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IE 5331 Sustainable Engineering

2012 fall

Chapter 1: Essential Concept and Technology


for Future Engineering

Zhang, Hong-Chao
Texas Tech University
Department of Industrial Engineering
August 30, 2012
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Glass or plastic bottle which


one is better for environment?

Sustainable Engineering

Course Outline
Chapter 1: Introduction to LCA
Chapter 2: Goal Definition and Scoping
Chapter 3: Life Cycle Inventory
Chapter 4: Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Chapter 5: Interpretation
Chapter 6: Economic Input-Output Analysis
Chapter 7: Case Studies
Chapter 8: New Trends
Course Project
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Sustainable Engineering

Questions
Sustainable engineering is
an emerging and popular topic in todays
engineering education practices.
As a future engineer, do you understand
what is sustainable engineering?
What is low carbon manufacturing?
What methodologies and tools are used in
todays industry practices for sustainability?
What are the future trends in this area?

Sustainable Engineering

Introduction-1
Objectives---This course will provide the
basis for understanding:
(1) what is envisioned as sustainable manufacturing and
how that associates to larger issues of global warming,
energy independence, and social impact;
(2) what comprises sustainable manufacturing practices
in for-profit enterprises;
(3) how to practice and measure continuous
improvement using sustainability thinking;
(4) techniques and tools for product and manufacturing
process design and development;
(5) effective communication of sustainability performance
to internal and external audiences.
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Sustainable Engineering

Introduction-1
A popular used analytical method
life cycle assessment (LCA), will be taught in
details. Students will learn the LCA method to
evaluate different products and their
environmental impacts by means of total life
cycle assessment.

Real world industrial case studies will be


introduced in this course.

Sustainable Engineering

Course Description
Prerequisite:
Consent of Instructor. Fundamental knowledge and
application theory for total Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
for products and manufacturing processes;
Analytical methods and application tools which are highly
demanded by modern manufacturing enterprises are
introduced.
Three-dimensional sustainability, i.e. environmental,
social, and economical are especially addresses by means
of industrial case studies.

Text book: No
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Sustainable Engineering Course

Description
Reference Book:
Henrik Wenzel, et al. Environmental
Assessment of Product, vol. 1 & 2,
Chapman & Hall, 1997.

Reference Website:
www.epa.gov
search for: EPA ---Life Cycle
Assessment Principles and practice
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Sustainable Engineering Course

Description
Cover page of LCA Doc
www.epa.gov/nrmrl/lcaccess/pdfs/600r06060
.pdf

Sustainable Engineering Coordinator


Hong C. Zhang, Professor:
Department of Industrial Engineering
E-mail: hong-chao.zhang@ttu.edu
Phone: 742-4853

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Sustainable Engineering

Educational Objectives:
This course will provide the basis for understanding:
(1) what is envisioned as sustainable manufacturing and
how that associates to larger issues of global warming,
energy independence, and social impact;
(2) what comprises sustainable manufacturing practices in
for-profit enterprises;
(3) how to practice and measure continuous improvement
using sustainability thinking;
(4) techniques and tools for product and manufacturing
process design and development;
(5) effective communication of sustainability performance
to internal and external audiences.
Upon completion of this course graduate students should be
able to learn the mostly quantitative and qualitative
methods, tools, and methodologies that widely used in 11
todays modern manufacturing practice.

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Sustainable Engineering Course


Outcomes:
This course will provide students with three broad
skills :
(1) Ability to select and utilize the appropriate quantitative
and qualitative concepts, tools, and methodologies, to
accomplish a real world case of total product life cycle
assessment;
(2) Ability to initiate, continue, summarize, and
successfully present the real world project work by means
of technical reporting, oral and visual poster presentation;
(3) Ability to collaborate with team members and handle
and enhance team work in a similarly real manufacturing
environment;

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Sustainable Engineering Course

Schedule:
Topic

Date

Part I
Introduction and Life Cycle Assessment
Goal Definition and Scoping

Part II
Life Cycle Inventory

Part III
Life Cycle Impact Assessment

8/28 9/11
9/13 9/27
10/02 10/23

Part IV
Life Cycle Interpretation
Economic Input-Output Analysis

10/25 11/06

Part V
Industrial Case Study
Life Cycle Assessment New Trends

Part VI
Final presentation

11/08 11/15
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11/27 12/04

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Sustainable Engineering Grading Polity:


Grading Polity:
Homework

20%

Project (including presentation)

50%

Test

30%

Letter grades will be based on a 90-80-70-60 scale.


All tests are close-book and close-note unless otherwise
stated. Homework and the project will be collected at the
beginning of each class. Delay in submission will cause
deduction of the scores.
The Professor reserves the right to assign the final grade
for the course. Condition to obtain a higher or lower grade
will depend upon 1) class participation, 2) attendance to
class, and 3) improved or declining performance on graded
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work.

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Sustainable Engineering General

Policies:
1. NO cellular phones, iPods (or any other MP3
player), and/or laptops are allowed during the
duration of the class period.
2. NO food is permitted during the lectures
(beverage ARE allowed to be consumed).
3. Class discussion is encouraged

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Sustainable Engineering Special

Needs:
Any student who, because of a disability, may require
special arrangements in order to meet the course
requirements should contact the professor as soon as
possible to make any necessary arrangements.
Students should present appropriate verification from
Student Disability Services during the professors office
hours. Please note professors are not allowed to provide
classroom accommodations to a student until appropriate
verification from Student Disability Services has been
provided.
For additional information, you may contact the Student
Disability Services office at 335 West Hall or 806-742-2405.

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We are lighting up the earth?!

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Credit:
Data courtesy Marc Imhoff of NASA GSFC and Christopher Elvidge of NOAA NGDC.
Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

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Sustainable Engineering

Topic

We do not inherit the Earth from


our parents; we borrow it from
our children.

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Sustainable Engineering

Burden on the Environment


National Safety Council Statistics:
By 2004, only 16% of computers were
recycled.
There will be 500 million obsolete
computers in US by 2007. The figure will
continue to increase.

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Sustainable Engineering

Burden on the Environment


500 million computers is equivalent to
A typical computer = 16 inches in length
One Mile = 5280ft
Total Distance = 126,263 miles
Earths equator =24,900miles
Circle the earth 5.1 times

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Sustainable Engineering

Life Cycle Concept


Extension of Life Cycle Concept
Product

Product
Design

Manufacturing

Utilization

Disposal
Reuse

Remanufacturing
Production &
Process recycling design
Logistic
Support

Production
Process

Production design &


production support
Application
phase

Recycling
Process
Support &
Maintenance

Recycling
Support

Utilization
phase

Recycling
phase

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Sustainable Engineering Definition


Sustainable manufacturing is defined as the
creation of manufactured products that use
processes that minimize negative environmental
impacts, conserve energy and natural resources,
are safe for employees, communities, and
consumers and are economically sound.
U.S. Department of Commerce Definition

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IE 5331: Sustainable Engineering


Introduction
Sustainable Development (SD)
A principle that economic development should meet
the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The essence is to recycle, reuse, and reduce material
service and protect global environment

Industrial Ecology (IE)


A strategy or practical approach to sustainability.
The decision making of industrial production should
take the operation of the ecosystem as a model to
formulate a close loop for substances and materials.
The principle of Industrial Ecology is to construct
mass conservation.

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Sustainable Engineering
Sustainable Manufacturing
Sustainable Manufacturing
Apply SD and IE to manufacturing to
reengineer product design, manufacturing
processes and system development to
efficiently utilize energy, raw materials, and
reactant to minimize the pollutants and to
support the sustainable development of the
mankind.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

OUTLINE
Definition of LCA
Components in LCIA
Goal Definition and Scoping
Inventory Analysis:
Impact Assessment
Interpretation
Benefits and Limitations of LCA
History of LCA
Conclusion

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

What is LCA? -1
As environmental awareness increases,
industries and businesses are assessing how
their activities affect the environment. Society
has become concerned about the issues of
natural resource depletion and environmental
degradation.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

What is LCA? -2
Many businesses have responded to this
awareness by providing greener products and
using greener processes.
The environmental performance of products and
processes has become a key issue, which is why
some companies are investigating ways to
minimize their effects on the environment.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

What is LCA? -3
Many companies have found it advantageous to
explore ways of moving beyond compliance
using pollution prevention strategies and
environmental management systems to improve
their environmental performance.
One such tool is LCA. This concept considers the
entire life cycle of a product.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

What is LCA? -4
Life cycle assessment is a cradle-to-grave
approach for assessing industrial systems.
cradle

to cradle -----begins ---- gathering of raw material from earth


ends ---- all material are returned to earth

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -1
LCA evaluates all stages of a products life from
the perspective that they are interdependent,
meaning that one operation leads to the next.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -2
LCA enables the estimation of the cumulative
environmental impacts resulting from all stages
in the product life cycle.
Often including impacts not considered in more
traditional analyses (e.g., raw material extraction,
material transportation, ultimate product disposal,
etc.).

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -3
By including the impacts throughout the product
life cycle, LCA provides:
A comprehensive view of the environmental
aspects of the product or process
A more accurate picture of the true
environmental trade-offs in product and process
selection.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -4
The term life cycle refers to the major activities
in the course of the products life-span:
From its manufacture, use, and maintenance, to
its final disposal;
Including the raw material acquisition required to
manufacture the product;

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -5
Life Cycle Stages
Outputs

Inputs

Raw Materials Acquisition


Raw
Material

Manufacturing

Atmospheric
Emission
Waterborne
Wastes
Solid
Wastes

Energy

Use / Reuse / Maintenance

Recycle / Waste Management

Coproducts
Other
Releases

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Why is LCA? -6
Specifically, LCA is a technique to assess the
environmental aspects and potential impacts
associated with a product, process, or service, by:
Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and
material inputs and environmental releases
Evaluating the potential environmental impacts
associated with identified inputs and releases
Interpreting the results to help decision-makers
make a more informed decision.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Evaluate the results of the inventory


analysis and impact assessment to Define and describe the
select the preferred product,
product, process or activity.
process or service with a clear
Establish the context in which
Life
Cycle Assessment
understanding of the
uncertainty
the assessment is to be made
and the assumptions used to
and identify the boundaries and
Framework
generate the results.
environmental effects to be
Goal Definition
reviewed for the assessment
and Scope
Identify and quantify energy,
water and materials usage and
environmental releases (e.g., air
emissions, solid waste disposal,
Inventory
waste Interpretation
water discharges).

LCA Phases -1

Analysis

Impact
Assessment

Assess the potential human and


ecological effects of energy,
water, and material usage and
the environmental releases
identified in the inventory
analysis

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

LCA Phases -2
Life cycle assessment is unique because it
encompasses all processes and environmental
releases beginning with the extraction of raw
materials and the production of energy used to
create the product through the use and final
disposition of the product.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -1
An LCA can help decision-makers select the
product or process that results in the least impact
to the environment.
This information can be used with other factors,
such as cost and performance data to select a
product or process.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -2
LCA data identifies the transfer of environmental
impacts:
From one media to another (e.g., eliminating air
emissions by creating a wastewater effluent instead)
And/or from one life cycle stage to another (e.g.,
from use and reuse of the product to the raw
material acquisition phase).

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -3
If an LCA were not performed, the transfer
might not be recognized and properly included
in the analysis because it is outside of the
typical scope or focus of product selection
processes.
LCA Helps to Avoid Shifting Environmental
Problems from One Place to Another

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -4
This ability to track and document shifts in
environmental impacts can help decision makers
and managers fully characterize the
environmental trade-offs associated with product
or process alternatives.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -5
By performing an LCA, analysts can:
Develop a systematic evaluation of the
environmental consequences associated with a
given product.
Analyze the environmental trade-offs associated
with one or more specific products/processes to
help stakeholder (state, community, etc.)
acceptance for a planned action.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -6
Quantify environmental releases to air, water,
and land in relation to each life cycle stage
and/or major contributing process.
Assist in identifying significant shifts in
environmental impacts between life cycle
stages and environmental media.
Assess the human and ecological effects of
material consumption and environmental
releases to the local community, region, and
world.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Benefits of LCA -7
Compare the health and ecological impacts
between two or more rival products/processes
or identify the impacts of a specific product or
process.
Identify impacts to one or more specific
environmental areas of concern.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Limitations of LCA -1
Performing an LCA can be resource and time
intensive.
Depending upon how thorough an LCA the user
wishes to conduct, gathering the data can be
problematic, and the availability of data can
greatly impact the accuracy of the final results.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Limitations of LCA -2
Therefore, it is important to weigh:
The availability of data,
The time necessary to conduct the study
The financial resources required against the
projected benefits of the LCA.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

Limitations of LCA -2
LCA will not determine which product or process
is the most cost effective or works the best.
Therefore, the information developed in an LCA
study should be used as one component of a
more comprehensive decision process assessing
the trade-offs with cost and performance, e.g.,
Life Cycle Management.

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

History of LCA -1
Early roots in the sixties in USA
energy analysis
packaging
Silent seventies
Awakening interest in the eighties
packaging again - this time in Europe
product stewardship from cradle to grave
(sustainability)
internationally co-ordinated method development

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

History of LCA -2
Consolidation during the nineties
growing product focus in industry and authorities
many new applications and practitioners
international standardisation (ISO)
Globalisation in the new millennium
the UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative

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Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

General Conclusion
Purpose of LCA:
Identify potential environmental tradeoffs
Benefits:
Help decision-makers compare all major
environmental impacts
Limitations:
Availability of data
Time cost to conduct this study
Financial resources required against the benefits

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Sustainable Engineering
Sustainable Manufacturing
Two Parts of Homework for today
04/13/2010
Part I:
Form your project group with total 5
students. Please send all four students
names to: sustain_homework@163.com
in either English or Chinese. Please use
asterisk * to denote who is the
coordinator.

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Sustainable Engineering
Sustainable Manufacturing
Homework for today, due on 09/06/2012
What do you expect to learn from this
course?
Please discuss in details what is WEEE
directive?
Please discuss in details what is RoHS
directive?
Please discuss in details what is ERP
directive?
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IE 5331: Sustainable Engineering

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