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17

Responses to Questions

1.

If two points are at the same potential, then no NET work is done in moving a test charge from one

point to the other. Along some segments of the path, some positive work might be done, but along

other segments of the path, negative work would be done. And if the object is moved strictly along an

equipotential line, then no work would be done along any segment of the path.

Along any segment of the path where positive or negative work is done, a force would have to be

exerted. If the object is moved along an equipotential line, then no force would be exerted along that

segment of the path.

This is analogous to climbing up and then back down a flight of stairs to get from one point to another

point on the same floor of a building. Gravitational potential increased while going up the stairs, and

decreased while going down the stairs. A force was required both to go up the stairs and to go down

the stairs. If instead you walked on the level from one point to another, then the gravitational potential

was constant, and no force was needed to change gravitational potential.

2.

A negative charge will move toward a region of higher potential. A positive charge will move toward a

region of lower potential. The potential energy of both charges decreases as they move, because they

gain kinetic energy.

3.

(a)

(b)

4.

Electric potential, a scalar, is the electric potential energy per unit charge at a point in space.

Electric field, a vector, is the electric force per unit charge at a point in space.

Electric potential energy is the work done against the electric force in moving a charge from a

specified location of zero potential energy to some other location. Electric potential is the

electric potential energy per unit charge.

The potential energy of the electron is proportional to the voltage used to accelerate it. Thus, if the

voltage is multiplied by a factor of 4, then the potential energy is increased by a factor of 4 also. Then,

by energy conservation, we assume that all of the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy

during the acceleration process. Thus the kinetic energy has increased by a factor of 4 also. Finally,

since the speed is proportional to the square root of kinetic energy, the speed must increase by a factor

of 2.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-1

17-2

Chapter 17

5.

The electric field is zero at the midpoint of the line segment joining the two equal positive charges.

The electric field due to each charge is of the same magnitude at that location, because the location is

equidistant from both charges, but the two fields are in the opposite direction. Thus the net electric

field is zero there. The electric potential is never zero along that line, except at infinity. The electric

potential due to each charge is positive, so the total potential, which is the algebraic sum of the two

potentials, is always positive.

6.

A negative particle will have its electric potential energy decrease if it moves from a region of low

electric potential to one of high potential. By Eq. 173, if the charge is negative and the potential

difference is positive, then the change in potential energy will be negative and therefore decrease.

7.

G

There is no general relationship between the value of V and the value of E. Instead, the magnitude of

G

E is equal to the rate at which V decreases over a short distance. Consider the point midway between

G

two positive charges. E is 0 there, but V is high. Or consider the point midway between two negative

G

charges. E is also 0 there, but V is low, because it is negative. Finally, consider the point midway

G

between positive and negative charges of equal magnitude. There E is not 0, because it points toward

the negative charge, but V is zero.

8.

Two equipotential lines cannot cross. That would indicate that a region in space had two different

values for the potential. For example, if a 40-V line and a 50-V line crossed, then the potential at the

point of crossing would be both 40 V and 50 V, which is impossible. As an analogy, imagine contour

lines on a topographic map. They also never cross because one point on the surface of the Earth cannot

have two different values for elevation above sea level. Likewise, the electric field is perpendicular to

the equipotential lines. If two lines crossed, then the electric field at that point would point in two

different directions simultaneously, which is not possible.

9.

The equipotential lines (in black) are perpendicular to the electric field lines (in red).

10.

Any imbalance of charge that exists would quickly be resolved. Suppose the positive plate, connected

to the positive terminal of the battery, had more charge than the negative plate. Then negative charges

from the negative battery terminal would be attracted to the negative plate by the more charged

positive plate. This would continue only until the negative plate had the same magnitude of charge as

the positive plate. If the negative plate became overcharged, then the opposite transfer of charge

would take place, again until equilibrium was reached. Another way to explain the balance of charge is

that neither the battery nor the capacitor can create or destroy charge. Since they were neutral before

they were connected, they must be neutral after they are connected. The charge removed from one

plate appears as excess charge on the other plate. This is true regardless of the conductor size or shape.

11.

(a)

Once the two spheres are placed in contact with each other, they effectively become one larger

conductor. They will have the same potential because the potential everywhere on a conducting

surface is constant.

(b)

Because the spheres are identical in size, an amount of charge Q /2 will flow from the initially

charged sphere to the initially neutral sphere so that they will have equal charges.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

17-3

12.

A force is required to increase the separation of the plates of an isolated capacitor because you are

pulling a positive plate away from a negative plate. Since unlike charges attract, it takes a force to

move the oppositely charged plates apart. The work done in increasing the separation goes into

increasing the electric potential energy stored between the plates. The capacitance decreases, and the

potential between the plates increases since the charge has to remain the same.

13.

If the electric field in a region of space is uniform, then you can infer that the electric potential is

increasing or decreasing uniformly in that region. For example, if the electric field is 10 V/m in a

region of space, then you can infer that the potential difference between two points 1 meter apart

(measured parallel to the direction of the field) is 10 V.

If the electric potential in a region of space is uniform, then you can infer that the electric field there is

zero.

14.

The electric potential energy of two unlike charges is negative if we take the 0 location for potential

energy to be when the charges are infinitely far apart. The electric potential energy of two like charges

is positive. In the case of unlike charges, work must be done to separate the charges. In the case of like

charges, work must be done to move the charges together.

15.

(c)

If the voltage across a capacitor is doubled, then the amount of energy it can store is quadrupled:

PE

16.

(a)

= 12 CV 2 .

PE

1

2

Q2

becomes

C

PE

1

2

Q2

and

KC

(b)

PE

17.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

18.

= 12 CV 2 becomes

The charge decreases since Q = CV and the capacitance decreases while the potential difference

remains constant. The lost charge returns to the battery.

The potential difference stays the same because it is equal to the battery voltage.

If the potential difference remains the same and the capacitance decreases, then the energy stored

in the capacitor must also decrease, since

(e)

PE

PE

= 12 CV 2 .

The electric field between the plates will stay the same because the potential difference across

the plates and the distance between the plates remain constant.

We meant that the capacitance did not depend on the amount of charge stored or on the potential

difference between the capacitor plates. Changing the amount of charge stored or the potential

difference will not change the capacitance.

1.

(b)

The two different concepts, electric potential and electric potential energy, are often confused,

since their names are so similar. The electric potential is determined by the electric field and is

independent of the charge placed in the field. Therefore, doubling the charge will not affect the

electric potential. The electric potential energy is the product of the electric potential and the

electric charge. Doubling the charge will double the electric potential energy.

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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-4

Chapter 17

2.

(a)

It is very important to realize that the electric field is a vector, while the electric potential is a

scalar. The electric field at the point halfway between the two charges is the sum of the electric

fields from each charge. The magnitudes of the fields will be the same, but they will point in

opposite directions. Their sum is therefore zero. The electric potential from each charge is

positive. Since the potential is a scalar, the net potential at the midpoint is the sum of the two

potentials, which will also be positive.

3.

(b)

The net electric field at the center is the vector sum of the electric fields due to each charge. The

fields will have equal magnitudes at the center, but the fields from the charges at opposite

corners point in opposite directions, so the net field will be zero. The electric potential from each

charge is a nonzero scalar. At the center the magnitudes of the four potentials are equal and sum

to a nonzero value.

4.

(d)

A common misconception is that the electric field and electric potential are proportional to each

other. However, the electric field is proportional to the change in the electric potential. If the

electric potential is constant (no change), then the electric field must be zero. The electric

potential midway between equal but opposite charges is zero, but the electric field is not zero at

that point, so (a) is incorrect. The electric field midway between two equal positive charges is

zero, but the electric potential is not zero at that point, so (b) is incorrect. The electric field

between two oppositely charged parallel plates is constant, but the electric potential decreases as

one moves from the positive plate toward the negative plate, so (c) is incorrect.

5.

(b)

It is commonly thought that it only takes 2W to bring together the three charges. However, it

takes W to bring two charges together. When the third charge is brought in, it is repelled by both

of the other charges. It therefore takes an additional 2W to bring in the third charge. Adding the

initial work to bring the first two charges together gives a total work of 3W.

6.

(e)

A common misconception is that the electron feels the greater force because it experiences the

greater acceleration. However, the magnitude of the force is the product of the electric field and

the charge. Since both objects have the same magnitude of charge and are in the same electric

field, they will experience the same magnitude force (but in opposite directions). Since the

electron is lighter, it will experience a greater acceleration.

7.

(c)

It is often thought that the electron, with its greater acceleration and greater final speed, will have

the greater final kinetic energy. However, the increase in kinetic energy is equal to the decrease

in potential energy, which is the product of the objects charge and the change in potential.

However, in this situation, the increase in kinetic energy is equal to the decrease in electric

potential energy, which is the product of the objects charge and the change in electric potential

through which it passes. The change in potential for each object has the same magnitude, but

they have opposite signs since they move in opposite directions in the field. The magnitude of

the charge of each object is the same, but they have opposite signs; thus they experience the

same change in electric potential energy and therefore they have the same final kinetic energy.

8.

(d), (e) The capacitance is determined by the shape of the capacitor (area of plates and separation

distance) and the material between the plates (dielectric). The capacitance is the constant ratio of

the charge on the plates to the potential difference between them. Changing the charge will

change the potential difference but not the capacitance, so (d) is one correct answer. Changing

the energy stored in a capacitor will change the charge on the plates and the potential difference

between them, but will not change the capacitance, so (e) is also correct.

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Electric Potential

17-5

9.

(b)

When the plates were connected to the battery, a charge was established on the plates. As the battery

is disconnected, this charge remains constant on the plates. The capacitance decreases as the plates are

pulled apart, since the capacitance is inversely proportional to the separation distance. For the charge

to remain constant with smaller capacitance, the voltage between the plates increases.

10.

(c)

A vector has both direction and magnitude. Electric potential, electric potential energy, and

capacitance all have magnitudes but not direction. Electric field lines have a direction at every

point in space, and the density of the electric field lines gives us information about the

magnitude of the electric field in that region of space.

11.

(b)

The similarity in the names of these concepts can lead to confusion. The electric potential is

determined by the electric field and is independent of the charge placed in the field. Therefore,

changing the charge will not affect the electric potential. The electric potential energy is the

product of the electric potential and the electric charge. Changing the sign of the charge will

change the sign of the electric potential energy.

Solutions to Problems

1.

The work done by the electric field can be found from Eq. 172b.

W

Vba = ba Wba = qVba = (7.7 106 C)(+65 V) = 5.0 104 J

q

2.

The work done by the electric field can be found from Eq. 172b.

W

Vba = ba Wba = qVba = (1.60 1019 C)(45 V 125 V) = 2.72 1017 J

q

= (1 e)(170 V) = 1.70 102 eV

3.

Energy is conserved, so the change in potential energy is the opposite of the change in kinetic energy.

The change in potential energy is related to the change in potential.

PE = qV = KE

V =

=

=

=

= 1.025 V 1.0 V

q

q

2q

2(1.60 1019 C)

The final potential should be lower than the initial potential in order to stop the electron.

4.

The kinetic energy gained is equal to the work done on the electron by the electric field. The potential

difference must be positive for the electron to gain potential energy. Use Eq. 172b.

W

Vba = ba Wba = qVba = (1.60 1019 C)(1.85 104 V) = 2.96 1015 J

q

= (1 e)(1.85 104 V) = 1.85 104 eV

5.

The kinetic energy gained by the electron is the work done by the electric force. Use Eq. 172b to

calculate the potential difference.

Vba =

Wba

6.45 1016 J

=

= 4030 V

q

(1.60 1019 C)

The electron moves from low potential to high potential, so plate B is at the higher potential.

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17-6

6.

Chapter 17

We assume that the electric field is uniform. Use Eq. 174b, using the magnitude of the electric field.

E=

7.

The magnitude of the voltage can be found from Eq. 174b, using the magnitude of the electric field.

E=

8.

Vba

d

The distance between the plates is found from Eq. 174b, using the magnitude of the electric field.

E=

9.

Vba

220 V

=

= 3.2 104 V/m

d

6.8 103 m

Vba

d

d=

Vba

45 V

=

= 2.4 102 m

E 1900 V/m

The gain of kinetic energy comes from a loss of potential energy due to conservation of energy, and

the magnitude of the potential difference is the energy per unit charge. The helium nucleus has a

charge of 2e.

V =

PE

KE

85.0 103 eV

=

=

= 4.25 104 V

q

q

2e

The negative sign indicates that the helium nucleus had to go from a higher potential to a lower

potential.

10.

Find the distance corresponding to the maximum electric field, using Eq. 174b for the magnitude of

the electric field.

E=

11.

Vba

d

d=

Vba

45 V

=

= 1.5 105 m 2 105 m

E

3 106 V/m

By the work-energy theorem, the total work done, by the external force and the electric field together,

is the change in kinetic energy. The work done by the electric field is given by Eq. 172b.

Wexternal + Welectric = KE final KEinitial

(VB VA ) =

4

=

q

6.50 106 C

= 157 V

12.

13.

The kinetic energy of the electron is given in each case. Use the kinetic energy to find the speed.

(a)

1 m 2

2

= KE =

2KE

=

m

(b)

1 m 2

2

= KE =

2KE

=

m

9.11 10

31

9.11 10

kg

31

kg

= 1.3 107 m/s

The kinetic energy of the proton is given. Use the kinetic energy to find the speed.

1 m 2

2

= KE =

2KE

2(4.2 103 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)

=

= 9.0 105 m/s

m

1.67 1027 kg

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Electric Potential

14.

The kinetic energy of the alpha particle is given. Use the kinetic energy to find the speed.

1 m 2

2

15.

17-7

2KE

=

m

= KE =

6.64 1027 kg

Use Eq. 174b without the negative sign in order to find the magnitude of the voltage difference.

E=

V

x

No harm is done because very little charge is transferred between you and the doorknob.

16.

(a)

The electron was accelerated through a potential difference of 4.8 kV (moving from low

potential to high potential) in gaining 4.8 keV of kinetic energy. The proton is accelerated

through the opposite potential difference as the electron and has the exact opposite charge. Thus

the proton gains the same kinetic energy, 4.8 keV .

(b)

Both the proton and the electron have the same kinetic energy. Use that fact to find the ratio of

the speeds.

1 m 2

2 p p

= 12 mee2

mp

e

1.67 1027 kg

=

=

= 42.8

p

me

9.11 1031 kg

17.

18.

V=

19.

V=

20.

Q

3.00 106 C

= (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

= 1.80 105 V

1

4 0 r

1.50 10 m

1

1 Q

4 0 r

1

Q = (4 0 )rV =

8.99 109 N m 2 /C2

9

(0.15 m)(165 V) = 2.8 10 C

The work required is the difference in potential energy between the two locations. The test charge has

QQ

potential energy due to each of the other charges, given in Conceptual Example 177 as PE = k 1 2 .

r

So to find the work, calculate the difference in potential energy between the two locations. Let Q

represent the 35 C charge, let q represent the 0.50 C test charge, and let d represent the 46-cm

distance.

PEinitial =

kQq kQq

+

d /2 d /2

PE final =

kQq

kQq

+

[d /2 0.12 m] [d /2 + 0.12 m]

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17-8

Chapter 17

kQq

kQq

kQq

+

2

[d /2 0.12 m] [d /2 + 0.12 m]

d /2

1

1

2

= kQq

+

+

[0.23

m

0.12

m]

[0.23

m

0.12

m]

0.23

m

21.

(a)

V=

(b)

Q

1.60 1019 C

= (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

= 5.754 105 V 5.8 105 V

15

4 0 r

2.5 10

m

1

(1.60 10

PE = k 1 2 = (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

r

22.

C) 2

m

The potential at the corner is the sum of the potentials due to each of the charges, found using Eq. 175.

V=

23.

2.5 10

19

15

k (3Q ) kQ k (2Q) kQ

1 kQ

(2 + 2)

+

+

=

1 +

=

A

A

A

2A

2 2A

By energy conservation, all of the initial potential energy will change to kinetic energy of the electron

when the electron is far away. The other charge is fixed and has no kinetic energy. When the electron

is far away, there is no potential energy.

Einitial = Efinal

PEinitial = KE final

2k (e)(Q)

=

mr

k (e)(Q) 1

= 2 m 2

r

(9.11 1031 kg)(0.245 m)

24.

By energy conservation, all of the initial potential energy of the charges will change to kinetic energy

when the charges are very far away from each other. By momentum conservation, since the initial

momentum is zero and the charges have identical masses, the charges will have equal speeds in

opposite directions from each other as they move. Thus each charge will have the same kinetic energy.

Einitial = Efinal

=

25.

(a)

PEinitial = KE final

kQ 2

= 2( 12 m 2 )

r

kQ 2

(8.99 109 N m 2 /C 2 )(9.5 106 C) 2

=

= 3.9 103 m/s

6

mr

(1.0 10 kg)(0.053 m)

field, any location where the field is zero must be

closer to the weaker charge (q2 ). Also, in between

the two charges, the fields due to the two charges

q2 < 0

q1 > 0

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Electric Potential

17-9

are parallel to each other (both to the left) and cannot cancel. Thus the only places where the

field can be zero are closer to the weaker charge, but not between them. In the diagram, they are

labeled x. Take the positive direction to the right.

q

q1

E = k 22 k

= 0 q2 (d + x) 2 = q1 x 2

2

x

(d + x)

x=

(b)

q2

q1

q2

d=

2.0 106 C

3.0 106 C 2.0 106 C

d

The potential due to the positive charge is positive

x1

x2

everywhere, and the potential due to the negative

charge is negative everywhere. Since the negative

q2 < 0

q1 > 0

charge is smaller in magnitude than the positive

charge, any point where the potential is zero must be closer to the negative charge. So consider

locations between the charges (position x1 ) and to the left of the negative charge (position x2 )

as shown in the diagram.

Vlocation 1 =

kq1

kq

q2 d

(2.0 106 C)(4.0 cm)

+ 2 = 0 x1 =

=

(d x1 ) x1

(q2 q1 )

(5.0 106 C)

Vlocation 2 =

kq1

kq

q2 d

(2.0 106 C)(4.0 cm)

+ 2 = 0 x2 =

=

= 8.0 cm

(d + x2 ) x2

(q1 + q2 )

(1.0 106 C)

So the two locations where the potential is zero are 1.6 cm from the negative charge toward the

positive charge and 8.0 cm from the negative charge away from the positive charge.

26.

A

Let the side length of the equilateral triangle be A. Imagine bringing the e

electrons in from infinity one at a time. It takes no work to bring the first

A

A

electron to its final location, because there are no other charges present.

Thus W1 = 0. The work done in bringing in the second electron to its

final location is equal to the charge on the electron times the potential

e

(due to the first electron) at the final location of the second electron.

1 e

1 e2

. The work done in bringing the third electron to its final

Thus W2 = (e)

=

4 0 A 4 0 L

location is equal to the charge on the electron times the potential (due to the first two electrons). Thus

1 e

1 e

1 2e 2

W3 = (e)

. The total work done is the sum W1 + W2 + W3 .

=

4 0 A 4 0 A 4 0 A

W = W1 + W2 + W3 = 0 +

e2

1 2e 2

1 3e2 3(8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )(1.60 1019 C) 2

+

=

=

4 0 A 4 0 A

4 0 A

(1.0 1010 m)

1

1 eV

= 6.9 1018 J = 6.9 1018 J

1.60 1019

27.

(a)

= 43 eV

J

Vba = Vb Va =

1 1

kq kq

= kq

rb ra

rb ra

1

1

4

= (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )(3.8 106 C)

= 1.6 10 V

0.88 m 0.62 m

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-10

Chapter 17

(b)

is given by Eq. 164a. The direction of the electric field

due to a negative charge is toward the charge, so the

field at point a will point downward, and the field at

point b will point to the right. See the vector diagram.

G

Eb

G

Ea

G

G

E b Ea

G

Eb

G

kq

(8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )(3.8 106 C)

Eb = 2 right =

right = 4.4114 104 V/m, right

rb

(0.88 m) 2

G

kq

(8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )(3.8 106 C)

Ea = 2 down =

down = 8.8871 104 V/m, down

rb

(0.62 m)2

G

G

Eb Ea = Ea2 + Eb2 = (4.4114 104 V/M) 2 (8.8871 104 V/m)2 = 9.9 104 V/m

= tan 1

28.

Ea

88871

= tan 1

= 64

Eb

44114

The potential energy of the two-charge configuration (assuming they are both point charges) is given

in Conceptual Example 177. Note that the charges have equal but opposite charge.

QQ

e2

PE = k 1 2 = k

r

1

1

PE = PE final PE initial = ke2

r

r

initial final

1

1

1 eV

= (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )(1.60 1019 C) 2

= 1.31 eV

29.

We assume that all of the energy the proton gains in being accelerated by the

voltage is changed to potential energy just as the protons outer edge reaches

the outer radius of the silicon nucleus.

e(14e)

r

14e

(14)(1.60 1019 C)

=k

= (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

= 4.2 106 V

r

(1.2 + 3.6) 1015 m

PEinitial = PE final

Vinitial

30.

eVinitial = k

k ( q) kq k ( q)

1 1

1

kq

1

VBA = VB VA =

+

+

+

= kq

b b d b

d b

d b b b d b

1 2kq(2b d )

1

= 2kq

=

b( d b)

d b b

31.

(a)

Vinitial = k

qp

ratom

(1.60 1019 C)

0.53 1010 m

27 V

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

G

Ea

Electric Potential

(b)

The kinetic energy can be found from the fact that the magnitude of the net force on the electron,

which is the attraction by the proton, is causing circular motion.

qp qe

m 2

e2

e2

Fnet = e = k 2

me 2 = k

KE = 12 me 2 = 12 k

ratom

ratom

raton

ratom

= 12 (8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

= 2.171 1018 J

(c)

17-11

(1.60 1019 C) 2

(0.53 10

10

m)

1 eV

13.57 eV 14 eV

1.60 1019 J

The total energy of the electron is the sum of its KE and PE. The PE is found from Eq. 172a and

is negative since the electrons charge is negative.

Etotal = PE + KE = eV + 12 me 2 = k

e2

+ 12 k

ratom

e2

ratom

= 12 k

e2

ratom

(d)

If the electron is taken to infinity at rest, then both its PE and KE would be 0. The amount of

energy needed by the electron to have a total energy of 0 is just the opposite of the answer to

part (c), 2.2 1018 J or 14 eV .

32.

The dipole moment is the product of the magnitude of one of the charges and the separation distance.

p = QA = (1.60 1019 C)(0.53 1010 m) = 8.5 1030 C m

33.

(a)

V=

kp cos

r

(2.4 10

m)

= 6.6 103 V

(b)

V=

kp cos

r2

= 4.6 103 V

(c)

V=

kp cos

r

(2.4 10

m)

= 4.6 103 V

34.

(2.4 109 m) 2

G

G

G

We assume that p1 and p 2 are equal in magnitude and that each makes a 52 angle with p. The

G

magnitude of p1 is also given by p1 = qd , where q is the charge on the hydrogen atom and d is the

distance between the H and the O.

p = 2 p1 cos 52

q=

p1 =

p

= qd

2 cos 52

p

6.1 1030 C m

=

= 5.2 1020 C , about 3.2 electrons charge

2d cos 52 2(0.96 1010 m) cos 52

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-12

35.

Chapter 17

Q = CV

36.

C=

Q = CV

37.

Q 2.5 103 C

=

= 2.6 106 F

V

960 V

V=

Q 16.5 108 C

=

= 19 V

C 8.5 109 F

Q = CV = (5.00 106 F)(12.0 V) = 6.00 105 C

38.

C=

0 A

d

A=

Cd

(8.85 10

12

C /N m )

= 7.2 107 m 2

Note that this is not very realisticif it were square, each side would be about 8500 m.

39.

Let Q1 and V1 be the initial charge and voltage on the capacitor, and let Q2 and V2 be the final

charge and voltage on the capacitor. Use Eq. 177 to relate the charges and voltages to the capacitance.

Q1 = CV1 Q2 = CV2

C=

40.

Q2 Q1 15 106 C

=

= 6.3 107 F

24 V

V2 V1

The desired electric field is the value of V /d for the capacitor. Combine Eq. 177 and Eq. 178 to

find the charge.

Q = CV =

0 AV

d

= 3.39 108 C

41.

Q = CV =

42.

0 AV

d

= 0 AE

A=

Q

=

0E

(4.2 106 C)

2000 V

(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 ) 3

10 m

= 0.24 m 2

The work to move the charge between the capacitor plates is W = qV , where V is the voltage

difference between the plates, assuming that q << Q so that the charge on the capacitor does not

change appreciably. The charge is then found from Eq. 177.

CW (15 106 F)(18 J)

Q

=

= 0.90 C

W = qV = q Q =

q

C

0.30 103 C

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

43.

17-13

C=

0 A

d=

0 A

= 9 1016 m

(1 F)

No, this is not practically achievable. The gap would have to be smaller than the radius of a proton.

44.

From Eq. 174a, the voltage across the capacitor is the magnitude of the electric field times the

separation distance of the plates. Use that with Eq. 177.

Q = CV = CEd

45.

E=

(62 106 C)

Q

=

= 3.9 104 V/m

Cd (0.80 106 F)(2.0 103 m)

The total charge on the combination of capacitors is the sum of the charges on the two individual

capacitors, since there is no battery connected to them to supply additional charge, and there is no

neutralization of charge by combining positive and negative charges. The voltage across each capacitor

must be the same after they are connected, since each capacitor plate is connected to a corresponding

plate on the other capacitor by a constant-potential connecting wire. Use the total charge and the fact

of equal potentials to find the charge on each capacitor and the common potential difference.

Q1

initial

= C1V1

Q2

initial

QTotal = Q1

initial

+ Q2

C1V1

initial

Vfinal =

initial

initial

= C2V2

= Q1

final

+ C2V2

initial

C1 + C2

Q1

initial

final

+ Q2

final

= C1Vfinal

= C1V1

initial

Q2

final

+ C2V2

initial

= C2Vfinal

= C1Vfinal + C2Vfinal

(9.30 106 F)

= 611.46 V 611 V = V1 = V2

Q1

final

46.

After the first capacitor is disconnected from the battery, the total charge must remain constant. The

voltage across each capacitor must be the same when they are connected, since each capacitor plate is

connected to a corresponding plate on the other capacitor by a constant-potential connecting wire. Use

the total charge and the final potential difference to find the value of the second capacitor.

QTotal = C1V1

Q1

initial

QTotal = Q1

final

final

+ Q2

final

= C1Vfinal

Q2

= (C1 + C2 )Vfinal

final

= C2Vfinal

C1V1

initial

= (C1 + C2 )Vfinal

V1

165 V

initial

C 2 = C1

1 = (7.7 106 F)

1 = 7.7 105 F

V

15

V

final

47.

C = K0

A

(6.6 102 m) 2

= (2.2)(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )

= 4.7 1011 F

d

(1.8 103 m)

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-14

48.

Chapter 17

C = K0

49.

A

(5.0 102 m) 2

= (7)(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )

= 1.7 1010 F

3

d

(2.8 10 m)

Since the capacitor is disconnected from the battery, the charge on it cannot change. The capacitance

of the capacitor is increased by a factor of K, the dielectric constant.

Q = CinitialVinitial = CfinalVfinal

50.

Vfinal = Vinitial

Cinitial

C

1

= Vinitial initial = (21.0 V)

= 9.5 V

Cfinal

KCinitial

2.2

The initial charge on the capacitor is Qinitial = CinitialV . When the mica is inserted, the capacitance

changes to Cfinal = KCinitial , and the voltage is unchanged since the capacitor is connected to the same

battery. The final charge on the capacitor is Qfinal = CfinalV .

Q = Qfinal Qinitial = CfinalV CinitialV = ( K 1)CinitialV = (7 1)(3.5 109 F)(32 V)

= 6.7 107 C

51.

The capacitance is found from Eq. 177, with the voltage given by Eq. 174 (ignoring the sign).

Q = CV = C ( Ed ) C =

Q

0.675 106 C

=

= 4.20 109 F

4

3

Ed (8.24 10 V/m)(1.95 10 m)

C = K0

52.

A=

Cd

(4.20 109 F)(1.95 103 m)

=

= 0.247 m 2

K 0 (3.75)(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )

PE = 12 CV 2 = 12 (2.8 109 F)(650 V) 2 = 5.9 104 J

53.

The capacitance can be found from the stored energy using Eq. 1710.

2

PE = 12 CV

54.

C=

2( PE )

V

2(1200 J)

(5.0 103 V) 2

= 9.6 105 F

The two charged plates form a capacitor. Use Eq. 178 to calculate the capacitance and Eq. 1710 for

the energy stored in the capacitor.

C=

55.

(a)

0 A

d

1

2

Q2 1 Q2d 1

(3.7 104 C)2 (1.5 103 m)

=2

=2

= 1.8 103 J

0 A

C

(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )(8.0 102 m) 2

C=

(b)

PE =

0 A

d

(4 102 m)

Q = CV = (9.081 1012 F)(9 V) = 8.173 1011 C 8 1011 C

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Electric Potential

(c)

Use Eq. 174b to estimate the (assumed uniform) electric field between the plates. The actual

location of the field measurement is not critical in this approximation.

E=

(d)

17-15

V

9V

=

= 225 V/m 200 V/m

d 4 102 m

By energy conservation, the work done by the battery to charge the plates is the potential energy

stored in the capacitor, given by Eq. 1710.

PE = 12 QV = 12 (8.173 1011 C)(9 V) = 3.678 1010 J 4 1010 J

56.

(e)

If a dielectric is inserted, then the capacitance changes. Thus the charge on the capacitor and the

work done by the battery also change. The electric field does not change because it only depends

on the battery voltage and the plate separation.

(a)

A

, since the separation of the plates is halved, the

d

Q2

, since the charge is

C

constant and the capacitance is doubled, the energy is halved. So the energy stored changes by a

factor of

(b)

1

2

1

2

The work done to move the plates together will be negative work, since the plates will naturally

attract each other. The work is the change in the stored energy.

Q2

Q2

Q2 d

= 14

=

C

A

4 0 A

57.

Energy density = 12 0 E 2 = 12 (8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )(150 V/m)2 = 1.0 107 J/m3

58.

(a)

Before the two capacitors are connected, all of the stored energy is in the first capacitor. Use

Eq. 1710.

PE = 12 CV 2 = 12 (3.70 106 F)(12.0 V) 2 = 2.664 104 J 2.66 104 J

(b)

After the first capacitor is disconnected from the battery, the total charge must remain constant,

and the voltage across each capacitor must be the same, since each capacitor plate is connected

to a corresponding plate on the other capacitor by a connecting wire which always has a constant

potential. Use the total charge and the fact of equal potentials to find the charge on each

capacitor and then calculate the stored energy.

Qtotal = C1Vinitial = (3.70 106 F)(12.0 V) = 4.44 105 C

Q1 Q2 Qtotal Q1

=

=

C1 C2

C2

Q1 = C1V

Q2 = C2V

Q1 = Qtotal

C1

(3.70 106 F)

= (4.44 105 C)

= 1.888 105 C

6

C1 + C2

(8.70 10 F)

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-16

Chapter 17

Q2

Q2

(1.888 105 C) 2

(2.552 105 C) 2

PE total = PE1 + PE 2 = 12 1 + 12 2 = 12

+

6

C1

C2

(5.00 106 F)

(3.70 10 F)

(c)

PE = PE final PEinitial = 1.133 104 J 2.664 104 J = 1.53 104 J

59.

To turn decimal into binary, we need to use the largest power of 2 that is smaller than the decimal

number with which we start. That would be 26 = 64, so there is a 1 in the 64s place. Subtracting 64

from 116 leaves 52. The next power of 2 is 25 = 32, so there is a 1 in the 32s place. Subtracting 32

from 52 leaves 20. The next power of 2 is 24 = 16, so there is a 1 in the 16s place. Subtracting 16

from 20 leaves 4, so there is a 0 in the 8s place, a 1 in the 4s place, a 0 in the 2s place, and a

0 in the 1s place. 64 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 = 116, so 116 decimal = 1110100 binary.

60.

The given binary number has a 1 in the 1s place, the 4s place, the 16s place, and the 64s place, so

we have 1 + 4 + 16 + 64 = 85, and 01010101 binary = 85 decimal . Another way to calculate it is that

01010101 = 20 + 22 + 24 + 26 = 1 + 4 + 16 + 64 = 85.

61.

Each 1 in the given binary contributes a certain power of 2 to the total value.

1010101010101010 = 21 + 23 + 25 + 27 + 29 + 211 + 213 + 215

= 2 + 8 + 32 + 128 + 512 + 2048 + 8192 + 32768 = 43,690 decimal

62.

(a)

A 4-bit number can represent 16 different values, from 0 to 15. Thus if 5.0 volts is to be the

maximum value, then each binary number would represent 5.0 V/15 = 1/3 V. Since 1011 binary

= 1 + 2 + 8 = 11 decimal, 1011 binary = 11( 13 V) = 3 32 V .

63.

(b)

2.0 volts is 6 units of 1/3 volt each, so the binary representation is 0110, which is equal to 6 in

the decimal system.

(a)

(b)

(c)

For 3 subpixels each with an 8-bit value, 24 bits are needed. This is the same as part (b), so

224 = 16,777,216 different colors are possible.

64.

We see that they have a base 4 counting system, because the decimal number 5 is represented as 11,

which would be a 1 in the 1s place and a 1 in the 4s place. Making an analogy to humans, we

have 5 digits on each hand and use base 10. Since the extraterrestrials use base 4, they must have 2

fingers on each hand, for a total of 4 fingers.

65.

(a)

The monitor screen is redrawn at regular intervals. Even though the mouse cursor moves in a

continuous motion, its location is only drawn at those regular intervals. It is somewhat like a

strobe light effect.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

(b)

17-17

Position #1 Time = 0

Position #2 Time = T

Position #3 Time = 2T

Position #4 Time = 3T

Position #15 Time = 14T = 0.25 seconds

Thus there are 15 images in 0.25 seconds. The refresh time would be T = 0.25/14 = 0.018

second. The refresh rate is the reciprocal of this, which is 56 Hz.

66.

during the horizontal acceleration phase, energy will be

conserved. The horizontal speed of the electron x can

be found from the accelerating potential V . Next,

during the deflection phase, a vertical force will be

applied by the uniform electric field which gives the

electron an upward velocity, y . We assume that there

G

E

vx

eV = 12 m 2x

11cm

30o

xscreen

Finally, after the electron leaves the region of electric

field, it travels in a straight line to the top of the screen,

moving at an angle of approximately 30.

Acceleration:

PE initial = KE final

22 cm

xfield

x = 2e V /m

Deflection:

Time in field: xfield = x tfield

Fy = eE = ma y

ay =

tfield =

xfield

eE xfield

eE

y = y 0 + a y tfield = 0 +

m

m x

Screen:

xscreen = x tscreen

yscreen y

=

=

xscreen x

tscreen =

eE xfield

m x

xscreen

eE xfield

m x2

yscreen = y tscreen = y

xscreen

2eV

yscreen m

3

yscreen m x2

m = 2V yscreen = 2(9.0 10 V)(0.11 m)

E=

=

xscreen exfield xscreen exfield xscreen xfield [(0.22 m)cos 30](0.028 m)

= 3.712 105 V/m 3.7 105 V/m

As a check on our assumptions, we calculate the upward distance that the electron would move while

in the electric field.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-18

Chapter 17

2

eE (xfield ) 2 E (xfield ) 2

eE x

2

y = y 0tfield + 12 a y tfield

= 0 + 12 field =

=

4V

2eV

m x

2m

m

=

= 8.1 103 m

4(9000 V)

This is about 7% of the total 11-cm vertical deflection. For an estimation, our approximation is

acceptable.

67.

would hit the center of the screen. If an electric field

of a certain direction moves the electrons toward one

G

yscreen = 15cm

E

extreme of the screen, then the opposite field will

move the electrons to the opposite extreme of the

vx

screen. So we solve for the field to move the electrons

to one extreme of the screen. Consider three parts to

xscreen = 34 cm

the electrons motion and see the diagram, which is a

x field = 2.6 cm

top view. First, during the horizontal acceleration

phase, energy will be conserved. The horizontal speed

of the electron x can be found from the accelerating potential V . Next, during the deflection phase, a

vertical force will be applied by the uniform electric field which gives the electron a leftward velocity,

y . We assume that there is very little leftward displacement during this time. Finally, after the

electron leaves the region of electric field, it travels in a straight line to the left edge of the screen.

Acceleration:

eV = 12 m 2x

PE initial = KE final

x = 2e V /m

Deflection:

time in field: xfield = x tfield

Fy = eE = ma y

ay =

tfield =

eE

m

xfield

y = y 0 + a y tfield = 0 +

eE xfield

m x

Screen:

xscreen = x tscreen

yscreen

=

=

xscreen x

tscreen =

eE xfield

m x

xscreen

eE xfield

m x2

yscreen = y tscreen = y

xscreen

2eV

yscreen m

3

yscreen m x2

m = 2V yscreen = 2(6.0 10 V)(0.15 m)

E=

=

(0.34 m)(0.026 m)

xscreen exfield xscreen exfield xscreen xfield

= 2.04 105 V/m 2.0 105 V/m

As a check on our assumptions, we calculate the upward distance that the electron would move while

in the electric field.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

17-19

eE (xfield ) 2 E (xfield ) 2

eE x

2

y = 0tfield + 12 a y tfield

= 0 + 12 field =

=

4V

2eV

m x

2m

m

=

= 6 103 m

4(6000 V)

This is about 4% of the total 15-cm vertical deflection. Thus for an estimation, our approximation is

acceptable. The field must vary from +2.0 105 V/m to 2.0 105 V/m .

68.

(a)

The energy is related to the charge and the potential difference by Eq. 173.

PE = qV

(b)

V =

The energy (as heat energy) is used to raise the temperature of the water and boil it. Assume that

room temperature is 20C. Use Eq. 142 and Eq. 144.

Q = mcT + mLF

m=

69.

PE 5.2 106 J

=

= 1.3 106 V

q

4.0 C

Q

5.2 106 J

=

= 2.0 kg

cT + LF

J

5 J

4186

(80 C) + 22.6 10

kg C

kg

The electric force on the electron must be the same magnitude as the weight of the electron. The

magnitude of the electric force is the charge on the electron times the magnitude of the electric field.

The electric field is the potential difference per meter: E = V /d .

FE = mg ; FE = q E = eV /d

V=

eV /d = mg

=

= 1.3 1012 V

19

e

1.60 10

C

Since it takes such a tiny voltage to balance gravity, the thousands of volts in a television set are more

than enough (by many orders of magnitude) to move electrons upward against the force of gravity.

70.

The energy stored in the capacitor is given by Eq. 1710, PE = 12 CV 2 . As the plates are separated, the

voltage is held constant by the battery. Since the separation distance has doubled, the capacitance has

been multiplied by , using Eq. 178. Thus the stored energy has been multiplied by .

71.

The capacitor is charged and isolated, so the amount of charge on the capacitor cannot change.

(a)

The stored energy is given by Eq. 1710, PE = 12 QV . The charge does not change, and the

potential difference is doubled, so the stored energy is multiplied by 2.

(b)

Q2

. The charge does not change. The

C

capacitance would be reduced by a factor of 2 if the plate separation were doubled, according to

Eq. 178, so the stored energy is multiplied by 2.

1

2

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-20

72.

Chapter 17

The energy in the capacitor, given by Eq. 1710, is the heat energy absorbed by the water, given by

Eq. 142.

PE = Qheat

V=

1 CV 2

2

= mcT

J

2(2.8 kg) 4186

(95C 21C)

kg C

= 658 V 660 V

4.0 F

2mcT

=

C

73.

The proton would gain half the kinetic energy as compared to the alpha particle. The alpha particle has

twice the charge of the proton, so it will have twice the potential energy for the same voltage. Thus the

alpha will have twice the kinetic energy of the proton after acceleration.

74.

We assume there is a uniform electric field between the capacitor plates, so that V = Ed . Combine

Eq. 177 with Eq. 178 and Eq. 174.

Q = CV =

0 A

d

V = 0 A

V

= 0 AE = (8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )(65 104 m 2 )(3.0 106 V/m)

d

= 1.7 107 C

75.

76.

Use Eq. 175 to find the potential due to each charge. Since the triangle is

equilateral, the 30-60-90 triangle relationship says that the distance from a

corner to the midpoint of the opposite side is 3A /2.

VA =

1

kQ

+

+

=

4 +

= 6.85

A /2

A /2

A

A

3A /2

3

VB =

kQ

kQ

+

+

= 2 3

= 3.46

A /2

A /2

A

A

3A /2

VC =

kQ

2kQ

1

+

+

=

2+

= 5.15

A /2

A /2

A

A

3A /2

3

Q

A

+Q

C

3Q

The energy is given by Eq. 1710. Calculate the energy difference for the two different amounts of

charge and then solve for the difference.

Q

PE = 12

PE =

1

2

(Q + Q) 2 1 Q 2

1

Q

2

=

[(Q + Q) 2 Q 2 ] =

[2Q + Q]

C

C

2C

2C

C (PE) 1

(17.0 106 F)(15.2 J) 1

2 Q =

2 (13.0 103 C) = 13.4 102 C

3

Q

(13.0 10 C)

Because of the inverse square nature of the electric

x

d

field, any location where the field is zero must be

closer to the weaker charge (q2 ). Also, in between

q2 < 0

q1 > 0

the two charges, the fields due to the two charges

are parallel to each other (both to the left) and cannot cancel. Thus the only places where the

field can be zero are closer to the weaker charge, but not between them. In the diagram, they are

labeled x.

Q=

77.

(a)

E=k

q2

x

q1

(d + x) 2

=0

q2 (d + x)2 = q1 x 2

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

x=

(b)

q2

q1

q2

d=

2.6 106 C

3.4 106 C 2.6 106 C

17-21

d

x1

x2

everywhere, and the potential due to the negative

charge is negative everywhere. Since the negative

q2 < 0

q1 > 0

charge is smaller in magnitude than the positive

charge, any point where the potential is zero must

be closer to the negative charge. Consider locations between the charges ( x1 ) and to the left of

the negative charge ( x2 ) as shown in the diagram.

Vlocation 1 =

kq1

kq

q2 d

(2.6 106 C)(2.5 cm)

+ 2 = 0 x1 =

=

= 1.1 cm

(d x1 ) x1

(q2 q1 )

(6.0 106 C)

Vlocation 2 =

kq1

kq

q2 d

(2.6 106 C)(2.5 cm)

+ 2 = 0 x2 =

=

= 8.1 cm

(d + x2 ) x2

(q1 q2 )

(0.8 106 C)

So the two locations where the potential is zero are 1.1 cm from the negative charge toward the

positive charge and 8.1 cm from the negative charge away from the positive charge.

78.

Since the electric field points downward, the surface of the Earth is at a lower potential than above

the surface. Call the potential of the surface of the Earth 0. Then a height of 2.00 m has a potential of

300 V. We also call the surface of the Earth the 0 location for gravitational PE. Write conservation of

energy relating the charged spheres at 2.00 m (where their speed is 0) and at ground level (where their

electrical and gravitational potential energies are 0).

qV

= 6.3073 m/s

(0.670 kg)

= 6.2143 m/s

(0.670 kg)

79.

(a)

PE = 12 CV 2 = 12 (5.0 108 F)(3.5 104 V) 2 = 30.625 J 31 J

(b)

80.

Energy 0.12(30.625 J)

P=

=

= 5.9 105 W

6

time

6.2 10 s

The kinetic energy of the electrons (provided by the UV light) is converted completely to potential

energy at the plate since they are stopped. Use energy conservation to find the emitted speed, taking

the 0 of PE to be at the surface of the barium.

KEinitial = PE final

2qV

=

m

1 m 2

2

= qV

9.11 1031 kg

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-22

81.

Chapter 17

Let d1 represent the distance from the left charge to point B, and let d 2 represent the distance from

the right charge to point B. Let Q represent the positive charges, and let q represent the negative charge

that moves. The change in potential energy is given by Eq. 173.

PE B PE A = qVBA = q (VB VA )

kQ

kQ kQ

kQ

+

+

PE B PE A = q (VB VA ) = q

1

1

1

1

= kQq

+

+

= (8.99 109 )( 1.5 106 C)(38 106 C)(3.477 m 1 ) = 1.782 J 1.8 J

82.

K 0 A 3.7(8.85 1012 F/m)(0.21 m)(0.14 m)

C0 =

=

= 8.752 109 F 8.8 nF

3

d

0.11 10 m

(b)

Maximum charge will occur when the electric field between the plates is equal to the dielectric

strength. The charge will be equal to the capacitance multiplied by the maximum voltage, where

the maximum voltage is the electric field times the separation distance of the plates.

Qmax = C0V = C0 Ed = (8.752 109 F)(15 106 V/m)(0.11 103 m)

= 1.444 105 C 14 C

83.

A

(0.55 102 m) 2

Q = CV = K 0 V = (3.7)(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )

(12 V) = 3.7 1010 C

3

d

(0.10 10 m)

84.

(a)

Use Eq. 175 to calculate the potential due to the charges. Let the distance between the charges

be d.

kQ1

kQ2

2k

2(8.99 109 N m 2 /C2 )

Vmid =

+

=

(Q1 + Q2 ) =

(3.5 106 C 7.2 106 C)

(d /2) (d /2) d

(0.23 m)

= 2.9 105 V

(b)

Use Eq. 164a to calculate the electric field. Note that the field due to each of the two charges

will point to the left, away from the positive charge and toward the negative charge. Find the

magnitude of the field using the absolute value of the charges.

Emid =

=

85.

(a)

kQ1

(d /2)

k Q2

(d /2)

4k

d2

(Q1 + Q2 )

(0.23 m) 2

Q = CV =

0 A

d

V=

(5.0 104 m)

6.4 1011 C

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

(b)

17-23

The charge does not change. Since the capacitor is not connected to a battery, no charge can flow

to it or from it. Thus Q = 6.372 1011 C 6.4 1011 C .

(c)

The separation distance was multiplied by a factor of 1.5. The capacitance is inversely

proportional to the separation distance, so the capacitance was divided by a factor of 1.5. Since

Q = CV , if the charge does not change and the capacitance is divided by a factor of 1.5, then the

voltage must have increased by a factor of 1.5.

Vfinal = 1.5Vinitial = 1.5(12 V) = 18 V

(d)

W = PE final PEinitial = 12 QVfinal 12 QVinitial = 12 Q(Vfinal Vinitial )

= 12 (6.372 1011 C)(18 V 12 V) = 1.912 1010 J 2 1010 J

86.

The energy stored in the capacitor is given by Eq. 1710. The final energy is half the initial energy.

Find the final charge and then subtract the final charge from the initial charge to find the charge lost.

Efinal = 12 Einitial

1

2

2

Qfinal

Q2

= 12 12 initial

C

C

Qfinal =

Qinitial

1

1

6

Qlost = Qinitial Qfinal = Qinitial 1

= CV 1

= (2.1 10 F)(6.0 V)(0.2929)

2

2

= 3.7 106 C

87.

(a)

We assume that Q2 is held at rest. The energy of the system will then be conserved, with the

initial potential energy of the system all being changed to kinetic energy after a very long time.

Einitial = Efinal

1 =

(b)

PEinitial = KE final

kQ1Q2 1

= 2 m112

r

2kQ1Q2

=

m1r

In this case, both the energy and the momentum of the system will be conserved. Since the initial

momentum is zero, the magnitudes of the momenta of the two charges will be equal.

0 = m11 + m22

pinitial = pfinal

Einitial = Efinal

PEinitial = KE final

2 = 1

kQ1Q2 1

m

= 2 m112 + 12 m222 = 12 m112 + m2 1 1

r

m

2

1 =

2kQ1Q2 m2

=

m1 (m1 + m2 )r

m1

m2

1

2

m1

(m1 + m2 )12

m2

(1.5 106 kg)(4.0 106 m)(4.0 102 m)

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-24

88.

Chapter 17

kq kq

kq k

1

kq

VAB = VA VB = 1 + 2 2 + 1 = (q1 q2 ) 1

2d d

2d d

2

d

89.

1

5

(4.5 106 C) 1

= 1.2 10 V

0.1 m

2

The potential of the Earth will increase because the neutral Earth will now be charged by the

removing of the electrons. The excess charge will be the elementary charge times the number of

electrons removed. We approximate this change in potential by using a spherical Earth with all the

excess charge at the surface.

1.602 1019 C

6.02 1023 molecules 1000 kg 4

10 e

3

Q=

3 (0.00175 m)

H O molecule

.

0

018

kg

e

m

= 1203 C

V=

90.

4 0 REarth

1203 C

6

6.38 10 m

= 1.7 106 V

As an estimate, the length of the bolt would be the voltage difference of the bolt divided by the

breakdown electric field of air.

5 107 V

3 106 V/m

= 16.7 m 20 m

If the lightning strikes from a height of 750 m (roughly a half-mile), then 40 or more steps might be

involved.

91.

If we assume that the electric field is uniform, then we can use Eq. 174a to estimate the magnitude of

the electric field. From Eq. 1610 we have an expression for the electric field due to a pair of

oppositely charged planes. We approximate the area of a shoe as 30 cm 8 cm. Answers will vary with

the shoe size approximation.

E=

Q=

92.

V

Q

=

=

d 0 0 A

0 AV

d

m

= 1.3 106 C

Q = C V ; t =

93.

1.0 10

Q

C V

(1200 F)(6.0 V)

=

=

= 7.2 106

Q /t Q /t

1.0 103 C/s

1d

s

= 83 d

86,400 s

To find the angle, the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity are needed. The horizontal

component can be found using conservation of energy for the initial acceleration of the electron. That

component is not changed as the electron passes through the plates. The vertical component can be

found using the vertical acceleration due to the potential difference of the plates and the time the

electron spends between the plates.

Horizontal:

PEinital = KE final

qV = 12 m 2x

t=

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

17-25

Vertical:

FE = qE y = ma = m

( y 0 y )

t

qE y t

m

qE y x

m x

Combined:

tan =

y

x

qE y x

=

m x

qE y x

m x2

250 V

( 0.065 m )

0.013 m

=

=

=

= 0.284

2qV

2V

2(2200 V)

qE y x

E y x

= tan21 0.284 = 16

94.

(a)

The absolute value of the charge on each plate is given by Eq. 177. The plate with electrons has

a net negative charge.

Q = CV

N=

(b)

(a)

=

= 3.281 105 3.3 105 electrons

19

e

1.60 10

C

Since the charge is directly proportional to the potential difference, a 2.0% decrease in potential

difference corresponds to a 2.0% decrease in charge.

Q = 0.020Q

t =

95.

N (e) = CV

Q

0.020Q 0.020CV 0.020(35 1015 F)(1.5 V)

=

=

=

= 3.5 s

Q /t Q /t

Q /t

0.30 1015 C/s

From Problem 94, we have C = 35 1015 F. Use Eq. 179 to calculate the area.

A

C = K0

6

Cd

(35 1015 F)(2.0 109 m)

2 10 m

13

A=

=

=

3

.

164

10

m

1 m

K 0 (25)(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )

= 0.3164 m 2 0.32 m 2

(b)

Half of the area of the cell is used for capacitance, so 1.5 cm 2 is available for capacitance. Each

capacitor is one bit.

2 10

1 bit

1.5 cm 2

10 cm 0.32 m 2

96.

(a)

1 byte

7

= 5.86 10 bytes 59 Mbytes

8

bits

C0 =

0 A

d

(3.0 103 m)

= 5.9 109 F

Q0 = C0V0 = (5.9 109 F)(35 V) = 2.065 107 C 2.1 107 C

The electric field is the potential difference divided by the plate separation.

E0 =

V0

35 V

=

= 11667 V/m 1.2 104 V/m

d 3.0 103 m

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-26

Chapter 17

PE 0 = 12 C0V02 = 12 (5.9 109 F)(35 V) 2 = 3.614 106 J 3.6 106 J

(b)

Now include the dielectric. The capacitance is multiplied by the dielectric constant.

C = KC0 = 3.2(5.9 109 F) = 1.888 108 F 1.9 108 F

The voltage doesnt change. Use Eq. 177 to calculate the charge.

Q = CV = KC0V = 3.2(5.9 109 F)(35 V) = 6.608 107 C 6.6 107 C

Since the battery is still connected, the voltage is the same as before. Thus the electric field

doesnt change.

E = E0 = 1.2 104 V/m

PE = 12 CV 2 = 12 KC0V 2 = 12 (3.2)(5.9 109 F)(35 V) 2 = 1.2 105 J

1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

2.

(a)

An equipotential surface is one in which all points are at the same potential.

An equipotential surface must be perpendicular to the electric field at any point.

Equipotential lines and surfaces are always continuous.

Equipotential lines and surfaces never end.

The entire volume (including the surface) of a conductor is an equipotential.

No work is required to move a charged particle from one point on an equipotential surface to

another point on that surface.

Equipotential lines and surfaces cannot cross.

Electric field lines point from higher equipotential surfaces to lower equipotential surfaces.

Closer spacing of equipotentials indicates a larger electric field.

The contour values on the map are in feet (the mountains are about 2 miles above sea level).

There are six contour lines between Iceberg Lake and Cecile Lake. Each line is to be interpreted

as an 80-V difference, so the voltage difference is 480 V. The two lakes appear to be about

0.5 km apart. The magnitude of the electric field is equal to the change in voltage divided by the

separation distance, Eq. 174a.

E=

Vba 480 V

=

= 0.96 V/m 1 V/m

500 m

d

Iceberg Lake is lower than Cecile Lake, so the direction of the electric field is basically in the

+y direction. Answers may vary due to interpreting the figure.

(b)

At the Minaret Mine, the higher elevations are upward and leftward. The elevation rises about

400 ft (five contour lines) in about 500 m as you move in that direction. Thus the electric field

points downward and to the right. Calculate the magnitude by Eq. 174a.

E=

Vab 400 V

=

= 0.8 V/m, 45 below the + x axis

500 m

d

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Electric Potential

3.

(a)

C=

(b)

17-27

0 A

d

= 6.49 107 F 6.5 107 F = 65 F

(1500 m)

Q = CV = (6.49 107 F)(3.5 107 V) = 22.715 C 23 C

(c)

PE = 12 QV = 12 (22.715 C)(3.5 107 V) = 4.0 108 J

4.

(a)

Both of these equations for the potential energy can be obtained from Eq. 1710 by using

Eq. 177 first to eliminate the charge from the equation, and second to eliminate the voltage.

PE = 12 QV = 12 (CV )V = 12 CV 2

Q2

Q

= 12 QV = 12 Q = 12

C

C

(b)

(c)

The first equation ( PE = 12 CV 2 ) is used when the capacitance and voltage difference across the

capacitor is known, as when the capacitor is connected to a battery. The second equation

Q2

PE = 12

is used when the capacitance and charge are known, as when a specific charge is

C

Since the voltage is constant, we use the first equation for the potential energy, with the

capacitance equal to the product of the initial capacitance and the dielectric constant of the paper.

PE = 12 CV 2 = 12 ( KC0 )V 2 = K ( 12 C0V 2 ) = K ( PE 0 )

The potential energy in the capacitor will increase by a factor equal to the dielectric constant. For

a paper dielectric, the potential increases by a factor of 3.7.

(d)

In this case the charge is constant, so we use the second equation to determine the final energy.

PE =

Q2

Q2

1 Q2

=

=

2C 2 KC0 K 2C0

1

= ( PE 0 )

K

The potential energy in the capacitor decreases by a factor equal to the dielectric constant. For

quartz, the potential energy decreases to 1/4.3 = 0.23, or 23% of the initial value.

5.

(a)

1 hp

2

P = (75 103 W)

= 100.5 hp 1.0 10 hp

746

W

(b)

E = Pt = (75 103 W)(5.0 h)(3600 s/h) = 1.35 109 J 1.4 109 J

(c)

Use Eq. 1710, in terms of the capacitance and voltage, to solve for the capacitance.

PE = 12 CV 2

C=

2PE

V2

2(1.35 109 J)

(850 V) 2

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

17-28

Chapter 17

(d)

According to the text, the capacitance of 0.1 g of activated carbon is about 1 F. We again use

Eq. 1710 to find the capacitance and then convert to a mass of carbon.

C=

6.

2PE

V

2(1.35 109 J)

(10 V)

0.1 g

6

3

= 2.7 107 F ; 2.7 107 F

= 2.7 10 g = 2.7 10 kg

1

F

(e)

Cars have a mass on the order of 10002000 kg, so this capacitor would more than double the

mass of the car. This is not practical.

(a)

If N electrons flow onto the plate, then the charge on the top plate is Ne, and the positive

charge associated with the capacitor is Q = Ne. Since Q = CV , we have

Ne = CV

(b)

Ne

e N

V =

C

C

1

N

C =e

= (1.60 1019 C)

= 1.60 1016 F 2 1016 F

V

1 103 V

V=

(c)

Use Eq. 179 to solve for the side length of the capacitor.

C = 0 K

A=

A

A2

= 0 K

d

d

106 m

(1.60 1016 F)(100 109 m)

Cd

7

=

=

7

.

76

10

m

= 0.8 m

0K

(8.85 1012 C2 /N m 2 )(3)

1m

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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