865
water
Natural

880 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
850
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
100
Ac1
Ac3
730
785

(HB max 230)

Stress
relieving
50 C under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
370
150

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition NF A 35-552:1986. Reference only.

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
referece only
16
16
570-670
335
21
30
169-203
16
40
16
40
560-660
315
20
30
162-202
40
100
40
100
540-640
285
20
27.5
158-198
100
160
100 160
520-620
275
19
25
155-190
160
250
160 250
500-600
265
18
25
152-178
Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition NF A 35-552:1986. Reference only.

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
referece only
16
16
690-830
490
16
25
210-249
16
40
16
40
630-770
400
17
25
192-231

Jominy test HRC grain size 5-8 according to NF A 35-552:1986


distance in mm from quenched end
mm
1.5
2
3
4
5
min
50
max
58

10

11

For mechanical properties of Cold-drawn, Peeled-Reeled and Ground products, please refer to the values of quality C35E.
EUROPE EN
C35E

ITALY UNI
C35

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
Ck35

FRANCE AFNOR
XC38H1

UK BS
080M36

RUSSIA
38

USA AISI/SAE
1035

C40E

70

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C40E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1186

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.37-0.44
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C40R n 1.1189 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
C40 n 1.0511 P% - S% max 0.045
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
690
air
(HB max 210)

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 160-210)

840
water
Natural

860 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
870
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
730
780

(HB max 235)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
360
140

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
580
320
16
16
100
16
100
550
290
17
100
250
100 250
530
260
17

HB
min
172
159
156

Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
650-800
460
16
35
16
40
8
20
630-780
400
18
40
30
40
100
20
60
600-750
350
19
45
30
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 840 C in water
HB
560 550
525
496
461
426
390 357
319 275
243
HRC
55
54.5 53
51
48.5 45.5
42
38.5 34
28.5
23
R
N/mm2
2070 2050 1950 1820 1670 1500 1350 1200 1050 920
800
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1600 1650 1640 1590 1500 1380 1240 1100 950 800
700
A
%
6.0
8.4
10.2 11.0
12.0 13.0 14.2 16.0
19.0
C
%
30
40
47
52
53
54
57
58
63
Kv
J
10
12
14
14
18
24
38
38
45
66
94
Tempering at C
100
150
200
250
300 350
400 450 500 550
600

HB
referece only
200-240
192-232
178-225

213

202

700
620
24.0
66
124
650

660
550
26.2
67
126
700

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

71

C40E 1.1186 C40R 1.1189 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/v min
min
5 b)
10
700-1000
540
6
213-298
10
16
650-980
460
7
200-295
16
40
620-920
365
8
190-275
550-710
163-211
40
63
590-840
330
9
176-250
550-710
163-211
63
100
550-820
290
9
159-246
550-710
163-211
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C+SL
C40E 1.1186 C35R 1.1189 EN 10277-5: 2008
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered after Cold-drawn +QT +C c)
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT and +C +QT +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
800-1000
560
8
240-298
10
16
750-950
525
8
225-286
16
40
700-900
490
9
213-271
630-780
400
18
192-232
40
63
620-820
435
10
190-246
600-750
350
19
178-225
63
100
600-800
420
11
178-240
600-750
350
19
178-225
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re a)
A% L A% T A% Q
2
from
to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
100
550
290
17
100
250
530
260
17
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 51
46
35
27
25
24
23
22
21
max 60
60
59
57
53
47
39
34
31
Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
C40E

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
ITALY UNI
C40

CHINA
40

10
20
30

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

GERMANY DIN
Ck40

Kv L
J min

Kv T
J min

11

13

15

29

28

27

HB
min
159
156

20

25

30

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

FRANCE AFNOR
XC42H1

UK BS
080M40

RUSSIA
40

USA AISI/SAE
1040

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C45E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1191

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.42-0.50
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C45R n 1.1201 S% 0.020-0.040. Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
C45 n 1.0503 S% e P% max 0.045. Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
690 cooling 10 C/h
to 600 after, air
(HB max 207)

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
810 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 160-216)

840
water
Natural

860 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
850
water

540-660
air
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
735
780

(~HB 169-245)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
fter welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
350
120

Mechanical properties
C45E C45R Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
HB
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
min
16
16
620
340
14
190
16
100
16
100
580
305
16
172
100
250
100 250
560
275
16
162
C45E C45R Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
HB
2
from
to
from to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
referece only
16
8
700-850
490
14
35
213-253
16
40
8
20
650-800
430
16
40
25
200-240
40
100
20
60
630-780
370
17
45
25
192-232
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, the 0.2% proof strength Rp 0.2.
60
A

55
50

45
40
35
Hardness HRC

C45E

72

30
25

Hardness progression
in bars quenched in water
A = 13 mm
B = 25 mm
C = 50 mm
D = 75 mm
E = 100 mm
F = 130 mm

hardness check points

20
C
D
E
F

Table of tempering values at room


temperature for round 10 mm after
quenching at 840 C in water
C
HB
HRC
R N/mm2
100
615
58
2330
200
597
57
2240
300
510
52
1880
400
401
43
1390
500
311
33
1030
600
242
23
810

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

73

C45E 1.1191 C45R 1.1201 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
750-1050
565
5
225-319
10
16
710-1030
500
6
218-311
16
40
650-1000
410
7
200-298
580-820
172-242
40
63
630-900
360
8
192-271
580-820
172-242
63
100
580-850
310
8
172-253
580-820
172-242
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C +SL
C45E 1.1191 C45R 1.1201 EN 10277-5: 2008
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered after Cold-drawn +QT +C c)
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT and +C +QT +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
850-1050
595
8
253-319
10
16
810-1010
565
8
243-300
16
40
750-950
525
9
225-286
650-800
430
16
200-240
40
63
650-850
455
10
200-253
630-780
370
17
192-232
63
100
650-850
455
11
200-253
630-780
370
17
192-232
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Cold-drawn + QT
thickness
R
mm
N/mm2
56
675

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) LUCEFIN experience


Cold-drawn + QT + Cold-drawn
Rp 0.2
A
Kv + 20 C
R
Rp 0.2
A
N/mm2
%
J
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
429
22.6
60-50-60
704
570
23.6

C45E 1.1191 Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re c)
A%
A%
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min L min T
100
580
305
16
100
250
560
275
16
12
250
500
540
240
16
12
500
1000
530
230
15
11

A%
Kv +20 C
min Q J min L
18
15
12

C45E 1.1191 Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-2: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re c)
A%
A%
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min L min T
100
70
630
370
17
100
250
70
160
590
340
18
12
250
500
160 330
540
320
17
11
c) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial.
C45E C45R EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
min 55
51
37
30
28
27
26
25
24
23
max 62
61
61
60
57
51
44
37
34
33
EUROPE EN
C45E

ITALY UNI
C45

CHINA
45

GERMANY DIN
Ck45

11
22
32

FRANCE AFNOR
XC48H1

Kv +20 C
J min T
10
10
10

Kv + 20 C
J
45-36-58

HB
min
172
162
158
156

A% Q Kv +20 C
min Q J min L
25
22
20

Kv +20 C
J min T

13
21
31

25

15
20
30

UK BS
080M46

20

15
12

RUSSIA
45

HB
min
192
176
158

30

USA AISI/SAE
1045

74

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

C45E
Heat
Temperature (+ ...C) min. values
treatment
20
200
300
350
400
450
500
+N
+N
100
70
+N
55
35
+U
591
+SR
336
+N
370
+QT
462
+U
0.23
+SR
0.09
+N
0.15
+QT
0.13
+U
2407
+SR
599
+N
952
+QT
1078
+U
774
+SR
519
+N
1267
+QT
1405
+U
0.06
+SR
0.04
+N
0.14
+QT
0.11
+U
0.11
+SR
0.12
+N
0.42
+QT
0.61
+U
0.37
+SR
0.42
+N
0.53
+QT
0.55
+N
190
+QT
265
1) Creep rupture strength
+U natural +SR stress relieved +N normalized +QT quenched an tempered
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


Hot-rolled
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
74000
185000
71000
175000
67000
155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


Cold-drawn
E long.
G tang.
190000
73000

600
Yeld stress Rp 0.2 N/mm2
Creep rupture, 10.000 h N/mm2 1)
Creep rupture, 100.000 h N/mm2 1)
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2
low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
low cycle fatigue

Cyclic strength coefficient, K


N/mm2
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue

Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf


low cycle fatigue

Fatigue ductility exponent, c


low cycle fatigue

Fatigue strength coefficient, L


N/mm2 hight cycle fatigue

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

59000
Density
kg/dm3
7.85

Technical card Trafilix


Fatigue behaviour

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
50

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.12

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
8.33

C50E

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C50E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1206

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.47-0.55
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.02
+0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C50R n 1.1241 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 217)

75

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 180-226)

830
water
Natural

850 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
850
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
730
765

(HB max 255)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
650
355
13
16
100
16
100
610
320
14
100
250
100 250
590
290
14
Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
750-900
520
13
30
16
40
8
20
700-850
460
15
35
40
100
20
60
650-800
400
16
40
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 830 C in water
HB
560
481
409
326
HRC
55
50
44
35
R
N/mm2
2070
1760
1430
1080
Tempering at C
100
200
300
400
500

242
23
810
600

HB
min
200
183
176

HB
referece only
225-271
213-253
200-240

76

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

C50E 1.1206 C50R 1.1241 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
770-1100
590
5
231-331
10
16
730-1080
520
6
224-327
16
40
690-1050
440
7
210-319
610-910
181-269
40
63
650-1030
390
8
200-311
610-910
181-269
63
100
610-910
181-269
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C +SL
C50E 1.1206 C50R 1.1241 EN 10277-5: 2008
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered after Cold-drawn +QT +C c)
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT and +C +QT +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
870-1070
610
7
260-323
10
16
830-1030
580
7
249-311
16
40
790-990
555
8
237-297
700-850
460
15
213-253
40
63
730-930
510
9
224-278
650-800
400
16
200-240
63
100
680-880
475
9
208-263
650-800
400
16
200-240
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Work-hardness by Cold drawing
R
N/mm2
950
Reduction %
0

1050
10

1100
20

1150
30

1200
40

1300
50

Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re c)
A%
A% A% Q Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min L min T min Q J min L
100
610
320
14
100
250
590
290
14
c) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 56
53
44
34
31
30
30
29
28
max 63
62
61
60
58
55
50
43
36
Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
C50E

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
ITALY UNI
C50

CHINA
50

10
27
35

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

GERMANY DIN
Ck50

11
26
34

13
25
33

1350
60

Kv +20 C
J min T

15
24
32

20
23
31

1450
70

1550
80

HB
min
183
176

25
20
29

30
28

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS
080M50

RUSSIA
50

USA AISI/SAE
1050

C55E

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C55E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1203

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.52-0.60
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.03
+0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C55R n 1.1209 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
C55 n 1.0535 P% - S% max 0.045
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
680-700
air
(HB max 229)

77

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

825-885
air
Isothermal
annealing
790 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air

830
water
Natural

850 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
830
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
730
765

(HB max 255)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
300
80

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
680
370
11
16
100
16
100
640
330
12
100
250
100 250
620
300
12

HB
min
208
198
190

Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
800-950
550
12
30
16
40
8
20
750-900
490
14
35
40
100
20
100
700-850
420
15
40
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 60 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
286
268
253
240
226
HRC
28
25
23
22.5
20
R
N/mm2
950
890
850
800
760
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
650
590
530
480
430
A
%
9
11
13
16
18
C
%
28
38
42
45
50
Tempering at C
400
450
500
550
600

HB
referece only
240-286
225-271
213-253

223

162

720
400
19
50
650

560
380
24
690 (+A)

78

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

C55E 1.0535 EN 10277-2: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
770-1100
590
5
231-331
10
16
730-1080
520
6
224-327
16
40
690-1050
440
7
210-319
610-910
181-269
40
63
650-1030
390
8
200-311
610-910
181-269
63
100
610-910
181-269
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C +SL
C55E 1.1203 Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re c)
A%
A%
2
from
to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min L min T
100
640
330
12
100
250
620
300
12
9
250
500
600
260
12
9
500
1000
590
250
11
8

A%
Kv +20 C
min Q J min L

C55E 1.1203 Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-2: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re c)
A%
A%
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min L min T
100
70
700
420
15
100
250
70
160
630
360
17
11
250
500
160 330
610
330
16
10
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
c) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
min
58
55
47
37
33
32
31
30
max
65
64
63
62
60
57
52
45
Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
C55E

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
205000
78700
ITALY UNI
C55

CHINA
55

9
29
37

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

GERMANY DIN
Ck55

10
28
36

Kv +20 C
J min T

HB
min
198
190
178
176

C%
Kv +20 C
J min L J min L

Kv +20 C
J min T

HB
min
213
192
183

11
27
35

20
24
32

30
20
29

13
26
34

15
25
33

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

FRANCE AFNOR
XC 55 H1

UK BS
070M55

25
22
30

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1055

C60E

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C60E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1221

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
max
0.57-0.65
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.030
0.035
0.40
0.03
+0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%.
C60R n 1.1223 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
C60 n 1.0601 P% S% max 0.045
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 241)

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
780 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 200-244)

830
water
Natural

850 oil or
polymer
Hardenability
test
830
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
730
760

(HB max 280)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
290
70

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanichal properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
710
380
10
16
100
16
100
670
340
11
100
250
100 250
650
310
11
Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanichal properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re a)
A%
C%
Kv
2
from
to
from to
N/mm
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
850-1000
580
11
25
16
40
8
20
800-950
520
13
30
40
100
20
60
750-900
450
14
35
a) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 830 C in water
HB
697
688
634
560
468
HRC
62.5
62
59
55
49
R
N/mm2
2420
2070
1700
Rinvenimento a C
50
100
200
300
400
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

79

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

250-500

371
40
1250
500

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

HB
min
218
203
200

HB
referece only
253-298
240-290
225-271

264
27
880
600

80

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

C60E 1.1221 C60R 1.1223 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn +C c)
Hot-rolled Peeled-Reeled +SH and +SH +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R a)
Rp 0.2 a)
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
800-1150
630
5
240-347
10
16
780-1130
550
5
232-339
16
40
730-1100
480
6
224-331
670-940
198-278
40
63
670-940
198-278
63
100
670-940
198-278
a) for flats and special sections the yield point can be 10% and tensile strength can be 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +C +SL
C60E 1.1221 C60R 1.1223 EN 10277-5: 2008
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered after Cold-drawn +QT +C c)
Cold-drawn + quenching and tempering +C +QT and +C +QT +SL
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
900-1100
630
6
271-331
10
16
880-1080
615
6
263-327
16
40
830-1030
580
7
249-311
800-950
520
13
240-286
40
63
780-980
545
8
232-295
750-900
450
14
225-271
63
100
750-950
525
8
225-286
750-900
450
14
225-271
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
c) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Work-hardness by Cold drawing
R
N/mm2
1090
Riduzione %
0

1120
10

1200
20

1250
30

Forged normalized EN 10250-2: 2001


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Re c)
A%
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min L
100
670
340
11
100
250
650
310
11
250
500
630
275
11
500 1000
620
260
10

1300
40

A%
min T

EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal


distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 60
57
50
39
35
33
32
31
30
max 67
66
65
63
62
59
54
47
39
ITALY UNI
C60

CHINA
60

GERMANY DIN
Ck60 Cm60

1450
60

A%
Kv +20 C
min Q J min L

1520
70

1650
80

HB
min
203
200
192
190

Kv +20 C
J min T

8
8
7

Forged quenching and tempering EN 10250-2: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re c)
A%
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
100
70
750
450
14
100
250
70
160
690
390
15
250
500
160
330
670
350
14
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
c) Re upper yield strength or, if no yield phenomenon occurs, consider Rp 0.2.

EUROPE EN
C60E C60R

1400
50

10
29
37

A%
min L

Kv +20 C Kv +20 C
J min T
J min Q

10
9

11
28
36

FRANCE AFNOR

13
27
35

15
26
34

UK BS
070M60

20
25
33

25
23
31

RUSSIA
60

Kv +20 C HB
min
225
210
203

30
21
30
USA AISI/SAE
1060

ASTM A 105

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

81

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
ASTM A 105
According to standards ASTM A 105M - 05
Number

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cu%
Ni%
Cr%
Mo%
V%
Nb%
max
max
max
max
max
max
max
max
max
0,35
0,10-0,35
0,60-1,05
0,035
0,040
0,40
0,40
0,30
0,12
0,08
0,02
The sum of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo) shall not exceed 1,00%
The sum of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) shall not exceed 0,32%
For each reduction of 0,01% below the specified maximum carbon value (0,35%), an increase of 0,06% of manganese above its specific
maximum value (1,05%) will be permitted up to a max of 1,35%.
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
Al min 0,020%. The Al content must be specified
Completely killed steel
Carbon Equivalent CEQ = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 max 0,47
Grain size: 5 or finer acc. to ASTM E 112
Temperature C
Hot forming
1150-850
Soft
annealing
700
air

Normalizing

Quenching

843-927
air
Normalizing
and tempering

880-930
oil, polymer, water
Isothermal
annealing

843-927 air

860 furnace
cooling to
660 after, air

593

air

Stress
relieving
593
air

Final stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of tempering
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
PWHT
250
590 furnace cooling
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf

Mechanical properties
Forged The heat treatments must guarantee the below-mentioned values of ASTM A 105M - 05
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
C% L
C% T
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
min
T
485
250
22
30
Forged pieces weighing more than 4540 Kg may be ordered to ASTM A 266/A 266M 03a
size
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
C% L
C% T
mm
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
min
T
415-585
205
23
20
38
30
T = is the maximum heat-treated thickness. Test specimen shall be taken at T/4
Product tests (longitudinal) LUCEFIN experience
Heat treatment
product test at
mm
C
Normalizing 920 C
90
+20
Normalizing 920 C
90
+400
Normalizing 900 C
240
+20
Normalizing 900 C
240
+400
Normalizing 900 C
400
+20
Normalizing 900 C
400
+400
Quenched and tempered 95
+20
Quenched and tempered 95
+400
Natural
90
+20
EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI

CHINA

R
N/mm2
603
312
578
506
470
424
579
520
580

Rp 0.2
N/mm2
485
217
417
248
309
206
403
325
400

GERMANY DIN
C21

A
%
30

C - Z Kv 0 C
%
J
69.5 56-64-57

32.4

63.8

111-136-133

39.2

69.0

181-222-220

35.6

68.6

210-203-207

28.0

63.0

20-18-18

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

Kv
J min

HB
max
187

Kv
J min

HB
121-170

Kv 18 C Kv 46 C product
J
J
hot-rolled
hot-rolled
hot-rolled
hot-rolled
forged
forged
hot-rolled
hot-rolled
14-12-12 10-8-8
hot-rolled
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A 105

ASTM A 350 LF2

82

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality ASTM A 350 LF2


According to standards ASTM A 350M - 07
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cu%
Ni%
max
max
max
max
max
0.30
0.15-0.30
0.60-1.35
0.035
0.040
0.40
0.40
The sum of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) shall not exceed 1,00%
The sum of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) shall not exceed 0,32%
Carbon Equivalent CEQ = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 max 0,47
Temperature C
Hot forming

Normalizing

Quenching

Soft
annealing

880-930
air
Normalizing
and tempering

880-930
oil, polymer, water
Isothermal
annealing

700
air

900 air
600 air

860 furnace
cooling to
660 after, air

1150-850

Cr%
max
0.30

Stress
relieving
590
air

Mo%
max
0.12

Final stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Pre-heating
welding
200
Ac1

Ac3

V%
max
0.08

Stress relieving
after welding
PWHT
590 furnace
Ms
Mf

Mechanical properties
Forged The heat treatments must guarantee the below-mentioned values of ASTM A 350M: 07
size Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C% - Z%
Kv 46 C cl. 1
Kv 18 C cl. 2
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J average/minimum
T
485-655
250
22
30
20/16
27/20
T = is the maximum heat-treated thickness. Test specimen shall be taken at T/4
Product tests (longitudinal) LUCEFIN experience
Heat treatment
temperature
product
mm
Quenching
880 C water 95
Tempering
640 C air
Normalizing
900 C air
210
Natural
95
EUROPE EN
S355J2G3 appr.

ITALY UNI
Fe510 appr.

CHINA

Nb%
max
0.02

HB
max
197

R
N/mm2
600

Rp 0.2
N/mm2
480

A
%
24.6

C-Z
%
58.0

Kv 46 C
J
68-66-64

Kv 18 C
J
112-114-110

product

580
526

400
302

32.6
28.6

64.4
62.0

22-24-18
6-6-4

70-74-70
16-10-8

hot-rolled
hot-rolled

GERMANY DIN
St52.3 appr.

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS
EN50D

RUSSIA
20G

hot-rolled

USA AISI/SAE
A350 LF2 cl. 1 - cl. 2

41Cr4

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
41Cr4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.7035

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
0,38-0,45
0,40
0,60-0,90
0,025
0,035
0,90-1,20
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
41CrS4 n 1.7039 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
Temperature C
Hot forming

83

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

1100-850

860
air

550-650
air

Soft
annealing
680
air
(HB max 241)

Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 190-220)

850
oil polymer
or water
Spheroidizing
720-740
furnace

Hardenability
test
850
water

Mo%

Ni%

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
750
790

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-3: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1000-2000
800
11
30
16
40
8
20
900-1100
660
12
35
40
100
20
60
800-950
560
14
40
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
568
560
525
496
468 442
409 376
HRC
55.5 55
53
51
49
47
44
40.5
R
N/mm2
2130 2080 1950 1830 1700 1580 1420 1280
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1580 1590 1580 1530 1470 1380 1260 1140
A
%
6.8
7.5
7.6
7.9
8.8
9.8
11.0 12.6
C
%
28
35
38
41
44
46
48
52
Kv
J
16
24
24
15
15
26
30
38
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
310
90

HB
referece only
298-359
271-331
240-286

Kv
J min
35
35

340
36.5
1120
1020
14.5
56
46
550

301
32
1000
890
17.2
60
90
600

264
27
880
780
20.0
64
124
650

237
22
790
680
22.8
67
132
700

84

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

41CrS4 1.7039 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn + quenched and tempered +C +QT
Hot-rolled annealed + Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
max
5 b)
10
10
16
16
40
900-1100
660
12
271-331
241
40
63
800-950
560
14
240-286
241
63
100
800-950
560
14
240-286
241
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon befor order placement
e) values valid also for +C +QT +SL
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
Hot-rolled annealed + Cold-drawn +A +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) c) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
max
5 b)
10
1000-1200
770
8
298-359
10
16
1000-1200
750
8
298-359
16
40
900-1100
670
9
271-331
40
63
800-1000
570
10
240-298
63
100
800-1000
570
11
240-298
c) for flats and special sections the tensile strength R may deviate by 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Forged quenching and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
100
70
800
560
14
14
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
min
53
52
50
47
41
max
61
61
60
59
58
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
75000
185000
70000
175000
67000
155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
41Cr4

ITALY UNI
41Cr4

CHINA
40Cr

Kv L
min
35

Kv T
J min

Kv Q
J min

HB
min
240

H = normal
11
37
56

13
34
54

15
32
52

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

20
29
46

25
26
42

30
23
40

35
21
38

40

45

50

37

36

35

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

59000
Density
kg/dm3
7.85

A% Q
min J
35

HB
max
295
285
280
270
270

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
46
GERMANY DIN
41Cr4

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19

FRANCE AFNOR
42C4

UK BS
530M40

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
RUSSIA
41H

USA AISI/SAE
5140

34CrMo4

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
34CrMo4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.7220

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
max
max
max
0.30-0.37
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.025
0.035
0.90-1.20
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
34CrMoS4 n 1.7226 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005.
Temperature C
Hot forming

85

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

1100-850

870
air

Soft
annealing
700 cooling 15 C/h
to 600 after, air
(HB max 223)

Isothermal
annealing
830 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 180-225)

850
550-650
oil polymer
air
water
Spheroidizing Hardenability
test
735
850
furnace
water

Mo%

Ni%

0.15-0.30
0.03

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
745
800

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1000-1200
800
11
45
16
40
8
20
900-1100
650
12
50
40
100
20
60
800-950
550
14
55
100
160
60
100
750-900
500
15
55
160
250
100 160
700-850
450
15
40
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
568
560
543
525
504
475
448 421
400 376
HRC
55.5 55
54
53
51.5 49.5
47.5 45
43
40.5
R
N/mm2
2100 2070 2020 1960 1850 1740 1610 1490 1380 1270
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1340 1410 1530 1540 1520 1460 1400 1340 1230 1140
A
%
8.0
8.2
9.0
9.6
10.0 10.4
10.8 11.0 11.4 12.2
C
%
29
32
37
43
47
48
49
50
52
54
Kv
J
27
28
31
34
31
28
27
28
32
42
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500

Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
298-359
271-331
240-586
225-271
213-253

Kv
J min
40
45
45
45

340
36.5
1130
1040
14.0
60
75
550

306
32.5
1020
930
17.5
65
94
600

271
28
900
820
20.0
68
127
650

780
680
21.8
70
148
700

86

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

34CrMo4
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
UNI 10233 pt.5:1993. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
1030-1320
850
7
311-384
10
16
1030-1300
830
7
311-380
16
25
920-1200
680
7
275-359
25
40
900-1180
650
8
271-354
40
100
800-1030
550
9
240-311
e) Values valid for +QT +C +SL.

Technical card Trafilix


Cold-drawn obtained from hot-rolled annealed +A +C

Cold-drawn quenched and tempered +C +QT


UNI 10233 pt.5:1993e. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5 b)
10
1000-1200
800
11
298-359
10
16
1000-1200
800
11
298-359
16
25
900-1100
650
12
271-331
25
40
900-1100
650
12
271-331
40
100
800-950
550
14
240-286
e) Values valid for +C +QT +SL.

Cold-drawn annealed +C +A otherwise annealed 


Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
mm
from
to
HB max
5
10
227
10
16
227
16
40
223
40
100
223

size
mm
from
5
10
16
40

Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
100
70
800
550
14
14
100
250
70
160
700
450
15
10
250
500
160 330
650
410
16
12
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
Hardness after tempering Lucefin experience
Tempering at 530 C
size mm
200
> 200 400
HB
280
265

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

20
30
48

25
28
45

Kv L
min
45
40
33

Kv T
J min
45
22
17

Kv Q
J min

HB
min
240
213
200

Tempering at 620 C
> 200 400
> 400
220
200

30
27
43

35
26
41

40
25
40

45
24
40

50
24
39

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
34CrMo4

A% Q
min J

200
250

> 400
250

EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
49
49
48
45
42
39
36
34
max
57
57
57
56
55
54
53
52
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500

HB
max
290
280
275
270

to
10
16
40
100

ITALY UNI
34CrMo4

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
ML30CrMo

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
42
GERMANY DIN
34CrMo4

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.18

FRANCE AFNOR
34CD4

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.56
RUSSIA
34HM

USA AISI/SAE
4135

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
max
max
max
0.38-0.45
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.025
0.035
0.90-1.20
0.15-0.30
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.03
42CrMoS4 n 1.7227 S% 0.020-0.040 Permissible deviations on the product 0.005%.
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request

1100-850
Soft
annealing
720 slowly 15 C/h
to 600 after, air
(HB max 241)

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

870
air (HB ~ 190)
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 180-240)

860
oil polymer
Spheroidizing

850
water
Hardenability
test
840
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
745
790

730-740
furnace

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1100-1300
900
10
40
16
40
8
20
1000-1200
750
11
45
40
100
20
60
900-1000
650
12
50
100
160
60
100
800-950
550
13
50
160
250
100 160
750-900
500
14
55
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
595
586
550
518
496
468 442
421 390
HRC
57
56.5 54.5 52.5 51
49
47
45
42
R
N/mm2
2200 2180 2030 1910 1800 1700 1590 1480 1350
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1520 1600 1620 1590 1560 1510 1440 1340 1230
A
%
7.0
9.5
10.0 10.0
10.0 10.4 11.0 12.0
Kv
J
24
27
28
27
26
26
26
27
31
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
Fatigue behaviour +20 C
+N
328
Cyclic yield strength, y
+QT
716
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
+N
0.12
Cyclic strength exponent, n
+QT
0.10
low cycle fatigue
+N
673
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
+QT
1367
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
300
80
EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
331-380
298-359
271-298
240-286
225-271

Kv
J min
35
35
35
35

362
39
1220
1110
13.5
42
550

336
36
1100
1000
15.8
75
600

294
31
980
870
19.0
114
650

264
27
880
710
21.5
135
700

Fatigue behaviour +20 C


+N
1000
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
+QT
1454
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
+N
0.11
Fatigue strength exponent, b
+QT
0.08
low cycle fatigue
+N
1.00
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
+QT
0.72
low cycle fatigue

Transition-curve LUCEFIN experience


Kv values obtained from round 130 mm
Quenched and tempered (induction) for R 930 N/mm2 Rp 0.2 766 N/mm2
A% 18 - C% 62
C
J
Lat. exp. mm
Shear %
+20
97 101 - 99
1.10 - 1.10 - 1.17
60
0
94 96 - 93
0.97 - 0.99 - 1.00
50
20
63 91 - 92
0.56 - 0.52 - 0.93
40
40
66 58 - 86
0.73 - 0.77 - 0.94
40
60
50 55 - 58
0.54 - 0.72 - 0.78
30
80
38 29 - 35
0.27 - 0.35 - 0.26
10

TRANSITION CURVE
250
240
220
210
190
170
150
120
100
80
70
50
30
10
0

Temperature C

80 60 40 20

20

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Cleavage area %

Temperature C
Hot forming

87

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
42CrMo4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.7225

Joule

42CrMo4

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

88

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

42CrMoS4 1.7227 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn + quenched and tempered +C +QT
Hot-rolled annealed + Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
max
5 b)
10
10
16
16
40
1000-1200
750
11
298-359
241
40
63
900-1100
650
12
271-331
241
63
100
900-1100
650
12
271-331
241
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +C +QT +SL
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered after Cold-drawn +QT +C
Hot-rolled annealed + Cold-drawn +A +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) c) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
1000-1200
770
8
298-359
10
16
1000-1200
750
8
298-359
16
40
1000-1200
720
9
298-359
40
63
900-1100
650
10
271-331
63
100
900-1100
650
10
271-331
c) for flats and special sections the tensile strength R may deviate by 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
250
160
750
500
14
10
250
500
160 330
700
460
15
11
500
750
330 500
600
390
16
12
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
Hardness after tempering Lucefin experience
Tempering at 530 C
size mm
200
> 200 400
HB
320
300

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2

Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

E long.
210000
205000
195000
185000
175000

G tang.
80000
78000
75000
70000
67000

155000

59000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
42CrMo4

ITALY UNI
42CrMo4

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
ML42CrMo

20
34
56

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
quenching and tempering
< 60 mm
60-150
720
702
640
562
475
375

25
32
53

Kv T
J min
16
14
12

Kv Q
J min

HB
min
225
213
178

30
31
51

35
30
48

40
30
47

45
29
46

50
29
45

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
33.5
34.0
34.2
GERMANY DIN
42CrMo4

Kv L
min
30
27
22

Tempering at 620 C
> 200 400
> 400
250
230

200
260

> 400
290

EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
53
53
52
51
49
43
40
37
max
61
61
61
60
60
59
59
58
Temperature

A% Q
min J

HB
max
300
290
285
280
280

FRANCE AFNOR
42CD4

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19
UK BS
708M40

RUSSIA
42HM

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
USA AISI/SAE
4140

50CrMo4

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
50CrMo4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.7228
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.46-0.54
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
720
air
(HB max 248)

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

89

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

0.90-1.20
0.05

0.15-0.30
0.03

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
790 furnace
cooling to
660 after, air

860
oil polymer
Spheroidizing

840
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

540-680
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
720
760

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1100-1300
900
9
40
16
40
8
20
1000-1200
780
10
45
40
100
20
60
900-1100
700
12
50
100
160
60
100
850-1000
650
13
50
160
250
100 160
800-950
550
13
50
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
448
421
390
HRC
47.5 45
42
R
N/mm2
1620 1490 1350
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1370 1270 1165
A
%
7.0
10.0 12.0
C
%
30
40
Kv
J
26
28
28
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200
250
300
350
400
450 500

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
331-380
298-359
271-331
253-298
240-286

Kv
J min
30
30
30
30

353
38
1185
1060
13.0
49
38
550

327
35
1070
930
13.5
57
94
600

294
31
960
840
15.5
60
146
650

264
27
880
785
20.0
60
166
700

90

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

50CrMo4
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
UNI 10233 pt.5:1993. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5
10
1130-1420
950
5
339-406
10
16
1130-1400
930
5
339-404
16
25
1020-1300
800
6
306-380
25
40
1000-1280
780
6
298-375
40
100
900-1180
700
8
271-354
e) Values valid also for +QT +C +SL

Technical card Trafilix


Cold-drawn obtained from hot-rolled annealed +A +C

Cold-drawn quenched and tempered +C +QT UNI 10233 pt.5:1993


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
5
10
1100-1300
900
9
331-380
10
16
1100-1300
900
9
331-380
16
25
1000-1200
780
10
298-359
25
40
1000-1200
780
10
298-359
40
100
900-1100
700
12
271-331
e) Values valid also for +C +QT +SL

Cold-drawn annealed +C+A or annealed


Peeled-Reeled +A +SH, Ground
size mm
HB
from
to
max
5
10
252
10
16
252
16
40
248
40
100
248

e)

size
mm
from
5
10
16
40

to
10
16
40
100

Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
250
160
800
550
13
9
250
500
160 330
750
540
14
10
500
750
330 500
700
490
15
11
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
58
58
57
55
54
53
51
48
max
65
65
64
64
63
63
63
62
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

25
41
60

A% Q
min J

30
39
58

Kv L
min
25
20
15

35
38
57

40
37
55

Kv T
J min
14
12
10

45
36
54

Kv Q
J min

HB
min
240
225
213

50
36
54

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
50CrMo4

20
45
61

HB
max
308
298
293
288

ITALY UNI

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA
ZG50CrMo

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
42
GERMANY DIN
50CrMo4

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
RUSSIA
50HM

USA AISI/SAE
4150

91

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
39NiCrMo3
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.6510
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
max
0.35-0.43
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.025
0.035
0.60-1.00
0.15-0.25
0.70-1.00
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.03
0.05
Calcium (Ca) treatment may be supplied on request
By agreement this steel can be supplied with the addition of lead (Pb) or sulphur (S) for improved machinability

1100-900
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 240)

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 195-240)

850
oil polymer
Full
annealing
820
air
(HB max 235)

840
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
740
790

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
980-1180
785
11
40
16
40
8
20
930-1130
735
11
40
40
100
20
60
880-1080
685
12
45
100
160
60
100
830-980
635
12
50
160
250
100 160
740-880
540
13
50
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
577
560
525
496
468
442 426
409 390
HRC
56
55
53
51
49
47
45.5 44
42
R
N/mm2
2160 2070 1950 1820 1700 1580 1500 1430 1340
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1440 1520 1540 1520 1490 1440 1370 1290 1220
A
%
8.0
9.8
10.4 10.6 10.7
10.8 11.0 11.5 12.5
C
%
30
42
48
52
53
53
54
55
56
Kv
J
28
31
32
28
28
27
27
28
36
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
Transition-curve Lucefin experience
Kv values obtained from round 100 mm
Quenched and tempered (induction) for R1002 N/mm2 Rp 0.2 879 N/mm2
A% 14.6 C% 54
C
J
Lat. exp. mm
Shear %
+20
85-82-79
0.94-0.91-0.93
80
0
78-76-77
0.88-0.84-0.83
80
20
73-77-75
0.83-0.88-0.80
70
40
68-74-74
0.78-0.77-0.81
70
60
66-70-64
0.80-0.78-0.77
70
80
55-50-58
0.45-0.57-0.51
60

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
330
110

EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
295-354
278-339
263-327
294-295
224-263

Kv
J min
35
40
40
40

362
39
1220
1110
13.8
57
46
550

336
36
1100
980
16.0
60
86
600

286
30
950
830
19.0
63
114
650

240
22.5
800
670
22.0
68
128
700

TRANSITION CURVE
250

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

220
210
190
170
150
120
100
80
70
50
30
10
0

-80 -60 -40 -20

20

Cleavage area %

Temperature C
Hot forming

Joule

39NiCrMo3

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

92

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

39NiCrMo3 1.6510 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn + quenched and tempered +C +QT
Hot-rolled annealed + Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
max
5 b)
10
10
16
16
40
930-1130
735
11
278-339
240
40
63
880-1080
735
12
263-327
240
63
100
880-1080
735
12
263-327
240
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +C +QT +SL
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
Hot-rolled annealed + Ground +A +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) c) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
5 b)
10
980-1180
735
8
295-354
10
16
930-1130
700
8
278-339
16
40
930-1130
700
9
278-339
40
63
880-1080
625
10
263-327
63
100
880-1080
600
10
263-327
c) for flats and special sections the tensile strength R may deviate by 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for QT +C +SL
Forged quenched and tempered UNI 7874: 1979. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
880-1080
685
12
100 250
685-835
540
13
12
250 500
655-805
490
15
14
500 1000
635-785
440
16
15
1000
590-740
390
15
14
L = longitudinal T = tangential
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
52
51
50
49
48
46
44
43
max
60
60
59
58
58
57
57
56
Temperature
Testing at C
20
EUROPE EN
39NiCrMo3

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
ITALY UNI
39NiCrMo3

CHINA

Kv L
J min
40
30
30
25
25

20
39
55

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

GERMANY DIN
36CrNiMo4

25
36
52

HB

Kv T
J min

263-327
209-250
201-241
195-234
176-224

25
25

30
34
51

35
33
49

40
32
48

45
31
46

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.2

FRANCE AFNOR
40NCD3

HB
max
295
290
285
280
280

UK BS

50
30
45

Density
kg/dm3
7.80
RUSSIA
39HNM

USA AISI/SAE
9840

34CrNiMo6

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
34CrNiMo6
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.6582
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.30-0.38
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900
Soft
annealing
650-680
air
(HB max 248)

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

93

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1.30-1.70
0.05

0.15-0.30
0.03

1.30-1.70
0.05

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860-870
air
Isothermal
annealing
650 cooling
furnace to
500 after, air

870
oil polymer
Full
annealing

860
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

600-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
715
770

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1200-1400
1000
9
40
16
40
8
20
1100-1300
900
10
45
40
100
20
60
1000-1200
800
11
50
100
160
60
100
900-1100
700
12
55
160
250
100 160
800-950
600
13
55
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 60 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
525
500
468
450
371
344
HRC
53
51.5
49
46.5
40
37
R
N/mm2
1950
1850
1700
1500
1260
1150
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1450
1480
1450
1350
1980
980
A
%
10
10
10
12
13
13.4
C
%
48
50
52
58
62
62
Kv
J
Tempering at C
100
200
300
400
500
550

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
359-404
331-380
298-359
271-331
240-286

Kv
J min
45
45
45
45

319
34
1050
950
18
68

271
28
900
700
20
68

240
22
800
680
22
70

600

650

700

LUCEFIN experience Forged round 520 mm quenched at 870 C in water, tempered at 630 C in air
Depth from
Longitudinal Testing
treated
R
Rp 0.2
A
C
Kv +20 C Kv 40 C
surface
N/mm2
N/mm2
%
%
J
25 mm
920
820
18.5
64.0
110-118-118
1/3 radius
900
755
15.6
60.0
48-44-45
1/2 diameter
870
730
12.8
46.0
70-74-68
25-28-25
FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature)
C
70
60
40
20
0
+20
+50
% fibrosity
3
6
11
15
24
53
100
Kv average J
22
24
27
42
51
70
142
Chemical composition %
C
Si
Mn
P
S
Cr
Mo
Ni
V
Cu
Sn
As
Sb
0.35 0.24 0.61 0.007 0.002 1.65 0.28 1.68 0.06 0.13 0.006 0.007 0.004

HB
T
280
270
262
+80
100
150
Al
0.014

H2
1.30

+18
FATT 50
68
ppm
O2
N2
32
70

94

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

34CrNiMo6 1.6582 EN 10277-5: 2008


Technical card Trafilix
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
Cold-drawn obtained from hot-rolled annealed +A +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
max
5 b)
10
1000-1200
770
8
298-359
308
10
16
1000-1200
750
8
298-359
298
16
40
1000-1200
720
9
298-359
293
40
63
1000-1200
650
10
298-359
288
63
100
1000-1200
650
10
298-359
288
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +QT +C +SL
Cold-drawn quenched and tempered +C +QT
As rolled + turned +SH or annealing Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) c) e)
Ground +SL
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
for inform.
max
5 b)
10
10
16
16
40
1100-1300
900
10
331-380
248
40
63
1000-1200
800
11
298-359
248
63
100
1000-1200
800
11
298-359
248
c) for flats and special sections the tensile strength R may deviate by 10%
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +C +QT +SL
Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
A% Q
Kv L
Kv T Kv Q
HB
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
min J
min
J min J min
min
250
160
800
600
13
9
45
22
240
250
500
160 330
750
540
14
10
45
22
225
500
990
330 660
700
490
15
11
40
20
213
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
50
50
50
50
49
48
48
48
max
58
58
58
58
57
57
57
57
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
75000
185000
70000
175000
67000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

20
48
57

25
47
57

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

30
47
57

35
47
57

40
46
57

11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1
Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
38

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26

Maximum service temperature


+600 C to max +650 C

Corrosion resistance
Steel with low resistance to corrosion
A protective coating should be used

Cold working
This steel may be cold worked in the annealed condition.
It has a good ductility

ITALY UNI
35NiCrMo6

CHINA

50
44
57

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

Minimum service temperature


40 C to max 70 C

EUROPE EN
34CrNiMo6

45
45
57

GERMANY DIN
34CrNiMo6

FRANCE AFNOR
35NCD6

UK BS
817M40

RUSSIA
38Ch2N2MA

USA AISI/SAE
4340

40NiCrMo7

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40NiCrMo7
According to standards UNI 7845: 1978
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.37-0.44
0.15-0.40 0.50-0.80
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900
Soft
annealing
680
air
(HB max 250)

95

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.60-0.90
0.05

0.20-0.30
0.03

1.60-1.90
0.05

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace cooling
to 640 after, air
(HB 230-250)

850
oil polymer
Full
annealing
800-830
furnace cooling
(HB max 250)

830
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
725
770

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
300
80

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering (valid for products with no heat treatment)
For quenched and tempered material, values must be granted on the product UNI 7845:1978. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
referece only
16
1030-1230
835
11
30
311-363
16
40
980-1180
785
11
30
295-354
40
100
930-1130
735
12
30
278-339
100
160
850-1030
665
13
30
253-311
160
250
780-980
635
12
30
232-295
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 830 C in oil
HB
504
482
455
432
415
400
HRC
51.5
50
48
46
44.5 43
R
N/mm2
1850 1750 1640 1520 1450 1380
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1450 1400 1300 1230 1210 1210
A
%
11.6
11.8
12.0 12.2 12.5 14.0
C
%
45
51
52
50
51
53
Kv
J
32
27
26
27
34
43
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200
250
300
350
400
450 500
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C 817M40 BS 970 pt.3: 1991. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
13
63
1000-1150
850
9
298-347
63
150
850-1000
680
9
253-298
e) Values valid also for +QT +C +SL

381
41
1300
1180
15.8
57
90
550

348
37.5
1160
1050
18.0
59
124
600

319
34
1050
940
20.0
63
135
650

294
31
980
880
20.0
63
155
700

96

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card Trafilix

40NiCrMo7
Forged quenched and tempered UNI 7874: 1979. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
100
930-1080
735
12
100
250
880-1010
735
13
12
250
500
835-955
685
14
13
500
800
735-885
590
14
12
800
1200
685-835
540
13
11
1200
1550
635-785
490
12
10
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
UNI 7845: 1978 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
52
52
52
52
52
52
max
60
60
60
60
60
60
Testing at C
Mod. of elasticity E long. N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity G tang. N/mm2
Thermal expansion [(m/mK) 106 C1 ]
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
40NiCrMo7

ITALY UNI
40NiCrMo7

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

13
52
60

20
210000
80000

15
52
60

10
11
10
10
9

20
51
59

25
50
58

Kv L
J min
30
40
40
30
25

30
49
58

35
48
58

Kv T
J min

Kv Q
J min

30
30
25

25
25
25

40
47
57

45
45
56

HB
for inform.
278-327
263-300
250-288
224-265
209-250
195-234

50
44
56

100

200

300

400

500

600

11.1

12.1

12.9

13.5

13.9

14.1

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
42

CHINA

A% Q
min

GERMANY DIN
40NiCrMo8

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS
817M40

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
RUSSIA
40HN2M

USA AISI/SAE
4340

Transformation Diagram of isothermal cooling time temperature


(taken from GERDAU)
750

Af
As
austenite +
ferrite

650

ferrite + carbides

austenite
500

austenite + ferrite + carbides

temperature C

400
ferrite + carbides
50%

300

200
time [s]
101

M 50

Ms

M 90
1

10

102

103

104

105

106

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.26-0.34
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-880
Soft
annealing
650-700 cooling 10/h
to 600 after, air
(HB max 248)

97

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
30CrNiMo8
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.6580

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1.80-2.20
0.05

0.30-0.50
0.04

1.80-2.20
0.07

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

870-880
air

830-860
oil or polymer
+AR natural
state

850
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

540-660
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
720
770

(HB max 370)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
310
100

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-3: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv
HB
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
referece only
16
8
1250-1450
1050
9
40
370-415
16
40
8
20
1250-1450
1050
9
40
30
370-415
40
100
20
60
1000-1300
900
10
45
35
298-380
100
160
60
100
1000-1200
800
11
50
45
298-359
160
250
100 160
900-1100
700
12
50
45
271-331
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
426
404
HRC
45
43
R
N/mm2
1500 1400
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1350 1250
A
%
10.0 10.0
C
%
42
45
Kv
J
20
50
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200
250
300
350
400
450 500

Transition-curve Lucefin experience


Kv values obtained from round 32 mm
Quenched and tempered (induction) for R 1260 N/mm2
Rp 0.2 1110 N/mm2 A% 11.8 C% 59
average
C
J
J
Lat. exp. mm
+20
58-72-68
66
0,62
0
53-46-49
49
0,42
20
44-44-45
42
0,34
40
31-32-35
33
0,27
60
28-28-27
28
0,25
80
28-26-26
27
0,16
E = mod. of elasticity long. 255700 N/m2
G = mod. of elastcity tang. 98100 N/m2

Kv Joule

30CrNiMo8

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

381
41
1290
1090
11.0
48
60
550

347
37
1150
960
14.0
50
75
600

275
28
920
780
16.0
52
80
650

240
23
800
640
18.0
52
92
700

100

80

Shear %
50
40
20
10
10
10

60

40

20

-80

-60

-40

-20

+20

98

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card Trafilix

30CrNiMo8
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards

Cold-drawn
obtained from
hot-rolled annealed
HB max

HB

Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
A% T
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
min
min
250
160
900
700
12
8
250
500
160 330
850
630
12
8
500
990
330 660
800
590
12
8
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
min 48
48
48
48
47
47
47
max 56
56
56
56
55
55
55
min 51
51
51
51
50
50
50
max 56
56
56
56
55
55
55
min 48
48
48
48
47
47
47
max 53
53
53
53
52
52
52
Temperature
Testing at C
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
205000
78500
195000
74800
185000
71000
175000
67100
155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
30CrNiMo8

ITALY UNI
30CrNiMo8

15
46
55
49
55
46
52

20
46
55
49
55
46
52

25
45
54
48
54
45
51

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

59500
Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

30
45
54
48
54
45
51

HB max

A% Q
min J

35
44
54
47
54
44
51

Kv L
min
45
45
40

40
44
54
47
54
44
51

45
43
54
47
54
43
50

Kv T
J min
22
22
20

50
43
54
47
54
43
50

HB
min
271
253
240

Kv Q
J min

symbol
H
HH
HL

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
42
GERMANY DIN
30CrNiMo8

Cold-drawn annealed or
annealed + Peeled-Reeled,

FRANCE AFNOR
30NCD8

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19
UK BS
823M30

RUSSIA

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
USA AISI/SAE
A320L43

Self-hardening 36NiCrMo16

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
36NiCrMo16
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.6773
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.32-0.39
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

99

S%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1.60-2.00
0.05

0.25-0.45
0.04

3.60-4.10
0.07

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

1100-900

850
air

880
air

550-650
air

Soft
annealing
650
air
(HB max 269)

Isothermal
annealing

Full
annealing
790
furnace
(HB max 275)

830-860
oil polymer water
or salt bath (500)
Hardenability
test
825
water

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.

Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
700
760

Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
240
20

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
8
1250-1450
1050
9
40
16
40
8
20
1250-1450
1050
9
40
40
100
20
60
1100-1300
900
10
45
100
160
60
100
1000-1200
800
11
50
160
250
100 160
1000-1200
800
11
50
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
518
496
468
448
432
409
385
HRC
52.5 51
49
47.5 46
44
41.5
R
N/mm2
1900 1820 1720 1610 1520 1420 1320
RRp 0.2 N/mm2
1550 1500 1430 1360 1290 1200 1100
A
%
7.0
8.0
8.6
9.2
9.6
10.0 11.0
C
%
23
24
25
27
27
28
32
Kv
J
28
28
27
26
26
26
28
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200
250
300
350
400
450 500

EN 10083-3: 2006

HB
referece only
370-415
370-415
331-380
298-359
298-359

Kv
J min
30
35
45
45

357
38.5
1200
990
12.4
38
38
550

327
35
1090
900
14.0
48
64
600

301
32
1000
870
14.0
50
64
650

700

100

Part two Steels for quenching and tempering

36NiCrMo16
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
Cold-drawn quenched and tempered +C +QT
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards

Technical card Trafilix

HB

Cold-drawn
obtained from
hot-rolled annealed
HB max

HB

Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001

thickness
Testing at room temperature
mm
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min N/mm2 min
250
160
1000
800
250
500
160 330
1000
800
500
990
330 660
1000
800
L = longitudinal T = tangential Q = radial

A% L
min
11
11
11

EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
min 50
49
48
48
48
48
47
47
47
max 57
56
56
56
56
56
55
55
55
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
208000
79800

A% T
min
8
8
8

25
47
55

30
47
55

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm 250-500

Cold-drawn annealed or
annealed + Peeled-Reeled,
HB max

A% Q
min J

35
47
55

Kv L
min
45
45
45

40
47
55

45
47
55

Kv T
J min
22
22
22

HB
min
298
298
298

50
47
55

Thermal expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.5
12.3
12.8
13.3
13.7
14.0

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.84

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
33

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.30

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33

LUCEFIN experience Forged round 300 mm quenched at 870 C in water, tempered at 590 C in air
Depth from
Longitudinal testing
heat treatment
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv +20 C
Kv 20 C
surface
N/mm2
N/mm2
J
J
1/2 radius
1201
1110
12.8
55.0
90-98-90
62-58-60

371

Chemical composition %
C
Si
Mn
0.34
0.25
0.50

Ni
3.70

EUROPE EN
36NiCrMo16

Kv Q
J min

ITALY UNI
34NiCrMo16

P
0.012
CHINA

S
0.005
GERMANY DIN
36NiCrMo16

Cr
1.68
FRANCE AFNOR
35NCD16

HB

Mo
0.40
UK BS
835M30

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

CREEP-RESISTING STEELS

P235GH 42CrMo4 40CrMoV4-6 10CrMo9-10

P235GH

102

Part two Creep-resisting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
P235GH (ASTM A 285/285M gr.A)*)
According to standards EN 10273: 2008
Number
1.0345
*The acronym in brackets indicates the corresponding steel according to ASTM.
P = for pressure purposes, G = other characteristics; H = high temperatures
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
max
max
0,16
0,35
+ 0.02
+ 0.05

Mn%
0,40-1,20
+0.10 - 0.05

Nb%
Ni%
Ti%
max
max
max
0,010
0,30
0,03
+ 0.01
+ 0.05
+ 0.01
Permissible deviations on the product.
Cr+Cu+Mo+Ni max 0.70
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850

Normalizing
890-950
air

P%
max
0,30
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,025
+ 0.005

V%
max
0,02
+ 0.01

B%

Normalizing
and tempering
920
air
550-650 air

N%

Cu%
max
0,30
+ 0.05

Soft
annealing
700 air

Al%
min
0,020
0.005

Quenching
and tempering
880-900 water
550-650 air
Pre-heating
welding
100

Cr%
max
0,30
0.05

Mo%
max
0,08
0.03

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled +N EN 10273: 2008
Kv and traction test at room temperature in longitudinal
size mm
R
ReH min b)
A%
Kv 20 C
Kv 0 C
Kv +20 C
HB
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm2
min
J min
J min
J min
16
360-480
235
25
40
47
104-146
16
40
360-480
225
25
40
47
104-146
40
60
360-480
215
25
40
47
104-146
60
100
360-480
200
24
40
47
104-146
100
150 a)
350-480
185
24
40
47
103-146
a) for thickness > 150 mm the values shall be agreed upon +N = normalized
b) whenever the upper yield strength R is not visible enough, it can be calculated by taking the Rp 0.2 value, which is usually 10 N/mm2
eH
lower than ReH
Minimum 0,2% proof strength at high temperatures EN 10273: 2008
from
to
Rp 0.2
16
227
214
198
182
16
40
218
205
190
174
40
60
208
196
181
167
60
100
193
182
169
155
100
150
179
168
156
143
C
50
100
150
200
Min. values of material normalized in furnace

N/mm2
167
160
153
142
131
250

153
147
140
130
121
300

142
136
130
121
112
350

133
128
122
114
105
400

Part two Creep-resisting steels


P235GH
Reference data of strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain and creep rupture EN 10273: 2008
1 N/mm2
R N/mm2
C
10 000 h
100 000 h
10 000 h
100 000 h
380
164
118
229
165
390
150
106
211
148
400
136
95
191
132
410
124
84
174
118
420
113
73
158
103
430
101
65
142
91
440
91
57
127
79
450
80
49
113
69
460
72
42
100
59
470
62
35
86
50
480
53
30
75
42
1 = strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain
R = creep rupture strength
EUROPE EN
P235GH

ITALY UNI
Fe360 1 KW

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
P235GH

FRANCE AFNOR
A37CP

UK BS
141-360

103

200 000 h
145
129
115
101
89
78
67
57
48
40
33

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A285 g.A

42CrMo4

104

Part two Creep-resisting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
42CrMo4 (ASTM A 193-B7)*)
According to standards EN 10269: 2001
Number
1.7225
*The acronym in brackets indicates the similar steel according to ASTM.
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0,38-0,45
0,40
0,60-0,90
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
720
air
(HB max 240)

P%
max
0,035
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

0,90-1,20
0.05

0,15-0,30
0.03

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 180-240)

860
oil or polymer
Spheroidizing
annealing
730-740
furnace cooling
(HB max 200)

850
water
Hardenability
test
840
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
745
790

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled +QT EN 10269: 2001
size
Kv and test of traction at room temperature in longitudinal
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
60
860-1060
730
14
50
50
+QT = quenched and tempered
Minumum 0,2% proof strength at high temperatures Rp 0.2 N/mm2 EN 10269: 2001
d 60 mm
720
702
677
640
602
562
518
C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Temp.
C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Ni%

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
75000
185000
70000
175000
67000
155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

59000
Density
kg/dm3
7.85

Thermal
exspansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

Kv 40 C
J min
40

475
400

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
300
80

Kv 100 C
J min
27

420
450

375
500

HB
258-322

550

Ref. data of strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain and creep rupture
1 (1%) N/mm2
R N/mm2
C
10.000 h
100.000 h
10.000 h 100.000 h
450
190
137
320
240
500
88
49
137
96
550
29
15
59
30
600
1 = strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain
R = creep rupture strength

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
33.5
34.0
34.2

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19

LUCEFIN experience. Kv and traction test at room temperature in longitudinal on hot-rolled +QT material

grain
R
Rp 0.2
Rp/R
A%
C%
Kv +20 C
mm
size
N/mm2
N/mm2
min
min
J min
40
6
995
845
0,85
15,2
58
90-90-92
60
5-6
947
767
0,81
16.0
60
84-78-80

Kv 20 C
J min
60-58-58
50-50-56

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26

Part two Creep-resisting steels


42CrMo4
Fatigue behaviour +20 C
+N
328
Cyclic yield strength, y
+QT
716
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
+N
0.12
Cyclic strength exponent, n
+QT
0.10
low cycle fatigue
+N
673
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
+QT
1367
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
EUROPE EN
42CrMo4

ITALY UNI
42CrMo4

CHINA
ML42CrMo

GERMANY DIN
42CrMo4

+N
+QT
+N
+QT
+N
+QT

105

Fatigue behaviour +20 C


1000
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
1454
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
0.11
Fatigue strength exponent, b
0.08
low cycle fatigue
1.00
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
0.72
low cycle fatigue

FRANCE AFNOR
42CD4

UK BS
708M40

RUSSIA
42HM

USA AISI/SAE
4140

40CrMoV4-6

106

Part two Creep-resisting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40CrMoV4-6 (ASTM A 193-B16)*
According to standards EN 10269: 2001
Number
1.7711
*The acronym in brackets indicates the corresponding steel according to ASTM.
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0,36-0,44 0,40
0,45-0,85
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900
Soft
annealing
680-730
air
(HB max 241)

P%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

V%

0,90-1,20
0.05

0,50-0,65
0.03

0,25-0,35
0.03

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

880-900
air
Isothermal
annealing
880 furnace cooling
to 730 after, air

900-930
oil or polymer
Spheroidizing

650-720
air
Quenching and
stress relieving
930 oil
200 air
(HRC ~ 54)

750
furnace
cooling

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled +QT EN 10269: 2001
size
Kv and test of traction at room temperature in longitudinal
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
100
850-1000
700
14
45
30
100
160
850-1000
640
14
45
25
+QT = quenching and tempering
Minumum 0,2% proof strength at high temperatures Rp 0.2 N/mm2
d max 100
687
670
647
631
608
100
160
631
612
591
577
556
C
50
100
150
200
250
Temp.
C
20
100
200
300
400
450
500
550
600

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
211000
80950
204000
78300
196000
75200
186000
71350
177000
67900

Thermal
expansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

164000

62950

13.9

127000

48700

14.1

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
40CrMoV4-6

11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

ITALY UNI
CHINA
40CrMoV4-6

EN 10269: 2001
593
577
542
528
300
350

Al tot
max
0,015
0.01

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
760
810

Kv 40 C
J min

Natural state
+U
(HB max 350)
Stress relieving
after welding
560 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
340
120

Kv 100 C
J min

HB
253-298
253-298

554
507
400

523
479
450

470
429
500

400
366
550

293
268
600

Ref. data of strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain and creep rupture
1 (1%) N/mm2
R N/mm2
C
10.000 h 100.000 h
10.000 h
100.000 h
200.000 h
450
513
462
446
460
483
422
400
470
451
374
347
480
413
319
286
490
371
259
229
500
321
210
187
510
269
174
155
520
223
146
130
530
187
122
103
540
160
550
137
1 = strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain
R = creep rupture strength

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
33.0
GERMANY DIN
40CrMoV4-6

FRANCE AFNOR
40CrMoV4-6

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m

UK BS
670-860

RUSSIA

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2

USA AISI/SAE
A193B16

107

10CrMo9-10

Part two Creep-resisting steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
10CrMo9-10 (ASTM A 182 F22 cl. 3)*)
According to standards EN 10273: 2008
Number
1.7380
* The acronym in brackets indicates the corresponding steel according to ASTM.

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
N%
Cr%
Mo%
Cu%
max
max
max
max
0,08-0,14 0,50
0,40-0,80
0,030
0,025
2,00-2,50
0,90-1,10 0,30
+ 0.02
0.05
+0.10 -0.05
+ 0.005 + 0.005
0.10
0.04
+ 0.05
Permissible deviations on the product. The aluminium content of the casting must be determined and indicated in the control document.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Normalizing
1050-900
Soft
annealing
650-700 air
(HB max 210)

940-980
air
Spheroidizing
880-900
furnace cooling

Quenching

Tempering

950
water
Pre-heating
welding
300

650-750
air
Stress relieving
after welding (PWHT)
600-690 furnace
cooling

Stress
Step cooling
relieving
50 under the
593 furnace cooling
temperature of temp. EN 10028-2

Ac1
795

Ac3
850

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties at the delivery conditionb) EN 10273: 2008

heat
Kv and test of traction at room temperature in longitudinal
mm
treatment
R
ReH
A%
Kv +20 C
b)
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
J min
16
+NT
480-630
310
18
40
16
40
+NT
480-630
300
18
40
40
60
+NT
480-630
290
18
40
60
100
+NT or +QT
470-620
270
17
40
100
150
+QT
460-610
250
17
40
+NT = normalized and tempering +QT = quenching and tempering
Minumum 0,2% proof strength at high temperatures
from
to
treatment
16
+NT
288
266
16
40
+NT
279
257
40
60
+NT
270
249
60
100
+NT/QT 260
240
100
150
+NT/QT 250
237
C
50
100
Temperature Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2
Testing at C E long.
G tang.
20
210000
80600
100
205000
78700
200
195000
74800
250
300
400
175000
67000
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
10CrMo9-10

ITALY UNI
10CrMo9-10

254
246
238
230
228
150

248
240
232
224
222
200

11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5

CHINA
12Cr2MoG

Kv 0 C
J min

Mf
230

Kv 20 C
J min

HB
146-192
146-192
146-192
141-190
139-183

EN 10273: 2008

Thermal
exspansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]

Density
kg/dm3
7.80

Ms
440

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
243
236
235
228
227
221
220
213
219
213
250
300

212
205
198
191
191
400

Temperature Mod. of elasticity


N/mm2
Testing at C E long.
G tang.
450
500
550
600
155000
59500
650

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
50
GERMANY DIN
10CrMo9-10

225
218
211
204
204
350

FRANCE AFNOR
12CD9-10

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.18
UK BS
622/B3

RUSSIA
12Ch8

197
191
185
178
178
450

185
179
173
167
167
500

Thermal
exspansion
[(m/mK) 106 C1]
13.9
14.1

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.55
USA AISI/SAE
A182 F22

108

Part two Creep-resisting steels

10CrMo9-10
Reference data of strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain and creep rupture EN 10273: 2008
1 (1%) N/mm2
R N/mm2
C
10 000 h
100 000 h
10 000 h
100 000 h
450
240
166
306
221
460
219
155
286
205
470
200
145
264
188
480
180
130
241
170
490
163
116
219
152
500
147
103
196
135
510
132
90
176
118
520
119
78
156
103
530
107
68
138
90
540
94
58
122
78
550
83
49
108
68
560
73
41
96
58
570
65
35
85
51
580
57
30
75
44
590
50
26
68
38
600
44
22
61
34
1 = strength for 1% (plastic) creep strain
R = creep rupture strength

200 000 h
201
186
169
152
136
120
105
91
79
68
58
50
43
37
32
28

Lucefin experience. Heat treatment, thickness 15 mm hot-rolled. FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature)
Impact test Kv J 12
18
42
110 130 150 180 200 200
+NT
Fibrosity
2
4
10
50
62
74
100 100 100
N = 980 C air T = 720 C air
C
60
50
40 20 0
+20 +50 +80 +100
Impact test Kv J 6
10
90
190 230 250 260 260 260
Q = 950 C water T = 720 C air
Fibrosity
9
10
25
85
95
100 100 100 100
+PWHT * = 690 C 10 h furn. cool.
C
110 100 80 60 40 20 0
+20 +50
(* Post weld heat treatment)

Load test [MPa - N/mm2]

Creep test: Lucefin experience


Deformation of
a piece
Creep
test under constants stress
350

1 10000 h

300

1 100000 h

250

r 10000 h

200

r 100000 h

r 200000 h

150

100

50

0
450

475

500

525
Temperature test [C]

550

575

600

FLAME AND INDUCTION-HARDENING STEELS

C43 C48 Cf53 36CrMn4 41CrMo4 50CrMo4 40NiCrMo3

C43

110

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C43
According to standards UNI 7847: 1979
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
0,40-0,46
0,15-0,40 0,50-0,80
0,030
0,030
0.02
0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product. By agreement this steel can be supplied with Cr, Mo, Ni, Cu, max. values.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
690
air
(HB max 220)

Mn%

Normalizing

Quenching

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 155-205)

840
water
Natural

Quenching

Tempering
550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
730
780

Hardenability
test

(HB max 231)

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
360
140

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after normalizing UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
100
570-720
300
18
169-223
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering (valid for products with no heat treatment)
For quenched and tempered material, values must be guaranteed on the product
UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
690-840
470
15
25
210-250
16
40
640-790
400
16
20
198-237
40
100
570-720
360
17
20
169-223
For sizes over 100 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Cold-drawn
size mm
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
from
to
R N/mm2
Rp 0.2 N/mm2 min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
Please refer to the same values of quality C40E C45E
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13 15
min No indications are shown in the reference standards
max Please refer to the same values of quality C 45E
EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI
C43

CHINA

20

GERMANY DIN

A% min

25

30

35

FRANCE AFNOR

HB

40

45

UK BS

Min. surface hardness


after hardening and stress
50 relieving
HRC
54

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

111

C48

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C48
According to standards UNI 7847: 1979
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
0.45-0.52
0.15-0.40 0.50-0.80
0.030
0.030
0.02
0.03
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product. By agreement this steel can be supplied with Cr Mo Ni Cu, max. values.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 238)

Mn%

Normalizing

Quenching

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
790 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 165-223)

830
water
Natural

Quenching

Tempering
550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
730
770

Hardenability
test

(HB max 243)

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
330
110

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after normalizing UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
100
610-760
335
16
183-226
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering (valid for products with no heat treatment)
For quenched and tempered material, values must be guaranteed on the product
UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
730-875
510
13
20
224-262
16
40
680-830
430
14
15
208-249
40
100
630-770
400
15
15
192-231
For sizes over 100 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Cold-drawn
size mm
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
from
to
R N/mm2
Rp 0.2 N/mm2 min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
Please refer to the same values of quality C45E - C50E
Jominy test HRC
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13 15
min No indications are shown in the reference standards
max Please refer to the same values of quality C 50E
EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI
C48

CHINA

20

GERMANY DIN

A% min

25

30

35

FRANCE AFNOR

HB

40

45

UK BS

50

Min. surface hardness


after hardening and stress
relieving
HRC
54

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1049

Cf53

112

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
Cf53
According to standards DIN 17212: 1972
Number
1.1213
Composizione chimica
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.50-0.57
0.15-0.35 0.40-0.70
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 223)

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 180-230)

830
water
Natural

860
oil or polymer
Hardenability
test

550-660
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
730
765

(HB max 260)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties for normalized condition DIN 17212: 1972
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
100
610-760
340
16

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
320
100

HB
reference only
183-226

K
J min

Hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition DIN 17212: 1972
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
K
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
740-880
510
12
25
16
40
690-830
430
14
35
40
100
640-780
400
15
40

HB
reference only
224-263
210-249
198-232

Quenched and tempered + Cold-drawn +QT +C 070M55 BS 970 pt.3: 1991. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R N/mm2
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
K
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
13
29
700-850
475
10
29
100
700-850
435
10

HB
reference only
201-255
201-255

Jominy test HRC


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13 15
min No indications are shown in the reference standard
max Please refer to the same values of quality C 50E
EUROPE EN
C53

ITALY UNI
C53

CHINA

20

GERMANY DIN
Cf53

25

30

35

FRANCE AFNOR
XC48 TS

40

45

UK BS
070M55

50

Min. surface hardness after


hardening and stress
relieving
HRC 57

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1050

113

36CrMn4

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
36CrMn4
According to standards UNI 7847: 1979
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.33-0.39
0.15-0.40 0.80-1.10
0.02
0.03
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 230)

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Normalizing

Quenching

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 170-215)

850
oil or polymer
Natural

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.90-1.20
0.05

Quenching

Tempering
550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
750
800

Hardenability
test
850
water

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
320
100

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering (valid for products with no heat treatment)
For quenched and tempered material, values must be guaranteed on the product
UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.

size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
880-1080
685
12
25
263-327
16
40
780-930
590
13
25
232-278
40
100
740-890
540
14
25
224-268
For sizes over 100 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
UNI 7847 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13
min 50
49
48
47
44
41
39
max 58
58
57
56
55
54
54
EUROPE EN
37Cr4 appr.

ITALY UNI
36CrMn4

CHINA
36Cr4.

15
37
53

20
34
50

GERMANY DIN
37Cr4 appr.

25
32
48

C%
min

30
31
46

35
30
45

FRANCE AFNOR
38C4 appr.

Kcu%
Jmin

40
29
44

45
28
43
UK BS

50
27
43

HB

Min. surface hardness after


hardening and stress
relieving
HRC
52

RUSSIA
SchCh10

USA AISI/SAE
5135 appr.

41CrMo4

114

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
41CrMo4
According to standards UNI 7847: 1979
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.38-0.44
0.15-0.40 0.50-0.80
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
720
air
(HB max 240)

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Normalizing

Quenching

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 180-240)

850
oil or polymer
Spheroidizing

Cr%

Mo%

0.90-1.20
0.05

0.15-0.25
0.03

Quenching

Tempering

Stress
relieving
180

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
745
790

Hardenability
test
840
water

730-740
furnace
cooling

Ni%

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
300
80

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering (valid for products with no heat treatment)
For quenched and tempered material, values must be guaranteed on the product
UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kcu
HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
reference only
16
1080-1280
880
10
25
327-375
16
40
980-1180
765
11
25
295-354
40
100
880-1080
640
12
25
263-327
100
160
780-930
560
13
25
232-278
160
250
740-890
510
14
25
224-268
UNI 7847 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13
min 53
53
52
51
50
48
45
max 60
60
60
60
60
59
59
Thermal exspansion
Mod. of elasticity
Mod. of elasticity
Testing at C

[(m/mK)] 106
longitudinal N/mm2
tangential N/mm2

Specific heat capacity


J/(KgK)
460
EUROPE EN
41CrMo4

ITALY UNI
41CrMo4

Density
Kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

15
43
58

210000
80000
20

20
38
56

25
35
53

11.1
205000
78000
100

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
42
GERMANY DIN
41CrMo4

30
34
51

35
33
48

12.1
195000
75000
200

40
32
47

45
32
46

12.9
185000
70000
300

Specific electric
resist. Ohmmm2/m
0.19

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

50
32
45

Min. surface hardness after


hardening and stress
relieving
HRC
55

13.5
175000
67000
400

13.9

14.1

500

600

Conductivity
Siemensm/mm2
5.26
RUSSIA
40ChFA

USA AISI/SAE
4142

115

50CrMo4

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
50CrMo4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.7228
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.46-0.54
0.40
0.50-0.80
0.02
+ 0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850
Soft
annealing
720
air
(HB max 248)

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

0.90-1.20
0.05

0.15-0.30
0.03

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
790 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air

860
oil or polymer
Spheroidizing

840
water
Hardenability
test
850
water

540-680
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
720
760

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
320
100

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed - hot-rolled - rod mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-3: 2006
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
Kv
HB
Surface hardness after
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
for inform.
flame or induction
16
1100-1300
900
9
40
331-380
hardening
16
40
1000-1200
780
10
45
30
298-359
HRC 58
40
100
900-1100
700
12
50
30
271-331
100
160
850-1000
650
13
50
30
253-298
160
250
800-950
550
13
50
30
240-286
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
448
421 390
HRC
47.5 45
42
R
N/mm2
1620 1490 1350
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1370 1270 1165
A
%
7.0
10.0 12.0
C
%
30
40
Kv
J
26
28
28
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350 400 450 500
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
min
58
58
57
55
54
53
51
48
max
65
65
64
64
63
63
63
62
EUROPE EN
50CrMo4

ITALY UNI

CHINA
ZG500CrMo

GERMANY DIN
50CrMo4

20
45
61

25
41
60

FRANCE AFNOR

30
39
58

35
38
57
UK BS

353
38
1185
1060
13.0
49
38
550

40
37
55

327
35
1070
930
13.5
57
94
600

45
36
54

RUSSIA
50HM

294
31
960
840
15.5
60
146
650

264
27
880
785
20.0
60
166
700

50
36
54
USA AISI/SAE
4150

40NiCrMo3

116

Part two Flame and induction-hardening steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40NiCrMo3
According to standards UNI 7847: 1979
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.37-0.43
0.15-0.40 0.50-0.80
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 240)

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Normalizing

Quenching

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace cooling
to 650 after, air
(HB 190-245)

850
oil or polymer
Full
annealing
820 furnace
cooling
(HB max 235)

Cr%

Mo%

0.60-1.00
0.05

0.15-0.25 0.70-1.00
0.03
0.03

Quenching

Ni%

Tempering
550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
740
790

Hardenability
test
850
water

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties on test blank after quenching and tempering
For quenched and tempered material, values must be guaranteed on the product
UNI 7847: 1979. Reference only.
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
16
1030-1230
830
10
16
40
980-1180
785
11
40
100
880-1080
690
12
100
160
830-980
640
12
160
250
740-890
540
13
Cold-drawn
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
No indications are shown in the reference standards
UNI 7847 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13
min 52
51
50
49
48
46
44
max 60
60
59
58
58
57
57
EUROPE EN
40NiCrMo3

ITALY UNI
40NiCrMo3

CHINA

15
43
56

20
39
55

GERMANY DIN

25
36
53

C%
min

30
34
51

35
33
49

FRANCE AFNOR

40
32
48

45
31
46
UK BS

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
330
110

Kcu
J min
30
30
30
30
30

HB
reference only
311-363
295-354
263-327
249-295
224-268

Kcu%
Jmin

HB

50
30
45

Min. surface hardness after


hardening and stress
relieving
HRC
54

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

SPRING STEELS

C60E 56Si7 60SiCr8 51CrV4 52SiCrNi5

C60E

118

Part two Spring steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C60E
According to standards EN 10083-2: 2006
Number
1.1221
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.57-0.65
0.40
0.60-0.90
0.03
+0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Cr+Mo+Ni max 0.63%
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 241)

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%
max
0.40

Mo%
max
0.10

Ni%
max
0.40

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
780 furnace cooling
to 670 after, air
(HB 200-244)

830
water
Natural

850
oil or polymer
Hardenability
test
830
water

550-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
not allowed
Ac1
Ac3
730
760

(HB max 280)

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
not allowed
Ms
Mf
290
70

Mechanical properties
Hot-formed hot-rolled rod mechanical properties for normalized condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
16
710
380
10
16
100
16
100
670
340
11
100
250
100 250
650
310
11

HB
min
218
203
200

Hot-formed hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition EN 10083-2: 2006

thickness
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
mm
R
Re
A%
C%
Kv
from
to
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
8
850-1000
580
11
25
16
40
8
20
800-960
520
13
30
40
100
20
60
750-900
450
14
35

HB
reference only
253-298
240-290
225-271

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 830 C in water
HB
697
688
634
560
468
HRC
62.5
62
59
55
49
R
N/mm2
2420
2070
1700
Tempering at C
50
100
200
300
400
EN 10083-2: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 60
57
50
39
35
33
32
31
30
max 67
66
65
63
62
59
54
47
39
EUROPE EN
C60E

ITALY UNI
C60

CHINA
60

GERMANY DIN
Ck60

10
29
37

11
28
36

FRANCE AFNOR

13
27
35

15
26
34

UK BS
070M60

371
40
1250
500

20
25
33

25
23
31

RUSSIA
60

264
27
880
600

30
21
30
USA AISI/SAE
1060

119

56Si7

Part two Spring steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
56Si7
According to standards EN 10089: 2002
Number
1.5026
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
0.52-0.60
1.60-2.00 0.60-0.90
0.025
0.025
0.03
0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product. Other non mentioned elements must not be added to the steel,
except for those which are necessary to heat making.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
680
air
(HB max 248)

Mn%

Normalizing

Quenching on spring

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 720 after, air
(HB max 240)

840-870
oil or polymer
Natural

400-480
air
Pre-heating
welding
not allowed
Ac1
Ac3
770
810

Hardenability
test
850
water

(HB max 293)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties obtained from test blanks
after quenching at 860 C in oil, tempering at 450 C in air EN 10089: 2002
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Z%
KU
HRC
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
10
1450-1750 1300
6
25
13
44-50

Maximum thickness and diameter


recommended for the spring
in order to obtain, after quenching,
an internal hardness of 52 HRC
EUROPE EN
56Si7

ITALY UNI
55Si7

R
N/mm2
1300-1500

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min
1100

362
39
1210
1070
13.4
28
550

A%
min
6

327
35
1080
930
15.8
32
600

DVM
J min
14

290
30.5
960
800
19.2
40
650

264
27
880
690
22.0
42
700

H = normal
13
32
46

15
31
42

20
28
39

Flat products
thickness mm

Round products
mm

12

CHINA
55Si2Mn

Stress relieving
after welding
not allowed
Ms
Mf
290
70

Characteristics for springs according to


Stahlschlssel 2007

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 860 C in oil
HB
722 706
688
634
615
525
448
404
HRC
64
63
62
59
58
53
47.5 43.5
R
N/mm2
2400 2460 2450 2310 1950 1600 1400
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1580 1670 1860 2000 2100 2140 2090 1700 1460 1250
A
%
2.0
3.8
4.2
5.0
8.0
10.5 12.2
Kv
J
8
8
9
10
12
16
26
26
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
EN 10089: 2002 2002 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
57
55
49
43
37
34
max
65
62
60
57
54
50

Hot moulding
of springs
900-820

GERMANY DIN
55Si7

25
27
37

30
26
36

35
26
35

40
25
34

45
25
34

50
24
33

Mod. of elasticity +20 C


N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
206000
79000

FRANCE AFNOR
55S7

UK BS
25158

RUSSIA
55S2

USA AISI/SAE
9555

60SiCr8

120

Part two Spring steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
60SiCr8
According to standards UNI 3545: 1980
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
0.57-0.64
1.70-2.20 0.70-1.00
0.035
0.035
0.25-0.40
0.03
0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product. Other non mentioned elements must not be added to the steel,
except for those which are necessary to heat making.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
680
air
(HB max 255)

Mn%

Normalizing

Quenching on spring

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 720 after, air
(HB max 250)

830-860
oil or polymer
Natural

430-480
air
Pre-heating
welding
not allowed
Ac1
Ac3
770
800

Hardenability
test
850
water

(HB max 321)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled properties obtained from test blanks 10 mm after quenching
at 850 C in oil, tempering at 480 C in air. UNI 3545: 1980. Reference only.
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
HRC
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
reference only
10
1450-1700
1250
5
415-467
44.5-49

Maximum thickness and diameter


recommended for the spring
in order to obtain, after quenching,
an internal hardness of 52 HRC
EUROPE EN
60SiCr8

ITALY UNI
60SiCr8

13
38
59

15
37
57

20
33
50

Flat products
thickness mm

Round products
mm

16

24

CHINA
60Si2CrA

GERMANY DIN
60SiCr7

Stress relieving
after welding
not allowed
Ms
Mf
270
50

Characteristics for springs according to


Stahlschlssel 2007
R
N/mm2
1350-1600

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
468
461
442
HRC
49
48.5 47
R
N/mm2
1700 1660 1570
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1390 1340 1240
A
%
4.5
5.0
6.0
Kv
J
10
10
10
Rinv.
C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
UNI 3545: 1980 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min.
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
min
58
58
57
51
45
40
max
66
66
65
64
63
61

Hot moulding
of springs
920-830

25
30
45

30
29
43

35
28
41

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min
1150

409
44
1420
1180
7.0
12
550

40
27
40

A%
min
6

353
38
1160
1000
9.0
12
600

45
26
39

DVM
J min
21

650

700

50
25
39

Mod. of elasticity +20 C


N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
206000
79000

FRANCE AFNOR
61SC7

UK BS

RUSSIA
60S2HA

USA AISI/SAE
9261-9262

121

51CrV4

Part two Spring steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
51CrV4
According to standards EN 10083-3: 2006
Number
1.8159
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
V%
Ni%
max
max
max
0.47-0.55
0.40
0.70-1.10
0.025
0.025
0.90-1.20
0.10-0.25
0.02
0.03
0.05
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.02
Permissible deviations on the product. Other non mentioned elements must not be added to the steel,
except for those which are necessary to heat making.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 248)

Normalizing

Quenching on spring

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 710 after, air
(HB max 220)

850-880
oil or polymer
Natural

400-450
air
Pre-heating
welding
not allowed
Ac1
Ac3
740
790

Hardenability
test
850
water

(HB max 310)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10083-3: 2006 mechanical properties after QT

mm
from to
16
16
40
40
100
100 160
160 250

thickness
mm
from to
8
8
20
20 60
60 100
100 160

Kv
J min

R
Rp 0.2
N/mm2 N/mm2 min
1400-1700
1200

25
41
62

Flat products
thickness mm

Round products
mm

25

38

A%
min
6

DVM
J min
21

30
30
30
30

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
615 595
577
577
550
525
504
455
421
390
HRC
58
57
56
56
54.5 53
51.5 48
45
42
R
N/mm2
2170 2050 1960 1840 1650 1490 1340
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1500 1590 1700 1750 1750 1720 1650 1530 1400 1270
A
%
6.8
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.5
9.8
11.2
Kv
J
8
10
16
16
15
16
26
28
31
Rinv.
C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

Maximum thickness and diameter


recommended for the spring
in order to obtain, after quenching,
an internal hardness of 52 HRC

Stress relieving
after welding
not allowed
Ms
Mf
280
60

Characteristics for springs according to


Stahlschlssel 2007

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)


R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
1100-1300 900
9
40
1000-1200 800
10
45
900-1100 700
12
50
850-1000 650
13
50
800-950
600
13
50

EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
min 57
56
56
55
53
52
50
48
44
max 65
65
64
64
63
63
63
62
62

Hot moulding
of springs
920-830

30
37
61

35
35
60

40
34
60

371
40
1250
1170
12.5
38
550

45
33
59

Mod. of elasticity +20 C


N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
210000
80000

344
37
1140
1130
14.6
46
600

50
32
58

297
31.5
990
900
19.0
94
650

253
25
850
700
22.5
135
700

122

Part two Spring steels

51CrV4 1.8159
Technical card Trafilix
Cold-drawn + quenched and tempered +C +QT EN 10277-5: 2008
Hot-rolled annealed + Peeled-Reeled +A +SH
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal) e)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
max
b)
16
1100-1300
900
9
331-380
248
16
40
1000-1200
800
10
298-359
248
40
80
900-1100
700
12
271-331
248
b) for thickness below 5 mm mechanical properties can be agreed upon before order placement
e) values valid also for +C +QT +SL
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered Cold-drawn +QT +C
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
16
16
40
40
80
Forged quenched and tempered EN 10250-3: 2001
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A% L
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
160
800
600
13
160 330
330 660
L = longitudinal T = tangential
EUROPE EN
51CrV4

ITALY UNI
50CrV4

CHINA
50CrV4

GERMANY DIN
50CrV4

Hot-rolled annealed + Cold-drawn +A +C


R
N/mm2 min

A% T
min
9

Kv L
J min
30

FRANCE AFNOR
50CrV4

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min

Kv T
J min
16

UK BS
735A50

A%
min

HB
max
311
293
287

HB
min
240

RUSSIA
50ChGF

USA AISI/SAE
6150

123

52SiCrNi5

Part two Spring steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
52SiCrNi5
According to standards EN 10089: 2002
Number
1.7117
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
Ni%
max
max
0.49-0.56
1.20-1.50 0.70-1.00
0.025
0.025
0.70-1.00
0.50-0.70
0.02
0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.05
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product. Other non mentioned elements must not be added to the steel,
except for those which are necessary to heat making.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900
Soft
annealing
680
air
(HB max 248)

Mn%

Normalizing

Quenching on spring

Tempering

870
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 720 after, air
(HB max 230)

840-870
oil or polymer
Natural

400-450
air
Pre-heating
welding
not allowed
Ac1
Ac3
760
810

Hardenability
test
850
water

(HB max 310)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties obtained from test blanks after
quenching at 860 C in oil, tempering at 450 C in air. EN 10089: 2002
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
10
1450-1750
1300
6
35

Maximum thickness and diameter


recommended for the spring
in order to obtain, after quenching,
an internal hardness of 52 HRC
EUROPE EN
52SiCrNi5

ITALY UNI
52SiCrNi5

HB
HRC
reference only
409-482
44-50

KU
J min
10

25
42
59

Flat products
thickness mm

Round products
mm

40

60

CHINA
ZG50CrMo

GERMANY DIN
52SiCrNi5

Stress relieving
after welding
not allowed
Ms
Mf
270
50

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
706 688
654
615
615
595
577
525
482
421
HRC
63
62
60
58
58
57
56
53
50
45
R
N/mm2
2340 2310 2250 2170 1950 1690 1480
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1900 2000 2050 1990 1750 1550 1350
A
%
3.0
8.0
9.8
10.6
Kv
J
8
8
8
9
14
26
26
Rinv.
C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
EN 10089: 2002 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
min 56
56
55
55
54
53
52
51
47
max 63
63
63
62
62
62
61
61
60

Hot moulding
of springs
920-830

30
38
57

35
35
56

40
33
54

381
41
1310
1190
12.2
26
550

45
31
52

353
38
1190
1020
14.0
28
600

319
34
1060
880
17.0
42
650

279
29
940
750
21.0
80
700

50
30
49

Mod. of elasticity +20 C


N/mm2
E long.
G tang.
215000
82000

FRANCE AFNOR
52SiCrNi5

UK BS

RUSSIA
52XHC

USA AISI/SAE

BEARING STEELS

102Cr6 100CrMo7 X82WMoCrV6-5-4

125

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
102Cr6
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2067

Mn%

0.95-1.10
0.15-0.35 0.25-0.45
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Quenching
1050-900

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Quenching

Pre-heating a 650
pause, after
820 water

Soft
annealing
740-770
air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

850
oil, polymer
salt bath 500-550
salt bath 180-200
Recrystallization
annealing
750 cooling furnace
to 300 after air

Cr%

Mo%

Cu%

1.35-1.65
0.07

Stress
relieving
180-220
air

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650
furnace cooling

Spheroidizing
Hardenability
Pre-heating
annealing
test
welding
770-780 furnace
not recommended
cooling to 630 after
300 after air
Ac1
Ac3
HB max 223 a)
(HB max 207)
(HB max 220)
750
785
a) Hardness in the cold-drawn condition (+A+C) can be 20 HB higher than in the annealed condition (+A)
b) subcooling
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 840 C in oil
HB
739 722 706 688 654 595 543 496 442 409
HRC
65
64
63
62
60
57
54
51
47
44
R
N/mm2
2400 2500 2470 2300 2100 1900 1650 1410
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1800 2080 2190 2090 1900 1700 1500 1300
A
%
5.0
7.0
C
%
22
30
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

HRC from surface to heart for different quenched at


850 C in oil. Variations in hardness show the mass effect
mm
0
5
10
15
20
10
65
64
30
64
62
59
58
40
62
57
52.5
50.5
50

Thermal expansion
Thermal conductivity
Mod. of elasticity
Mod. of elasticity
Testing at C

[m/(mK)] 106
W(mK)
longitudinal N/mm2
tangential N/mm2

Ms
210

336
36
1110
950
12.0
44
600

Mf
10 b)

301
32
1010
800
16.0
50
650

60

243
23
810
690
18.0
54
700

100

50

80
hardness

40

60

martensite %

30

40
20

20
martensite + bainite
+ ferrite + pearlite

0
8
16
distance in mm from quenched end

12.5
33.0
212000
81000
20

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended

70

martensite +
carbides

Hardness/Structures curves

371
40
1250
1100
9.0
34
550

Annealing must be
done after machining
and before the final heat
treatment

100

13.2

200

0
carbides+ pearlite
24

32

13.6
32.2

14.0

14.3

300

400

40

31.4

500

700

martensite %

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

hardness HRC

102Cr6

Part two Bearing steels

126

Part two Bearing steels

102Cr6
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)

Heat
treatment
+QT

Temperature (+ ...C) - min. values


20
200
300
350
1339

+QT

0.15

+QT

3328

+QT

2620

+QT

0.09

+QT

0.15

+QT

0.56

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.30

Technical card Trafilix


Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33

Fatigue behaviour
400

450

500

600
Cyclic yield strength, y
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength exponent, n
low cycle fatigue
Cyclic strength coefficient, K
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength coefficient, f
N/mm2 low cycle fatigue
Fatigue strength exponent, b
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
low cycle fatigue
Fatigue ductility exponent, c
low cycle fatigue

+QT quenched an tempered quenched at 830-870 C in oil, tempered at 150-180 C


EUROPE EN
102Cr6

ITALY UNI
100Cr6

CHINA
Cr2

GERMANY DIN
100Cr6

FRANCE AFNOR
100Cr6

UK BS

RUSSIA
X15

USA AISI/SAE
52100

Trasformation diagram for isothermal cooling time-temperature taked from GERDAU


850
austenite + carbides not dissolved
750

As

650
ferrite + carbides

austenite +
ferrite +
carbides

500

10
400

austenite +
carbides
not dissolved

300
temperature [C]

50%
Ms
M 50

200

M 90
100
time [s]

10

102

103

104

105

106

127

100CrMo7

Part two Bearing steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
100CrMo7
According to standards ISO 683-17: 2001
Number
B5 (1.3537)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0.93-1.05 0.15-0.35 0.25-0.45
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

Temperature C
Hot forming
Pre-heating
1100-850

Soft
annealing
730
air
(HB max 220)
b) subcooling

S%
max
0.015
+ 0.005

Quenching

400
850
stop in furnace,
oil, polymer
after 850
salth bath 500-550
Isothermal
annealing +AC
800 furnace cooling to 720
after furnace 600 after, air
(HB max 217)

Cr%

Mo%

1.65-1.95
0.05

0.15-0.30
0.03

Tempering
150-220
air
+AC+C
Ann. Cold-drawn

(HB max 251)

Cu%
max
0.30
+0.03

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650
furnace cooling

Annealing must be
done after machining
and before the final heat
treatment

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1 star
Ac1 end
755
785

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
200
10 b)

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
739 739 722
670 615
595 613 512
482
432
HRC
65 65
64
61
58
57
56
52
50
46
R
N/mm2
2000 2400 2430 2300 2150 1950 1770 1610
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1800 2050 2150 2090 1960 1810 1650 1500
A
%
3.0
4.6
C
%
15
20
Tempering at C
50 100 150
200 250
300 350 400 450 500
HRC from surface to heart for different quenched at 850 C in oil
Variations in hardness show the mass effect
mm
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
20
66
66
65.5
30
65.5 65.5
65.5
65
40
65.5 65.5
65.5
65
65
50
65.5 64
62
61
60.5
60.5
60
64.5 63
58.5
54
52
51.5
51
80
62.5 58
50.5
47.5
46
45
44.5
100 61
56
49
46.5
45
44.5
43.5
EUROPE EN
100CrMo7

ITALY UNI
100CrMo7

CHINA
GC18Mo

GERMANY DIN
100CrMo7

Al%
max
0.050
+0.010

415
44.5
1450
1350
6.4
30
550

35

40

45

50

44
43

43.5
42.5

42.5

42.5

FRANCE AFNOR
100CD7

UK BS

344
37
1240
1150
9.0
38
600

286
30
1000
900
12.5
44
650

253
25
840
750
16.5
52
700

Hardening in oil on round


20 mm
C
HRC
800
62
820
64
840
65.5
850
66
860
66
880
66
900
65

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A485(3)

X82WMoCrV6-5-4

128

Part two Bearing steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X82WMoCrV6-5-4 )
According to standards ISO 683-17: 2001
Number
B62 (1.3553)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn% P%
max
max
0.78-0.86 0.40
0.40
0.025
0.03
0.03 0.04 + 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

S%
max
0.015
+ 0.005

Quenching

1100-900

Cr%

Mo%

V%

W%

3.90-4.30
0.10

4.70-5.20
0.10

1.70-2.00
0.10

6.00-6.70
0.10

Tempering

1190-1230
Immediately after
oil, polymer
quenching 540-570 air
salth bath 500-550
at least 2 cycles
Spheroidizing
+AC+C
+AC
Ann. Cold-drawn
770-840 furnace
cooling 15 C/h,
to 600 after, air
(HB max 248)
(HB max 298)

Soft
annealing +A
780-820

(HB max 280)


b) subcooling

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature after quenching at 1210 C in oil
HB
688 679
688
HRC
62
61.5 62
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50 100 150
200 250
300 350 400
Thermal expansion
Mod. of elasticity
Mod. of elasticity
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
X80WMoCrV654

[m/(mK)] 106
longitudinal N/mm2
tangential N/mm2
Density
kg/dm3
8.1

ITALY UNI
X82WMoV65

CHINA

217000
83000
20

Cu%
max
0.30
+0.03

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650
furnace cooling

Annealing must be
done after machining
and before the final heat
treatment

Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
820
870

Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
150
70 b)

697
62.5

739
65

450

490

758
66

758
66

530

722
64

615 482
58
50
2330 1760
600 650 700

560

11.5

11.7

12.2

12.4

12.7

13.0

12.9

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
19
GERMANY DIN
X82WMoCrV6-5-4

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.54
FRANCE AFNOR
Z85WCDV6

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.85
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A597 CM2

HOT-WORK TOOL STEELS

X37CrMoV5-1 (1.2343) X40CrMoV5-1 (1.2344) 40NiCrMoV16 KU (1.2776) 55NiCrMoV7 (1.2714)


X40Cr14 (1.2083) 40CrMnMoS8-6 (1.2312) 32CrMoV12-28 (1.2365) X38CrMoV5-3 (1.2367)
54NiCrMoV6 (1.2711) 40CrMnNiMo8-6-4 (1.2738) 45NiCrMo16 (1.2767) 35NiCrMoV12-5 (1.6959)

X37CrMoV5-1

130

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X37CrMoV5-1
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2343
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0,33-0,41 0,80-1,20
0,25-0,50
0.02
0.05
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,020
+ 0.005

Quenching

Cr%

Mo%

4,80-5,50
0.10

1,10-1,50
0.05

Tempering

1050-900

Pre-heating to 800
Immediately after
pause, after 1000-1040
quenching 550-650 air
oil, polymer,
minimum 2 cycles
salt bath (450-500)
Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
800 furnace
880 furnace cooling
cooling
to 780 pause, after
(HB max 229)
furnace cooling 750 air
Hardness for the annealed and cold-drawn execution can be HB 249 max
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 1020 C in oil
HB
543
525
518
512
HRC
54
53
52.5
52
N/mm2
2010 1950 1915
1880
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
R*
N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
R*
N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
HRC quenching 1040 C oil
HRC quenching 1040 C air
Testing at C
*Shows the results of two different heat treatments.
Testing at
C
20
500
600

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
550
590

EUROPE EN
X37CrMoV5-1

ITALY UNI
X37CrMoV51KU

Density
kg/dm3
7.80
7.64
7.60
CHINA
(4Cr5MoSiV)

512
52
1880
250
11.5

518
52.5
1915
300
12.0

215000
82000
1600
1460
1200
1060

20

534
53.5
1980
350
12.2

1400
1200
1120
900

100

200

300

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
25.0
28.5
29.3
GERMANY DIN
X38CrMoV5-1

Ni%

V%
0,30-0,50
0.04

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650 furnace
cooling to 350
after, air

Annealing must be done


after machining
and before quenching

Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
830
890

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
310
80

550
54.5
2040
400

568
55.5
2115
450

12.5
183000
70200
1300
1100
1000
800
53
52
400

577
56
2160
500

12.9
176000
68000
1100
900
850
650
54
53
500

UK BS
B-H11

432
46
1520
600

13.0
165000
63000
800
600
580
420
54 49
53 48
550 600

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.52
0.86
0.96

FRANCE AFNOR
Z38CDV5

512
52
1880
550

362
39
1220
650
13.2

600
400
400
250
39
39
650 700

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.92
1.16
1.04

RUSSIA
USA AISI/SAE
(4KH5MFs.-U) H 11

131

X40CrMoV5-1

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X40CrMoV5-1
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2344
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0,35-0,42 0,80-1,20
0,25-0,50
0.02
0.05
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,020
+ 0.005

Quenching

Cr%

Mo%

4,80-5,50
0.10

1,20-1,50
0.05

Tempering

1050-900

Pre-heating to 800
Immediately after
pause, after 1020-1080
quenching
oil, polymer,
500-620 air
salt bath (450-500)
minimum 2 cycles
Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
820 furnace
880 furnace cooling to 780
cooling
pause, after furnace cooling
(HB max 229)
to 750 after, air
Hardness for the annealed and cold-drawn execution can be HB 249 max

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 1040 C in oil
HB
560 543 525 512 504
HRC
55
54
53
52
51.5
N/mm2
2070 2010 1950 1880 1850
Testing at C
50
100 150 200 250
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
R*
N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
R*
N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
HRC quenching 1040 C oil
HRC quenching 1040 C air
Testing at C
*Shows the results of two different heat treatments.
Testing at
C
20
500
600

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
550
590

EUROPE EN
X40CrMoV5-1

ITALY UNI
X40CrMoV511KU

512
52
1880
300
11.5

525
53
1950
350
12.0

215000
82000
1600
1460
1200
1060

20

Density
kg/dm3
7.80
7.64
7.60
CHINA
(45Cr5MoSiV)

100

200

543
54
2010
400

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650 furnace
cooling to
350 after, air

Annealing must be done


after machining
and before quenching

Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
830
915

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
300
80

577
56
2160
450

577
56
2160
500

12.5

1400
1200
1120
900

1300
1100
1000
800
54
53
400

300

V%
0,85-1,15
0.05

12.2

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
25.0
28.5
29.3
GERMANY DIN
X40CrMoV5-1

Ni%

512
52
1880
550

455
48
1640
600

12.9
176000
68000
1100
900
850
650
55
54
500

390
42
1340
650

13.0
165000
63000
800
600
580
420
54 50
53 48
550 600

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.52
0.86
0.96

FRANCE AFNOR
Z340CDV5

UK BS
B-H 13

301
32
1010
700

RUSSIA
4KH5F1S

13.2

600
400
400
250
40
39
650 700

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.92
1.16
1.04
USA AISI/SAE
H 13

132

Part two Hot-work tool steels

Time-temperature transformation
diagram for isothermal cooling
X40CrMoV5-1

Austenitizing Temperature 1025 C

900
850

Ac3

Ac1

800

pearlite 1%

750

pearlite 98%

700
650
austenite
600
550
500
450
400
bainite 1%

350
300

bainite 50%

Ms

250
M 50%
200
M 80%

temperature [ C]

150
100
50

M 95%
0
time

15 30

60 [s]
1
2

15 30

60 [m]
1
2

16 32

[h]

+ 0,10

dimensional variation %

+ 0,05

1
0,00

2
3

0,05

tempering
temperature C

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Dimensional variation % - Round 30 mm quenched at 1000 C in oil taken from GERDAU


Curve 1 = 1 tempering x 2 h
Curve 2 = 2 tempering x 2 h
Curve 3 = 3 tempering x 2 h

550

600

133

40NiCrMoV16 KU

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40NiCrMoV16 KU
According to standards UNI 2955 pt.4: 1982
Number
1.2766
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0,35-0,45 0,10-0,40 0,35-0,75
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-900

Soft
annealing
650
air
(HB max 277)

P%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

Mo%

1,60-2,00
0.05

0,40-0,60 3,40-4,10 0,05-0,25


0.05
0.07
0.02

Quenching

Tempering

Pre-heating to 600
pause, after 880
oil, polymer, forced air
or salth bath 480
Isothermal
annealing
810 furnace cooling
to 610 pause, furnace
cooling to 580 after, air

Immediately after
quenching 550-630 air
minimum 2 cycles

Depending on machining depth


on the die, following hardness
values are recommended

(HB max 305)

468
49
1700
350

455
48
1640
400

Stress relieving
annealing
630 furnace cooling
to 350 after, air

Annealing must be done


after machining
and before quenching

Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
680
785

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
290
70

442
47
1580
450

432
46
1520
500

409
44
1430
550

20

50

100

HRC

43-46

37-40

30-36

Density
kg/dm3
7.84

ITALY UNI
40NiCrMoV16KU

496
51
1820
300

V%

Depth mm

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460

Ni%

Annealed + C
cold-drawn

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 880 C in oil
HB
577 577 560 543 512
HRC
56
56
55
54
52
N/mm2
2160 2160 2070 2010 1880
Testing at C
50
100 150 200 250

EUROPE EN

Cr%

208000
79000
20

353
38
1180
650

381
41
1300
700

11.7

12.5

13.0

13.4

13.7

13.8

100

200

300

400

500

600

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
33
CHINA

381
41
1300
600

GERMANY DIN
35NiCrMo16

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.30
FRANCE AFNOR
Y35NCD16

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

55NiCrMoV7

134

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
55NiCrMoV7
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2714
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0.50-0.60 0.10-0.40 0.60-0.90
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.020
+ 0.005

Quenching

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

0.80-1.20
0.05

0.35-0.55
0.04

1.50-1.80 0.05-0.15
0.07
0.02

Tempering

1050-850

Pre-heating to 700
Immediately after
pause, after 870
quenching
polymer,
550-630 air
forced air or oil (40 C)
minimum 2 cycles
Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
680-700 raffr.
800 furnace cooling
furnace until
to 660 pause,
150 air (HB max 248)
furnace cooling to 620 air
Hardness for the annealed and cold-drawn execution can be HB 268 max
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering
HB
654 634
HRC
60
59
N/mm2
2420
HB
560
HRC
55
N/mm2
2070
Temp. at C 50
100

615
58
2330

150

595
57
2240
512
52
1880
200

Depending on machining depth


on the die, following hardness
values are recommended

577 243
56
54
2160 2010
482
50
1760
250 300

512
52
1880

350

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
550
590

EUROPE EN
55NiCrMoV7

ITALY UNI
55NiCrMoV7KU

468
49
1700
421
45
1480
450

Stress relieving
annealing
650 furnace
cooling to
350 after, air

Annealing must be done


after machining
and before quenching

Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
710
770

Stress relieving
after welding
650 forno
Ms
Mf
250
10

442
47
1580
400
43
1390
500

409
44
1430
371
40
1250
550

390
42
1340
336
36
1110
600

Depth mm

20

50

100

HRC

40-43

38-41

34-38

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
12.5
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
215000
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
82000
R*
N/mm2
1600
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1450
R*
N/mm2
1200
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1040
HRC quenching 860 C oil
HRC quenching 860 C air
Testing at C
20
100
*Shows the results of two different heat treatments.
Testing at
C
20
500
600

482
50
1760
442
47
1580
400

V%

Density
kg/dm3
7.80
7.64
7.60
CHINA
5CrNiMo

13.1

13.4

1350
1150
1100
820

200

300

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
25.5
25.0
24.6
GERMANY DIN
56NiCrMoV7

13.9
198000
76000
1200
1000
950
700
50
48
400

14.0
176000
68000
1000
750
700
500
48
44
500

quenching at 860 C oli


quenching at 860 C oli
quenching at 860 C oli
301 quenching at 860 C air
32
quenching at 860 C air
1010 quenching at 860 C air
650

14.3
165000
63000
600
350
300
200
43 40
36
41 38
35
550 600
650

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.30
0.71
0.84

FRANCE AFNOR
55NCDV7

UK BS
BH 224

RUSSIA
5KN2MF

14.5

700

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33
1.41
1.19
USA AISI/SAE
L6

Part two Hot-work tool steels

135

Time-temperature transformation diagram for isothermal cooling 55NiCrMoV7 taken from GERDAU
900
austenite
800

Ac3

700

Ac1
ferrite 70 %
pearlite 30%

600

500
bainite
400

300

50%

Ms
M 50%

100

temperature C

200

M 90%

time [s]

0
1

102

10

103

104

105

106

Thermal cycle
1000
900

austenitizing
850 - 870

800

holding time
1/2 h for inc.

700

annealing
680 - 700

600

holding time
1,5 h for inc.

500
furnace
400

oil, polymer
forced air

I tempering
II tempering

temperature C

300

holding time
1 h for inc.

200

air

holding time
1 h for inc.

air
100
0
time

The tempering temperature depends on the required hardness. The temperature of II tempering must be 30 C lower than I tempering.

air

X40Cr14

136

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X40Cr14
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2083
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
max
0.36-0,42
1.00
0.03
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1110-850

Mn%
max
1.00
0.04

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
0.005

Cr%
12.50-14.50
0.15

Pre-heating

Quenching

Tempering

Tempering

850 pause
after

980-1010
oil or polymer

180
(HRC 53)
Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
845

see table

Soft
annealing
750-800 slow cooling
in furnace
(HB max 241)
*The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.

Stress relieving
after welding
550
Ms
160

Mechanical properties
Tempering table values at room temperature for round 25 mm after quenching at 1010 C in oil.
HRC
54
53
52
52
52.5
54
52
50
N/mm2
2010
1950
1880
1880
1915
2010
1880
1760
Tempering at C
100
200
300
350
400
450
500
550
Nitriding in gaseous ammonia. The material should be hardened and tempered before nitriding.
Temperature C
Time h
Depth of hardening mm
Surface hardness HV
525
20
0.20
1000
525
30
0.30
1000
525
60
0.40
1000
Modulus of elasticity
N/mm2
210000
205000
Tensile strength Rm
N/mm2
1350 1)
1100 1)
Yield stress Rp
N/mm2
1200 1)
980 1)
3
Density
kg/dm
7.80
7.75
Thermal expansion
106/K1
10.5
11.0
Testing at
C
20
100
200
1) Values obtained on material quenched in oil at 980 C and tempered at 550 C.
Thermal conductivity
W/(mK)
C
EUROPE EN
X40Cr14

16.5
20
ITALY UNI
X40Cr14

19.8
250

250

11.5
300

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

24.1
500
CHINA

198000

GERMANY DIN
X40Cr14
1.2083

FRANCE AFNOR
X40Cr14

46
1520
600

190000

177000

7.70
12.0
400

12.0
500

Specific electric resistivity


ohmmm2/m
0.65

UK BS
RUSSIA
X40Cr14

USA AISI/SAE
(420)

137

40CrMnMoS8-6

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40CrMnMoS8-6
According to standards DIN 17350: 1980
Number
1.2312
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.35-0,45
0.30-0.50
1.40-1.60
0.03
0.03
0.08
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1050-850

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%

Cr%

Mo%

0.05-0.10
0.01

1.80-2.00
0.07

0.15-0.25
0.04

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

850-900
air

840-860
oil or polymer

860-880
calm air
or forced

600-680
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
760
800

Soft
annealing
700-740 furnace cooling
max 20 C/h to 600 after air
(HB max 230)

Stress
relieving
50 C under
the temperature
of tempering

Mechanical properties
Heat treatment: quenching at 860 C in oil, tempering at 600 C.
N/mm2 N/mm2 Kv longitudinal J
R
1000 890
16
20
30
40
50
Rp 0.2
880
750
Test at C 20
200
0
20
40
60
80

60

78

100

120

HB at the depth mm
340
336
330
100
150
200

Tempering table values at room temperature for round 25 mm after quenching at 860 C in oil.
HB
543
525
520
512
496
482
468
450
432
400
HRC
54
53
52.5 52
51
50
49
47.5
46
43
R
N/mm2 2010 1950 1900 1880 1820 1760 1700 1600 1520 1390
Kv +20
J
9
9
9
8
9
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Thermal expansion
Modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity
Testing at

[m/(mK)]106
long. N/mm2
tang. N/mm2
C

Specific heat capacity


J(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI

CHINA

12.8
210000
81000
20
100

13.0

200

13.8
196000
75200
250
300

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
34.0
33.4
33.0
GERMANY DIN
1.2312

Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
260
140

14.0

400

371
40
1250
14
550

327
250

318
300

HB
mm

336
36
1110
20
600

301
32
1010
30
650

286
30
950

14.2
14.4
177000
68000
500
600

700
14.5

700

Specific electric resistivity Conductivity


ohmmm2/m
siemensm/mm2
0.19
5.26

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

32CrMoV12-28

138

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
32CrMoV12-28
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2365
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.28-0.35
0.10-0.40
0.15-0.45
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1050-900

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.020
+ 0.005

Quenching

Tempering
see table
I heating up to 400 pause, after immediately after
II heating up to 800 pause
quenching
after 1030-1050
minimum 2 cycles
oil, polymer
Soft
Stress
annealing
relieving1)
780-800 furnace cooling
50 C under
max 25 C/h to 600 after air
the temperature
(HB max 229)
of tempering

Mechanical properties
Tempering table after quenching at 1040 C in oil.
HB
518
525
496
489
HRC
52.5
52
51
50.5
R
N/mm2
1880
1820
1790
Tempering at C 50
100
150
200
Modulus of elasticity long.
Modulus of elasticity tang.
Thermal expansion
Thermal conductivity
Specific heat capacity
Specific electric resistivity
Conductivity
Density
R hardened and tempered for
Rp 0.2
R hardened and tempered for
Rp 0.2
Testing at

489
50.5
1790
250

N/mm2
215000
N/mm2
82000
[m/(mK)]106
12.0
W/(mK)
30.0
J/(KgK)
460
ohmmm2/m 0.37
siemensm/mm2 2.70
kg/dm3
7.88
N/mm2
1600
N/mm2
N/mm2
1200
N/mm2
C
20
100

EUROPE EN
ITALY UNI
CHINA
32CrMoV12-28 32CrMoV12-28

496
51
1820
300

12.5

200

504
51.5
1850
350

Cr%

Mo%

V%

2.70-3.20
0.10

2.50-3.00
0.10

0.40-0.70
0.04

Stress relieving Stress relieving annealing


annealing
must be done after machining
600-650
and before quenching
furnace cooling
to 350 after, air
Pre-heating
welding
350-380
Ac1
Ac3
800
900

504
51.5
1850
400

496
51
1820
450

12.7

13.0

300

1350
1100
1050
850
400

GERMANY DIN FRANCE AFNOR


32CrMoV12-28 32CDV12-28
1.2365

482
50
1760
500
176000
68000
13.2
30.1
550
0.78
1.28
7.69
1150
950
900
730
500

Stress relieving
after welding
1)

Ms
320

432
49
1700
550

Mf
100

432
46
1520
600

165000
63000
13.4
29.7
590
0.89
1.12
7.65
900
700
650
480
600

371
40
1250
650

13.7

700
580
520
360
650

700

UK BS
RUSSIA
USA AISI/SAE
32CrMoV12-28 32CrMoV12-28 H10

139

X38CrMoV5-3

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X38CrMoV5-3
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2367
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

0.35-0.42
0.30-0.50
0.30-0.50
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1100-900

Quenching

S%
max
0.020
+ 0.005

Tempering
see table
Immediately after
quenching
minimum 2 cycles

Cr%

Mo%

V%

4.80-5.20
0.10

2.70-3.20
0.10

0.40-0.60
0.04

Stress relieving Stress relieving annealing


annealing
must be done after machining
600-650
and before quenching
furnace cooling
to 300 after
air
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
welding
after welding
1)
350
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
850
950
335
120

Heating up to 850 pause,


after 1030-1080 oil,
polymer, vacuum
10 C/min.
Soft
Stress
annealing
relieving1)
800 furnace cooling
50 C under
max 25 C/h to 600 after air
the temperature
(HB max 229)
of tempering

Mechanical properties
Tempering table values at room temperature for round 25 mm after quenching at 1040 C in oil.
HB
577
560
543
512
512
512
512
525
543
543
HRC
56
55
54
52
52
52
52
53
54
54
R
N/mm2 2160 2070
2010
1880 1880 1880 1880 1950 2010 2010
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Mechanical values related to hardness HRC
HRC hardness
R N/mm2
52
1880
48
1640
44
1430

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
1552
1331
1179

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)]106
Modulus of elasticity long. N/mm2
210000
Modulus of elasticity tang. N/mm2
80000
R
N/mm2
1600
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1450
Testing at
C
20
Testing
at C
20
500
600

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
550
590

EUROPE EN
X38CrMoV5-3

ITALY UNI
X38CrMoV5-3

CHINA

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
7.69
7.65

11.5

100

12.0

200

A%
12
13
13
12.2

300

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
25.0
34.2
34.9

GERMANY DIN FRANCE AFNOR


X38CrMoV5-3
Z38CDV5-3
1.2367

543
54
2010
550

512
52
1880
600

432
46
1520
650

Z%
35
38
40
12.5
175000
67000
1350
1150
400

12.9

1150
950
500

13.0
166000
64000
900
700
700
580
600
650

Specific electric
resistivity ohmmm2/m
0.50
0.84
0.94
UK BS
X38CrMoV5-3

RUSSIA

13.2

700

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
2.00
1.19
1.06
USA AISI/SAE

54NiCrMoV6

140

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
54NiCrMoV6
According to standards
Number
1.2711
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.50-0.60

0.50-0.80

0.15-0.35

Temperature C
Hot
forming
1000-850

Soft
annealing
660-700 furnace cooling
to 150 after air
(HB max 248)
Mechanical properties
Tempering table
HB
HRC
N/mm2
HB
HRC
N/mm2
Tempering to C

P%
max
0.025

Quenching

Quenching

heating up to 650
pause, after 830-870
oil, polymer
(HRC 52-58)
Stress relieving
annealing
670 furnace cooling
to 300 after air

870-900
air

482
50
1760
455
48
1640
400

ITALY UNI

CHINA

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

V%

0.60-0.80

0.25-0.35

1.50-1.80

0.07-0.12

Tempering
see table
immediately after
quenching
minimum 2 cycles

(HRC 44-50)
Stress relieving must be
done after machining
and before quenching

432
46
1520
409
44
1430
500

Modulus of elasticity long. N/mm2


Modulus of elasticity tang. N/mm2
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)]106
Thermal conductivity
W/(mK)
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
Specific electric resistivity ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Density
kg/dm3
R hardened and tempered for N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
R hardened and tempered for N/mm2
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
Testing at
C
EUROPE EN
54NiCrMoV6

S%
max
0.025

400
43
1390
381
41
1300
550

Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
720
790

371
40
1250
353
38
1180
600

336
36
1110
327
35
1080
650

215000
82000
12.5
35.0
460
0.30
3.33
7.80
1600
1450
1200
1040
20

100

13.1

200

13.4

13.9

300

1200
1000
950
700
400

GERMANY DIN FRANCE AFNOR


54NiCrMoV6
1.2711

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
280
50

UK BS

quenching in oil
quenching in oil
quenching in oil
quenching in air
quenching in air
quenching in air

176000
68000
14.0
35.6
550
0.71
1.41
7.64
1000
750
700
500
500
RUSSIA

165000
63000
14.2
35.0
590
0.84
1.19
7.60
600
350
300
200
600

14.4

700

USA AISI/SAE

141

40CrMnNiMo8-6-4

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40CrMnNiMo8-6-4
According to standards EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2738
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

0.35-0.45
0.20-0.40
1.30-1.60
0.03
0.03
0.08
Permissible deviations on the product.
By agreement, the sulphur content can be increased to 0.05-0.10%.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1050-850

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1.80-2.10
0.07

0.15-0.25
0.03

0.90-1.20
0.07

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

Tempering

850-900
air

840-860
oil or polymer

860-880
calm air
or forced

500-600
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
705
795

Soft
annealing
710-740 furnace cooling
max 20 C/h to 600 after air
(HB max 235)

Stress
relieving
50 C under
the temperature
of tempering

Mechanical properties
Heat treatment: quenching at 850 C in oil, tempering at 600 C.
N/mm2 N/mm2 Kv longitudinal J
R
1020 900
18
20
25
35
40
Rp 0.2
900
760
Test at C 20
200
0
20
40
60
80

50

75

100

120

HB at the depth mm
340 340 340 336
100 200 300 400

Tempering table values at room temperature for round 25 mm after quenching at 860 C in oil.
HB
512
512
504
482
475
468
448
432
409
HRC
52
52
51.5 50
49,5 49
47,5 46
44
R
N/mm2
1880 1880 1850 1760 1730 1700 1600 1520 1430
Kv +20
J
10
10
10
10
Tempering at C
50
100 150
200
250
300
350
400 450
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)]106
Modulus of elasticity long. N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity tang. N/mm2
Testing at
C
Specific heat capacity
J(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
7.83

EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI

40CrMnNiMo8-6-4

40CrMnNiMo8-6-4

CHINA

12.8
210000
81000
20
100

13.0

200

13.4
13.8
196000
75200
250
300

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
32
31.1
30
GERMANY DIN
40CrMnNiMo8-6-4

1.2738

Stress relieving
after welding
500 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
215
20

390
42
1340
10
500
14.0

400

353
38
1180
14
550

330 310 HB
500 600 mm

319
34
1050
20
600

14.2
14.2
177000
67900
500
600

286
30
950
32
650
14.5

700

Specific electric resistivity Conductivity


ohmmm2/m
siemensm/mm2
0.19
5.26

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE

45NiCrMo16

142

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
45NiCrMo16
According to standards EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2767
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.40-0.50
0.10-0.40
0.20-0.50
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot
forming
1050-850

Soft
annealing
630-650
air
(HB max 285)

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Quenching

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1.20-1.50
0.07

0.15-0.35
0.03

3.80-4.30
0.07

Tempering

heating up to 680
pause, after 840-870
oil, polymer (HRC 54-58)
forced air (HRC 53-57)
Stress
relieving
50 C under
the temperature
of tempering

Stress relieving Annealing must be done


annealing
after machining and before
immediately after quenching 630 furnace
quenching
200-600 air
cooling to 350
minimum 2 cycles
after air
Pre-heating
welding
350
Ac1
Ac3
640
740

Mechanical properties
Tempering table values at room temperature for round 25 mm after quenching at 880 C in oil.
HB
577
577
560
543
512
482
455
432
HRC
56
56
55
54
52
50
48
46
R N/mm2
2160 2160
2070
2010
1880 1760
1640 1520
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)]106
Modulus of elasticity long. N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity tang. N/mm2
Testing at
C
Specific heat capacity
J(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
45NiCrMo16

ITALY UNI
45NiCrMo16

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

210000
80000
20

Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
250
30

409
44
1430
450

390
42
1340
500

371
40
1250
550

353
38
1180
600

11.7

12.5

13.0

13.4

13.7

13.8

100

200

300

400

500

600

Thermal conductivity
W/(mK)
28
GERMANY DIN
45NiCrMo16
1.2767

Specific electric resistivity


ohmmm2/m
0.30

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33

FRANCE AFNOR UK BS
RUSSIA
45NiCrMo16
45NiCrMo16 45NiCrMo16

USA AISI/SAE

143

35NiCrMoV12-5

Part two Hot-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
35NiCrMoV12-5
According to standards Werkstoff
Number
1.6959
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0,30-0,40

0,40-0,70

0,15-0,35

Temperature C
Hot
forming
1100-900

P%
max
0,015

Quenching
heating up to 650
pause, after 850
oil, polymer,
forced air

Soft
annealing
750 furnace cooling
max 20 C/h to 600,
pause, after air
(HB max 240)
Flame and induction
hardening
850-870
water, oil

S%
max
0,015

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

V%

1,00-1,40

0,35-0,60

2,50-3,50

0,08-0,20

Tempering
see table
immediately after quenching
minimum 2 cycles

Stress
relieving
680 furnace
cooling to 300
after air

Stress
relieving
50 C under the
temperature of tempering,
furnace cooling
max 20 C/h
to 300, after air
Nitriding

Pre-heating
welding
300
Ac1
Ac3
710
800

Specific heat capacity


J(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
35NiCrMoV12-5

ITALY UNI

Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
100

500-530

Mechanical properties
Tempering table values at room temperature after quenching at 850 C in oil.
HB
468
435
HRC
49
46.5
N/mm2
1700
1550
Tempering at C
450
500
Thermal expansion
Modulus of elasticity long.
Modulus of elasticity tang.
R after tempering at 550 C
Rp 0.2 after tempering at 550 C
Testing at

Stress relieving must be done


after machining and before
quenching

[m/(mK)]106
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
C
Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

210000
80500
1460
1320
20

420
44.5
1460
550

381
41
1300
600

11.1

12.1

100

1280
1120
200

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
24.7
24.3
23.9
GERMANY DIN
35NiCrMoV12-5
1.6959

375
38.5
1200
650

13.4
196000
75200

14.8
177000
68000

250

500

Specific electric resistivity Conductivity


ohmmm2/m
siemensm/mm2
0.19
5.26

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

RUSSIA
38ChN3MFA

USA AISI/SAE

COLD-WORK TOOL STEELS

35CrMo7 40CrMnMo7 100CrMo7 110W4 KU 90MnCrV8 X38CrMo16


X153CrMoV12 X210Cr12 58SiMo8 KU 60WCrV8 C45U

145

35CrMo7

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
35CrMo7
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2302

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0,30-0,40
0,30-0,70
0,60-1,00
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-900

P%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0,030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

1,50-2,00
0.07

0,35-0,55
0.05

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

850-900
air

840-860
oil or polymer

860-880
air

650-670
air
minimum 2 cycles
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
760
780

Soft
Isothermal
Spheroidizing
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
720-740
calm air
(HB max 230)
Usually supplied quenched and tempered with hardness of about 300 HB

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 860 C in oil
HB
496
482
482
468
461
455
437
421
400
HRC
51
50
50
49
48.5 48
46.5
45
43
N/mm2
1820 1760 1760
1700 1670 1640 1550
1480 1390
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300 350
400
450
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
35CrMo7

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

ITALY UNI
35CrMo8KU

210000
80000
20

381
41
1300
500

353
38
1180
550

327
35
1080
600

12.8

13.0

13.8

14.0

14.2

100

200

300

400

500

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
33
CHINA
5CrMnMo

Stress relieving
after welding
600 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
340
100

GERMANY DIN
40CrMnMo7

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19
FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

286
30
950
650

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
RUSSIA
4H2GM

USA AISI/SAE

40CrMnMo7

146

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
40CrMnMo7
According to standards Werkstoff
Number
1.2311

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.35-0.45
0.20-0.40
1.30-1.60
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching

1050-850

Soft
annealing
720-780 furnace
cooling 20h
(HB max 230)
s.b. = salt bath

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of
tempering

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

ITALY UNI
35CrMo8KU

1.80-2.10
0.05

0.15-0.25
0.03

Quenching 2)

Stress relieving 2)

840-870
oil or polymer
s.b. (180-210)
Normalizing

650-670
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Hardenability
test

860-880
calm air
or faster
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
760
800

180-220
calm air

850-900

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C

EUROPE EN
35CrMo8

Ni%

Tempering 1)

Table of tempering after quenching at 860 C in oil


HB
496 496
489 482
HRC
51
51
50.5 50
N/mm2
1820 1820 1790 1760
Kv
J
Tempering at C
50
100 150 200

Density
kg/dm3
7.83

Mo%

Quenching 1)

Mechanical properties
Heat treatment: quenching at 860 C in oil, tempering at 600 C
Means values to 1/2 tickness on round 400 mm
N/mm2
N/mm2
Kv J in longitudinal
R
1000
890
8
20
30
40
Rp 0.2
880
750
C
20
200
0
20
40
60

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

Cr%

468
49
1700
250

210000
81000
20

50

60

75

80

100

120

455
48
1640
8
300

442
47
1580
8
350

432
46
1520
8
400

409
44
1430
7
450

12.8

13.0

100

200

13.4
196000
75200
250

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
250 C
500 C
34
33.4
33
CHINA
(5CrMnMo)

GERMANY DIN
40CrMnMo7

FRANCE AFNOR

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
260
140

HB at the depth mm
294
286
264
336
327
311
100
200
300

390
42
1340
9
500

353
38
1180
14
550

13.8

14.0

300

400

336
36
1110
20
600

271
28
900
30
650

240
21
800

14.2
177000
67900
500

14.4

14.5

600

700

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.19
UK BS

min
max
prof. mm

RUSSIA
40H2GM

700

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
5.26
USA AISI/SAE

147

100CrMo7

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
100CrMo7
According to standards ISO 683-17: 2001
Number
B5 (1.3537)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
0.93-1.05 0.15-0.35 0.25-0.45
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-850

Soft
annealing
730
air

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

Pre-heating

S%
max
0.015
+ 0.005

Quenching

400
850
stop in furnace
oil, polymer or
after 850
s.b. 500-550
Isothermal
annealing +AC
800 furnace cooling to 720
after furnace to 600 after, air
(HB max 217)

Cr%

Mo%

1.65-1.95
0.05

0.15-0.30
0.03

Tempering
150-220
calm air
+AC +C
Ann. Cold-drawn

(HB max 251)

Cu%
max
0.30
+0.03

Al%
max
0.050
+0.010

Stress relieving
annealing
600-650
furnace cooling

Annealing must be done


after machining and
before final heat treatment

Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1 start Ac1 end
755
785

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
200
-10 b)

s.b. = salt bath


b) subcooling
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 850 C in oil
HB
739 739
722
670
615
595
613
512
482
432
HRC
65
65
64
61
58
57
56
52
50
46
R
N/mm2
2000 2400 2430 2300 2150 1950 1770 1610
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1800 2050 2150 2090 1960 1810 1650 1500
A
%
3.0
4.6
C
%
15
20
Tempering at C
50
100 150
200
250
300
350
400 450 500
HRC from surface to heart for different quenched at 850 C in oil
Variations in hardness show the mass effect
mm
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
20
66
66
65.5
30
65.5 65.5
65.5
65
40
65.5 65.5
65.5
65
65
50
65.5 64
62
61
60.5
60.5
60
64.5 63
58.5
54
52
51.5
51
80
62.5 58
50.5
47.5
46
45
44.5
100 61
56
49
46.5
45
44.5
43.5
EUROPE EN
100CrMo7

ITALY UNI
100CrMo7

CHINA
GC18Mo

GERMANY DIN
100CrMo7

415
44.5
1450
1350
6.4
30
550

35

40

45

50

44
43

43.5
42.5

42.5

42.5

FRANCE AFNOR
100CD7

UK BS

344
37
1240
1150
9.0
38
600

286
30
1000
900
12.5
44
650

253
25
840
750
16.5
52
700

Hardening in oil on round


20 mm
C
HRC
800
62
820
64
840
65.5
850
66
860
66
880
66
900
65

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A485(3)

110W4 KU

148

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
110W4 KU
According to standards UNI 2955 pt.3: 1982
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
0.95-1.25
0.40
0.35
0.03
+ 0.03
+ 0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
a) optional.
Temperature C
Hot forming Stress
relieving
1050-850
600-650
calm air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%
max
0.25
+ 0.05

0.90-1.20
0.07

Pre-heating

Quenching 1)

Quenching 2)

400
after 1) or 2)

780-820
water

810-830
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
750
780

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 820 C in oil
HB
758
748
714
679
634
595
560
518
482
HRC
66
65.5
63.5
61.5
59
57
55
52.5
50
N/mm2
2420 2240 2070 1915 1760
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350
400
450
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C

EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI
110W4KU

Density
kg/dm3
7.85
CHINA

215000
82000
20

442
47
1580
500

400
43
1390
550

362
39
1220
600

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.2

13.0

100

200

300

400

500

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
31.5
GERMANY DIN
120WV4

Stress relieving
for 1) and 2)
180
calm air
min. 2 cycles
Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
200
10 b)

oil or polymer

Soft
Isothermal
Spheroidizing
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
720 furnace cooling
to 500 after, air
(HB max 230)
b) subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460

V% a)
max
0.20
+ 0.02

W%

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.30

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS
B-F1

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
F1

149

90MnCrV8

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
90MnCrV8
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2842
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.85-0.95
0.10-0.40
1.80-2.20
0.03
0.03
0.08
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

1050-850

Stress relieving
After machining and
before quenching
650 furnace cooling
to 320 after, air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

V%

Ni%

0.20-0.50
0.05

0.05-0.20
0.02

Pre-heating

Quenching

Stress relieving

400 pause
after 650 pause
after

790-820

180-220
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
190
20 b)

oil, polymer or
salt bath (200-250 C)
Hardenability
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
720
750

Soft
Isothermal
annealing
annealing
700
780 furnace cooling to
calm air
690 pause, furnace
(HB max 229)
cooling a 650 air (HB max 220)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be 249 max
b) subcooling
*The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 790 C in oil
HB
739
722
706
688
HRC
65
64
63
62
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
HRC round quenched at 810C in oil
mm
surface
40
65
50
65
60
64
70
64

EUROPE EN
90MnCrV8

Density
kg/dm3
7.85

ITALY UNI
90MnCrV8KU

CHINA
9MnV

250

1/2 radius
64
64
63
58

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460

654
60

210000
80000
20

543
54
2010
350

496
51
1820
400

390
42
1340
500

353
38
1180
600

centre
64
63
62
52
11.5

12.0

12.2

12.5

12.8

100

200

300

400

500

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
30
GERMANY DIN
90MnCrV8

595
57
2240
300

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.35

FRANCE AFNOR
90MV8

UK BS
B-O 2

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
2.85
RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
02

X38CrMo16

150

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X38CrMo16
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2316
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
max
max
max
max
0.33-0.45
1.00
1.50
0.030
0.030
15.50-17.50
0.80-1.30
0.03
0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
0.15
0.05
Permissible deviations on the product.
By agreement upon the Sulphur value can be increased and the Nickel value can be omitted.
Temperature C
Hot forming

Stress relieving
After machining and
before quenching

1050-850

Soft
annealing
790-840
furnace cooling
(HB max 240)
s.b. = salt bath

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of
tempering

Quenching 1)

Tempering 1)

Quenching 2)

Stress relieving 2)

1000-1050
oil or polymer
s.b. (500-550)
Spheroidizing

550-650
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Hardenability
test

1000-1050
calm air or
forced air
Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
810
900

170-210
calm air

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 1040 C in oil
HB
468
468
455
442
HRC
49
49
48
47
N/mm2
1700 1700
1640
1580
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200

432
46
1520
250

432
46
1520
300

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C

10.7
218000
84000
100

11.7
212000
81000
200

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
430
EUROPE EN
X38CrMo16

Density
kg/dm3
7.71

ITALY UNI
X38CrMo16 1KU

CHINA

Ni%
max
1.00
0.07

223000
85000
20

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
15
GERMANY DIN
X38CrMo16

432
46
1520
350
11.7
205000
79000
300

432
46
1520
400

442
47
1580
450

11.7
197000
75000
400

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.80
FRANCE AFNOR

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
260 40

UK BS

448
47.5
1610
500

371
40
1250
550

301
32
1010
600

11.8

11.9

12.4

12.9

500

600

700

800

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.25
RUSSIA
40H16M

USA AISI/SAE

151

X153CrMoV12

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X153CrMoV12
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
(1.2379)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

1.45-1.60
0.10-0.60
0.20-0.60
0.04
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
1050-900
650-700
furnace cooling
320 air
Quenching 2) Tempering 2)
solution A
1060-1090 520
oil or polymer
calm air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Pre-heating

Cr%

Mo%

V%

11.0-13.0
0.15

0.70-1.00
0.05

0.70-1.00
0.04

Quenching 1)

400 pause
after 800 pause
after 1) or 2)
Stress relieving 2)
solution B
180-250
calm air

1000-1040
oil, polymer
or air
Isothermal
annealing
870 furnace cooling to
760 pause, furnace cooling
to 720 air
(HB max 250)

Stress
relieving 1)

Soft
annealing

180-250
calm air
min. 2 cycles
Pre-heating
welding
250-300

790-840
calm air
(HB max 255)
Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling

Ac1
800

Ms
200

Ac3
840

Mf
10 b)

b)

subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 1020 C in oil
HB
722
714
706
688
HRC
64
63.5
63
62
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
X153CrMoV12

Density
kg/dm3
7.7

ITALY UNI
X155CrVMo121

210000
80000
20

670
61

654
60

250

300

624
58.5
2375
350

624
58.5
2375
400

10.5

11.0

11.0

100

200

300

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
400 C
22.3
24.1
CHINA
Cr12MoV

GERMANY DIN
X155CrVMo121

FRANCE AFNOR
X160CrMoV121

644
59.5

644
59.5

450

500

11.5
196000
75200
400

12.0

500

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.65
UK BS
BD 2

RUSSIA
H12MF

605
57.5
2285
550

482
50
1760
600

12.0
170000
65200
600
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.54
USA AISI/SAE
D2

152

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Austenitizing temperature 1020 C

Time-temperature transformation
diagram for isothermal cooling
X153CrMoV12.
Taken from GERDAU.

900
850
Ac3

800

pearlite 1%

Ac1
Ar3

750
700

255
pearlite
50%

Ar1

pearlite
99%

650

300

hardness HV

345

600
550
500
450
400
350
bainite 1%
300
250
Ms
200

temperature C

150
M 50%
100
50
M 85%
0
time

15 30

60 [s]
1
2

15 30 60 [m]
1 2

16 32 [h]

+ 0,10

dimensional variation %

+ 0,05

0,00

- 0,05

tempering
temperature [ c]

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Dimensional variation in %
Round 50 mm quenched in oil at 1000 C. Two tempering operations for 2 h taken from GERDAU.

500

550

600

153

X210Cr12

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
X210Cr12
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2080
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

1.90-2.20
0.10-0.60
0.20-0.60
0.05
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
1050-950
650
furnace cooling
to 320 after, air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

V%

11.0-13.0
0.15

Pre-heating

Quenching 1)

Quenching 2)

400 pause
after 800 pause
after 1) or 2)

940-970
oil or polymer
s.b. (500-550)

960
air or s.b. (220-250)
for dimens.
< 25 mm

Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
790-820
850 furnace cooling
calm air
to 770 pause furnace cooling to
(HB max 248)
720 air (HB max 240)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 268 max.
b) subcooling
s.b. = salt bath
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering after quenching at 970 C in oil
HB
730
722
722
706
HRC
64.5
64
64
63
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
X210Cr12

Density
kg/dm3
7.7

ITALY UNI
X205Cr12KU

Ni%

210000
80000
20

688
62

662
60.5

250

300

634
59
2420
350

615
58
2330
400

577
56
2160
450

Ac3
840

Stress relieving
after welding
650 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
200
10 b)

543
54
2010
500

496
51
1820
550

10.5

11.0

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
20
CHINA
C12

Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
800

Stress
relieving
for 1) and 2)
180-300
calm air
minimum 2 cycles

GERMANY DIN
X210Cr12

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.65
FRANCE AFNOR
Z200C12

UK BS
BD 3

432
46
1520
600

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.54
RUSSIA
H12

USA AISI/SAE
D3

58SiMo8 KU

154

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
58SiMo8 KU
According to standards UNI 2955 pt.3: 1982
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.50-0.65
1.70-2.10
0.70-0.90
0.03
0.05
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming
Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
1100-900
630 furnace
cooling
to 330 after, air

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

~
0.30

0.25-0.45
0.03

Pre-heating

Quenching 1)

Quenching 2)

Tempering
for 1) and 2)

400 pause
after 1) or 2)

840-860

860-900

water

oil or
polymer

250-450
calm air
min. 2 cycles

Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
740
800 furnace cooling to
calm air
730 pause furnace cooling to
(HB max 240)
650 pause after, air (HB max 230)
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.

Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
770

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 870 C in oil
HB
670
654
634
620
615
595
582
543
482
HRC
61
60
59
58.5
58
57
56.5
54
50
N/mm2
2420 2380 2330 2240
2200
2010 1760
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250 300
350
400
450
EUROPE EN

ITALY UNI
58SiMo8KU

CHINA

GERMANY DIN
60SiCr8

FRANCE AFNOR

Stress relieving
after welding
630 furnace cooling
Ac3
Ms
Mf
850
240 20

442
47
1580
500

UK BS
BS 5

409
44
1430
550
RUSSIA

366
39.5
1235
600

319
34
1050
650

USA AISI/SAE
S5

155

60WCrV8

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
60WCrV8
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2550
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.55-0.65
0.70-1.00
0.15-0.45
0.03
0.05
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

1050-900

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
650 furnace cooling
to 350 after, air

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

V%

W%

0.10-0.20
0.02

1.70-2.20
0.07

~
0.90-1.20
0.05

Pre-heating

Quenching

Stress
relieving

400 pause
after

870-900

180-250
calm air
minimum 2 cycles
Stress relieving
after welding
630 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
270
50

oil or polymer

Soft
Isothermal
Hardenability
annealing
annealing
test
750
820 furnace cooling
calm air
to 740 pause, furnace cooling
(HB max 229)
to 700 after, air (HB 220-230)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 249 max
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering 25 mm after quenching at 890 C in oil
HB
697
688
679
654
HRC
62.5
62
61.5
60
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
60WCrV8

Density
kg/dm3
8.0

ITALY UNI
58WCr9KU

210000
80000
20

634
59
2420
250

605
57.5
2285
300

577
56
2160
350

543
54
2010
400

482
50
1760
450

11.0

12.5

13.0

13.5

14.0

100

200

300

400

500

Thermal
termica W/(mK)
25
CHINA
6CrW2Si

Pre-heating
welding
250-300
Ac1
Ac3
770
820

GERMANY DIN
60WCrV7

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.3
FRANCE AFNOR
55WC20

UK BS

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
3.33
RUSSIA
6HV2FS

USA AISI/SAE
S1

C45U

156

Part two Cold-work tool steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
C45U
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.1730
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.42-0.50
0.15- 0.40
0.60-0.80
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

1100-850

State of
employment
normally, be natural

Soft
annealing +A
690
air
(HB max 207)

Soft
annealing +A+C
hardness of cold-drawn
material can be HB 227 max
higher than +A

Cr%

Mo%

Quenching
and Tempering
830 oil, tempering 450 C
R
650 N/mm2
Rp 0.2 560 N/mm2
Hardenability test
quenching tempering
810 10
180 10
water
HRC min 54

Ni%

Pre-heating
welding
250
Ac1
Ac3
720
780

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for thickness 10 mm after quenching at 810 C in water
HB
624
615
577
543
512
455
432
HRC
58.5
58
56
54
52
48
46
N/mm2
2375
2330
2160
2010
1880
1640
1520
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
EN 10083-3: 2006 Jominy test HRC grain size 5 min. H = normal
distance in mm from quenched end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
min 55
51
37
30
28
27
26
25
24
max 62
61
61
60
57
51
44
37
34
Temperature
Testing at C
20
100
200
300
400
500
600

Mod. of elasticity N/mm2


E long.
G tang.
210000
80000
205000
78000
195000
74000
185000
71000
175000
67000
155000

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
C45U

ITALY UNI
C45U

Rp 0.2 N/mm2
< 250 mm

10
23
33

11
22
32

250-500

CHINA
(45)

13
21
31

15
20
30

390
42
1340
400

362
39
1220
450

20

25

30

29

28

27

327
35
1080
500

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106 C1
11.1
12.1
12.9
13.5
13.9
14.1

59000
Density
kg/dm3
7.85

Stress
relieving
50 C under the
temperature of
temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling
Ms
Mf
320
20

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
50
GERMANY DIN

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.12

FRANCE AFNOR
Y3 42

UK BS
C45U

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
8.33
RUSSIA
45G-U

USA AISI/SAE
1045

HIGH-SPEED STEELS

HS 6-5-2-5 HS 2-9-1-8 HS 6-5-2C HS 10-4-3-10

HS 6-5-2-5

158

Part two High-speed steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
HS 6-5-2-5
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
1.2302
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
V%
max
max
max
max
0.87-0.95
0.45
0.40
0.030
0.030
3.80-4.50
4.70-5.20
1.70-2.10
0.03
+ 0.03
+0.04
+ 0.005 + 0.005 0.10
0.10
0.07
Permissible deviations on the product.
The sulphur value can be agreed upon S% 0.060 - 0.150 in such case the Mn value is max 0.80%.
Temperature C
Hot forming

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
600-650
furnace cooling
to 320 air

W%

Co%

5.90-6.70
0.10

4.50-5.00
0.10

Quenching
Tempering
Heatings must be done in
controlled-atmosphere
1100-900
450 pause
1190-1230
550-580
after 870 pause
oil, polymer,
calm air
after 1050 pause
air forced or salt bath
minimum 2 cycles
after
at 500-550
Soft
Isothermal
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
annealing
annealing
welding
after welding
820 furnace cooling 870 furnace cooling
not recommended
not recommended
All high-speed steels must be
to 600 after, air
to 700
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
annealed after hot forming
(HB max 269)
after, air
825
855
190
50 b)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 319 max. Hardness of annealed and cold rolled material can be HB 339
b) subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Surface treatments
Nitriding
520-570

Pre-heating

Steam
Oxidation
380-520

Crome-plating
Burnishing
Laser quenching

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at 1210 C in oil for round 15 mm
HB
688
688
688
688
688
688
HRC
62
62
62
62
62
62
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
HS 6-5-2-5

Density
kg/dm3
8.1

217000
83000
20

688
62

688
62

697
62.5

722
64

739
65

706
63

350

400

450

500

550

600

432
46
1520
700

11.5

11.7

12.2

12.4

12.7

13.0

12.9

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
19

ITALY UNI CHINA


GERMANY DIN
HS 6-5-2-5 W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5 HS 6-5-2-5

577
56
2160
650

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.60

FRANCE AFNOR
UK BS
Z90WDKCV06-05-05-04-02 BM35

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.67
RUSSIA
R6M5K5

USA AISI/SAE
M35-M41

HS 2-9-1-8

Part two High-speed steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
HS 2-9-1-8
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
(1.3247)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
1.05-1.15
0.70
0.40
0.03
+ 0.03
+0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
600-650
furnace cooling
to 320 after, air

159

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

V%

W%

Co%

3.50-4.50
0.10

9.0-10.0
0.10

0.90-1.30
0.05

1.20-1.90
0.10

7.50-8.50
0.10

Quenching
Tempering
Heatings must be done in
controlled-atmosphere furnace
1100-900
450 pause
1170-1210
530-560
after 860 pause
oil, polymer,
calm air
after 1050 pause
air forced or salt bath
minimum 2 cycles
after
at 500-550
Soft
Isothermal
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
annealing
annealing
welding
after welding
All high-speed steels must be
820 furnace cooling 890 furnace cooling
not recommended
not recommended
annealed after hot forming
600 afterr, air
to 650
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
(HB max 277)
after air
780
860
160
10 b)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 327 max. Hardness of annealed and cold-rolled material can be HB 347
b) subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Surface treatments
Nitriding
520-570

Pre-heating

Steam
Oxidation
380-520

Crome-plating
Burnishing
Laser quenching

Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 15 mm after quenching at 1190 C in oil
HB
679
679
679
679
679
670
670 679
706
HRC
61.5 61.5
61.5 61.5 61.5 61
61
61.5 63
67.5 69
N/mm2
Tempering at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350 400
450 500 550
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangenzial N/mm2
Testing at C

217000
83000
20

11.9

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.5

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
19

EUROPE EN
HS 2-9-1-8

CHINA
GERMANY DIN FRANCE AFNOR
UK BS
W2Mo9Cr4VCo8 HS 2-10-1-8
Z110DKCWV09-08-04-02-01 BM42
carbide insert
0.5 / 1
0.1 / 0.3
210 / 150

1/4
0.2 / 0.4
160 / 110

482
50
1760
700

11.5

Density
kg/dm3
8.3

Achievable cutting speeds


Annealed hot-rolled

600

543
54
2010
650

11.0

Specific heat capacity


J/(kgK)
460
ITALY UNI
HS 2-9-1-8

722
64

4/8
0.3 / 0.6
110 / 80

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.65

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.54
RUSSIA

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min

USA AISI/SAE
M42

HS 6-5-2C

160

Part two High-speed steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
HS 6-5-2C
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
(1.3343)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
Mo%
V%
max
max
max
max
0.86-0.94
0.45
0.40
0.030
0.030
3.80-4.50
4.70-5.20
1.70-2.10
0.03
+ 0.03
+ 0.04
+ 0.005 + 0.005 0.10
0.10
0.07
Permissible deviations on the product.
The sulphur value can be agreed upon S% 0.060-0.150 in such case the Mn value is max 0.80%.
Temperature C
Hot forming

1100-900

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching

Pre-heating

600-650
furnace cooling
to 400 after air

450 pause
after 850 pause
after 1050 pause
after

Quenching
Heatings must be done
in controlled-atmosphere

1180-1230
oil, polymer,
air forced or salt
bath at 500-550

W%

Co%

5.90-6.70
0.10

1 Tempering

2 Tempering

immediately after
quenching
540-560
calm air

500-550
calm air

Soft
Isothermal
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
annealing
annealing
welding
after welding
820 furnace
870 furnace
not recommended not recommended
All high-speed steels must be
cooling to 550
cooling
annealed after hot forming
after air
to 700 air
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
(HB max 269)
(HB 230-280)
800
845
210
30 b)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 319 max. Hardness of annealed and cold rolled material can be HB 339
b) subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 15 mm after quenching at 1210 C in oil
HB
722
706
670
688
697
722
739
722
688
HRC
64
63
61
62
62.5
64
65
64
62
N/mm2
Tempering at C
100
200
300
400
500
525
550
575
600
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460
EUROPE EN
HS 6-5-2C

Density
kg/dm3
8.12

ITALY UNI
HS 6-5-2

Achievable cutting speeds


Annealed hot-rolled

217000
83000
20

11.7

12

12.4

12.7

13.0

13.4

13.4

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

CHINA
GERMANY DIN
CW6Mo5Cr4V2 HS 6-5-2 1.3343

1/4
0.2 / 0.4
180 / 140

442
47
1580
700

11

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
19

carbide insert
0.5 / 1
0.2 / 0.3
210 / 150

560
55
2070
650

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.54

FRANCE AFNOR
Z90WDCV06.05.02

4/8
0.3 / 0.6
130 / 100

UK BS
BM2

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.85
RUSSIA
R6M5

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min

USA AISI/SAE
M2

HS 10-4-3-10

Part two High-speed steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
HS 10-4-3-10
According to standards UNI EN ISO 4957: 2002
Number
(1.3207)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
max
1.20-1.35
0.45
0.40
0.03
+ 0.03
+ 0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Hot forming

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Stress relieving
after machining and
before quenching
600-650
furnace cooling

161

S%
max
0.030
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

V%

W%

Co%

3.80-4.50
0.10

3.20-3.90
0.10

3.00-3.50
0.10

9.00-10.00
0.10

9.50-10.50
0.15

Pre-heating

Quenching
Tempering
Heatings must be done in
controlled-atmosphere
1100-900
450 pause
1210-1240
550-570
after 860 pause
oil, polymer,
calm air
after 1050 pause
air forced or salt bath
minimum 2 cycles
after
at 500-550
Soft
Isothermal
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
annealing
annealing
welding
after welding
All high-speed steels must be
770-840
not recommended
not recommended
annealed after hot forming
air
Ac1
Ac3
Ms
Mf
(HB max 302)
830
870
160
55 b)
Hardness of annealed and cold-drawn material can be HB 352 max. Hardness of annealed and cold rolled material can be HB 372
b) subcooling
* The symbol indicates the temperature increase up to . C.
Mechanical properties
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 15 mm after quenching at 1230 C in oil
HB
722 722 714
706
688
679
688
706
739
758
758
HRC
64
64
63.5 63
62
61.5
62
63
65
66
66
N/mm2
Tempering at C 50
100 150
200
250 300
350 400
450
500
550

Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity tangential N/mm2
Testing at C
Specific heat capacity
J/(kgK)
460

Density
kg/dm3
8.3

688
62

600

650

560
55
2070
700

9.6

10.0

10.1

10.3

10.5

10.7

10.7

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Thermal
conductivity W/(mK)
19

EUROPE EN ITALY UNI


CHINA
HS 10-4-3-10 HS 10-4-3-10
Achievable cutting speeds
Annealed hot-rolled

217000
83000
20

739
65

Specific electric
resist. ohmmm2/m
0.80

Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
1.25

GERMANY DIN
FRANCE AFNOR
UK BS RUSSIA
USA AISI/SAE
HS 10-4-3-10 1.3207 Z130WKCDV 10.10.04.04.03 BT42 r12F3K10M3-SCh

carbide insert
0.5 / 1
0.2 / 0.3
210 / 150

1/4
0.2 / 0.4
180 / 140

4/8
0.3 / 0.6
130 / 100

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min

STAINLESS STEELS

X8CrNiS18-9 (AISI 303) X5CrNi18-10 (AISI 304) X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (AISI 316)


X12CrS13 (AISI 416) X20Cr13 (AISI 420) X6Cr17 (AISI 430) X17CrNi16-2 (AISI 431)

X8CrNiS18-9

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X8CrNiS18-9
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4305

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
max
0,10
1,00
2,00
0,045
0.01
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1440-1460
1200-900

AISI 303

Cr%

0,15-0,35
0.02

17,0-19,0
0.20

Solubilization

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Austenitic

S%

Stabilization

1150-1040
900
water
air
controlled atmosphere

N%
max
0,11
0.01

Ni%
8,0-10,0
0.10

Hardening
can be increased
only by
cold drawing

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
160
500-700
190
35
a) for information only

163

Cu%
max
1,00
0.07

Welding
Pre-heating
Stress relieving
not recommended

HB a)
max
230

Kv +20 C
J min

solubilization

Cold-drawn +C EN 10088-3: 2005 (solubilization of material is recommended before cold drawing) n


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
J min
35
700-850
350
20
tensile strength levels 700
25
800-1000
500
12
tensile strength levels 800
Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
J min
10 a)
600-950
400
15
10
16
600-950
400
15
16
40
500-850
190
20
100
40
63
500-850
190
20
100
63
160
500-750
190
35
100
a) In the range 1mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Work-hardness by cold drawing
R
N/mm2
620
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
250
Reduction %
0

800
550
10

1000
700
20

1180
880
30

Forged BS 970 pt.1: 1996 UK 303S31 solution annealing


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min L
160
510
190
40

1350
1020
40

1500
1180
50

Kv +20 C
J min L

1650
1320
60

1780
1430
70

164

Part two Stainless steels

X8CrNiS18-9 AISI 303


Thermal expansion
Mod. of elasticity
Mod. of elasticity
Thermal conductivity
Specific electric resist.
Specific heat capacity
Conductivity
Testing at C

[m/(mK)] 106
longitudinal N/mm2
tangential N/mm2
W/(mK)
ohmmm2/m
J/(kgK)
siemensm/mm2

200000
77000
15.3
0.73
500
1.37
20

16.0
194000
74000
16.3

17.0
186000
71000
17.5
0.86
510

17.0
179000
69000

18.0
172000
66000
19.9
0.97
550

18.0
165000
63000
21.5

100

200

300

400

500

Density

Mean coefficient of linear expansion 106/K

kg/dm3
7.84

20 C a 200 C
16.8

ITALY UNI
CHINA
X10CrNiS18-09 Y1Cr18Ni9

Nickel eq. %Ni + (30 x %C) + (30 x %N) + (0,5 x %Mn)

EUROPE EN
X8CrNiS18-9

20 C a 400 C
17.8

20 C a 600 C
18.8

GERMANY DIN
X10CrNiS18-9

127000
50000
25.1
1.15
630
800

Magnetic
Resistence to
permeability r intergranular corrosion
1.008
in the
delivery condition sensitized condition
no
no

FRANCE AFNOR
Z8CNF18-09

UK BS
303S31

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
303

% Ferrite
0
2
4
6
8
10

24
Austenite
20

12
14
16

Austenite
+ Ferrite
12
18

20
22
24
25
Chromium eq. %Cr + %Mo + (1,5 x %Si) + (0,5 x %Nb)

% Calculation of ferrite by De Long diagram


A deep study of the chemical analysis is the best way to prevent (delta) ferrite presence in the finished product.
As you can notice from the graphic some elements brought to the maximum or to the minimum of the analysis forks fixed for the chosen steel
can act modifying equivalent Ni and equivalent Cr values.An accurate choice of targets during cast planning phase can prevent material brittleness caused by delta ferrite shaping.

X5CrNi18-10

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X5CrNi18-10
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4301

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
max
0,07
1,00
2,00
0,045
0.01
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1400-1420
1180-950

AISI 304

S%
max
0,030
0.005

Solubilization

17,5-19,5
0.20

Stabilization

1030-1070
900
water
air
controlled atmosphere

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
160
500-700
190
160
250
500-700
190
a) for information only

A%
min L
45

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Austenitic

Cr%

N%
max
0,11
0.01

Ni%

Cu%

8,0-10,5
0.10

Hardening
can be increased
only by
cold drawing

A%
min T

165

Kv +20 C
J min L
100

35

Welding
Pre-heating
not demanded

HB a)
max
215
215

Kv +20 C
J min T
60

Stress relieving
slow cooling

solubilization
solubilization

Cold-drawn +C EN 10088-3: 2005 (solubilization of material is recommended before cold drawing)


size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
35
700-850
350
20
tensile strength levels 700
25
800-1000
500
12
tensile strength levels 800
Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P
size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
10 a)
600-950
400
25
10
16
600-950
400
25
16
40
600-850
190
30
100
40
63
580-850
190
30
100
63
160
500-700
190
45
100
160
250
500-700
190
35
60
a) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Work-hardness by cold drawing
R
N/mm2
600
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
300
A
%
35.0
C
%
72
Reduction %
0

700
560
25.0
70
10

850
720
10.0
68
20

Forged EN 10250-4: 2001 solution annealing


Testing at room temperature
/thickness
R
Rp 0.2
A%
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
J min L
675/450
500-700
190
30

960
850
9.0
60
30

Kv +20 C
J min L
100

1100
960
8.0
55
40

Kv +20 C
J min T
60

1200
1080
7.0
47
50

1340
1200
6.0
44
60

1480
1310
5.5
40
70

1650
1440
5.0
38
80

Kv 150 C

Kv 196 C

60

60

166

Part two Stainless steels

X5CrNi18-10 AISI 304


Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperature, properties after solubilization EN 10088-3: 2005
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
155
140
127
118
110
104
98
95
92
90
hot-rolled
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
157
142
127
118
110
104
98
95
92
90
forged
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Thermal expansion
[m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Density

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)

kg/dm3
7.93

20 C 100 C
15
16.3

Heat
treatment
2)

200 C 400 C
17.5
19.9

17.2
193000
86200
0.72
0.78
1.39
1.28
500
16.8
20
100

Temperature (+ ...C) - minimum values


20
100 200 300 350 400
190 155
127 110
104 98

500
92

2)

2)

17.8
179000
80000

200

300

500 C 600 C 800 C


21.5
22.5
25.1

2)

1)

17.6
186000
83000
0.86
1.16
510

550
90
190
140

18.0
172000
76800
1.00
1.00
550
17.8
400

Magnetic
permeability r
1.008

18.2
18.6
165000 154000
73700 60000
1.11
0.90
585
18.8
500
600

127000
50000
1.21
1.26
0.83
0.79
630
20.2
800
900

Resistence to
intergranular corrosion
in the
delivery condition sensitized condition
yes
no

Fatigue behaviour
600 650 700 750
80
70
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
130 85
55 35 Creep rupture, 10.000 h N/mm2 1)
90 50
30 15 Creep rupture, 100.000 h N/mm2 1)

creep rupture strength


+AT solubilization, 1000-1080C

EUROPE EN
X5CrNi18-10

ITALY UNI
X5CrNi18-10

CHINA
0Cr18Ni9

Indicative diagram of
work-hardness by cold drawing

GERMANY DIN
X5CrNi18-10

FRANCE AFNOR
Z5CN18-09

UK BS
304S15

RUSSIA
07H18-09

USA AISI/SAE
304

R N/mm2
2000
AISI 303
AISI 304

AISI 316

1500

AISI 420
1000

500
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

reduction (%)

X5CrNiMo17-12-2

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X5CrNiMo17-12-2
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4401

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
max
0,07
1,00
2,00
0,045
0.01
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1400-1420
1200-900

AISI 316

S%
max
0,030
0.005

Solubilization

16,5-18,5
0.20

Stabilization

1100-1050
900
water
air
controlled atmosphere

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
160
500-700
200
160
250
500-700
200
a) for information only

A%
min L
40

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Austenitic

Cr%

N%
max
0,11
0.01

Ni%

Mo%

10,0-13,0
0.15

2,0-2,5
0.10

Hardening
can be increased
only by
cold drawing

A%
min T

167

Kv +20 C
J min L
100

30

Welding
Pre-heating
not demanded

Kv +20 C
J min T
60

HB a)
max
215
215

Stress relieving
slow cooling

solubilization
solubilization

Cold-drawn +C EN 10088-3: 2005 (solubilization of material is recommended before cold drawing)


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
35
700-850
350
20
tensile strength levels 700
25
800-1000
500
12
tensile strength levels 800
Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P
size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
10 a)
600-950
400
25
10
16
580-950
380
25
16
40
500-850
200
30
100
40
63
500-850
200
30
100
63
160
500-700
200
40
100
160
250
500-700
200
30
60
a) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Work-hardness by cold drawing
R
N/mm2
570
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
340
A
%
26.0
C
%
74
Reduction %
0
Forged EN 10250-4: 2001
/thickness
to
N/mm2 min
375/250
500-700

700
520
13.0
65
10

850
650
10.0
60
20

solution annealing
R
Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min
min L
200
30

1000
780
8.0
55
30

A%
J min L
100

1150
850
6.0
52
40

1250
920
5.0
50
50

Kv +20 C
J min T
60

1320
1040
3.5
46
60

Kv +20 C

1480
1120
3.0
44
70

168

Part two Stainless steels

X5CrNiMo17-12-2 AISI 316


Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperature, properties after solubilization EN 10088-3: 2005
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
175
158
145
135
127
120
115
112
110
108 hot-rolled
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
177
162
147
137
127
120
115
112
110
108 forged
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Thermal expansion [m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Density

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)

kg/dm3
7.96

20 C
15

EUROPE EN
X5CrNiMo17-12-2

200 C
17.5

400 C
19.9

16.5
200000 194000
89000 87000
0.75
1.33
500
20

600 C
22.5

100

17.5
186000
83000
0.86

17.5
179000
80000

510
16.8
200

800 C
25.1

550
17.8
400

300

Magnetic
permeability r
1.008

18.5
172000
76800
0.97

18.5
165000
73700

500

127000
50000
1.15

585
18.8
600

630
20.2
800

Resistence to
intergranular corrosion
in the
delivery condition
sensitized condition
yes
no

ITALY UNI
CHINA
GERMANY DIN
FRANCE AFNOR UK BS
X5CrNiMo17 12 0Cr17Ni12Mo2 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 Z7CND17-12-02 316S31

Schaeffler diagram

0%
27

24

154000
60000
1.07

5%

RUSSIA
USA AISI/SAE
07H16N12M2 316

% Ferrite
10%

austenite

20%

Nichel eq. = %Ni + (30 x %C) + (30 x %N) + (0,5 x %Mn)

21
40%
18
80%

15
A+M
12

A+F

martensite

100%

9
A + M +F

6
3
0

M+F

F+
M
2

10

12 14 16

ferrite

18 20 22

24 26 28

30

32 34

36 38 40

Chromium eq. = %Cr + %Mo + (1,5 x %Si) + (0,5 x %Nb)

This diagram is divided in three main areas which correspond to the three different structures of the weld bead: austenitic, ferritic and martensitic. Thanks to this calculation method, it is possible to determine before-hand the structures which are likely to be present in the weld bead
and therefore to correctly choose the weld material according to the final structure one wants to obtain.
The presence of an austenitic structure means that the material has a low thermal conductivity and a high thermal expansion coefficient;
for this reason, a weld material with the same chemical composition should be used.
The presence of high quantities of ferrite in the weld material can be negative from the standpoint of resistance to corrosion and its ductility.
The presence of a certain quantity of martensite in the weld material causes a worsening of the mechanical properties and the formation of hard and fragile areas.
According to the metals initial composition, it is possible to have these different structures simultaneously.

X12CrS13

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X12CrS13 AISI 416
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4005

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
0,06-0,15 1,00
1,50
0,040
0.01
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1470-1490
1150-900
Stress
relieving
210-250
air

Soft
annealing
750-780 air
(HB max 220)

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Martensitic

S%

Cr%

0,15-0,35
0.02

12,0-14,0
0.15

N%

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

920-980
air
Full
annealing
850-870 slow cooling
(HB 135-160)

980-1010
oil or polymer
Spheroidizing

I 680
II 660
min. 2 temp.
for dim. >200 mm

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
730 max
160
650-850
450
a) for information only

A%
min L

169

885 furnace
595 after, air

HB
max
220 a)

12

Mo%
max
0,60
0.03

Welding
Pre-heating

Stress relieving

300

600

Ac1
820

Ms
330

Mf
175

+A
annealed
+QT 650 quenching and tempering

Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P


size
Testing at room temperature
mm
R
HB a)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C Kv +20 C
2
from
to
N/mm
max
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
10 b)
880
280
700-1000
550
8
10
16
880
280
700-1000
500
8
16
40
800
250
650-930
450
10
40
63
760
230
650-880
450
10
63
160
730
220
650-850
450
12
+A annealed
+QT 650 quenched and tempered
a) for information only
b) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 980 C in oil
R
N/mm2
1490
1450
1420
1410
1430
1450
1420
1150
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1210
1170
1150
1150
1160
1180
1140
870
A
%
10.8
10.8
10.9
12.0
12.5
13.0
16.0
16.5
Kv
%
25
30
26
19
18
17
18
20
Testing at C
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Forged BS 970 pt. 4 : 1970 UK 416S21 quenched and tempered
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
/mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min L
152
532-684
334
20
58 J < 63 mm
63
684-836
486
15

860
650
18.0
31
600

740
550
20.0
49
650

690
500
21.5
90
700

Kv +20 C
min L
49 J 63-152 mm tempering 650-750 C
34 J
tempering 600-700 C

170

Part two Stainless steels

X12CrS13 AISI 416


Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperatures
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
240
235
230
225
225
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
430
420
410
400
382
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
Thermal expansion [m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Density
kg/dm3
7.70
EUROPE EN
X12CrS13

216000
96000
0.60
1.67
460
20

CHINA
Y1Cr13

10.5
213000
95000

210
335
350

11.0
207000
92000
0.69

195
305
400

11.5
200000
89000

500
10.8
200

100

Thermal conductivity W/(mk)


20 C 200 C 400 C 600 C
25.1 26.5
27.7 27.4
ITALY UNI
X12CrS13

220
365
300

annealed
quenched and tempered

12.0
192000
86000
0.86
590
11.6
400

300

500

Magnetic
permeability r

800 C
25.0

GERMANY DIN
X12CrS13

FRANCE AFNOR
Z11CF13

UK BS
416S21

125

ng

i
nch

que

erin

mp

te
and

KCU (J)

80

lin

a
ne
an

60

40

0
150

100

50
Temperature

50

1.03

1.17

720
12.2
600

860
12.7
800

Resistence to
hot oxidation
up to 600 C

Indicative transition curves for X12CrS13 in various conditions of heat treatment

100

12.0

100

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
416

X20Cr13

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X20Cr13
AISI 420
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4021

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
0,16-0,25 1,00
1,50
0,040
0.02
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1460-1490
1150-880
Stress
relieving
150-250
air

Soft
annealing
740-820 air
(HB max 230)

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Martensitic

S%
max
0,030
0.005

Cr%

N%

Ni%

Mo%

12,0-14,0
0.15

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

900-980 air

950-1050 oil
or polymer
Spheroidizing

I 700
II 650

Full
annealing
870-900 slow cool.
(HB 170-200)

171

860 furnace cool.


to 650 after, air

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
760 max
160
700-850
500
13
160
800-950
600
12
a) for information only

Kv +20 C
Jmin L

Welding
Pre-heating

Stress relieving

300

700

Ac1
790

HB a)
max
230

25
20

Ac3
850

Ms
240

Mf
205

+A annealed
+QT quenched and tempered R 700
+QT quenched and tempered R 800

Cold processed bright bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
HB a)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2 max
max
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
J min L
J min T
10 b)
910
290
750-1000
600
8
10
16
910
290
750-1000
550
8
16
40
850
260
700-950
500
10
25
40
63
800
250
700-900
500
12
25
63
160
760
230
700-850
500
13
25
+A annealed
+QT 700 quenching and tempering
a) for information only
b) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Work-hardness by cold drawing
R
N/mm2
600
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
350
A
%
36
C
%
58
Reduction %
0

670
500
22
52
10

750
620
15
42
20

800
650
14
36
30

850
740
12
34
40

880
800
11
33
50

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 970 C in oil
R
N/mm2
1620
1600
1560
1540
1550
1570
1500
1230
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1330
1290
1270
1260
1260
1250
1200
910
A
%
10.5
12.0
13.0
12.0
11.5
10.5
12.0
15.0
Kv
%
24
26
27
26
19
18
16
19
Testing at C
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550

900
820
10
32
60

930
840
9
30
70

910
680
17.0
25
600

780
590
20.0
33
650

700
560
22.0
50
700

172

Part two Stainless steels

X20Cr13 AISI 420


Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperatures EN 10088-3: 2005 EN 10250-4: 2001
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
460
445
430
415
395
365
330 level +QT R 700
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
515
495
475
460
440
405
355 level +QT R 800
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Forged EN 10250-4: 2001
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
/thickness
R
Rp 0.2
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
760 max
250/160
700-850
500
250/160
800-950
600
Thermal expansion [m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Creep rupture strength 10.000 h R N/mm2
Creep rupture strength 10.000 h Rp 0.1 N/mm2
Yeld 100.000 h R N/mm2
Yeld 100.000 h Rp 0.1 N/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Density
kg/dm3
7.70

A%
min L

Kv +20 C
J min L

13
12

25
20

10.5
216000 213000
96000 95000
0.60
1.67

460
10.5
100

20

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
200 C 400 C 600 C
25.1
26.5
27.7
27.4

EUROPE EN
X20Cr13

ITALY UNI
X20Cr13

CHINA
2Cr13

11.0
11.5
207000 200000
92000 89000
0.69

500
10.8
200

F+C
Ac3 = 850
Ac1 = 790

temperature C

800

600
200
400
Ms
200

Mf

472 420
470
503 475 230

509
0

102

10

min 1
time

103

104
102

10
h

105
103
10 24

11.5
300

12.0
12.0
192000
86000
0.86

590
11.6
400

Magnetic
permeability r

FRANCE AFNOR
Z20C13

Anisotermic transformation diagram of austenite, AISI 420 (CCT curve)

1000

Kv +20 C
J min T
+A annealed
+QT quenched and tempered R 700
+QT quenched and tempered R 800

800 C
25.0

GERMANY DIN
X20Cr13

Hot-rolled
and forged

UK BS
420S37

147
93
103
64

74
44
44
25

500

12.0
550

1.03

1.17

33
17
18
10
720
12.2
600

860
12.7
800

Resistence to
hot oxidation
yes to 650 C
RUSSIA
20H13

USA AISI/SAE
420

X6Cr17

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X6Cr17
AISI 430
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4016

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
max
0,08
1,00
1,00
0,040
0.01
+ 0.05
+ 0.03
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1460-1490
1100-950

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Ferritic

S%
max
0,030
0.005

Normalizing

173

Cr%

N%

Ni%

Mo%

16,0-18,0
0.20

Quenching

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005 +A annealing
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
HB a)
2
2
from
to
N/mm
N/mm min min L
max
100
400-630
240
20
200
a) for information only

Recrystallization
annealing
750-850 air
(HB max 200)

Welding
Pre-heating
not demanded

Stress relieving
slow cooling

Mechanical properties on annealed material obtained at,


different temperatures (for information only)
Test
R
Rp 0.2
A
Z
temperature C N/mm2
N/mm2
%
%
+ 20
455
266
37
73
0
483
280
37
72
40
532
287
36
72
60
567
308
36
70
190
630
609
0
4

Cold-drawn +C ASTM A 276-04 +A condition


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min L
all
415
207
20

C%
min L
45

Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
J min L
10 b)
500-750
320
8
10
16
480-750
300
8
16
40
400-700
240
15
40
63
400-700
240
15
63
100
400-630
240
20
b) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Work-hardness by cold drawing
R
N/mm2
500
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
260
A
%
32
C
%
58
Reduction %
0

590
420
25
48
10

650
520
22
39
20

700
620
20
34
30

780
670
18
32
40

840
720
16
30
50

920
760
15
28
60

Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperature EN 10088-3: 2005 EN 10250-4: 2001
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
220
215
210
205
200
195
190
hot-rolled and forged
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

940
800
14
26
70

174

Part two Stainless steels

X6Cr17 AISI 430


Forged EN 10250-4: 2001 +A annealing
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
/thickness
R
Rp 0.2
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
150/100
400-630
240
Thermal expansion [m/(mK)] 106
Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Densit

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)

kg/dm3
7.75

20 C
25.0

EUROPE EN
X6Cr17

200 C
23.4

ITALY UNI
X8Cr17

400 C
24.1

A%
min

220000
98000
0.60
1.67
460
20

600 C
25.1

CHINA
1Cr17

A%
min

10.0
218000
97000

100

800 C
26.9

Kv +20 C
J min

10.0
212000
95000
0.75
495
10.6
200

10.5
205000
92000

300

Magnetic
permeability r
600-1000

GERMANY DIN
X6Cr17

Kv +20 C
J min

10.5
197000
88000
0.93
570
11.4
400

11.0

500

FRANCE AFNOR
Z8C17

UK BS
430S17

130

austenitic steels
AISI 303 - 304 - 316

impact Kv J

60
martensitic steels
AISI 416 - 420 - 431

30

ferritic steels
AISI 430

15

0
150

temperature C

100

50

660
12.0
600

760
12.6
800

RUSSIA
08H17

160

200

1.25

Resistence to
intergranular corrosion
in the
delivery condition
welded condition
yes
no

Indicative transition curves of stainless steels

90

1.11

+ 50

+ 100

USA AISI/SAE
430

X17CrNi16-2

Part two Stainless steels


Quality
X17CrNi16-2
According to standards EN 10088-3: 2005
Number
1.4057

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
max
max
max
0,12-0,22 1,00
1,50
0,040
0.01
+ 0.05
0.04
+ 0.005
Permissible deviations on the product.
Temperature C
Melting
Hot forming
range
1440-1460
1100-900
Stress relieving
210-250
air

AISI 431

S%
max
0,030
0.005

Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Martensitic

Cr%

N%

15,0-17,0
0.20

Ni%

Mo%

1,50-2,50
0.07

Normalizing

Quenching

950-1000
air

980-1030
600-670 (R 900)
oil or polymer
740-790 (R 800)
Soft annealing
620-670
(HB 240-285) long stay time

Soft annealing
750-780 air
(HB 240-295) short stay time

175

Tempering

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled EN 10088-3: 2005
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
Kv +20 C HB
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min min L
J min
max
950 max
295 a)
60
800-950
600
14
25
60
160
800-950
600
12
20
60
900-1050
700
12
20
60
160
900-1050
700
10
15
a) for information only

Welding
Pre-heating
300

Ac1
725

Stress relieving
600

Ms
145

Mf
105

+A annealing
+QT quenching and tempering R 800
+QT quenching and tempering R 900

Cold processed bars EN 10083-3: 2005 in conditions 2H, 2B, 2G, 2P


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
HB a)
R
Rp 0.2
A%
A%
Kv +20 C Kv +20 C
2
from
to
N/mm max
max
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min L
min T
J min L
J min T
10 b)
1050
330
850-1100
750
7
10
16
1050
330
850-1100
700
7
16
40
1000
310
800-1050
650
9
25
40
63
950
295
800-1000
650
12
25
63
160
950
295
800-950
650
12
20
+A annealing
+QT 800 quenching and tempering
a) for information only
b) In the range 1 mm d < 5 mm valid only for rounds the mechanical properties of non round bars with thicknesses < 5 mm have to be
agreed upon at the time of enquiry and order.
Table of tempering value at room temperature for round 10 mm after quenching at 1000 C in oil
R
N/mm2
1400
1360
1320
1320
1325
1300
1250
1100
Rp 0.2
N/mm2
1160
1160
1155
1140
1110
1080
1000
880
A
%
9.0
10.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
12.0
12.0
13.5
Kv
%
10
12
13
13
12
11
12
16
Tempering at C
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Minimum values for the 0.2% proof strength at high temperature EN 10088-3: 2005
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
515
495
475
460
440
405
Rp 0.2 N/mm2
565
525
505
490
470
430
Testing at C
50
100
150
200
250
300
350

355
375
400

930
760
15.0
23
600

800
680
16.0
25
650

resistance at 800
resistance at 900

690
590
16.5
30
700

176

Part two Stainless steels

X17CrNi16-2 AISI 431


Forged EN 10250-4: 2001
Testing at room temperature
/thickness
R
to
N/mm2
375/250
1000 max
375/250
800-950
375/250
900-1050

Rp 0.2
N/mm2 min

A%
min L

A%
min T

Kv +20 C
J min L

Kv +20 C
J min T

600
700

10
10

8
8

20
15

15
10

Thermal expansion [m/(mK)] 106


Mod. of elasticity
longitudinal N/mm2
Mod. of elasticity
tangential N/mm2
Specific electric resist. ohmmm2/m
Conductivity
siemensm/mm2
Specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
Mean coefficient of linear exp. 106/K
Testing at C
Density
kg/dm3
7.75
EUROPE EN
X17CrNi16-2

216000
96000
0.70
1.43
460
20

CHINA
1Cr17CrNi16-2

10.5
207000
92000

500
10.8
200

100

Thermal conductivity W/(mK)


20 C
200 C 400 C
600 C
25.1
26.5
27.7
27.4
ITALY UNI
X17CrNi16-2

10.0
213000
95000

800 C
25.0

11.0
200000
89000

300

+A annealed
+QT quenched and tempered R 800
+QT quenched and tempered R 900
11.0
192000
86000
0.86
590
11.6
400

Magnetic
permeability r

GERMANY DIN
X17CrNi16-2

FRANCE AFNOR
Z15CN16-2

11.0

500

1.03

1.17

720
12.2
600

860
12.7
800

Resistence to
intergranular corrosion
no
UK BS
431S29

RUSSIA
17HI6N2

USA AISI/SAE
431

Indicative diagram Resistance/Corrosion

R N/mm2
Tensile strenght

increase of resistance after quenching and tempering

1600

delivery state characteristics

1400

possible increase of R by cold-drawing

1200
1000
AISI 431

800
600

AISI 420
AISI 416
AISI 303

400

AISI 304

AISI 316

AISI 430

Resistance of corrosion

Part two Stainless steels


STAINLESS STEELS
Achievable cutting speeds
X8CrNiS18-9 AISI 303

177

Technical card Trafilix


Carbide insert TiC / TiN coated

Hot-rolled annealed R 570-650 N/mm2

Hot-rolled annealed R 570-650 N/mm2


Cold-drawn solubilization R 700-850 N/mm2
X5CrNi18-10 AISI 304

Hot-rolled annealed R 560-650 N/mm2


X5CrNiMo17-12-2 AISI 316

Hot-rolled annealed R 550-620 N/mmv


X12CrS13 AISI 416

Hot-rolled annealed R 600-700 N/mm2


Hot-rolled annealed R 750-950 N/mm2

Hot-rolled annealed R 600-700 N/mm2


Hot-rolled R 700-800 N/mm2
Hot-rolled R 750-950 N/mm2
X20Cr13 AISI 420

Hot-rolled annealed R 560-660 N/mm2


Hot-rolled R 800-950 N/mm2
X6Cr17 AISI 430

Hot-rolled annealed R 450-600 N/mm2


X17CrNi16-2 AISI 431

Hot-rolled annealed R 800-950 N/mm2

1
0.20
370
0.5
0.12
225
190

3
0.40
270
1
0.15
190
160

6
0.50
220
3
0.20
170
150

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min turning centers CNC
ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min automatic turning
Vc cutting speed m/min automatic turning

1
0.20
200

3
0.40
150

6
0.50
120

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min turning centers CNC

1
0.2
195

3
0.4
150

6
0.5
120

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min turning centers CNC

1
0.20
300
350
0.5
0.07
195
175
240

3
0.40
200
250
1
0.10
165
145
200

6
0.50
160
200
3
0.12
155
140
175

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning
ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min automatic turning
Vc cutting speed m/min automatic turning
Vc cutting speed m/min automatic turning

1
0.2
230
260

3
0.4
210
220

6
0.5
170
170

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning

1
0.2
260

3
0.4
190

6
0.5
160

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning

1
0.2
165

3
0.4
130

6
0.5
100

ap depth of cut mm
fn feed mm/rev
Vc cutting speed m/min general turning

The friction coefficient is higher in stainless steels than in low-allow steels. The heat generated by the contact between the chip and the tool
takes time to disappear because thermal conductivity of stainless steels is lower. The temperature increase speeds tool wear up. Due to their
ductility, these steels originate a quite strong chip, difficult to break.

Appearance bright, but not uniform.


Free of surface defects.

Hot-formed, not heat treated 3) pickled,


coated (optional)
Hot-formed, not heat treated 3) rough
machined 4)

Hot-formed, heat treated 3) descaled, rough


machined 4) or shaved in the case of rod.
Finishing by removal of material.
Finishes 1C, 1D or 1X, cold precessed,
coated (optional)

Finishes 2H, treated 3) pickled and skin-passed


(optional), coated (optional)

1D

1G

2D

Finishes 2H, 2D o 2B, centreless ground,

mechanically smoothed (optional)


Finishes 2H, 2D, 2B or 2G, specular polishing

2G

2P

Smooth, uniform and bright.

Smooth, uniform and bright.


Free of surface defects.

Smooth and matt or bright.


Not free of surface defects.

x
x

x
x

D
x

Product form
A
B
C
x
x

Suitable for severe applications (extrusion and/or cold or


hot heading).
Surface roughness can be specified.
In products formed by cold drawing without subsequent heat
treatment, the tensile strength is substantially increased,
particularly in austenitic materials, depending on the degree
of cold processing. The surface hardness be higher than
the centre hardness.
This finish allows the restoration of the mechanical
properties after cold processing. Products with good
ductility (extrusion) and specific magnetic properties.
Products used in their present condition or intended for better
finishing. In products formed by cold drawing without
subsequent heat treatment, the tensile strength is
substantially increased, particularly in austenitic materials,
depending on the degree of cold processing. The surface
hardness may be higher than the centre hardness.
Finish for close tolerances. Unless otherwise agreed the
surface roughness shall be Ra 1,2.

Products used in their present condition or to be further


processed (hot or cold).

Suitable for products to be further hot-formed.


Suitable for products to be further processed (hot or cold).

Recommended use and observations

Free of surface defects.


Smoother and brighter than
x
Products showing a well groomed surface appearance.
finish 2B or 2G.
Surface roughness shall be specified at the of enquiry
Free of surface defects.
and order.
1) Not all surface finishes and process routes are available for all steels.
2) First digit 1 = Hot-formed; 2 = Cold processed
3) On ferritic, austenitic and austenitic-ferritic grades, the heat treatment may be omitted if the conditions for hot forming and subsequent cooling are such that the requirements for the mechanical
properties of the product and the resistence to intergranular corrosion are obtained.
4) Type of rough machining (grinding, peeling) is left to the manufacturer's discretion unless otherwise agreed.
A = Semi-finished products B = Rods C = Wires D = Bars, sections

Finishes 1C, 1D or 1X, cold precessed,


mechanically smoothed

2B

2H

1X

Smooth and matt or bright.


Not necessary polished.
Not free of surface defects.

Covered with scale (spot ground if


necessary).
Not free of surface defects.
Largely free of scale (but some black
spots may remain).
Not free of surface.
Free of scale (spot ground if
necessary). Not free of surface defects.
Free of scale (but some marks left from
machining may remain).
Not free of surface defects.

Hot-formed, not heat treated, not descaled


Hot-formed, not heat treated 3),
not descaled
Hot-formed, not heat treated 3), mechanically
descaled.

1U
1C

1E

1)

Surface finish

2)

Stainless Steel type - surface finish EN 10088-3: 2005


Symbol Type of process route

Hot-formed

Cold processed

178
Part two Stainless steels

STEELS FOR CHROME-PLATING

S355J2* C45E* Cf53 20MnVS6 42CrMo4* 39NiCrMo3* 50CrMo4*


* For mechanical properties see carbon steel groups, case-hardening steels and alloy steels

Cf53

180

Part two Steels for chrome-plating


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
Cf53
According to standards DIN 17212: 1972
Number
1.1213
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.50-0.57
0.15-0.35
0.40-0.70
0.03
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.

Temperature C
Hot forming
1050-850
Soft
annealing
700
air
(HB max 223)

P%
max
0.025
+ 0.005

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

Tempering

860
air
Isothermal
annealing
820 furnace cooling
to 660 after, air
(HB 180-230)

830
water
Natural

860
oil or polymer
Hardenability
test

550-660
air
Pre-heating
welding
not recommended
Ac1
Ac3
730
765

(HB max 260)

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled mechanical properties for normalized condition DIN 17212: 1972
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
K
from to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min min
min
J min
16
100
610-760
340
16

Stress
relieving
180
Stress relieving
after welding
not recommended
Ms
Mf
320
100

HB
reference only
183-226

Hot-rolled mechanical properties for quenched and tempered condition DIN 17212: 1972
size test blanks
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
K
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
J min
16
740-880
510
12
25
16
40
690-830
430
14
35
40
100
640-780
400
15
40

HB
reference only
224-263
210-249
198-232

Quenching and tempering + Cold-drawn +C 070M55 BS 970 pt.3: 1991.


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
from
to
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
min
13
29
700-850
475
10
29
100
700-850
435
10

HB
for information
201-255
201-255

Jominy test HRC


distance in mm from quenched end
1.5 3
5
7
9
11 13 15
min No indications are shown in the reference standards
max (please refer to the same values of quality C 50)
EUROPE EN
C53

ITALY UNI
C53

CHINA

20

GERMANY DIN
Cf53

25

30

35

FRANCE AFNOR
XC48 TS

K
J min

40

45

UK BS
070M55

50

Min. surface hardness


after quenching and stress
relieving
HRC
57

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
1050

20MnVS6

Part two Steels for chrome-plating


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
20MnVS6
According to standards Werkstoff
Number
(appr. 1.5217)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.16-0.22

1.30-1.70

0.10- 0.45

Temperature C
Hot forming

181

P%
max
0.025

S%

Cr%
max
0.50

0.020-0.040

Normalizing

Quenching

Quenching

1100-850

900
air

Carbonitriding
870-880 gas
150-200
(HRC 60)
Soft
annealing
690
air
(HB max 210)

Carburizing
760-780

880-930
870-920
oil or
water
polymer
Core hardening
870-880 water
tempering immediately
150-200 air

Hot-rolled normalized +N
size
Testing (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
25
580
450
25
80
550
430
80
530
390
Hot-rolled quenched and tempered +QT
size
Testing (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
25
700
620
25
80
650
570
80
600
520
Cold-drawn untreated +C
size
Testing (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
32
700
620

Ni%
max
0.30

Tempering
550-660
air
Induction hardening
870-925 oil or water
to 150-200 after air
(HRC 45-52)
Pre-heating
welding
not demanded
Ac1
Ac3
720
815

Isothermal
annealing
800 furnace
cooling to 670
after, air

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled untreated +U
size
Testing (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
from
to
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
25
580
450
25
80
550
420
80
530
380

Mo%
max
0.15

Al%

V%

0.020-0.050

0.10-0.20

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature of temp.
Nitriding
490-530
(HRC 55)
Stress relieving
after welding
slow cooling
Ms
Mf
400
180


A%
min
16
16
16

C%
min

Kv +20 C
J min

Kv 0 C
J min

Kv 20 C
J min

HB
min
172
159
156

C%
min

Kv +20 C
J min
40
40
40

Kv 0 C
J min
35
35
35

Kv 20 C
J min
27
27
27

HB
min
172
159
156

C%
min

Kv +20 C
J min
40
40
40

Kv 0 C
J min
35
35
35

Kv 20 C
J min
27
27
27

HB
min
213
200
178

C%
min

Kv +20 C
J min

Kv 0 C
J min

Kv 20 C
J min

HB


A%
min
18
18
18

A%
min
16
16
16

A%
min
10

Grain size ASTM E 112


5-8

Inclusions content DIN 50602


K4 < 30

EUROPE EN ITALY UNI


20MnVS6

CHINA
20MV

213-260
Corrosion resistance chromium plating
Chrome thickness 0.05 mm
hardness HV > 800

GERMANY DIN
FRANCE AFNOR
appr. 1.5217 (1.8915 StE 460) 20MnV6

UK BS
GR55C

RUSSIA

USA AISI/SAE
A381

STRUCTURAL AND CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

SAE 1141 SAE 1116 SAE 1117 SAE 1018 SAE 1045
CB 4 FF CB 20 FF C20

SAE 1141

Part two Structural and constructional steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
SAE 1141*
According to standards ASTM A 576-90b: 2000 Hot-rolled ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 Cold-drawn
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

a)
0.37-0.45
1.35-1.65
0.03
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.*

P%
max
0.040
+ 0.008

S%

Cu%

183

Ni%

Cr%

Cu%

Ni%

Cr%

Cu%

Ni%

Cr%

0.08-0.13
+ 0.008

SAE 1116

Mechanical properties ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 Cold-drawn stress relieving cl. A
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
HB
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
20
655
620
11
35
201
20
30
620
585
11
30
190
30
50
585
550
10
30
173
50
70
550
520
10
30
159
Quality
SAE 1116*
According to standards ASTM A 576-90b: 2000 Hot-rolled
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

SAE 1117

a)
0,14-0,20
1,10-1,40
0.02
0.06
Permissible deviations on the product.*

P%
max
0,040
+ 0.008

S%
0,16-0,23
+ 0.008

Quality
SAE 1117*
According to standards ASTM A 576-90b: 2000 Hot-rolled
Number
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
S%
max
max
a)
0,14-0,20
1,00-1,30
0,040
0,08-0,13
0.02
0.06
+ 0.008
+ 0.008
Permissible deviations on the product. Aspect of the distribution of sulphur.
Mechanical properties ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004
Cold-drawn stress relieving cl. A
size
mm

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)


R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
HB
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
min
20
520
450
15
40
155
20
30
485
415
15
40
147
30
50
450
380
13
35
135
50
75
415
345
12
30
123
* Remark: when aluminum is used as a grain refining element the Al% (total) content is not less than 0.020
When lead is required a range of 0.15 to 0.35% is specified. Such a steel is identified by inserting the letter L 11L41, 11L16, 11L17
a) the following ranges and limits are commonly specified: 0.10 max, 0.10-0.20, 0.15-0.35, 0.20-0.40, 0.30-0.60
USA AISI/SAE
SAE 1141
SAE 1116
SAE 1117

ITALY UNI

CHINA GB

GERMANY DIN

FRANCE AFNOR

UK BS

RUSSIA GOST EUROPE EN

SAE 1018

184

Part two Structural and constructional steels

Quality
SAE 1018
According to standards ASTM A 576-90b: 2000 Hot-rolled ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 Cold-drawn
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
max
0.040
+ 0.008

S%
max
0.050
+ 0.008

a)
0.15-0.20
0.60-0.90
0.02
0.03
Permissible deviations on the product.
Remark: when aluminum is used as a grain refining element the Al% (total) content is not less than 0.020
When lead is required a range of 0.15 to 0.35% is specified. Such a steel is identified by inserting the letter L ex. 10L18
a) the following ranges and limits are commonly specified: 0.10 max, 0.10-0.20, 0.15-0.35, 0.20-0.40, 0.30-0.60

Temperature C
Hot forming
1180-900

Soft annealing
+A
650-700
furnace cooling

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

920
air

880-900 oil
polymer or water
Pre-heating
welding
not demanded

550-620
air
PWHT

Mechanical properties
Cold-drawn stress relieved (>288 C) cl. A ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)


mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C % reduction
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
20
485
415
18
40
20
30
450
380
16
40
30
50
415
345
15
35
50
75
380
310
15
35
Cold-drawn Lucefin experience
flat
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min %
76 32
581
556
13,4
76 32
553
438
17,6
76 32
530
348
27,2
Hot-rolled

mm
22

30

HB
176
162
159

Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)


R
Rp 0.2
A
C reduction
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min % min % min
634
386
27
48

197

400

229
180
116

Condition
Hot-rolled
Quenched and tempered
Condition
Hot-rolled
Quenched and tempered
USA AISI/SAE
SAE 1018

C reduction
%
60,7
60,8
59,0

ITALY UNI
C18

220

25

Cyclic yield strength, y


N/mm2
236
190
Fatigue strength coefficient, y
N/mm2
782
423
CHINA GB

GERMANY DIN
1.0453

slow cooling

HB
min
147
135
123
110

Mod. of elasticity
N/mm2 min
253600
251800
186000

HB

Heat treatment
+U untreated
+T cold-drawn tempered to 550 C
+T cold-drawn tempered to 620 C

Heat treatment
Carburized at 925C, cooled to 250 C, pause after
water quenched and final tempering at 180 C
+U cold-drawn natural forming condition
+A annealed
+A normalized (J1397)

Cyclic strength
exponent, n
0.27
0.24
Fatigue strength
exponent, b
0.11
0.07
FRANCE AFNOR

Cyclic strength coefficient, K


N/mm2
1259
862
Fatigue ductility coefficient, gf
0.19
0.09
UK BS
214A15

RUSSIA GOST

EUROPE EN
P265NL

SAE 1045

Part two Structural and constructional steels


Technical card
Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Quality
SAE 1045
According to standards ASTM A 576-90b: 2000 Hot-rolled ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 Cold-drawn
Number
(1.1191)
Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

P%
max
0.030
+ 0.008

185

S%
max
0.050
+ 0.008

a)
0.43-0.50
0.60-0.90
0.03
0.03
Permissible deviations on the product.
Remark: when aluminum is used as a grain refining element the Al% (total) content is not less than 0.020
When lead is required a range of 0.15 to 0.35% is specified. Such a steel is identified by inserting the letter L ex. 10L4S
a) the following ranges and limits are commonly specified: 0.10 max, 0.10-0.20, 0.15-0.35, 0.20-0.40, 0.30-0.60

Temperature C
Hot forming
1100-800

Soft annealing
+A
680-710 furnace
cooling
(HB max 140)

Normalizing

Quenching

Tempering

850-870
air

820-840
oil polymer or
water

600-650
air
Pre-heating
welding
250

Mechanical properties
Hot-rolled ASTM A 183-03 Reference only
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
all
565
310
16
all
760
550
12

HB
min
165
226

C%
min
40
25

Normal draft Cold-drawn stress relieved ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 cl. A
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
20
655
585
12
35
20
30
620
550
11
30
30
50
585
520
10
30
50
75
550
485
10
30

HB
min
205
195
176
162

Heavy draft Cold-drawn stress relieved ASTM A311/A 311M: 2004 cl. B
size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
C%
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
min
20
795
690
10
25
20
30
795
690
10
25
30
50
795
690
10
25
50
75
795
690
9
25
75
102
725
620
7
20

HB
min
239
239
239
239
224

Normal draft Cold-drawn annealed. Reference only


size
Testing at room temperature (longitudinal)
mm
R
Rp 0.2
A%
>

N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
min
19
32
585
505
12

HB
min
170

USA AISI/SAE
1045

ITALY UNI
C45

CHINA GB
45

C%
min
45

GERMANY DIN
Ck45

FRANCE AFNOR
XC48H1

Stress
relieving
50 under the
temperature
of temp.
Stress relieving
after welding
550 furnace cooling

+U untreated
+QT quenched and tempered

UK BS
080M46

RUSSIA GOST EUROPE EN


45
C45E

Part two Structural and constructional steels


Technical card

Quality
CB 4 FF (C4C 1.0303 EN 10263-2)
According to standards UNI 7356: 1974. Reference only.
Number
(1.0303)

Trafilix
Lucefin Group

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
P%
S%
max
max
max
0.08
tracce
0.20-0.40
0.040
0.040
0.02
0.04
+ 0.005
+ 0.005
a) the steel shall be made by electric-furnace, nitrogen (N) max 0.012%.
Hot-rolled natural condition HB max 116.

Ni%

Cr%

S%
max
0.040
+ 0.005

N%

Ni%

Cr%

S%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

N%

Ni%

Cr%

CB 20 FF

N%
max
0.007 a)

Quality
CB 20 FF ((C20E2C 1.1152 EN 10263-3)
According to standards UNI 7356: 1974
Number
(1.1152)

C20

CB 4 FF

186

Quality
C20
According to standards UNI 7874: 1979. Reference only.
Number
(1.1151)

Chemical composition
C%
Si%
Mn%
max
0.18-0.23
0.10
0.30-0.60
0.02
0.02
0.04
Fully killed (Al Nb V)
Hot-rolled natural condition HB max 160.

Chemical composition
C%
Si%

Mn%

0.18-0.24
0.15-0.40 0.40-0.80
0.02
0.03
0.04
Permissible deviations on the product.

P%
max
0.040
+ 0.005

P%
max
0.035
+ 0.005

Mechanical properties information only


Hot-rolled normalized +N
R
ReH
A%
N/mm2
N/mm2 min
min
440-550 245
25
Hot-rolled natural condition HB max 160.

Cold draw +C
R
ReH
N/mm2 min
N/mm2 min
540
390

A%
min
8

Table of tempering values at room temperature for round 30 mm after quenching at 950 C in water
HB
353
353
344
327
286
HRC
38
38
37
35
30
R
N/mm2
1180
1180
1140
1080
950
Tempering atC
50
100
150
200
300
Effective depth of case- hardened layer
Depth
mm
0.12
HRC
Time of case-hardening h.
1
USA AISI/SAE

1020

ITALY UNI
CB 4 FF
CB 20 FF
C20

CHINA GB

0.24
2
GERMANY DIN
C4 C
C22 C
C22

0.30
50
4

226
20
760
450

560
600

0.45

0.50

0.60

10

FRANCE

UK B.S.

RUSSIA GOST

C20

070M20

1450

162

EUROPE EN
CB4 FF KD
C21 KD
C22

Part two

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CONNECTION PARTS

Resistance classes
for nuts with nominal diameter less than 39 mm
Designation system for nuts with nominal height > 0,8 D ( ISO 898-2: 1992 )
property
Securing screwes
class of nut
property class
diameters mm
4
3.6 - 4.6 - 4.8
> M 16
5
3.6 - 4.6 - 4.8
M 16
5
5.6 - 5.8
M 39
6
6.8
M 39
8
8.8
M 39
9
9.8
M 16
10
10.9
M 39
12
12.9
M 39
Designation system for load tests of nuts with height > 0.5D e < 0.8D
property
Nominal stress under proof load
class of nut
N/mm2
04
400
05
500
Limits of chemical analysis
property class of nut
C% max
4-5-6
0.50
04 - 8 - 9
0.58
05 - 10
0.58
12
0.58

Mn% min
0.25
0.30
0.45

Nuts
style 1

style 2
diameters mm

> M 16
M 39
M 39
M 39
M 39
M 39
M 16

> M 16 - M 39
M 16
M 39

Actual stress under proof load


N/mm2
380
500
P% max
0.06
0.06
0.048
0.048

Alloying elements may be added, if necessary, to develop the mechanical properties required from the nuts.
Nuts of property classes 05 8 style 1 above M 16 and 10 12 shall be hardened and tempered.

S% max
0.15
0.15
0.058
0.058

187

188

Part two

Mechanical properties at room temperature


property class 04 low nut
diameters mm
stress under hardeness HV
proof load Sp
min max
N/mm2
M4
M4
M7
M7
M10
380
188 302
M10 M16
M16 M39
property class 5 style 1
M4
520
130 302
M4
M7
580
130 302
M7
M10
590
130 302
M10 M16
610
130 302
M16 M39
630
146 302
property class 8 style 2
M4
M4
M7
M7
M10
M10 M16
M16 M39
890
180 302

state

NQT

NQT

NQT

Mechanical properties at room temperature


property class 12 style 1
diameters mm
stress under hardeness HV state
proof load Sp
min max
N/mm2
M4
1140
M4
M7
1140
M7
M10
1140
295 353
QT
M10 M16
1170
M16 M39

property class 05 low nut


stress under hardeness HV state
proof load Sp
min max
N/mm2

500

272

353

property class 6 style 1


600
150 302
670
150 302
680
150 302
700
150 302
720
170 302
property class 9 style 2
900
170 302
915
188 302
940
188 302
950
188 302
920
188 302

property class 4 style 1


stress under hardeness HV state
proof load Sp min max
N/mm2

QT

NQT

NQT

property class 12 style 2


stress under
hardeness HV state
proof load Sp
min max
N/mm2
1150
1150
1160
272 353 QT
1190
1200

510
117 302
property class 8 style 1
800
180 302
855
200 302
870
200 302
880
200 302
920
233 353
property class 10 style 1
1040
1040
1040
272 353
1050
1060

NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT
NQT
QT

QT

load Sp

load Sp

NQT = not quenched and tempered


QT = quenched and tempered
EN ISO 898-2 norm hasnt to enforce to nuts with requiriments like: strenght at temperatures greater than + 300C or less than 50C.
Norm has to enforce to nuts:
with nominal diameters until 39 mm
with triangular threades like ISO 68-1
with combinations of diameters and steps like ISO 261 ( with bigstep thread )
with thread tollerances 6H like ISO 965-1 and ISO 965-2
with specified mechanical properties
with key width like ISO 272 or equivalents
with nominal height equal or greater than 0.5D
built in carbon or low alloyed steel

189

Part two
Resistance classes
for connection parts, screwes and studs

Minimum percentage elongation


after failure
A%

Tensile strenght Rm N/mm2 (UNI EN ISO 898-1: 2001)


300
400
500
600

a)

7
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
25
30

700

800

900

1000

1200

6.8

1400

12.9
10.9
9.8 a)

5.8
8.8
4.8

5.6
4.6
3.6

only applicable for nominal thread diameters d < 16 mm Resistance classes are evidenced by the cells.

NOTES Maximum depth of total decarburization


for classes from 8.8 to 12.9 G = 0.015 mm.
a) only applicable for nominal thread diameters d 16 mm
the application field is determined by point 1 of
UNI EN ISO 898-1: 2001
Tensile strenght
Rm
N/mm2 min
Yield strenght
Re
N/mm2 min
0,2% yield strenght
Rp 0.2 N/mm2 min
Ultimate elongation
A
%
min
Reduction of area
Z
%
min
Impact strenght
KU
J
min
Hardness Brinell
HB
min
Hardness Brinell
HB
max

3.6

4.6

330 400
190 240
25

22

90 114
209 209

Resistance class (physical properties at room temperature)


4.8 5.6 5.8 6.8
8.8
9.8 a) 10.9 12.9
d < 16 d > 16
mm
mm
420 500
340 300

520
420

600
480

20
25
124 147
209 209

152
209

181
238

800

830

900

1040 1220

640
12
52
30
238
304

660
12
52
30
242
318

720
10
48
25
276
342

940
9
48
20
304
361

1100
8
44
15
366
414

When connection parts are used at temperatures different by the rooms one, user must be assure that mechanical and physical properties are
adequate for the specific condicions of service.
test load
For 8.8 class Lucefin Group advises the following steels
C45E
quench. and temp. < 24 mm
41Cr4
quench. and temp > 24 e < 50 mm
42CrMo4
quench. and temp > 50 e < 100 mm
39NiCrMo3 quench. and temp > 100 mm
High temperature yield strenght Rp 0.2 N/mm2
class
Temperature C
load
+ 20
+ 100
+ 200
+ 250 + 300
5.6
300
270
230
215
195
8.8
640
590
540
510
480
load
10.9
940
875
790
745
705
Decarburization on the thread screw
12.9
1100
1020
925
875
825
G total decarburization
Values must be used only like a reference. For example 100h at 1 partial decarburization
300C can provocate a 25% permanent reduction of initial tor- 2 base metal
3
qual load of screw, with related yield strength decrease.
E not decarburized area
E
H1 thread depth
3 middle diameter

normal
shank
screw

G
2

H1

190

Part two
Resistance class
for connection parts, screwes and studs (rev. 1 / 15-09-2008)

Resistance class symbol ( ex. 8.8 ) is composed by two numbers, the first represents tensile strength divided by 100
ex. 800 N/mmq : 100 = 8.
The second represents ratio between yield and tensile strength multiplied for 10
ex. 640 N/mmq : 800 N/mmq = 0.8 x 10 = 8
Resistance
class

Material and heat treatment

min
3.6 b)
4.6 b)
4.8 b)
5.6
5.8 b)
6.8 b)
8.8 c)
9.8
10.9 e)
10.9 e)

12.9 e)

Carbon steel

0.13

Carbon steel with (B, Mn, Cr) quenched and tempered


Carbon steel quenched and tempered
Carbon steel with (B, Mn, Cr) quenched and tempered
Carbon steel quenched and tempered
Carbon steel with (B, Mn, Cr) quenched and tempered
Carbon steel quenched and tempered
Carbon steel with (B, Mn, Cr) quenched and tempered
Alloyed steel quenched and tempered
Alloyed steel quenched and tempered

0.15 d)
0.25
0.15 d)
0.25
0.15 d)
0.25
0.20 d)
0.20
0.28

Chemical composition
(UNI EN ISO 898-1: 2001)
C%
P%
S%
max
max
max
0.20
0.05
0.06
0.55
0.05
0.06
0.55
0.05
0.06
0.55
0.05
0.06
0.55
0.05
0.06
0.55
0.05
0.06
0.40
0.035 0.035
0.55
0.035 0.035
0.35
0.035 0.035
0.55
0.035 0.035
0.35
0.035 0.035
0.55
0.035 0.035
0.55
0.035 0.035
0.55
0.035 0.035
0.50
0.035 0.035

Tempering
temperature
B% a)
max
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003

C min.

425
425
425
425
340
425
425
425
380

a) Boron

content can achieve 0,005% provided that not effective boron is controlled by the addiction of titanium or aluminium.
steel is accepted for these resistance classes with following max values S% 0.34, P% 0.11, Pb% 0.35
c) for > 20 mm, can be necessary to use 10.9 class steels to obtain an adequate hardenability.
d) Boron steel with C% < 0.25 has to get a Mn content greater than 0,6% for 8.8 resistance class and than 0.7% for 9.8, 10.9,
10.9 resistance classes
e) Materials of these classes have to get an adequate hardenability to obtain in the screw thread a core structure with about 90%
of martensite in the conditions of only hardened before tempering.
b) Free-cutting

Resistance
class
3.6
4.6
4.8
5.6
5.8

6.8
8.8
see prec. page
10.9
12.9

Bolts and screws


obtained from:
machining
machining
machining
cold forming
machining
machining
machining
cold forming
cold forming
machining
cold forming
machining
machining
machining
machining
machining
machining

thread
mm
39
39
39
39
15
39
39
39
15
39
13
39
32
39
28
30
28

Examples of materials proposed by Lucefin Group


Steel
S235JR
S355JR A 105
11SMn30 11SMnPb30 11SMn37 11SMnPb37 11SMnPb37BiTe
CB4 FF C10E CB 20 FF
CB 4 FF
C15E
35SPb20
CB 20 FF C20 C22E
C10E C15E
36SMnPb14 46S20 46SPb20
C10E C20
C35E C35Pb C40E C45E C45Pb 36SMnPb14
41Cr4 34CrMo4 42CrMo4
34CrMo4 42CrMo4 39NiCrMo3
41Cr4 34CrMo4 42CrMo4
42CrMo4 39NiCrMo3
42CrMo4 39NiCrMo3

For 8.8 and 12.9 resistance classes is necessary quenching and tempering heat treatment.
Steel grade showed are those usually used by previous agreements between producer and consumer.

Part three

Technical tables

192

Part three Technical tables

Hot-rolled-rounds
UNI EN 10060: 2004
round

L
a = machining allowance
b, l = dimensions after machining
B, L = raw material

Allowances hereunder indicated are valid for lengths under 1000 mm, for longer lengths you also need to consider the straightness deviation
according to norms.

Lucefin Group Machining allowance min. advised for rounds


(b) mm after
< 10
> 10 30 > 30 40 > 40 60
machining
allowance
(2 a)
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
(b) mm after > 150 <220 > 220 250 >250 280 >280 300
machining
allowance
(2 a)
10.0
13.0
18.0
20.0

> 60 80

> 80 100 > 100 140 > 140 150

4.0
>300 320

5.0
>320 360

22.0

24.0

6.0

7.0

Example: for a 75 mm finished round, you have to order 79 mm. If this size is not in the normal range of production, you will have to order a
raw material of 80 mm.
Dimensional tolerances UNI EN 10060: 2004
Diameters
Limit deviation
Limit deviation
mm
normal mm
precision mm
10-12
0.4
0.15
13-15
0.4
0.20
16-22
0.5
0.20
24-25
0.5
0.25
26-30
0.6
0.25
32-35
0.6
0.30
36-40
0.8
0.30
42-50
0.8
0.40
52
1
0.40
55-75
1
0.50
80
1
85-100
1.3
105-120
1.5
125-160
2
not applicable
165-200
2.5
220
3
250
4
> 250
6
The deviation for roundness shall not exceed 75%
of the tolerance range.

Straightness UNI EN 10060: 2004

q
L

Nominal diameter mm
< 25
> 25 80
> 80 250

Tolerance
not fixed
q 0.40% of L
q 0.25% of L

For bars assigned to peeling, Lucefin Group requires a maximum


deviation from straightness of 2 uniformly along the total length.

a = machining allowance

square

b, h,
l l = dimensions after machining

flat

B, H, L = raw material

>10 25
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
6.0
7.0
8.5
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
8.5
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0

Lucefin Group
>25 35 >35 60

4.5
5.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
6.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5

7.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5

8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5

10.0
10.0
10.5
10.5
11.0
11.0
11.5

10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0

min. allowance mm ( 2 a ) as a function of thickness h


>60 80
>80 100 >100 130 >130 150 >150 180 >180 200

11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

>200 220

Example: for a 110 70 mm finished flat, you have to order 116 76 mm. If this size is not in the normal range of production, you will have to order a raw material of 120 80 mm.

(2 a)
(b) mm after
raw material machining 10
2.0
 20 2.0
2.5 > 20  25 2.5
3.0 > 25  35 3.0
3.5 > 35  60 3.0
4.5 > 60  80 3.5
5.0 > 80  100 4.0
6.0 > 100  130 4.5
8.0 > 130  150 5.0
9.0 > 150  180
10.0 > 180  200
12.0 > 200  220
14.0 > 220  250
15.0 > 250  300
16.0 > 300  350
18.0 > 350  400
20.0 > 400  450
22.0 > 450  500
24.0 > 500  550
26.0 > 550  600
28.0 > 600  700
30.0 > 700  805

Allowances hereunder indicated are valid for lengths under 1000 mm, for longer lengths you also need to consider the straightness deviation according to norms.

Sizes that are not considered here have to be


agreed upon in the purchase order

Hot-rolled-squares and flats


UNI EN 10059: 2004 (squares) and UNI EN 10058: 2004 (flats)

12.0
12.0
12.0

>220 250

Part three Technical tables


193

25 no fixed
> 25 80
> 80

Dimensional tolerances are


in compliance with
UNI EN 10059 / 10058
Hot-rolled

Hot-rolled flat bar


Dimensional tolerances UNI EN 10058: 2004
Nominal width (b) mm
Limit deviation mm a)
> 10 40
0.75
> 40 80
1.0
> 80 100
1.5
> 100 120
2.0
> 120 150
2.5
Nominal thickness (a) mm
Limit deviation mm a)
20
0.5
> 20 40
1.0
> 40 80
1.5

4/m with a max of 24


3/m with a max of 18
3/m with a max of 15

q 0.40% of L
q 0.25% of L

straightness square bar

1.50
2.25
3.00
4.50

square

q
LL

r = corner radius
size square bar radius
> 8 12 1.0
> 12 20 1.5
> 20 30 2.0
> 30 50 2.5
> 50 100 3.0
> 100 150 4.0
u

flat

Nominal cross-section
< 1000 mm2
1000 mm2

Tolerance
0.5
1.0
1.5

Tolerance in the plane (b)


q 0.40% of L
q 0.25% of L

straightness flat bar

Nominal thickness
> 10 25
> 25 40
> 40 80

out-of-section u flat bar

When ordering, the total ranges for the permissible deviation may, by agreement, be entirely on the plus side

out-of-squareness u square bar

50
> 50 75
> 75 100
> 100 150

> 8 < 14
> 14 50
> 50

twist square bar

a)

Hot-rolled square bar


Dimensional tolerances UNI EN 10059: 2004
Nominal size
Limit deviation a)
mm
mm
8-14
0.4
15-25
0.5
26-35
0.6
40-50
0.8
55-90
1.0
100
1.3
110-120
1.5
130-150
1.8

194
Part three Technical tables

Part three Technical tables

195

Hot-rolled-hexagon
UNI EN 10061: 2004
a
b

(width)
a

a = machining allowance
b, l = dimensions after machining
B, L = raw material

Allowances hereunder indicated are valid for lengths under 1000 mm, for longer lengths you also need to consider the straightness deviation
according to norms.

Lucefin Group Machining allowance min. advised for hexagon


(b) mm after
> 13 15
> 15 20
> 20 35
machining
allowance
(2 a)
3.0
3.5
4.0

> 35 50

> 50 80

> 80 103

> 103 140

4.5

5.5

6.0

8.0

Example: for a 70 mm finished hexagon, you have to order 75.5 mm. If this size is not in the normal range of production, you will have to order a raw material of 78 mm.

Dimensional tolerances UNI EN 10061: 2004


width
deviation
width
deviation
mm
mm
mm
mm
13-15
0.4
62
1.0
16-19
0.5
67
1.0
20.5
0.5
72
1.0
22.5
0.5
78
1.0
23.5
0.5
83
1.3
25.5
0.6
88
1.3
28.5
0.6
93
1.3
31.5
0.6
98
1.3
33.5
0.6
103
1.5
35.5
0.8
corner radius max
35.5
0.8
width
r
37.5
0.8
mm
mm
39.5
0.8
20.0
1.5
42.5
0.8
> 20.0 28.5
2.0
47.5
0.8
> 28.5 48.0
2.5
52
1.0
> 48.0 83.0
3.0
57
1.0
> 83.0 103.0
3.5

Straightness UNI EN 10061: 2004

q
L

width mm
39.5
> 39.5
83.0
> 83.0
103.0

deviation q
not fixed
q 0.0040 L
q 0.0025 L

196

Part three Technical tables

Permissible variations in thickness and width


for hot-wrought square edge and round edge flat bars. ASTM A 29
Table A 2.3

ASTM A 29 - 05

Thickness mm
Permissible variations in
> 6 12
> 12 25 > 25 50
> 50 75
> 75
Width mm
Permissible variations in Thickness mm
>

25
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.50
0.50
> 25
50
0.18
0.30
0.40
0.80
1.00
1.00
> 50
100
0.20
0.40
0.50
0.80
1.20
1.20
1.50
1.00
> 100
150
0.25
0.40
0.50
0.80
1.20
1.20
2.50
1.50
> 150
200
b)
0.40
0.65
0.80
1.20
1.60
3.00
2.50
b) Flats over 150 to 200 mm in width, are not available as hot-wrought steel bars in thicknesses under 6 mm.
When a square is held against a face and an edge of square edge flat bar, the edge shall not deviate by more than 3 or 5% of the thickness.
Width mm

>5 6

Surface quality classes for hot-rolled bars and rod


Table 1 EN 10221: 1997
Class

Nominal diameter
dN (mm)

The permissible maximum depth of


the superficial discontinuities (mm)

5
25 <

dN
dN

25
150

0.50
0.02 dN

5
12 <
18 <
30 <

dN
dN
dN
dN

12
18
30
150

0.20
0.25
0.30
0.01 dN

5
12 <
30 <

dN
dN
dN

12
30
120

0.17
0.23
0.0075 dN

5
12 <
40 <
60 <

dN
dN
dN
dN

12
40
60
80

0.15
0.20
0.005 dN
0.30

dN

60

This class of surface quality must be better than class D. Other prescriptions and the method of control must be agreed to you between the
parties.

Part three Technical tables

197

Dimensions and tolerances of bright steel bars


EN 10278: 2002
FLATS
width
mm
18
30
50
80
100
150
200
300
400

> 18
> 30
> 50
> 80
> 100
> 150
> 200
> 300
thickness
mm
>3
>6
> 10
> 18
> 30
> 50
> 60
> 80

6
10
18
30
50
60
80
100

Carbon max 0.20%


free-cutting steels low C%
limit deviation
mm
+0
0.11
+0
0.13
+0
0.16
+0
0.19
+0
0.22
+ 0.50
0.50
+ 1.00
1.00
+ 2.00
2.00
+ 2.50
2.50
limit deviation
mm
0.075
0.090
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.30
0.35

FLATS Straightness tolerances


width
mm
< 120
120
w / t < 10
120
w / t 10

Steels
C% < 0.25
C% 0.25
quenched and tempered
mm/m
mm/m
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0

SQUARES and HEXAGONS Straightness tolerances


C% < 0.25
C% 0.25
dimensions
mm/m
mm/m
 75
1.0
2.0
> 75
1.5
2.5
ROUNDS Straightness tolerances
C% < 0.25
mm/m
all
1.0
dimensions

C% 0.25
mm/m
1.5

stainless
max deviation
bearings, tools for width w
mm/m
and thickness t
1.5
w
2.0
t
2.0
w
2.5
t
2.5
w
3.0
t

stainless
mm/m
1.0
1.5

stainless
mm/m
1.0

Carbon > 0.20%


and all other steels
limit deviation
mm
+0
0.22
+0
0.26
+0
0.32
+0
0.38
+0
0.44
+ 1.00
1.00
+ 2.00
2.00
+ 4.00
4.00
+ 5.00
5.00
limit deviation
mm
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.32
0.38
0.60
0.70
dimensional inspection
shall be carried out as follows
a) round bars: not less than 150 mm
from the end
b) round bars cut to length: > 10 mm
from the end
c) shapes other than round: > 25 mm
from the end
w = width
t = thickness
w/t = ratio

198

Part three Technical tables

Tolerances UNI 6388 ISO 286


Tolerances are expressed in m (= 0.001 mm)
mm
class

10

11

12

13

>1

>3

>6

10

>10

18

>18

30

>30

50

2
0
+2
+4
+6
+2
+8
2
0
+4
+6
+8
+10
+3
+12
2
6
0
+6
+10
+12
+5
+14
20
14
6
0
+7
+14
20
14
0
+12
+25
0
+20
+40
0
+30
+60
+50
0
+100
+70
0
+140

6
4
2
0
+2
2
+4
8
6
2
0
+2
+4
3
+6
12
16
10
4
0
+2
5
+4
34
28
20
14
7
0
45
39
25
12
0
40
20
0
60
30
0
50
100
0
70
140
0

4
0
+3
+6
+9
+2.5
+13
4
0
+6
+9
+12
+16
+4
+20
4
10
0
+8
+13
+16
+6
+20
30
20
10
0
+9
+18
30
20
0
+15
+30
0
+24
+48
0
+37
+75
+60
0
+120
+90
0
+180

9
5
2
+1
+4
2.5
+8
12
8
2
+1
+4
+8
4
+12
16
22
12
4
+1
+4
6
+8
48
38
28
18
9
0
60
50
30
15
0
48
24
0
75
37
0
60
120
0
90
180
0

5
0
+4
+7
+12
+3
+16
5
0
+7
+10
+15
+19
+4.5
+24
5
13
0
+10
+16
+21
+7
+25
40
25
13
0
+11
+22
40
25
0
+18
+36
0
+29
+58
0
+45
+90
+75
0
+150
+110
0
+220

11
6
2
+1
+6
3
+10
14
9
2
+1
+6
+10
4.5
+15
20
28
15
5
+1
+6
7
+10
62
47
35
22
11
0
76
61
36
18
0
58
29
0
90
45
0
75
150
0
110
220
0

6
0
+5
+9
+15
+4
+20
6
0
+8
+12
+18
+23
+5.5
+29
6
16
0
+12
+19
+25
+9
+30
50
32
16
0
+13
+27
50
32
0
+21
+43
0
+35
+70
0
+55
+110
+90
0
+180
+135
0
+270

14
8
3
+1
+7
4
+12
17
11
3
+1
+7
+12
5.5
+18
24
34
18
6
+1
+7
9
+12
77
59
43
27
13
0
93
75
43
21
0
70
35
0
110
55
0
90
180
0
135
270
0

7
0
+5
+11
+17
+4.5
+24
7
0
+9
+15
+21
+28
+6.5
+35
7
20
0
+13
+23
+29
+10
+36
65
40
20
0
+16
+33
65
40
0
+26
+52
0
+42
+84
0
+65
+130
+105
0
+210
+165
0
+330

1
9
4
+2
+8
4.5
+15
20
13
4
+2
+8
+15
6.5
+22
28
41
21
8
+2
+8
10
+15
98
73
53
33
16
0
117
92
52
26
0
84
42
0
130
65
0
105
210
0
165
330
0

9
0
+6
+13
+20
+5.5
+28
9
0
+11
+18
+25
+33
+8
+42
9
25
0
+15
+27
+34
+12
+42
80
50
25
0
+19
+39
80
50
0
+31
+62
0
+50
+100
0
+80
+160
+125
0
+250
+195
0
+390

20
11
5
+2
+9
5.5
+17
25
16
5
+2
+9
+17
8
+26
34
50
25
10
+2
+9
12
+17
119
89
64
39
19
0
142
112
62
31
0
100
50
0
160
80
0
125
250
0
195
390
0

grade
g
h
j
k
m
js
n
g
h
j
k
m
n
js
p
g
f
h
j
k
m
js
n
d
e
f
h
js
k
d
e
h
js
k
h
js
k
h
js
k
js
h
k
js
h
k

Part three Technical tables

199

Out-of-round bar tolerances equal to one half of the tolerance shown


>50

80

>80

120

>120

180

>180

250

>250

315

>315

400

10
0
+6
+15
+24
+6.5
+33
10
0
+12
+21
+30
+39
+9.5
+51
10
30
0
+18
+32
+41
+15
+50
100
60
30
0
+23
+46
100
60
0
+37
+74
0
+60
+120
0
+95
+190
+150
0
+300
+230
0
+460

23
13
7
+2
+11
6.5
+20
29
19
7
+2
+11
+20
9.5
+32
40
60
30
12
+2
+11
15
+20
146
106
76
46
23
0
174
134
74
37
0
120
60
0
190
95
0
150
300
0
230
460
0

12
0
+6
+18
+28
+7.5
+38
12
0
+13
+25
+35
+45
+11
+59
12
36
0
+20
+38
+48
+17
+58
120
72
36
0
+27
+54
120
72
0
+43
+87
0
+70
+140
0
+110
+220
+175
0
+350
+270
0
+540

27
15
9
+3
+13
7.5
+23
34
22
9
+3
+13
+23
11
+37
47
71
35
15
+3
+13
17
+23
174
126
90
54
27
0
207
159
87
43
0
140
70
0
220
110
0
175
350
0
270
540
0

14
0
+7
+21
+33
+9
+45
14
0
+14
+28
+40
+52
+12.5
+68
14
43
0
+22
+43
+55
+20
+67
145
85
43
0
+31
+63
145
85
0
+50
+100
0
+80
+160
0
+125
+250
+200
0
+400
+315
0
+630

32
18
11
+3
+15
9
+27
39
25
11
+3
+15
+27
12.5
+43
54
83
40
18
+3
+15
20
+27
208
148
106
63
31
0
245
185
100
50
0
160
80
0
250
125
0
200
400
0
315
630
0

15
0
+7
+24
+37
+10
+51
15
0
+16
+33
+46
+60
+14.5
+79
15
50
0
+25
+50
+63
+23
+77
170
100
50
0
+36
+72
170
100
0
+57
+115
0
+92
+185
0
+145
+290
+230
0
+460
+360
0
+720

35
20
13
+4
+17
10
+31
44
29
13
+4
+17
+31
14.5
+50
61
96
46
21
+4
+17
23
+31
242
172
122
72
36
0
285
215
115
57
0
185
92
0
290
145
0
230
460
0
360
720
0

17
0
+7
+27
+43
+11.5
+57
17
0
+16
+36
+52
+66
+16
+88
17
56
0
+26
+56
+72
+26
+86
190
110
56
0
+40
+81
190
110
0
+65
+130
0
+105
+210
0
+160
+320
+260
0
+520
+405
0
+810

40
23
16
+4
+20
11.5
+34
49
32
16
+4
+20
+34
16
+56
69
108
52
26
+4
+20
26
+34
271
191
137
81
40
0
320
240
130
65
0
210
105
0
320
160
0
260
520
0
405
810
0

18
0
+7
+29
+46
+12.5
+62
18
0
+18
+40
+57
+73
+18
+98
18
62
0
+29
+61
+78
+28
+94
210
125
62
0
+44
+89
210
125
0
+70
+140
0
+115
+230
0
+180
+360
+285
0
+570
+445
0
+890

43
25
18
+4
+21
12.5
+37
54
36
18
+4
+21
+37
18
+62
75
119
57
28
+4
+21
28
+37
299
214
151
89
44
0
350
265
140
70
0
230
115
0
360
180
0
285
570
0
445
890
0

200

Part three Technical tables

Tolerances for cold-finished bars


ASTM A 108-07 (Table A 1.1)
Steel
bar

inches / millimetres
size

FLAT

SQUARES

inches
> 3/4
> 1-1/2
>3
>4
>6
inches

ROUNDS

mm
3/4
1-1/2
2-1/2
3-1/8
4

19.05
38.10
63.50
79.375
101.60

> 19.05
> 38.10
> 63.50
> 79.375

inches
> 1-1/2
> 2-1/2
>4
>6
>8 9

19.05
38.10
63.50
101.6
127.0
152.4

> 19.05
> 38.10
> 63.50
> 101.6
> 127.0

inches
> 3/4
> 1-1/2
> 2-1/2
> 3-1/8

19.05
38.10
76.20
101.6
152.4

> 19.05
> 38.10
> 76.20
> 101.6
> 152.4
mm

3/4
1-1/2
2-1/2
4
5
6

> 3/4
> 1-1/2
> 2-1/2
>4
>5
HEXAGONS

mm
3/4
1-1/2
3
4
6

mm
1-1/2
2-1/2
4
6
8
9

> 38.10
> 63.50
> 101.6
> 152.4
> 203.2

38.10
63.50
101.6
152.4
203.2
228.6

carbon range
max 0.28% or less
tolerances
inches
mm
0.003
0.076
0.004
0.102
0.005
0.127
0.006
0.152
0.008
0.203
0.013
0.330
inches
mm
0.002
0.051
0.003
0.076
0.004
0.102
0.006
0.152
0.010
0.254
0.014
0.356
inches
mm
0.002
0.051
0.003
0.076
0.004
0.102
0.005
0.127
0.005
0.127
inches
mm
0.002
0.051
0.003
0.076
0.004
0.102
0.005
0.127
0.006
0.152
0.007
0.178

carbon range
over 0.28% to 0.55% incl.
tolerances
inches
mm
0.004
0.102
0.005
0.127
0.006
0.152
0.008
0.203
0.010
0.254
0.015
0.381
inches
mm
0.004
0.102
0.005
0.127
0.006
0.152
0.008
0.203

inches
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.006
inches
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008

mm
0.076
0.102
0.127
0.152
0.152
mm
0.076
0.102
0.127
0.152
0.178
0.203

While size tolerances are usually specified as minus, tolerances may be ordered all plus, or distributed plus and minus, with the sum being
equivalent to the tolerances listed (e.g.: +0.10 or 0.05 mm).

2
max 0.3 mm for d  15 mm
max 0.02 x d for 15  d < 75 mm
max 1.5 mm for d > 75 mm

max 0.3 mm for d  15 mm


max 0.02 x d for 15 < d  100 mm

Class
1

Maximum percentage
of delivered weight in excess
4%
1%
of specified level
Product form
Rounds
+
+
Squares
+
+ (for d < 20 mm)
Hexagons
+
+ (for d < 50 mm)
Flats
+ 1)

NOTE d = nominal diameter of bar and distance across flats of squares and hexagons.
+ indicates available in these classes, indicates not available in these classes.
1) Maximum depth of defect refers to respective section (width or thickness).

Permissible defect depth

Condition

Surface quality classes for bright steel products


Table 1 EN 10277-1: 2008

0.20%

technically crack free


by manufacture

1%

max 0.2 mm for d  20 mm


max 0.01 x d for 20  d  75 mm
max 0.75 mm for d > 75 mm

Part three Technical tables


201

1
2
3
4 (b)

Carbon and alloy


Non-resulphurized
6.35 to 15.88
15.88 to 152.40
maximum depth
maximum depth
mm
%
0.20
1.6%
0.15
1.0%
0.15
0.75%
nil
nil

Carbon and alloy


Resulphurized (sulphur 0.08 - 0.19%)
6.35 to 15.88
15.88 to 152.40
maximum depth
maximum depth
mm
%
0.25
2.0%
0.20
1.3%
0.15
1.0%
nil
nil

Maximum allowable surface discontinuity depth


Carbon and alloy
Resulphurized (sulphur 0.20 - 0.35%)
6.35 to 15.88
15.88 to 152.40
maximum depth
maximum depth
mm
%
0.30
2.4%
0.25
1.6%
0.20
1.3%
nil
nil

mm
less than 4572
4572 and over
less than 4572
4572 and over

mm
less than15.88
less than 15.88
15.88 and over
15.88 and over

Straightness tolerances (mm maximum deviation) from straightness in any 3048 mm portion of the bar
Maximum of carbon range 0.28%
Maximum of carbon range over 0.28%
or less
and all grades thermally treated
rounds
squares, hexagons
rounds
squares, hexagons
3.17
4.76
4.76
6.35
3.17
7.94
7.94
9.53
1.59
3.17
3.17
4.76
3.17
4.76
4.76
6.35

All grades quenched and tempered or normalized and tempered to HB 302 max before cold finishing; and all grades stress relieved or annealed after cold finishing. Straightness tolerances are not
applicable to bars having HB hardness exceeding 302.
(a) The foregoing tolerances are based on the following method of measuring straightness: Departure from straightness is measured by placing the bar on a level table so that the arc or departure
from straightness is horizontal, and the depth of the arc is measured with a feeler gauge and a straightedge.
(b) It should be recognised that straightness is a perishable quality and be altered by mishandling. The preservation of straightness in cold-finished bars requires the utmost care in subsequent handing. Specific straightness tolerances are sometimes required for carbon and alloy steels in which case the purchaser should inform the manufacturer of straightness tolerances and the methods to be
used in checking the straightness.

Length

Size

Straightness tolerances for cold-finished steel bars (a, b)


Table A 1.4 ASTM A 108 - 07

information in the chart is the expected maximum surface discontinuity depth within the limits of good manufacturing practice. Occasional bars in a shipment may have surface discontinuity
that exceeds these limits. For critical applications, the purchaser may require the cold-finish steel bar supplier to eddy current test the bars prior to shipment.
(b) Level 4 requires metal removal by turning, peeling or multiple grinding passes for small bars.

(a) The

Level
Level
Level
Level

size mm

Product
tolerance level

Surface discontinuity tolerances for cold-finished steel bars (a)


Table A 1.8 ASTM A 108 - 07

202
Part three Technical tables

square
quadro

a
B

flat
piatto

Table A

bar

a = machining allowance
b, h, l = dimensions after machining
B, H, L = raw material

For products with lengths > 6000 mm, the tolerances and allowances are to be agreed in the purchase order
carbon steels and high alloyed steels L 3500 max carbon steels and high alloyed steels L 3500 6000
high alloyed steels L 3500 max
(% of every alloy element < 5)
(% of every alloy element < 5)
(% of every alloy element 5)
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase deviation
b or h (2 a)
B or H
l (2 a)
L
b or h (2 a) B or H
l (2 a)
L
b or h (2 a)
B or H
l (2 a)
L
> 100
125
14
3.8
17
+ 17 / 10
17
4.8
22
+ 21 / 13
10
2.0
16 + 14 / 11
> 125
160
16
4.2
19
+ 18 / 11
19
5.4
24
+ 22 / 14
12
2.3
18 + 14 / 11
> 160
200
18
4.9
22
+ 20 / 13
21
6.3
26
+ 22 / 15
14
2.8
20 + 14 / 14
> 200
250
21
5.6
24
+ 22 / 14
24
7.2
29
+ 26 / 17
17
3.4
23 + 16 / 16
> 250
315
25
6.5
28
+ 26 / 15
28
8.4
32
+ 29 / 19
21
4.2
26 + 18 / 18
> 315
400
30
7.7
32
+ 28 / 18
33
10.0
36
+ 33 / 22
26
5.1
30 + 21 / 21
> 400
500
36
9.2
38
+ 33 / 22
40
11.9
42
+ 38 / 25
32
6.3
36 + 25 / 25
> 500
630
44
11.0
45
+ 39 / 25
48
14.3
49
+ 46 / 29
39
7.8
42 + 29 / 29
> 630
800
54
13.5
55
+ 45 / 30
58
17.4
58
+ 51 / 34
49
9.8
52 + 35 / 35
> 800
1000
66
16.3
67
+ 55 / 36
71
21.3
69
+ 61 / 41
61
12.1
63 + 42 / 42
Measures are expressed in mm.
Example: unalloyed steel rounds b = 330 mm and l 3500 mm. Diameter of turned raw material B = 330 + 30 = 360 7.7 mm.
In the case of rounds only, ovalization must not be higher than the tolerance corresponding to diameter B.
Tolerances and allowances for flats are valid when the following ratios apply: b : h 8 quality special, alloyed and unalloyed steels; b : h 5 base unalloyed steels.
Lucefin Group has fixed the tolerance of rough products on b or h to +1 mm / +3 mm.

dimensions b or h
after machining
mm

round
tondo

Tolerances and machining allowances hot-forged products


UNI 7486: 1975

Part three Technical tables


203

For products with lengths > 6000 mm, the tolerances and allowances are to be agreed in the purchase order
high alloyed steels L 3500 6000
tool steels L 3500 max
tool steels L 3500 - 6000
(% of every alloy element 5)
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase
deviation
increase deviation
b or h (2 a)
B or H
l (2 a)
L
b or h (2 a)
B or H
l (2 a)
L
b or h (2 a) B or H
l (2 a)
L
> 100
125
13
4.0
21
+ 18 / 12
7
1.5
14
+ 14 / 11
10
2.1
17 + 14 / 10
> 125
160
15
4.6
22
+ 20 / 13
9
1.8
15
+ 14 / 11
12
2.5
19 + 15 / 12
> 160
200
18
5.2
25
+ 22 / 14
11
2.2
17
+ 14 / 14
14
2.9
21 + 16 / 14
> 200
250
21
6.0
27
+ 24 / 16
13
2.6
20
+ 16 / 16
17
3.5
23 + 17 / 17
> 250
315
24
7.0
30
+ 27 / 18
16
3.2
23
+ 18 / 18
21
4.2
26 + 19 / 19
> 315
400
29
8.4
35
+ 31 / 20
19
4.0
27
+ 21 / 21
26
5.0
30 + 22 / 22
> 400
500
35
10.0
40
+ 35 / 24
24
4.9
32
+ 25 / 25
32
6.2
35 + 26 / 26
> 500
630
42
12.0
47
+ 42 / 28
30
6.0
38
+ 29 / 29
39
7.5
41 + 31 / 31
> 630
800
52
14.9
55
+ 49 / 33
37
7.4
47
+ 35 / 35
49
9.4
49 + 36 / 36
> 800
1000
64
18.1
66
+ 59 / 40
46
9.3
57
+ 42 / 42
61
11.6
59 + 44 / 44
Measures are expressed in mm.
Example: unalloyed steel rounds b = 260 mm and l 4000 mm. Diameter of turned raw material B = 260 + 21 = 281 4.2 mm.
In the case of rounds only, ovalization must not be higher than the tolerance corresponding to diameter B.
Tolerances and allowances for flats are valid when the following ratios apply: b : h 8 quality special, alloyed and unalloyed steels; b : h 5 base unalloyed steels.
Lucefin Group has fixed the tolerance of rough products on b or h to +1 mm / +3 mm.

dimensions b o h
after machining
mm

Table B

204
Part three Technical tables

Part three Technical tables

205

List of chemical elements


SEMIMETALS

METALS
Aluminium
Zinc
Gallium
Yttrium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum
Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Indium
Tin
Barium
Lanthanide
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Mercury
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Radium
Actinide
Rutherfordium
Dubnium
Seaborgium
Bohrium
Hassium
Meitnerium
Ununnilium
Unununium
Ununbium
Ununquadiun

13
30
31
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
56
57-71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
88
89-103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
114

Al
Zn
Ga
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Ba
La-Lu
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pl
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb
Bi
Ra
Ac-Lr
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Uun
Uuu
Uub
Uuq

Alkali metals
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Caesium
Francium

3
11
19
37
55
87

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr

Metalloids

Alkaline earth metals


Beryllium
Magnesium
Calcium
Strontium

4
12
20
38

Be
Mg
Ca
Sr

Transition metals
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Copper

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu

Lanthanides
Lanthanum
Cerium
Praseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu

Actinides
Actinium
Thorium
Protactinium
Uranium
Neptunium
Plutonium
Americium
Curium
Berkelium
Californium
Einsteinium
Fermium
Mendelevium
Nobelium
Lawrencium

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103

Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr

Boron
Silicon
Germanium
Arsenic
Antimony
Tellurium

5
14
32
33
51
52

B
Si
Ge
As
Sb
Te

NON METALS
Chalcogens
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Selenium
Polonium

6
7
8
15
16
34
84

C
N
O
P
S
Se
Po

Halogens
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Astatine

9
17
35
53
85

F
Cl
Br
I
At

Noble gases
Hydrogen
Helium
Neon
Argon
Krypton
Xenon
Radon

1
2
10
18
36
54
86

Element name (Aluminium)


Atomic number (13)
Symbol (Al)

H
He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn

206

Part three Technical tables

Material density
D kg/dm3
7.70 8.70
2.10 2.80
9.30 10.6
6.70
8.40 8.90
5.70
1.10 1.50
1.84
8.10 8.25
9.82
3.70 4.60
2.50 3.00
7.40
8.90
8.80
11.24
1.84 - 1.87
1.58
6.8 - 7.8
8.40 8.70
8.63 8.80
1.80 2.70
6.60
0.90
2.00 2.20
1.20 1.50
0.80 0.95
8.71
19.50
0.30 0.48
19.36
8.60
3.55
0.30 0.50
2.70 2.75
5.25
1.80 2.30
6.60 7.80
7.00 7.25
7.85
4.95
2.20
8.80 9.50
2.56 2.80
1.76 1.87
1.20 1.50
1.60 1.75
5.10
7.14 7.51
2.56 2.64
19.25
21.15
13.59
8.05
8.36 8.84
19.33

MATERIAL
D kg/dm3
Nickel
8.60
Nickel silver
8.40 8.90
Niobium
8.40
Ordinary steel
7.85
Plaster casting dry
0.97
Plaster of Paris
1.81
Polonium
9.40
Potassium
0.87
Pure iron
7.88
Quartz
2.50
Red hematite
4.90
Red phosphor
2.19
Rolled brass
8.45 8.75
Rolled lead
11.40
Selenium
4.79
Silica
1.80 2.00
Silver
10.50
Sodium
0.98
Sodium chloride
2.16
Steel casting
7.80
Sulphur
1.96 2.07
Talcum
2.60 2.80
Tin
7.28
Titanium
4.5
Tungsten (Wolfram)
19.10
Vanadium
5.70
White cast iron
7.00 7.80
White metal
7.10
Wirebar copper
8.82 8.95
Yellow phosphor
1.83
Zinc
7.10
Steels and Superalloys
Carbon steel and alloy
7.85
Hastelloy B-2 / B-3
9.22
Hastelloy C-22
8.69
Hastelloy G-30
8.22
Incoloy 800
8.10
Inconel 600
8.51
Stainless steel 304
7.93
Stainless steel 316
7.98
Stainless steel 321
8.02
Stainless steel 400
7.73
Steel with appr. 12% Cr
7.60
Steel with appr. 3% W
8.00
Steel with appr. 6% W
8.20
Steel with appr. 12% W
8.40
Steel with appr. 18% W
8.70
Various
Asbestos cement
1.80 2.20
Baked lime
0.50
Bathed gravel
1.70
Calcareous tufa
1.20 1.90
Charcoal
0.15
Celluloid
1.40
Cement
1.40
Compact limestone
2.40 2.70

MATERIAL
Concrete
Dry gravel
Fibreglass
Gas oil
Gasoline
Glass
Granite
Hard coal
Ice
Ivory
Paper
Peat
Rubber
Sandstone
Tar
Water
Wax
Noble gases
Argon
Chlorine
Fluorine
Helium
Hydrogen
Krypton
Neon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Radon
Xenon
Synthetic
Americium
Berkelium
Bohrium
Californium
Curium
Dubnium
Einsteinium
Fermium
Hassium
Lawrencium
Meitnerium
Mendelevium
Neptunium
Nobelium
Plutonium
Promethium
Ununbium
Ununnilium
Unununium
Ununquadiun
Rutherfordium
Seaborgium
Technetium

D kg/dm3
2.00 2.50
1.50
0.20 1.20
0.80 0.85
0.70 0.75
2.40 2.70
2.70
0.22
0.90
1.83 1.92
0.70 1.15
0.64
1.70 2.20
2.30
1.20
1.00
0.95
1.784
3.212
1.696
0.179
0.08988
3.749
0.9
1.25
1.429
9.72
5.897

relative atomic mass

MATERIAL
Aluminium bronze
Amianthus
Antifriction metal
Antimony
Argentane
Arsenic
Asphalt
Beryllium
Beryllium copper
Bismuth
Black oxide of manganese
Blast furnace slag
Bronze (7.9%)
Bronze (14%)
Bronze phosphorous
Cadmium
Caesium
Calcium
Cast iron
Casting brass
Casting copper
Chalk
Chromium
Cinder
Clay
Coal - mass
Coal - small pieces
Cobalt
Coin gold
Coke - small pieces
Cold - drawn gold
Delta metal
Diamond
Expanded clay
Extruded aluminium
Ferric oxide
Graphite
Gray iron
Gray pig iron
Homogeneous iron
Iodine
Kaolin
Lead bronze
Light alloy based on Al
Light alloy based on Mg
Lignite (brown coal)
Magnesium
Magnetite (loadstone)
Manganese
Melted aluminium
Melted gold
Melted platinum
Mercury
Molybdenum
Monel
Native gold

243
247
264
251
247
262
252
257
277
103
268
258
237
259
244
145
285
281
272
289
261
266
98

kg = D  V
D = density V = volume of the piece

Part three Technical tables

Notes on heat treatments


Ac1

Temperature at which austenite starts to form, during heating.

Ac3

Temperature at which the transformation of ferrite into austenite stops, during heating.

Ms

Temperature at which the transformation of austenite into martensite starts, during cooling.

Mf

Temperature at which the transformation of austenite in martensite is complete, martensite finish.

Austenitisation Operation during which the material is heated to a temperature at which the structure becomes
austenitic.
Annealing The main requirement of this heat treatment is to achieve a lowering of the hardness of hot-deformed,
rolled and cold-drawn materials.
Annealing is introduced in some cases to eliminate stresses or non-homogeneous structures.
Bright annealing An annealing process that is carried out in a controlled atmosphere furnace (e.g. nitrogen) or in
order that oxidation is minimised and the surface remains relatively bright.
Brittleness This occurs in some hardened and tempered steels after a period of time held at a temperature of
450-525 C, or during slow cooling within this range of temperatures. Causes loss of toughness.
Carbonitriding Heat and chemical treatment to obtain a higher carbon and nitrogen content on the surface. Both
these elements increase hardness.
Case-hardening Heat and chemical treatment to obtain a higher carbon content on the surface. Carbon increases
hardness and counteracts wear.
Case-hardening depth This is the distance between the surface and the layer at which the Vickers hardness, measured under a load of 9.81 N, is HV1 = 550.
Chromium plating Electroplating treatment to form a film of extremely hard chromium on ground bars. This treatment provides abrasion and corrosion resistance, and a lower friction coefficient between moving parts; especially with
rubber gaskets.
Chromizing Heat and chemical treatment to obtain a higher content of chromium on the surface.
Continuous patenting When the heating and cooling operations are carried out continuously.
Cooling Process for cooling a product by removing heat: nature and temperature of medium-environment, relative
movements, etc.
Cooling capacity Ability of a medium (air, oil, polymer, water, salt bath) to carry out a particular cooling programme.
Core quenching Hardening process carried out so that the depth of hardening is not less than the distance between
the core and the surface of the product.
Decarburizing A reduction of carbon in the surface layer of an iron product. The layer thickness may be defined with
reference to a structural state or a level of hardness, or the carbon content in the unaltered base metal.
Deformation Alteration of the initial shape and dimensions of a product, during heat treatment.
Diffusion Operation to spread the elements previously introduced on the surface toward the core of the base metal.
Endothermic atmosphere Furnace atmosphere with an adjustable carbon potential.
Exothermic atmosphere Furnace atmosphere produced exothermically and controlled so that it does not oxidize
the material.

207

208

Part three Technical tables


Full annealing Heating at a temperature of 20-50 C above
the critical range Ac3 for hypoeutectoid steels, Ac1 for hypereutectoid steels, pause at this temperature for a suitable time,
2-3 minutes each mm of thickness of the part to be treated.
Very slow cooling in the temperature field inside the critical
range Ac3-Ac1. Final cooling at ambient temperature with
higher or lower velocity (5-30 C/h) depending on the CCT
curves.

C
Ac3
Ac1

Gaseous case-hardening Case-hardening treatment in a


gaseous medium-environment.

Ms

Grain enlargement Phenomenon normally caused by high


temperatures, much higher than Ac3.

Mf

F+A

F+C

Hardenability Aptitude of the steel towards martensitic


and/or bainitic transformation. In simple terms, it is the ability
to acquire hardness.

tempo/time

Hardening depth This is the distance between the surface and the layer at which the Vickers hardness, measured
under a load of 9.81 N, is equal to 80% of the maximum hardness requested on the surface.
Heat and chemical treatment Process performed in a suitably selected medium-environment to change the chemical composition of the base material.
Heat cycle Change of temperature over time.
Heating Increasing the temperature of a product with a pre-set thermal gradient.
Heat treatment Series of heat operations in order to change the properties and/or the structure of a ferrous material.
Homogenization annealing This is carried out at high temperatures of 1100-1200 C with the aim of reducing, by
means of diffusion, the segregation of the chemical compositions and thus making them more uniform. Risks: burning
and grain coarsening.
Hydrogen annealing The hydrogen dissolved in the molten steel may give rise to internal cracks, so-called flakes, into
steel after it has cooled following hot working. By subjecting the products obtained from ingots to an annealing treatment at 600-680 C for several days, followed by slow cooling, the hydrogen content can be reduced and the danger of
flake formation removed. The heat treatment is performed for carbon or alloy steels with hydrogen (H2) greater than 2
ppm. Tool steels are less sensitive to flakes to the extent that even 4-5 ppm of hydrogen does not create problems.
Immersion patenting When the material remains wound in bundles or rolls during the heat treatment. The most
common cooling mediums are air, lead bath, salt bath and fluid bed.
Ionic nitriding Bombardment of ions. The luminescent discharge occurs in a gaseous mixture, under less than atmospheric
pressure, in which the ferrous product constitutes the cathode.

thermal jump in
controlled atmosphere
(ex. nitrogen)

A=
B=
C=
M=
P=
C=

Ac3
Ac1

Isothermal annealing This is carried out at 20-30 C above


Ac3 for hypoeutectoid steel or Ac1 for hypereutectoid steel. This
heat treatment enables regeneration of the structure and complete elimination of any work hardening. Heating 50 C/hour,
holding at maximum temperature for one hour per inch of thickness. The furnaces must be provided with forced air circulation
and the cooling to under Ac1 must be fast until the temperatures
indicated on the technical data sheets are reached. Holding until
the complete transformation of austenite (see TTT curves), for 2
hours min. then unloading into air.

F+A

F+C

Ms

Mf
M

F+P

time

Instable Austenite
Bainite
Ferrite
Martesite
Pearlite
Cementite

Part three Technical tables


Isotropy Material in which the physical properties (e.g. mechanical characteristics) are identical in all directions.
Liquid case-hardening Case-hardening treatment in salt bath.
Nitriding Heat and chemical treatment to obtain higher nitrogen content on the surface. Nitrogen increases hardness and contrasts mechanical wear.
Nitrocarburizing Heat and chemical treatment to obtain higher nitrogen and carbon content at the surface. Both
these elements form a combination layer.
Normalization This is carried out at a temperature just higher than Ac3 (+50 C +70 C) followed by cooling in
calm air. The main aim is to homogenize the structure and to reduce the size of the grain enlarged by previous hot
transformation operations. This treatment is not recommended for tool steels and self-hardening steels.
Oxidation Precipitation, to a greater or lesser depth, towards the core of the product, of the oxides formed from the
oxygen on the surface.
Patenting Austenitization heat treatment followed by cooling to enable subsequent drawing or rolling.
Polymer Synthetic fluid consisting of water and organic products with a high molecular weight (polymers). The
quenching rate, with a 35% solution, is just greater than that of oil and it enables a greater range of steels to be
treated without risk of failure.
These baths are in the process of replacing tempering oil, which is more pollutant and costly.
Pre-heating This consists of heating the material to and maintaining for a certain period of time one or more intermediate temperatures between the initial temperature and the maximum planned temperature.
PWHT Post-weld heat treatment.
Quenching This is the cooling of a ferrous product faster than in calm air. It is good practice not to use a quenching
medium which is more drastic than necessary as the faster the cooling the greater the stresses induced in the part.
Quenching baths must be stirred to prevent vapour bubble adhering to the material. The most commonly used baths
are: gas mixtures (for sub-zero treatment), water, salt baths, polymers (water with additives), oil, forced or calm air. The
weight of the baths must be at least 10-15 greater than that of the material to be quenched. The temperature of the
bath at the end of quenching must not exceed 49 C.
Quenching and tempering Hardening treatment composed of quenching and tempering to obtain the desired
combination of mechanical properties and good ductility and toughness.
Recrystallization annealing This is recommended for cold-rolled materials and should be carried out at a temperature of Ac1. During the rolling, the structure tends to orient itself towards the direction of the main deformation. The
hardness increases and the capacity of the steel to undergo further machining, such as drawing, are reduced.

cold rolled
and drawn

re-estabilish zone
and start
recrystallization

Ac1

grain regeneration

end recrystallization

Ac3

recrystallization

time

209

210

Part three Technical tables


Soft annealing This is carried out at 30-50 C below Ac1.
This treatment does not modify the structure but adequately softens and eliminates the stresses due to previous
processes. Cooling (about 10 C/hour, usually 5-10 C/minutes for carbon steels and 20-40 C/hour for alloy steels)
may be carried out either in a furnace or in air.
Stress-free annealing This is carried out at a temperature of between 580 C and 650 C, with cooling in a furnace
down to 250-300 C before being discharged into air.
Sub-critical spheroidizing (annealing) This heat treatment is not recommended for hypoeutectoid steels C
0.83% to be machined with chip removal, but it is the only treatment which may make hypereutectoid steels C 0.832.06% machinable. It is carried out at a temperature near to Ac1 (10 C) but they must be held at this temperature
for long periods, 1 hour for every 10 mm of thickness of the bundle of bars or rolled or forged products of the entire
load. It is an excellent heat treatment for material to be used for cold forming and extrusion.

Ac3
Ac1
1 h every 10 mm of thickness

time

Self hardening (process) Cooling by heat conduction towards unheated parts.


Self hardening (adjective) Steel with hardenability such that cooling in air gives a martensitic structure to largesized parts.
Secondary hardening Hardening achieved after one or more tempering treatments which precipitate a compound
or give rise to the formation of martensite or bainite starting from the residual austenite.
Silicisation Heat and chemical treatment in order to increase the silicon content on the surface.
Solubilization (hardening of austenitic steels) This treatment is usually carried out at 1000-1100 C with subsequent
rapid cooling in water or forced air.
Spheroidizing Geometrical change of carbide particles, such as plates of cementite, towards a stable spherical shape.
Stress relieving Treatment to reduce stresses without reducing hardness. It is generally carried out at 50 C below
the last tempering carried out on the parts which are set in operation with high strength. The cooling must be particularly slow, generally in a furnace.
Sulphocarbonitriding Heat and chemical treatment in order to increase the sulphur, carbon and nitrogen content
on the surface.
Tempering This is the heat treatment which a ferrous product undergoes after hardening by quenching, to achieve
the desired mechanical properties. After quenching, the material is highly stressed and these stresses must be eliminated as their force, if it exceeds the failure load, could break the material. This is one of the purposes of tempering.
The second is to lower the strength until a compromise is reached between a good failure load and good toughness
(impact strength).

Part three Technical tables


Useful experience:
Considering 0 to be the strength after 2 hours of tempering, the variations in N/mm2 obtained by increasing and reducing the times maintained at the temperature are shown below.
Duration of tempering h
Variation in strength N/mm2

30
+60

1
+30

2
0

3
30

4
45

5
50

7
60

10
80

Tempering diagram Graphic representation of the tempering treatment, including heating velocity and permanence
time at the established temperature. Diagram showing the relationship between the mechanical characteristics and the
tempering temperature for a specific period of time at that temperature.
Thermal conductivity K K is the thermal conductivity coefficient, typical of a material, indicating the heat transmission ability (in the presence of a thermal gradient between the material faces and without convection or radiation).
[W]
K =
[m] [kelvin]
Time at temperature Time from when the part has reached the pre-set temperature at the core to the next change
in temperature.
A period of hour per inch of thickness is normally used during quenching and 1 hour during tempering. These parameters apply to forged parts in general and thicknesses greater than 50 mm.
Other method for wire rods, bundles and compact coils:
Temperature
575 C
600 C
625 C

K
21
25
28

Temperature
650 C
675 C
700 C

K
31
34
37

Temperature
750 C
775 C
800 C

K
43
46
49

Temperature
825 C
850 C
875 C

K
51
54
57

Temperature
900 C
925 C
950 C

K
60
63
66

Maximum thickness mm/K = hours of active time at temperature


Example: to normalize a 400 mm at 900 C (K = 60)
400/60 = 6.6 h
for wire rods the times reported above are suitable, and the dimension to be considered is the diameter of circumscribed bundle
for compact coils, maximum time increased by 50%
for bundles of compact bars, times increased by 30%
Transformation diagrams Series of time/temperature diagrams which define the initial and final moments of the
transformation of austenite under isothermal conditions for each temperature level.
Wear-resistant coating Deposition of thin layers of very hard compounds which resist wear and corrosion, such as:
CVD
DLC
HIP
PCD
PVD

Chemical Vapour Deposition


Diamond Like Carbon.
Hot Isostatic Pressing (application of heat and pressure to a metal)
Poli Crystalline Diamond (graphite, under pressure and at high temperature, mixed with Co or Ni).
Physical Vapour Deposition

211

212

Part three Technical tables

Influence of alloys
The characteristics listed below are valid for steels included in this volume.

Al Aluminium
Melting point 660 C

C Carbon
Melting point 3727 C

1) Considerable hardening in the solid state


2) Deoxidizes effectively, casting percentage 0.020-0.040% or
> 0.015 for soluble Al
3) Obstructs grain enlargement and this helps to prevent cracks
during grinding
4) It is the alloy in nitriding steel. It forms extremely hard aluminium nitrides with nitrogen
5) Enables regulation of the depth of the nitriding layer
6) Prevents aging of the steel
7) Does not tend to form carbides but tends to increase abrasive
strength
8) Harms the machinability of free-cutting steels
9) An Al / N ratio > 2 is recommended to achieve good deoxidation

1) It is the most important element during hardening and tempering to obtain the desired hardness
2) Mild carbon steel (C < 0.15) or extra mild carbon steel (C<
0.08), without special additives, is too ductile and is too
pasty during cutting which results in poor finishes
3) With a C% greater than 0.15 there is an increase in resistance to shearing stress and wear of the tools due to the increased abrasiveness of structures richer in carbons
4) Graphite form of carbon is a black, odourless, slippery solid.
Graphite sublimes at 3825 C. Diamond is the purest carbon
form an extremely hard solid

As Arsenic
Melting point 817C
1) Has a strong tendency to segregate
2) Worsens the tempering embrittlement
3) Considerably reduces the toughness
Boron B
Melting point 2075 C
1) With contents of 0.003-0.005% it considerably increases
hardening in carbon and low-alloy steels. Higher contents
cause brittleness when hot. If boron is allowed to combine
with oxygen and nitrogen then its effect on hardenability is
lost. Therefore, the steel must be deoxidized prior to the addition of boron and a strong nitride-forming element such as
titanium also has to be added
2) Avoid temperatures of between 200 C and 400 C for boron
steels as the material becomes fragile in this range. If tempering is to be carried out, use temperatures of 180 C or 420 C
3) Harmful for welding, also employed as a deoxidant
4) Increases the transition temperature
Bi Bismuth
Melting point 271 C
1) Used in an alloy with lead (~ 0.1%) it increases the machinability of free-cutting steels by 20-30%
2) May not be identified metallographically since it is linked with
lead even if it is added separately during the production process
3) Hot-rolling is more difficult, because it can cause surface defects

Ca Calcium
Melting point 842 C
1) Even minimum quantities form non-metallic inclusions which
improve machinability and resist abrasion
2) Does not worsen mechanical characteristics and does not
cause problems during heat treatment
3) Alkaline earth metal, which is white/silver in colour and very soft
4) In some cases it is used as a deoxidant
5) Increases toughness (impact strength)
6) Refines the grain and in this way limits hardening depth.
Quenching should preferably be done in water
Co Cobalt
Melting point 1495 C
1) Maintains hardness at high temperatures
2) Prevents overheating of machine tools
Cr Chromium
Melting point 1907 C
1) With a high carbon content, provides good resistance against
wear and abrasion
2) Increases hardening
3) Prevents corrosion, oxidization and decarburizing
4) Helps to maintain mechanical strength at high temperatures
5) Slight tendency towards formation of carbons
6) Increases surface hardness which can be achieved by nitruration
Cu Copper
Melting point 1084 C
1) Increases resistance to atmospheric corrosion
2) Undesirable in steel as it causes hot-shortness when content
exceeds 0.40%
3) Harmful for welding

Part three Technical tables

213

H Hydrogen
Melting point 259 C

Ni Nickel
Melting point 1455 C

1) A very harmful impurity, especially if it exceeds 2 ppm


2) Produces micro-cracks, known as flakes, which can occur
even after long periods of time or after quenching and tempering

1) Increases hardening
2) Useful for increasing impact strength at low temperatures
with a percentage of approximately 2% and excellent affect
on lowering the transition curve
3) Increases strength of annealed and untreated steels

Mn Manganese
Melting point 1246 C
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Helps to increase hardening


Provides impact wear resistance
Prevents brittleness in the presence of sulphur
It is considered an alloy element if it exceeds 1%
Mn/C ratio should be > 3 in order to achieve satisfactory
toughness at low temperatures (e.g. Kv 50C)

Mo Molybdenum
Melting point 2623 C
1) During heating it increases the temperature at which the
austenitic grain starts to increase in size
2) Prevents brittleness due to tempering
3) Increases creep limit
4) Increase depth of hardening, as it reduces the critical cooling
speed
Nitrogen N
Melting point 210 C
1) Increases hardening, ultimate tensile strength and yield point
2) Used in nitruration processes to obtain extremely hard surface layers
3) A content of approximately 0.012% favours chip breakability, thereby improving machinability
4) Recommended max. 90 ppm
5) Generally considered to have harmful effects on toughness
(Kv) at low temperatures
Nb Niobium
Melting point 2477 C
1) Forms very hard abrasive carbons and causes an increase in
the wear of machine tools
2) Used in self-hardening steels
3) Used to make special steels and strong welded joints in order
to prevent corrosion
4) Niobium becomes a superconductor when lowered to cryogenic temperatures
5) Refines the grain and offers excellent drawability
6) Used in stainless steels as it possesses good creep strength at
high temperatures up to 700 C

O Oxygen
Melting point 218.7 C
1) Generally considered an impurity, as it has a negative effect
on mechanical characteristics
2) It is considered that the greater the degree of deoxidisation,
the higher the quality of the steel
3) Recommended max. 30 ppm
4) Oxygen is one of the main constituents of the atmosphere of
which it forms approximately one fifth. It is odourless and invisible. Although oxygen does not burn alone it is extremely
efficient in supporting combustion; nearly all other chemical
elements that combine with it develop heat. It has many uses
in industry and is essential to the BOS (Basic Oxygen
Steelmaking Process)
P Phosphorous
Melting point 44 C
1) Reduces ductility but improves chip-forming machining in
free-cutting steels
2) With a content > 0.20 the impact strength is nil.
3) A maximum content of 0.015% is recommended for galvanizing treatment, or otherwise the formula Si + 2.5P <
0.09%
Pb Lead
Melting point 327.4 C
1) Together with sulphur, it considerably increases the machinability of steels (Pb 0.15-0.35%)
2) Slight tendency to thin the austenitic grain
3) Negatively effects the mechanical characteristics
4) Harmful for welding. If welding has to be carried out, use UTP
63 electrodes or equivalent R 700 N/mm2 and A% 40
S Sulphur
Melting point 115 C
1) Added to steel in various quantities depending on the classes
and the technological needs to improve machinability
2) Undesirable from the point of view of mechanical characteristics because it cause brittleness
3) Considered the simplest, most economic and effective additive to be added to steel to improve the machinability
4) Lowers the melting point of the steel

214

Part three Technical tables

Se Selenium
Melting point 221 C

V Vanadium
Melting point 1910 C

1) 0.20% of this element is more suitable than an equal quantity of sulphur for improving chip removal in carbon steel, low
alloy and austenitic steels
2) It is a better substitute for sulphur and tellurium in stainless
steels
3) Gives spheroidal form to manganese sulphides and is used to
improve the mechanical properties of resulphurized steels in
the transversal direction
4) Improves machinability in difficult workings (e.g. deep drilling
operations)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Silicon Si
Melting point 1414 C
1) Used as an alloy in sheets for electromagnetic applications as
it increases the electrical resistance
2) Slight influence on deoxidation
3) Increase wear resistance of low alloy steels
4) Reduces cold deformability
5) Seriously damages machinability of the tool
6) A maximum content of 0.25% is recommended for galvanizing treatment
Sn Tin
Melting point 231.9 C
1) Content greater than 0.05% may make the steel brittle in hot
machining, just like copper
2) It is a silvery-white, soft, malleable and ductile metal.
Exposed surfaces form oxide film. Resists oxygen and water
3) When present in steel it is an undesirable impurity which
gives rise to temper brittleness
Te Tellurium
Melting point 449.5 C
1) Makes the sulphur less plastic enabling increased cutting
speed and facilitating drilling operations
2) Improves machining by up to 50% when combined with lead
3) Reduces hot deformability
4) Reduces hot forming like lead, when present in steel with a
ratio S% / Te% ratio of ~10
5) Tends to give spheroidal form to sulphurs
Ti Titanium
Melting point 1668 C
1) Prevents formation of austenite in steels with a high
chromium content
2) Reduces hardness and hardening in steels with an mean
chromium content
3) Prevents inter-granular corrosion in stainless steels
4) Deoxidizing, denitriding and refining of austenitic grain
5) Reduces machinability of tool as it forms abrasive carbons
6) Refractory metal
7) 40% lighter than steel

Produces fine grains


Increases hardening
Increase impact strength just like nickel
Increase elastic limit
Provides considerable wear resistance
Increases the diffusion of nitrogen

W Tungsten
Melting point 3422 C
1) Provides abrasion resistance for tool steels, reduces sensitivity to overheating
2) Produces mechanical strength in parts for hot forming
3) Improves toughness and prevents enlargement of grain size
4) Used particularly in high-speed steels for cold cutting and
shearing components
Zr Zirconium
Melting point 1855 C
1) Fixing nitrogen eliminates the tendency to aging
2) Tends to form oxides and nitrides which are harmful for mechanical processing
3) Has the power to absorb gases and is therefore also used as
a getter or metallic absorbent
4) Since it cannot be altered by atmospheric agents it is used to
produce corrosion-resistant metal alloys
Fe Iron
Melting point 1536 C
1) This is the most common metal 90% of all the metal refined
worldwide is ferrous
2) It is used in steels and in other alloys and the pure metal is
obtained by the liquefaction of ferrous minerals
3) The first findings were meteorites made of iron-carbon alloy,
nickel, cobalt and chromium alloys. On the earth in magnetite
seams you can find hematite, limonite and siderite
4) It is a light grey and magnetic solid. When exposed to humid
air, it becomes rust (iron oxide)
5) Pure iron Ac3 = 911 C

Part three Technical tables

215

Additional symbols UNI 10440/00 and EN 10027-1/05


General conditions of treatment
and special requirements
+A
+AC
+AR
+AT
+BC
+BG
+BK
+NBK
+C
+CC
+Cnnn
+CH
+CR
+DC
+FP
+GBK
+GKZ
+H
+HH
+HR
+HL
+HC
+HR
+HW
+I
+LC
+M
+MA
+N
+NT
+P
+PE
+PI
+PL
+Q
+QA
+QO
+QT
+QW
+RA
+S
+SH
+SL
+SR
+T

Soft annealed
Spheroidized annealed
Raw for rolling, natural state
Solubilization annealed
Hot-formed and sandblasted
Spheroid annealing (not laminar)
Bright down, no heat treatment after drawing
Normalized in a controlled atmosphere
Cold-drawn
Semi-finished from continuous casting not subject
to subsequent forming
Cold-drawn to obtain nnn N/mm2
Core hardenability
Cold rolled
Condition of supply selected by supplier
Treated for ferrite-pearlite structure and hardness
Annealed in protected atmosphere (e.g. bright annealing)
Spheroid annealing (not laminar)
Normal hardenability at maximum range
Hardenability restricted towards top
Treated for a certain range of hardness
Hardenability restricted towards low
Hot-rolled followed by cold hardening
Treated for a certain range of hardness
Normal state of hot forming
Isothermal annealing
Skin pass (flattened or cold-drawn)
Thermo-mechanically rolled
Machined
Normalized
Normalized and tempered
Hardened by precipitation
Peeled
Hot-formed and pickled
Polished (smoothed)
Quenched
Quenched in air
Quenched in oil
Quenched and tempered
Quenched in water
Recrystallization annealing
Annealed for cool shearing
Peeled-reeled
Ground
Stress relieved
Tempered

+TH
+U
+WW
+V
m

Treated to obtain a range of hardness


Untreated e.g. St 52.3 U
Hot forming
(Vergten) Hardening and tempering
e.g. Cm55 with a range of sulphur content 0.0200.040%
K
e.g. St 37-3 K (kaltgezogen, cold-drawn), drawn e.g.
CK 15 killed
+Z15
Through thickness property, minimum reduction of
area = 15%
+Z25
Through thickness property, minimum reduction of
area = 25%
+Z35
Through thickness property, minimum reduction
of area = 35%
Additional symbols which follow the steel code
e.g. 42CrMo4 +QT = hardened and tempered

Structural steels (e.g. S 235 J 0 )


S
235
275
355
J2
J0
JR
K2
L
G1 - FU
G2 - FN
G3 - FF
G4
.E
.R
R.
RR
U.
X.

BS
QS
H
KG - N
KT - NL
W - NH
R
GC

Structural steels
Minimum yield N/mm2 (th. < 16 mm)
Minimum yield N/mm2 (th. < 16 mm)
Minimum yield N/mm2 (th. < 16 mm)
Guaranteed impact strength at
20C 27J
Guaranteed impact strength at
0C 27J
On request, guar. imp. strength at
+20C 27J
Guaranteed impact strength at
20C 40J
Guaranteed impact strength at
50C 27J
Rimming steel allowed
Rimming steel not allowed
Fully killed steel
State of supply at producers discretion
e.g. C45E with max sulphur content specified
e.g. C45R with a range of sulphur content specified
e.g. RSt 52.3 killed steel
e.g. RRSt44-3 special killed steel
e.g. USt 52.3 rimming steel
e.g. X 6Cr17 indicates steels with at least one alloy of
more than 5%
Base steels
High quality steels
Cable profile
Use at high temperatures
Use at low temperatures
Use at high temperatures
Room temperature
Suitable for cold drawing

216

Part three Technical tables

Symbols indicating type of coating


+ A**
Hot dip aluminium coating
+ AS
Aluminium-silicon alloy coating
+ AZ
Aluminium-zinc alloy coating (> 50% Al)
+ CE
Electrolytic chromium/chromium oxide coating ECCS
+ CU
Copper coating
+ IC
Inorganic coating
+ OC
Organic coating
+ S**
Hot dip tin coating
+ SE
Electrolytic tin coating
+ T**
Hot dip lead-tin alloy (terne) coating
+ TE
Electrolytic lead-tin alloy (terne) coating
+Z
Hot dip zinc (galvanized) coating
+ ZA
Hot dip zinc-aluminium coating (> 50% Zn)
+ ZF
Hot dip zinc-iron (galvannealed) coating
+ ZN
Electrolytic zinc-nickel coating
** must not be confused with the treatment conditions and may be
expressed with the letter S
e.g. +SA, +SS, +ST

Symbols, steel hardened and tempered for ..N/mm2 (BS 970 pt. 3 1991)
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
550-700 625-775 700-850 775-925 850-1000 925-1075 1000-1150

W
1075-1225

X
Y
1150-1300 1225-1375

Z
> 1550

Part three Technical tables

Structural mechanism of quenching


(Steel with C% 0.30)

Austenite

cooling
Ferrite
and
Austenite

critical
zone

723 C

600 C

heating
ambient
temperature

quenching water

Ferrite and Pearlite

Martensite

quenching oil
or polymer

Martensite and Troostite

normalizing
air cooling

Troostite-pearlite
and Ferrite

217

218

Part three Technical tables

Structural mechanism of tempering after quenching


(Steel with C% 0.30)

Critical temperature
approaching or exceeding this temperature (annealing)
the effect of the quenching is cancelled

Slow cooling into calm air

heating
Room
temperature

martensite

sorbite

sorbite

ferrite-pearlite and
cementite spheroidal

ferrite and pearlite

Part three Technical tables

219

Tempering diagram
(The interpretation of the technical data sheets has been made faster and easier by the tempering tables)

R - Rp 0,2
N / mm2
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800

A%

C%

1700

28

70

1600

26

65

1500

24

60

Kv
+ 20 C
Joule

22

55

20

50

1200

210

18

45

1100

180

16

40

1000

150

14

35

900

130

12

30

800

110

10

25

700

80

20

600

40

500

25

400

15

1400
1300

100
tempering temperature

200

300

400

values at room temperature for 10 mm round


after quenching
tempering

at 850 C in polymer
air

500

600

700

220

Part three Technical tables

Metallographic structures of steel


Structure
Tempered
martensite

Description
An extremely hard and brittle transformation product, which forms during fast cooling of the steel from its
austenitization temperature to a temperature lower than Mf (usually ambient temperature). Its hardness may
range from 30 to 68 HRC depending on the carbon content. Except for special cases, the material with this structure is finished by grinding and not by mechanical machining with chip removal, e.g. in the case of parts which
are tempered and only stress relieved at 150-200 C or for parts subject to surface hardening. Tempered
martensite is the best structure and the one most commonly found in hardened and tempered alloy steels. The
temperature at which, during cooling, the transformation of the austenite into martensite starts may be calculated using empirical formulae, such as:
539 (423  C% ) (30.4  Mn%) (12.1  Cr%) (17.7  Ni%) (7.5  Mo%) = ... C + 20
Martensite is an acicular phase when seen in the microstructure of steel.

Bainite

1) Structural constituent formed by acicular cementite in a ferritic matrix, with a hardness of between 30 and
55 HRC.
2) (continuation of troostite) The diffusion of carbon is still possible at cooling speeds between that of water
and air, and cementite still forms. Sudden movements due to atomic changes result in a structure known as
bainite.

Ferrite

Pure iron, which appears as a polyhedric shape under a micrographic analysis of steels. This denominates a structure and not a composition. It may appear under two forms: acicular ferrite or free ferrite obtained directly from
the decomposition of austenite during cooling, without the simultaneous formation of cementite. Ferrite is a very
ductile constituent and causes the formation of the built-up edge (the chip sticks to the tool and it is difficult to
break). Mild steels containing a high percentage of ferrite are machined with difficulty. The solid solution of carbon in body-centred cubic iron, a constituent of carbon steels.

Pearlite

Aggregate of ferrite and cementite obtained by the transformation of austenite above the bainitic interval.
It may be found in the form of laminar pearlite and, if uniformly distributed in the ferritic matrix, it provides good
workability, especially for case-hardened steels and carbon steels.
The structure which guarantees the longest life of the tool usually consists of ~10% of pearlite and 90% of ferrite. Spheroidal pearlite provides good workability for steels with high carbon content.
It is a lamellar constituent of steel consisting of alternate layers of ferrite (alpha-iron) and cementite (iron carbide Fe3C) and is formed on cooling austenite at 723 C. This produces a tough structure and is responsible for
the mechanical properties of unhardened steel.

Ferrite & Pearlite

On the whole in our range of carbon steels it is not possible to observe a full ferritic or pearlitic structure, but the
structure will always consist of ferrite and pearlite. The different share of ferrite and pearlite is due to the chemical composition and the cooling after heat treatment.

Typical structure to carbon steel (C45E) in its natural state.


Sorbite

Aggregate of extremely fine spheroids of cementite or carbide (which may not be seen under an optical microscope) in the ferritic matrix.
The dimensions of the cementite or carbide spheroids depend on the steel type, tempering temperature and time
at maximum temperature.
It has the classic structure of hardened and tempered steels, but it does not have satisfactory workability.
In order to overcome this problem, it is worth carrying out hardening and tempering on parts which have already
been rough-machined, so that the finishing may be carried out to a shallow depth.

Troostite

The migration of the iron atoms occurs at very slow cooling speeds. They take on a new reticular arrangement
( ) and, at the same time, the carbon atoms migrate to form the cementite. This transformation product is
called pearlite (ferrite + cementite). At faster cooling speeds, the pearlite becomes very fine and is called troostite. The structure formed by troostite and martensite creates discontinuities and difficulties during machining.

Part three Technical tables

Cementite

221

Iron carbide with formula Fe3C. It is a chemical combination of iron and carbon, with a content of C = 6.70%.
It has ferromagnetic properties below 210 C. It is a very hard but extremely brittle crystalline substance. It may
be broken down into ferrite and graphitic carbon by extremely slow cooling.
Its hardness may reach as much as 63 HRc.
It may be:
primary when it is formed by the direct separation of the liquid
secondary when it separates from austenite
tertiary when it separates from ferrite
The morphologic appearance may be: spheroidized, lamellar and acicular.

222

Part three Technical tables

Iron-cementite equilibrium diagram (partial)


(Heat treatments and structures)

homogenizing

pure austenite

gamma iron
density 7.6327

gamma iron
solid solution of
carbon in the iron

max temperature normalizing

Acm

full annealing
normalizing
Ac3

+ iron carbide Fe 3C

primary cementite
quenchin

austenite

Ac1

ferrite

austenite

Ac1

ferrite

ledeburite

A1
soft annealing

recrystallization annealing

alpha iron
density 7.8685
ferrite

pearlite

secondary cementite

0.1

ferrite

0.2

0.3

ledeburite
pearlite

0.4

ferrite

0.5

0.6

iron carbide Fe3C


lamellar pearlite coalescence pearlite

0.7

0.8

ferrite
0.9

cementite
1

primary cementite
pearlite

1.2

ferrite

1,5

%C

The diagram indicates the temperature ranges of recrystallization annealing - soft annealing - full annealing - normalization - hardening - homogenizing according to the carbon content of the different steels.
It shows also the aggregation microstructures of the stable phases in the single fields.
(from L. Matteoli, Il diagramma di stato ferro-carbonio e le curve TTT, AIM, 1973)

Part three Technical tables

Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram (Fe-C) (partial)

Austenite
A cm
1000

Normalizing
Austenite +
secondary Cementite

900

A3
Quenching water
800

Annealing

A3.2

A1

A3.2.1

Ar1

700

600

0.10

0.20

2.06%C

0.83%c

C% 0.00

Pearlite +
Cementite

Eutectoid (pearlite)

Pearlite +
Ferrite

Y Z

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

Operation of the diagram. The temperatures of the different steels depend on the carbon content
line

steels

carbon %

normalizing

X
Y
Z

S355J2
42CrMo4
50CrMo4

0.18
0.44
0.48

930 C

Lucefin experience on iron-carbon diagram

quenching

annealing

850 C
790 C

223

224

Part three Technical tables

Symbols and units of measurements


for the mechanical and physical properties of steel
FATT

Transition temperature at which the inter-granular failure area is 50% of the original area after failure of various
Charpy V-notch specimens. Various temperatures may be used from 180 C (liquid nitrogen) to + 150 C and
above

Em

Failure energy with pendulum hammers test for impact strength, types: Kv - KCU - DVM - Mesnager - KW

Force: Newton

Energy: Joule

ksi

Stretch: thousands of pounds force per square inch

lbf

Force pound

Rm - R

Tensile strength calculated with proportional tensile specimens, expressed in N/mm

Rp0.2

Yield strength normally taken at 0.2% and in some cases at 0.02%. Value obtained from tensile test, expressed in
N/mm = MPa

Re ReH

Total strength, read directly on the gauge of the tensile testing equipment as it corresponds to a stop in the load
increase

A%

Percentage elongation after fracture. Value obtained from tensile test


A% = [(Lu Lo) : Lo]  100
Lu = final gauge length after fracture
Lo = original gauge length

C% or Z%

Reduction of area after failure. Value obtained from tensile test


C% = [(So Su) : So]  100
So = original cross-sectional area of the parallel length
Su = minimum cross-sectional area after fracture

Kcu

Impact strength with U notch, proportional specimens tested with pendulum hammers with energy measurement
expressed in J

Kv

Impact strength with V notch

HB 10/3000

Brinell hardness EN 10003, calculated on the surface of the material. It is useful for knowing the approximate tensile strength of the material 10 = ball in mm, 3000 = pressure in kg

HRC Scala 150

Rockwell hardness C EN 10109, normally used on materials with a tensile strength of from 760 N/mm to 2420
N/mm

HV

Vickers hardness, normally used on materials with a tensile strength of from 1320 N/mm to above 2500 N/mm

Most commonly used terms


R
Rp
A%
C%
K
HB HV HRC

USA UK
Tensile strength
Yield point/stress
Elongation
Reduction
Impact strength
Hardness test

Germany
Zugfestigkeit
Streckgrenze
Dehnung
Einschnurung
Kerbschlagzahigkeit
Hrte

Italy
Rottura
Snervamento
Allungamento
Contrazione
Resilienza
Durezza

France
Resistance
Limite delasticit
Allongement
Striction
Resilience
Duret

Part three Technical tables

225

Formulae
Ceq
(carbon
equivalent)

C + Mn/6 + (Cr+Mo+V)/5 + (Ni+Cu)/15 (long formula)


0.43 max recommended for cold welding without stress relief. Pre-heating and stress relief required at higher values in
order to avoid the formation of cracks.
C + Mn/4 + Si/4 (short formula) used in carbon steels
recommended 0.42 max

Volumetric
thermal
expansion
for rounds

V =  r 20  L 20  (1 + 2  E  T )  (1 + E  T )
from V the radius is obtained r =

 L0  [1  (E  T )]
r

Linear
thermal
expansion

V
r
r0
E
T
L
L0

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

volume after heating mm3


radius after heating mm
radius before heating mm
0.000012 for carbon & alloy steel 0 to 100 C
difference between ambient temperature and heating temperature
length after heating mm
length before heating mm

LO  [1 + (E  T )]

L =
L0 =
E =

E for stainless steel


E for aluminiun
E for brass
E for lead
E for copper
E for tin
E for cementation
E for nitruration
E for cold tool s.
E for hot tool s.
E expressed in C1

length after heating mm


initial length mm
0.000011 for carbon & alloy steel,
0 to 100 C

0.000014
0.000024
0.000019
0.000029
0.000017
0.000026
0.000011
0.000011
0.000011
0.000012

T = difference between ambient temperature and heating temperature


In the case of bushings or pipes, the length (L0) to be considered is the circumference

Interference
fit

Shrink fit (jacket heating ~ 350C )


D = jacket internal diameter mm
d = inner liner external diameter mm
I = interference mm
C = constant = 1.7

DC
I = = 0. ... mm
1000
d=D+I

Cooling (shaft cooling 180C )


drive fit
H7 - p5
force fit
H7 - s5
H7
p5, s5

= tolerance for hole (0)


= tolerance for shaft (S)

(0) hole
O=foro
O

S
S=albero
(S) shaft

226
Reduction
ratio

Part three Technical tables


Sp
Forged and hot-rolled = ... : 1 (direct deformation)
Sf

(r.r.)
Sp = ingot/bloom/billet cross-section
Forged 3.5: 1
Hot-Rolled 6: 1

Sf = end product cross-section

(Sp Sc)
Forged and Hot-Rolled = ...%
Sf
Sf = hot-rolled section

Sc = cold-drawn/cold-rolled section

Calculation of critical points on the basis of the chemical composition of the steel expressed in %.
The result is given in C and enables the technicians to determine the heat treatment parameters.
The formulae are valid for steels with C% 0.60 max and alloys with a max content of 5% each.

Ac1 (C)

Temperature at which, during heating, the formation of Austenite starts.


723 10.7Mn 16.9Ni + 30Si + 16.9Cr + 25Mo + 6.38 W + 30Al + 50V + 290As =.... C 10
The equation is valid only for medium-alloyed steels.

Ac3 (C)

Temperature at which, during heating, the transformation of Ferrite into austenite stops.

910 203 C 15.2Ni 30Mn 11Cr 20Cu + 44.7Si + 104V + 31.5Mo + 13.1W + 700P + 400Al = ... C + 10

The equation is valid only for medium-alloyed steels.

Ms (C)

Temperature at which, during cooling, the transformation of austenite into Martensite starts.
539 (423  C% ) (30.4  Mn%) (12.1  Cr%) (17.7  Ni%) (7.5  Mo%) = C + 20
The equation is valid for steels:
C% 0.10-0.55 Mn% 0.20-1.70 Si% < 0.35 Ni% < 5.00 Cr% < 3.50 Mo% < 1.00

Mf (C)

Temperature at which the transformation of austenite into martensite is complete (martensite finish).
Mf = Ms 215 C ( 15C)

Comparison mechanical Properties Alloys and Steels*


titanium
carbon
BT 6 GR 5
Density
g/cm3
4.4
7.8
R
N/mm2
980
460
Rp
N/mm2
850
300
A %
%
14
28
Thermal cond.
W m1 C1
21
55
Melting range
C
1650
1440
* Approximate values

micro-alloyed

stainless

7.8
710
560
24
75
1440

7.9
610
480
50
30
1480

alloy
Al (2024)
3
460
350
9
200
660

superalloy
(Hastelloy)
8.9
550
330
15
60
1580

Part three Technical tables


E

227

Longitudinal modulus of elasticity, used by designers to check operational bending stresses. The value may be obtained by tensile tests. The higher the value the more rigid will be the structure and the desired elastic deformation will be
reduced.
G
E =
m

2(m + 1)

Bending or shear modulus of elasticity. Use the following formula to obtain the value:
m
G =  E
2(m + 1)
E = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity
m = 1/Poisson coefficient = 3.30 for steel
E
Poisson coefficient 1
2G

N/mm2 Approximate values of Modulus of Elasticity E = longitudinal G = shear


Material
E
G
E
G
E
G
E
G
Carbon steel
205900
79000
185340
71100
154940
59450
134350 51550
Alloy
210000
80598
195000
74840
175000
67160

Tool,
hot work
215000
82500

176000
67550

Tool,
cold work
210000
80600

176000
67550

High-speed
217000
83280

Stainless steel
192200
72000
175540
65800
167690
62850
154940 58100
Titanium alloys
113750
14100
96100
11900
73550
9100
69600
8600
Aluminium alloys
111790
13850
65700
8150
54500
6750

Temperature
20 C
200 C
430 C
540 C

R/HB

E
123560

G
47400

165000

63300

165000 63300

144160 54000

650 C

The tensile load and hardness are indicatively bound to each other and this relationship may be calculated as follows:
R (N/mm2) = K  HB
K = 3.3

Rp/R

Yield strength / Tensile strength ratio in mechanical test.


Approximately 0.80 for cold-drawn quenched and tempered +QT and 0.75 for cold-drawn in natural state,
0.67 for forged, 0.60 for hot-rolled

Galvanic
treatments

Material for chrome or zinc-plating should have the following conditions:


Si% + 2.5 P% < 0,09 and P% max 0.015

Tc

Temperature degrees Celsius (Centigrade)


Conversion from F to C
C = 5/9  (F 32)

Tf

Temperature degrees Fahrenheit


Conversion from C to F
F = (9/5  C ) + 32

Tk

Temperature Kelvin
Conversion from C to K

K = C + 273.15

228

Part three Technical tables

J factor

Useful to determine susceptibility of steels to temper brittleness.


Recommended value 150 max
(Mn + Si)  (P + Sn)  104

X factor

Used as per the J factor. The values in the formula and the result are expressed in p.p.m. (0.001% = 10 ppm).
Recommended value 15 max.
(10P + 4Sn + 5Sb + As)

100

Pcm

Figure shows that the steel can crack after welding. The advised max value is 0.20 max.
C + (Si:30) + [(Mn + Cu + Cr):20] + (Mo:15) + (Ni:60) + (V:10) + (5  B)

Jominy

Test used to determine the depth of hardening in steels, from which a curve is obtained showing hardness against distance from hardened surface. In practice, it is used to find out the hardness trend in pieces hardened with industrial techniques. The test is carried out on a sample obtained from the product of a particular cast which is heated in a special furnace until reaching the austenitization temperature and then quenched by a water spray, in order to achieve controlled
cooling propagation along the sample axis. The sample must undergo normalization treatment before the test.
A series of hardness tests is then carried out from the hardened surface (HRC), starting from 1 mm and usually reaching
50 mm, in order to obtain the decreasing curve.

Certain empirical formulae can be used to construct a curve with the help of chemical elements. The result does not have the same precision
as that obtained with the real test. E.g. coefficients for 42CrMo4 steel.
J 1.5 = (27.7) + (71 x C%) + (0  Si%) + (0.3  Mn%) + (0  P%) + (0  S%) + (0.5  Cr%) + (0.7  Mo%) + (0.4  Ni%) +
+ (0  Al%) + (0  Cu%) + (20  N%) = HRC
If agreed at the time of ordering the manufacturer has the option to verify the hardenability by means of calculation EN 10083-3 (10.3.2).

J
1.5
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

constant
27.7
27.0
24.0
23.0
20.0
13.0
8.5
3.0
0
3
5
7
8
8.5
9

C
71
67
65
62
61
60
58
58
58
55
53
49
47
44
41

Si
0
0
0
0
5
9
5
7
4.9
0
0.3
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.1

Mn
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.0
0.4
0
4.0
6.0
4.5
5.2
5.5
6.2
7.0
7.0
9.0

P
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
24
31
32
28
20
30
40

S
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Cr
0.50
1.15
3.50
3.80
4.00
6.50
8.0
8.2
10.5
12.3
13.3
14.3
15.0
16.0
16.0

Mo
0.7
1.3
4.0
8,0
9.0
12
15
15
16
14.8
11.5
9.5
7.5
5.5
0.5

Ni
0.4
0.5
0.5
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4

Al
0
24
25
25
23
35
40
55
50
55
60
68
70
72
75

J = hardness at a distance of mm. Other methods may be obtained from standard ASTM A 255 and SEP 1664.

Cu
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
3
4.5
4.5
4.5
3.0
3.5
5.0

N
20
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Part three Technical tables


Quenched end

100 mm

Distance in mm from quenched end

25 mm

mm
0

12.5 mm

229

11

25

35 50

60

80

100

H2O 20C
HRC

Hardenability = aptitude of a steel to undergo a more or less


complete transformation into a martensitic structure for a sample
with determined dimensions and geometry.

Hardenability curve
The hardenability of a steel increases the greater the hardness is
maintained with an increase in the distance d

Structures obtained with


the Jominy test

860
0

11

25

35 50

60

80

mm

810
760
705
640

austenite +
pearlite

austenite + ferrite

585
530
475
420

austenite + bainite

365
310

austenite + martensite

255
martensite 100%

200

martensite 20%
+ ferrite - bainite
martensite 50%
+ ferrite - bainite
martensite 80%
+ ferrite - bainite

time

230

Part three Technical tables

Units of measurement conversion table


to convert
Psi
(lb/in2)
Psi
(lb/in2)
Ksi
Ksi
Mpa
N/mm2
MN/m2
Tonf/in2
ft lb
J
daJ/cm2
kg/mm2 *
in
ft
lb
cwt

pounds/square inch
(pound/inch2)
pounds/square inch
(pound/inch2)
kilo/square inch
kilo/square inch
megapascal
newton/mm2
meganewton/m2
ton force/inch2
foot-pound
joule
decajoule/cm2
kilogram/mm2
inch
foot
pound
hundredweight [UK]
hundredweight [USA]

into
mpa = N/mm2 =
MN/m2

multiply by
0.006896

kg/mm2 *
kg/mm2 *
mpa = N/mm2 = MN/m2

0.0007032
0.7032
6.896

kg/mm2 *

0.10197

kg/mm2 *
joule
kgm *
kg/cmq *
Mpa = N/mm2
mm
mm
kg
kg
kg

1.55
1.356
0.10197
1.0197
9.8066
25.4 (25.39998)
304.80 (304.7997)
0.4535924
50.80
45.35924

*Obsolete units.

1 TM or Mt (metric ton) = 999.734 kg


1 kg = 2.2 lb (pounds)
1 kp (kilo pound) = 0.4536 MT
1 kp = 1 kgm = 9.80665 N

Residual magnetism
1 T (tesia) = 104 G (gauss)
1 Oe (oersted) = 1 G
1 Oe = 79.5775 A/m (ampere/m)
1 A/m = 1.257  102 Oe
1 A/cm = 1.257 Oe

1 square inch
1 square foot
1 square yard
1 square mile

= 6.451 cm2
= 0.093 m2
= 0.836 m2
= 2.59 km2

Part three Technical tables

Technological tests
Type of Test
Reference Standard

Description

Chemical analysis
EN ISO 14284
Inclusion content
UNI ENV 10247 DIN 50602
Decarburizing
UNI 4839
Hardness
EN ISO 6506 ASTM A 370
Macrographic examination
UNI 3138
Micrographic examination
UNI 3137
Ferrite
ASTM E 562
Photo view examination
Austenitic grain
EN ISO 643 ASTM E 112
Baumann print
ISO 4968
Wragge print
UNI 5683
Jominy
EN ISO 642
Bending test
UNI 564 ASTM A 370
Impact strength
EN 10045/1 ASTM A 370
Impact strength
EN 10045/1
Tensile tests
EN 10002/1 ASTM A 370
Tensile tests
EN 10002/5

Quantometric analysis of carbon and alloy steels

Other tests:
Magnetic permeability

Corrosion
Residual stresses

Position of mechanical test


specimen with respect to
outer surface

UNI
1/6 of with a minimum
of 12.5 mm

Assessment of non-metallic inclusions


Measurement of depth of surface decarburizing
Brinell Vickers Rockwell hardness tests
To highlight internal segregations and defects
Interpretation and evaluation of structure
Calculation of ferrite content in stainless steels
B/W photos in 10 x 15 cm format
Calculation of grain size
Assessment of sulphur distribution
Assessment of lead distribution
Calculation of hardness values in HRC
Bending at 90 and above
Ambient temperature test
Impact strength test from 0 C to 180 C
Tension at ambient temperature Calculation of Rp 0.2, Rm, A%, Z%-C%. Use of extensimeter
Rapid tension up to 900 C. Calculation of Rp 0.2, Rm, A%, Z%

Micro-hardness
Fatigue

Microanalyses
Pellini

AFNOR
12.5 mm up to 250
/20 above 250 mm

DIN
1/3 of

K1C
Cracking

ASTM
1/4 T
T = thickness

231

232

Part three Technical tables

Values of approximate comparison between


several kinds of resilience (at a temperature of + 20 C)
Kcu J
5
13
22
25
27
29
34
39
44
49
54
59
64
68
73
78
83
88
93
98
102
108
113
118

DVM J
8
16
25
33
34
46
60
70
78
86
92
104
114
122
128
136
144
156
170
176
184
240
264
278

Mesnager J
11
22
32
34
40
66
78
90
100
114
128
140
152
164
170
184
200
218
235
246
260

Type
Kcu
Kv
Mesnager
DVM
Equivalences
J
kgm
2
0.20
4
0.41
6
0.61
8
0.82
10
1.02
12
1.22
14
1.43
16
1.63
18
1.84
20
2.04
22
2.24
24
2.45
26
2.65
28
2.86
30
3.06
32
3.26
34
3.47

Length
55
55
55
55

ft.lb.
1.48
2.95
4.43
5.90
7.38
8.85
10.33
11.80
13.28
14.75
16.23
17.70
19.18
20.65
22.13
23.60
25.08

Kv J
8
16
28
32
36
40
45
64
80
92
110
125
134
146
155
166
180
194
215
226
240

45

Size mm
Width
10
10
10
10

J
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68

Height
10
10
10
10

kgm
3.67
3.87
4.08
4.28
4.49
4.69
4.89
5.10
5.30
5.51
5.71
5.91
6.12
6.32
6.53
6.73
6.93

Notch depth
5
2
2
3

ft.lb.
26.55
28.03
29.50
30.98
32.45
33.93
35.40
36.88
38.35
39.83
41.30
42.78
44.25
45.73
47.20
48.68
50.15

J
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
104

Characteristics of notch mm
Radius of base of notch
Angle of notch
1
45
1
1

kgm
7.14
7.34
7.55
7.75
7.95
8.16
8.36
8.57
8.77
8.97
9.18
9.38
9.59
9.79
9.99
10.20
10.60

ft.lb.
51.63
53.10
54.58
56.05
57.53
59.00
60.48
61.96
63.43
64.91
66.38
67.86
69.33
70.81
72.28
73.76
76.71

J
108
112
116
120
124
128
132
136
140
144
148
152
156
160
164
168
172

kgm
11.01
11.42
11.83
12.24
12.64
13.05
13.46
13.87
14.28
14.68
15.09
15.50
15.91
13.62
16.72
17.13
17.53

ft.lb.
79.66
82.61
85.56
88.51
91.46
94.41
97.36
100.31
103.26
106.21
109.16
112.11
115.06
118.01
120.95
123.91
126.86

Part three Technical tables

233

Resilience
When sub-size specimens are permitted or necessary, or both, modify the specified test requirement according to Table A and B
Greater energies or lower test temperatures may be agreed between purchaser and supplier.
Table A Charpy V-notch test acceptance criteria for various sub-size specimens (ASTM A 370)
Full size 10  10 mm
Size 10  7.5
Size 10  6.7
Size 10  5
Size 10  3.3
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
J
J
J
J
J
54
41
37
27
18
48
35
31
24
16
41
30
27
20
14
34
26
23
16
11
27
20
18
14
10
22
16
15
11
7
20
15
14
11
7
18
14
12
8
5
16
12
11
8
5
14
11
10
7
4
10
7
7
5
3

Size 10  2.5
J
14
12
11
8
7
5
5
4
4
3
3

Table B Impact temperature reduction (ASTM A 333) When impact strengths are required at a temperature less than 20 C and the
material does not have sufficient thickness to obtain standard test pieces of 1010 mm, apply the temperature reductions of table B.
Full size 10  10
mm
0 C

Size 10  7.5
mm
3 C

Size 10  6.7
mm
5 C

Straight line interpolation for intermediate values is permitted.

Size 10  5
mm
11 C

Size 10  3.3
mm
19 C

Size 10  2.5
mm
28 C

234

Part three Technical tables

Hardness conversion table for carbon/alloy steels


ASTM A 370 03a
HRC
Diamond
penetrator
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20

HV
Vickers
30
940
900
865
832
800
772
746
720
697
674
653
633
613
595
577
560
544
528
513
498
484
471
458
446
434
423
412
402
392
382
372
363
354
345
336
327
318
310
302
294
286
279
272
266
260
254
248
243
238

HB
Brinell
3000 kgf

739
722
706
688
670
654
634
615
595
577
560
543
525
512
496
482
468
455
442
432
421
409
400
390
381
371
362
353
344
336
327
319
311
301
294
286
279
271
264
258
253
247
243
237
231
226

HRA
Diamond
penetrator
85.6
85.0
84.5
83.9
83.4
82.8
82.3
81.8
81.2
80.7
80.1
79.6
79.0
78.5
78.0
77.4
76.8
76.3
75.9
75.2
74.7
74.1
73.6
73.1
72.5
72.0
71.5
70.9
70.4
69.9
69.4
68.9
68.4
67.9
67.4
66.8
66.3
65.8
65.3
64.6
64.3
63.8
63.3
62.8
62.4
62.0
61.5
61.0
60.5

Rm
N/mm2
MPa

2420
2330
2240
2160
2070
2010
1950
1880
1820
1760
1700
1640
1580
1520
1480
1430
1390
1340
1300
1250
1220
1180
1140
1110
1080
1050
1030
1010
970
950
930
900
880
860
850
820
810
790
770
760

HRB
Ball
1/16
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
51
49

HV
Vickers
30
240
234
228
222
216
210
205
200
195
190
185
180
176
172
169
165
162
159
156
153
150
147
144
141
139
137
135
132
130
127
125
123
121
119
117
116
114
112
110
108
107
106
104
103
101
100

HB
Brinell
3000 kgf
240
234
228
222
216
210
205
200
195
190
185
180
176
172
169
165
162
159
156
153
150
147
144
141
139
137
135
132
130
127
125
123
121
119
117
116
114
112
110
108
107
106
104
103
101
100

94
92

HRA
Diamond
penetrator
61.5
60.9
60.2
59.5
58.9
58.3
57.6
57.0
56.4
55.8
55.2
54.6
54.0
53.4
52.8
52.3
51.7
51.1
50.6
50.0
49.5
48.9
48.4
47.9
47.3
46.8
46.3
45.8
45.3
44.8
44.3
43.8
43.3
42.8
42.3
41.8
41.4
40.9
40.4
40.0
39.5
39.0
38.6
38.1
37.7
37.2
36.8
35.5
34.6

Rm
N/mm2
MPa
800
785
750
715
705
690
675
650
635
620
615
605
590
580
570
565
560
550
530
505
495
485
475
470
460
455
450
440
435
425
420
415
405
400
395
385

370

360

350

340

330
320

Values shown in bold fall outside the ASTM table but they are still reliable. Values shown in italics are due to passage from table 2 to table 3
of ASTM A 370.

Part three Technical tables


HV
2270
2190
2110
2030
Rockwell
Hardness
Vickers
Hardness
Brinell
Hardness

HRC
85
84
83
82

HV
1950
1865
1787
1710

HRC
81
80
79
78

HV
1633
1556
1478
1400

HRC diamond penetrator 120


load 1470 N (150 kgf) duration 30
HV diamond penetrator 136
load 294 N (30 kgf) duration 15
HB ball 10 mm load 29.400N (3000 kgf) duration
15

HRC
77
76
75
74

HV
1323
1245
1160
1076

Rockwell
Hardness
Rockwell
Hardness
Tensile
strength

HRC
73
72
71
70

HV
1004
940
920
900

Hardness HRA
60 kgf
diamond penetrator
74.4
73.9
73.4
72.9
72.4
71.9
71.4
70.9
70.4
69.9
69.3
68.8
68.3
67.8
67.3
66.8
66.3
65.8
65.3
64.8
64.3
63.8
63.3
62.8
62.3
61.8
61.3
60.8
60.3

15N Scale
84.1
83.6
83.1
82.6
82.1
81.6
81.0
80.5
80.0
79.5
79.0
78.5
78.0
77.5
77.0
76.5
75.9
75.4
74.9
74.4
73.9
73.4
72.9
72.4
71.9
71.3
70.8
70.3
69.8

HRC
69
68
67.5
67

HRA diamond penetrator


load 588 N (60 kgf) duration 30
HRB ball 1/16
load 980 N (100 kgf) duration 30
Rm N/mm2 (Mpa)

Hardness conversion table for austenitic stainless steels


ASTM A 370 03a
Hardness HRC
150 kgf
diamond penetrator
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20

235

Rockwell superficial Hardness


30N Scale
diamond penetrator
66.2
65.3
64.5
63.6
62.7
61.8
61.0
60.1
59.2
58.4
57.5
56.6
55.7
54.9
54.0
53.1
52.3
51.4
50.5
49.6
48.8
47.9
47.0
46.2
45.3
44.4
43.5
42.7
41.8

45N Scale
52.1
50.9
49.8
48.7
47.5
46.4
45.2
44.1
43.0
41.8
40.7
39.6
38.4
37.3
36.1
35.0
33.9
32.7
31.6
30.4
29.3
28.2
27.0
25.9
24.8
23.6
22.5
21.3
20.2

236

Hardness HB
3000 kgf
ball 10 mm
256
248
240
233
226
219
213
207
202
197
192
187
183
178
174
170
167
163
160
156
153

Part three Technical tables

Print
mm
3.79
3.85
3.91
3.96
4.02
4.08
4.14
4.20
4.24
4.30
4.35
4.40
4.45
4.51
4.55
4.60
4.65
4.70
4.74
4.79
4.84

Hardness HRB
100 kgf
ball 1/16
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80

Hardness HRA
60 kgf
diamond penetrator
61.5
60.9
60.3
59.7
59.1
58.5
58.0
57.4
56.8
56.2
55.6
55.0
54.5
53.9
53.3
52.7
52.1
51.5
50.9
50.4
49.8

N/mm2
for information a)

770
760
750
715
705
690
675
650
635
620
615
605
590
580
570
565
560
550
530
505
495

a) The cold deformation in stainless steels created by the print may alter the hardness values. Even a variation in the of just a few hundredths
of a millimetre can affect the value.
The tensile test is therefore recommended as the base test to understand the mechanical characteristics.

All information contained in this manual has been carefully verified. The authors, the publisher and Lucefin reject any responsability for its use.