Anda di halaman 1dari 24

#8_STOPWATCH TIME STUDY

ANALISA DAN PENGUKURAN KERJA

LANGKAH LANGKAH PENGUKURAN [WAKTU] KERJA

2. Membagi operasi dalam elemen-elemen


Purpose : easy to measure & line balancing
Separate handling time (non-productive time) with
operation time (productive time)
Separate constant element with variable element.
Every element must have an easily identifiable starting
and ending point (breakpoints)
Continuities between elements
Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min (reasonable)

3. Metode Stopwatch Time Study

CONTINUOUS TIMING
Tombol stop-watch ditekan pada saat awal elemen kerja dan terus dibiarkan berjalan selama
periode studi. Pengamat terus melihat jalannya jarum stop-watch dan setiap awal/akhir dari
sebuah elemen kerja yang ada mencatat dan menuliskannya di lembar pengamatan. Waktu
setiap elemen kerja akan diperoleh dengan cara pengurangan dan dilakukan setelah studi
pengukuran kerja selesai dilaksanakan. APA KEKURANGAN-NYA???

REPETITIVE (SNAP-BACK METHOD)


Jarum penunjuk stop-watch selalu dikembalikan ke posisi nol setiap kali satu elemen kegiatan
selesai dilaksanakan. Waktu yang diamati dan dicatat akan merupakan waktu yang
sebenarnya. Time study analyst akan bisa mendeteksi dengan mudah adanya variasi
perbedaan waktu dari setiap elemen kegiatan. APA KEKURANGAN-NYA???

ACCUMULATIVE TIMING
Merupakan kombinasi cara pengukuran dengan metoda continuous dan snap-back
(pengukuran dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan dua atau lebih stop-watch yang bekerja
secara bergantian).

Stand (dont sit) beside the worker


Write every event (even though it
may seems not important)
Have a good position to observe
Stop the study if the worker seems to
be under pressure and it affects
his/her work

THE RULES !!!

Dont comment to the worker during


the task

PENGAMATAN!!!!

4. Tes Kenormalan, Tes Keseragaman,


Tes Kecukupan Data
TES KENORMALAN data pengamatan seharusnya
berjumlah cukup besar (banyak) dan berdistribusi
normal.
TES KESERAGAMAN data harus homogen dan
diperoleh dari populasi yang sama.
TES KECUKUPAN data yang dikumpulkan telah cukup
secara obyektif, dengan konsep statistik (derajat
ketelitian dan tingkat keyakinan/kepercayaan yang
diinginkan).

Determining Number of Cycles


Primary time study
(normally 5 to 10
observation)
Examination of the
required number of
observations (N)
Continue study up to N
observations
Re-checking the required
number of observations (n)

N=n

No

N>=n
Yes
End the time study

Time measurement

Measuring time of
each element
The number of
observation of
each element
depends on the
significance level
and required level
of accuracy

Number of Cycles
To determine sample size:
n=

zs
eT

where
z = number of standard deviations from the mean in a normal
distribution reflecting a level of statistical confidence
s=

S(xi - x)2 = sample standard deviation from sample


time study
n-1

T = average job cycle time from the sample time study


e = degree of error from true mean of distribution

Number of Cycles : Example


Average cycle time = 0.361
Computed standard deviation = 0.03
Company wants to be 95% confident that computed
time is within 5% of true average time

n=

zs
eT

(1.96)(0.03)
= 10.61 or 11
(0.05)(0.361)

Rumus Uji Kecukupan Data


k / s N X 2 X 2

N'

Keterangan:
N = Jumlah pengamatan untuk elemen kerja yang diukur
k = tingkat keyakinan
s = tingkat ketelitian

Recommended number of cycles/observations

5. Performance Rating & Waktu Normal


1) Waktu Pengamatan (Tobs)
2) TN < TObs untuk p < 1 (100%)
3) TN = TObs untuk p = 1 (100%)
4) TN > TObs untuk p > 1 (100%)

Normal time :
Tn = Tobs (PR)

WESTINGHOUSE RATING SYSTEM

6. Menentukan Allowance (personal time,


fatigue, delays)

Allowance
Constant
Personal Needs

Fatigue

Special
Avoidable
Delays

Unavoidable
Delays

More details in : Handbook of IE (Salvendy) : pp. 1409

7. Waktu Standar dan Output Standar

Waktu Normal (TN)

Allowance

Waktu Baku/Standard (TS)

TS = TN (1 + Apfd)

O S = 1 / TS

Lets Try!

E x a m p l e
Given: A direct time study was taken on a manual work
element using the snapback method.
The regular cycle consisted of three elements : a, b,
and c. Element d is an irregular element performed
every five cycles.
Work element

Observed time (min) 0.56

Performance rating

0.25 0.50

d
1.10

100% 80% 110% 100%

Determine
(a) normal time
(b) standard time for the cycle using Apfd = 0.15

S o l u t i o n
(a) Normal time:
TN = 0.56(1.00) + 0.25(0.80) + 0.50(1.10)
+ 1.10(1.0)/5
= 1.53 min

(b) Standard time:


TS = 1.53(1 + 0.15) = 1.76 min

WESTINGHOUSE RATING SYSTEM

Knowing exactly what you want to do,


and then seeing that they do it the best
and cheapest way.
- Frederick W. Taylor-