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DIgSILENT Technical

Documentation

Overhead Line Models

DIgSILENT GmbH
Heinrich-Hertz-Strasse 9
D-72810 Gomaringen
Tel.: +49 7072 9168 - 0
Fax: +49 7072 9168- 88
http://www.digsilent.de
e-mail: mail@digsilent.de

Overhead line modelling


Published by
DIgSILENT GmbH, Germany
Copyright 2009. All rights
reserved. Unauthorised copying
or publishing of this or any part
of this document is prohibited.
doc. Document No, build 511
March 29, 2011

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 4
2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR LUMPED PARAMETERS ........................................................................... 6
3 SINGLE-PHASE LINE ............................................................................................................................ 7
4 TWO-PHASE LINE................................................................................................................................. 8
5 THREE-PHASE LINES ........................................................................................................................... 9
6 THREE-PHASE LINE WITH NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR ........................................................................... 10
6.1 DATA CONVERSION FOR THE 4-WIRES MODEL ...................................................................................... 11
6.1.1 Measurement between phase A and phase B wire ................................................................................ 11
6.1.2 Measurement between neutral and PE (earth) wire .............................................................................. 12
6.1.3 Measurement between phase and PE (earth) wire ................................................................................ 12
6.1.4 Measurement between phase and neutral wire ..................................................................................... 13
6.1.5 Data conversion without N-PE measurement ........................................................................................ 14
7 DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS MODEL ................................................................................................ 15
7.1 GENERAL FORMULATION ...................................................................................................................... 15
8 MODELS FOR EMT SIMULATIONS...................................................................................................... 18
8.1 LUMPED PARAMETERS MODEL .............................................................................................................. 18
8.2 DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS MODEL...................................................................................................... 18
8.2.1 Bergerons Method for Solutions in Time-Domain ................................................................................ 19
8.2.2 Constant Parameters Model ................................................................................................................ 20
8.2.3 Frequency Dependent Parameters Model ............................................................................................. 22
8.2.4 Diagonalization.................................................................................................................................. 24
9 INPUT PARAMETERS .......................................................................................................................... 26
10 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 29

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

1 Introduction
This document describes the simulation models of transmission lines available in PowerFactory.
The available models stretch from DC to AC lines over all possible phase technologies (3ph, 2ph and
single phase, with/without neutral conductor and ground wires) for both single- and mutually coupled
parallel circuits. Table 1 shows an overview of all supported options and the corresponding
element/type combination.

Table 1: Overview of line models as available in PowerFactory


System

Phase
Technology

Element

Type

DC

Unipolar

ElmLne

TypLne

AC,

1-ph

ElmLne

TypLne

Singe-

2-ph

ElmLne

TypLne

circuit

3-ph

ElmLne

TypLne, TypTow, TypGeo

1-ph with neutral

ElmLne

TypLne

2-ph with neutral

ElmLne

TypLne

3-ph with neutral

ElmLne

TypLne

AC,

Any combination

ElmTow

TypTow, TypGeo

mutually

of phase

coupled

technologies

circuits

The line element ElmLne is the constituent element of transmission lines. When referring to a type, the
line element can be used to define single-circuit lines of any phase technology according to Table 1.
Besides, the element parameter Number of Parallel Lines lets represent parallel lines without mutual
coupling between each other.
If the mutual coupling between parallel lines is to be considered, then a line coupling element ElmTow
has to be defined. In that case, the line element ElmLne points to a line coupling element ElmTow
which in turns refers to the corresponding tower type TypTow or tower geometry type TypGeo.

PowerFactory further distinguishes between constant and frequency-dependent parameters models.


Models based on tower geometry types (TypTow or TypGeo) use frequency dependent parameters; it
means then that the electrical parameters of the line per unit-length are calculated from the mechanical
characteristics of the tower and the conductors accounting for skin effect, the frequency-dependent
earth-return path of the line, etc. These types should be preferred in simulations where a wide range of
frequencies is involved or frequencies other than the power frequency of the system. For further
information about the calculation of the per unit length parameters the user is referred to [5].
On the contrary, models based on line types (TypLne) are by default non frequency-dependent. The
user enters the electrical parameters per unit-length of the line at power frequency. These parameters
remain unchanged; if the frequency of the simulation changes, i.e. differs from the power frequency,
then the program will adjust the reactance and susceptance of the line according to the new frequency.
The inductances and capacitances remain however unchanged. For certain functions (harmonic load
flow, frequency sweeps) the user still has the option to assign a frequency characteristic to the
parameters in the line type. Further details about the input parameters for the different phase
technologies (3-, 2-, 1-ph, w/o neutral) and frequency characteristics are discussed in the coming
sections.

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

For three-phase lines (either single or multiple parallel circuits) the user can choose between lumped or
a distributed parameters. For long transmission lines the distributed parameter model give highly
accurate results and should be the preferred option, while the model with lumped parameters gives
accurate enough results for short-lines. The details of the different models are discussed in the
following sections.

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

2 Equivalent Circuit for Lumped Parameters


Figure 1 shows the equivalent PI-circuit that PowerFactory uses to represent AC transmission lines with
lumped parameters. The sub-indexes s and r stay for the sending and receiving ends of the line
respectively. The general formulation discussed in this section is valid for any phase technology by
appropriate dimensioning of the impedance and admittance matrices, even though the description is
based on a three-phase line without neutral conductor.

I s ,A

IA

U s ,A
U s,B

Ym
2

Zm
IB

IC

Zs
Zs
Zs

I r ,A
Ym
2

Zm

U r ,A
U r ,B

Zm

U s,C

U r ,C

I s,A

I r ,A
Ys
2

Ys
2

Figure 1: Equivalent PI-circuit of the line for lumped parameters


The equations of the voltages and currents at the sending and receiving ends of the line are formulated
in terms of impedance and admittance matrices. The dimension of the matrices depends again on the
phase technology.
The longitudinal voltage drop along the line is given by the impedance matrix in the following form:

U s , A U r , A U A Z s




U s , B U r , B U B Z m




U s ,C U r ,C U C Z m

Zm
Zs
Zm

Zm

Zm

Z s

I A

I B

I C

(1)

According to the sign convention assumed in Figure 1, the current at the sending end of the line is
calculated in terms of the admittance matrix as follows:

I s, A I s, A I A
Y s Y m Y m U s , A I A


1


I s , B I s , B I B Y m Y s Y m U s , B I B


2


I

I
s
,
C
s
,
C


I C
Y m Y m Y s U s ,C I C

(2)

Similarly, the current at the receiving end of the line is given by:

I r,A I r,A I A
Y s Y m Y m U r , A I A


1


I r , B I r , B I B Y m Y s Y m U r , B I B


2


I r ,C I r ,C I C
Y m Y m Y s U r ,C I C

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

(3)

Equations (1), (2) and (3) completely define the PI-model of the line for lumped parameters. The
impedance and admittance matrices

Zs

Z ABC Z m

Z m

Zm

Zm

Z s

Zm
Zs
Zm

Y s Y m Y m

Y ABC Y m Y s Y m

Y m Y m Y s

(4)

are the so called natural impedance and admittance and impedance matrices of the line after reduction
of earth wires (if any).
Note that Y s represents the sum of all admittances connected to the corresponding phase, while
is the negative value of the admittance between two phases. Similarly, Y p is the sum of all
admittances connected to the neutral conductor and Y pn the negative value of the admittance
between the neutral and the phase conductors.

Ym

The PI-circuit described here is the general formulation of the line model with lumped parameters in
PowerFactory. The next sections discuss the particularization of the model to the different phase
technologies (3-,2-,1-ph, w/o neutral conductors) and the parameters the user has to enter in each
case.
Balanced and Unbalanced Calculations

3 Single-Phase Line
The equivalent circuit in Figure 1 can be reduced to the pi-circuit in Figure 2 for the single phase line.

Z
Ir

Is
Us

Y
2

Y
2

Ur

Figure 2: Lumped parameters model for a single phase AC line


The impedance and admittance of the equivalent circuit are calculated from the input parameters
defined in the line type (TypLne) according to the following equations:

Z Z1' l R1' j L1' l

Y Y1' l G1' jC1' l

(5)

G1' B1' tg1


'

'

'

'

where l is the length of the line in [km], R1 , L1 , G1 and C1 are the line parameters per length unit.
'
Note that the conductance G1 can be defined in terms of the insulation factor tg . The reader is
referred to Table 2 for the entire list of input parameters.
The currents and voltages on both sides of the line in Figure 2 are related by the following equation:

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

U s A B U r
I C D I
r
s

(6)

where the ABCD parameters of the equivalent -circuit are:

1
A 1 Z ' Y ' l 2
2
'
B Z l
Z ' Y ' l 2
C Y l 1

DA

(7)

'

4 Two-Phase Line
From Figure 1 the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3 can be now deduced for the two-phase line
model.

Zs

Ym
2

Ym
2

Zm

Zs

Ys
2

Ys
2

Figure 3: Equivalent circuit of the two-phase line model


The self and mutual impedances and admittances of the equivalent circuit

Zs
Z ab
Z
m

Zm

Z s

Y s Y m
Y ab

Y
m Y s

(8)

are calculated from the input parameters defined in the line type (TypLne). The input parameters positive and zero sequence components- are converted to the impedances and admittances in (8) by
the following transformation:

1
t
1 1
1 1
T S 2 ph

T
S
2
ph

1 1

T S 2 ph 1 1

`1
Z 01 TS 2 ph Z ab TS 2 ph

Thus the self and mutual impedances and admittances in (8) are related to the input parameters
Z 1 , Z 0 , Y 1 and Y 0 as follows:

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

Z 0
Z 01

0

0 Z s Z g

Z 1 0

Z s Z g

Y 0 0 Y s Y g
Y 01


0 Y 1 0

Y s Y g

5 Three-Phase Lines
The equivalent circuit of the three-phase line is shown in Figure 4. The self and mutual impedances and
admittances are given by:

Zs

Z abc Z m

Z m

Zm
Zs
Zm

Zm

Zm

Z s

Y s Y m Y m

Y abc Y m Y s Y m

Y m Y m Y s

(9)

Zs

Ym
2

Zm

Ym
2

Zs

Zm

Zs

Zm

Ys
2

Ys
2

Figure 4: Equivalent circuit of the three-phase line


The input parameters in the line type (TypLne) are defined in terms of positive and zero sequence
impedances and admittances Z 1 , Y 1 , Z 0 and Y 0 . The negative sequence is assumed equal to the
positive sequence.
The conversion from the sequence components into the natural components in (9) is done by the
complex transformation matrix Ts as follows:

1 1
T S 1 a 2

1 a

1
a
a 2

1 1
1
T S 1 a

3
2
1 a
1

1
a 2
a

(10)

Z 012 TS `1 Z abc TS

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

Z 0 0 0 Z s 2Z m
0
0

Z 012 0 Z 1 0
0
Z
0
s Zm

0
0
Z s Z m
0 0 Z 2
Y 0 0 0 Y s 2Y m
0
0

Y 012 0 Y 1 0
0
Y
0
s Y m

0
0
Y s Y m
0 0 Y 2

6 Three-Phase Line with Neutral Conductor


Figure 5 shows the equivalent circuit of the 3-phase line with neutral conductor. The voltages and the
currents at both end of the line are related by the impedance and admittance matrices:

Zs

Zm
Z abcn

Zm
Z pn

Zm

Zm

Zs

Zm

Zm

Zs

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn
Z n

Y s Y m Y m Y pn

Y m Y s Y m Y pn
Y abcn

Y m Y m Y s Y pn
Y pn Y pn Y pn Y n

(11)

Zs
A

Zs

Zm

Zm

Zs

Zm

Zn

Z pn

Figure 5: Equivalent circuit for the 3ph line with neutral conductor
The input parameters of the model are the positive and zero sequence impedances Z 1 , Z 0 , the
positive and zero sequence admittance Y 1 and Y 0 and the self and mutual impedance Z n , Z pn and
admittance for the neutral conductor Y p , Y pn . as listed in Table 2 of 9 (input parameters of the line
type TypLne).
The values Z n , Z pn , Y p and Y pn of the neutral conductor can be directly used in (11). The selfand mutual impedance of admittance of the phase conductors are calculated as followed:

1
Z s Z 0 2 Z1
3

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

1
Y s Y 0 2 Y 1
3

(12)

10

1
Z m Z 0 Z1
3

1
Y m Y 0 Y1
3

(13)

or resolved for the sequence magnitudes:

Z1 Z s Z m

Z0 Z s 2 Z m

Y1 Y s Y m

Y 0 Y s 2 Y m

(14)

(15)

as normally familiar to the reader.

6.1 Data Conversion for the 4-Wires model


The self and mutual impedances and admittances are not always available in the same format as
required by the line type (TypLne). The following subsections will guide the reader on how to convert
commonly available measurement data into the required input parameters.

6.1.1 Measurement between phase A and phase B wire


A

Ia

Ib

C
N
Ua

Ub

PE

Figure 6: Phase to phase measurement loop


As per the impedance matrix in (11):

U a Z s

U b Z m

U c Z m
U n Z pn

Zm

Zm

Zs

Zm

Zm

Zs

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn

Z pn
Z n

I a

I b

I c
I n

(16)

thus:

U a Z s I a Z m I b
Ub Zm Ia Zs Ib
According to the measurement in Figure 6:

I a I b

U a Ub 2I a (Z s Z m )
TechRef Overhead Lines Models

11

So that the positive sequence impedance can be derived as follow:

Z 1 R1 jX 1

1 U a U b
2 Ia

(17)

6.1.2 Measurement between neutral and PE (earth) wire

Figure 7: Neutral to ground measurement loop


Again from (16) with now Ia=Ib=Ic=0:

U n Z n I n
Zn

Un
In

(18)

Note that Z n represents the impedance of the neutral conductor itself


the earth-return path Z earth .

Z Neutral

plus the impedance of

6.1.3 Measurement between phase and PE (earth) wire


A 1/3I
I

1/3I

1/3I

N
U

PE

Figure 8: Phase PE (earth wire) measurement


From (16) with In = 0

1
Zs I Zm I Zm I
3
1
U I Z0
3

So that the zero-sequence impedance results:

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

12

Z0

3 U
I

(19)

6.1.4 Measurement between phase and neutral wire


A 1/3I
I

1/3I

1/3I

In

Un PE

Figure 9: Phase neutral measurement


From (16):

1
Z s I Z m I Z m I Z pn I n
3
1
U n I Z pn Z pn Z pn Z n I n
3

With

I n I :

1
Z s I Z m I Z m I Z pn I
3
1
U n I Z pn Z pn Z pn Z n I
3

And according to (12) and (13):

1
U Z 0 I Z pn I
3
U n I Z pn Z n

Substracting these equations:

Z 0, PH N

3 U U n
I

6 Z pn 3 Z n

Z 0,PH N is commonly referred as the zero-sequence impedance between with return over the neutral
conductor. With Z n given by (18) the mutual impedance between phase and neutral conductors
results:
Z pn

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

Z 0 3 Z n Z 0, PH N
6

(20)

13

6.1.5 Data conversion without N-PE measurement


If the measurement between the neutral and the PE (earth) wire does not exist the following
simplification can be assume:

Z 0, PH N Z 1 3 Z Neutral
Z 0 Z 1 3 Z Earth

Phase-neutral loop:
Phase-ground loop:

(21)
(22)

Thus the neutral-earth loop impedance:

Z N E

Z N E Z Neutral Z Earth
Z 0, PH N Z 0 2 Z 1
Zn
3

(23)

And the phase-neutral mutual impedance:

Z pn

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

Z 0 Z1
3

(24)

14

7 Distributed Parameters Model


Besides the lumped parameter models described in the previous sections, PowerFactory also supports
distributed parameters models for three-phase line circuits. This model accounts for the distributed
nature of the line parameters and should be therefore the preferred option for long lines. For short lines
the lumped parameters models discussed in the previous sections provide enough accurate solutions.
A line is considered to be long as soon as its physical length becomes of the same order of magnitude
of the length of wave of the voltage/current at the frequency under consideration (eg. power frequency
for load flow calculation). Note that for increasing frequencies, and hence for example for harmonic load
flow calculations, the higher the frequency the lower the length of wave, so that even a physically short
line may need to be treated as a long line, i.e. represented with distributed parameters.
To select a distributed parameter model the user has to assert the corresponding model option on the
basic page of the line element (ElmLne) or line coupling (ElmTow).

7.1 General Formulation


Equations (26) and (27) describe the incremental transmission line model in frequency domain of an
elemental length x depicted in Figure 10.

V
I ( x) Z
x
I
V ( x) Y
x

(25)
(26)

V
I(x,t)

I(x+x,t)
I

V(x,t)
V(x+x,t)
G

x
x x

Figure 10: Incremental model for a line of elemental length


After taking the second derivatives of (25) and (26) with respect to x and rearranging the equations to
separate the voltage from the current magnitudes, the system of differential can be rewritten as:

2V
Z Y V ( x)
x 2
2I
Z Y I ( x)
x 2

(27)

The general solution is of the form:

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

15

U ( x) K1 e x K 2 e x

(28)

ZC I ( x) K1 e x K 2 e x
with

Z
Y
Z Y j
ZC

(29)
(30)

Both the surge (or characteristic) impedance Z C and the propagation factor are frequencydependent and uniquely characterize the behaviour of the transmission line. Further details about the
derivation of these equations can be found in [1,2].
The integration constants K1 and K 2 in (28) are determined from the border conditions at either the
receiving or the sending end of the line. According the sign convention in Figure 11, the particular
solution of (28) results:

ZC sinh l
cosh l
Vr
A B Vs
I 1 sinh l
cosh l C D I s
r Z
C

(31)

and therefore the impedance and admittance of the equivalent circuit are:

Z Z C sinh l Z l

sinh l
l

l
tanh

cosh l 1 1
2
Y
Y l
l
Z C sinh l 2
2

(32)

Z
Ir

Is
Us

Y
2

Y
2

Ur

Figure 11: Equivalent pi-circuit for the line with distributed parameters in frequency
domain
It should be noted that Z and Y in Figure 11 are frequency-dependent parameters as both the surge
impedance Z C and the propagation factor are a function of the frequency.
Series expansion
The lumped parameter model described by equations (7) in 3 is a simplified model of the distributed
parameters model. In fact, by series expansion of the hyperbolic functions in (32):

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

16

Using

1
1
1
cosh 1 2 4
6
2
24
720
sinh
1 2 1
1
1
4
6

6
120
5040
l Z Y l A and B in (31) can be expanded as follows:
1
1
2
A cosh l 1 Z Y l 2 Z Y l 4
2
24
sinh l
1
2
1
2
B Zl
Z Y l 4
Z l 1 Z Y l
120
6
l

Considering up to the second order terms, equations (32) of the distributed parameter model go into
equations (5) of the lumped parameter model:

Z B Z l R l j L l
1
1 Z Y l 2
A 1
1
1
2
Y

Y l G l j C l
B
Zl
2
2
The accuracy of the lumped model depends then on the weight of truncated terms in the series
expansion, which in turns depends on the factor f l (frequency x length). For overhead lines less
than 250 km and power frequency, this approximation is very satisfactory and the error can be
neglected. For longer lines or higher frequencies, a distributed parameter model will give then a more
accurate solution.
Longer lines can be alternatively modelled connecting line sections in cascade. In general, the longer
the line or the higher the frequency, the more line sections are required for the same accuracy.
Increasing the number of line sections to infinity will turn the lumped parameter model into the
distributed parameters model discussed before.

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

17

8 Models for EMT Simulations


The models described in the previous sections are defined in the frequency domain and used by
PowerFactory in all steady-state calculations like loaf flow, short-circuit, harmonic load flow, frequency
sweep as well as the electromechanical RMS-simulation.
This section will introduce the models used in the EMT-simulations (electromagnetic transient
simulation). These models are obtained by conversion of the frequency-domain models into timedomain.

8.1 Lumped Parameters Model


The lumped parameters model discussed in 2 can be automatically used for EMT simulations by
replacing the j operator by d dt and thus the impedances and admittances by the corresponding
inductances and susceptances.
For the equivalent pi-circuit in Figure 1, equations (1), (2) and (3) go then into:

us , A ur , A u A Rs Rm Rm iA Ls Lm Lm
i A
d

us , B ur , B uB Rm Rs Rm iB + Lm Ls Lm dx iB
us ,C ur ,C uC Rm Rm Rs iC Lm Lm Ls
iC
Gs Gm Gm us , A Cs Cm Cm
is , A
us , A

1
d

is , B 2 Gm Gs Gm us , B Cm Cs Cm dx us , B
G G
is ,C
us ,C
Gs us ,C Cm Cm Cs
m
m

Gs
ir , A

ir , B 2 Gm
G
ir ,C
m

Gm
Gs
Gm

Gm ur , A Cs

Gm ur , B Cm
Gs ur ,C Cm

Cm
Cs
Cm

ur , A
Cm
d

Cm ur , B
dx
ur ,C
Cs

(33)

(34)

(35)

8.2 Distributed Parameters Model


The distributed parameters model cannot be used straight forward for EMT simulations because the
elements of the equivalent circuit are a function of the frequency as equations (32) show. To make the
model usable for EMT simulations, further assumptions have to be made. These assumptions give rise
to the different models available for distributed parameters as will be described further below.
The EMT-models of distributed parameter lines are based on Bergerons method for the solution in time
domain. Following options are supported:

Constant parameters model

Frequency-dependent parameters model.

The user will find these options and the required additional settings on the EMT page of the line
(ElmLne) and the line coupling (ElmTow) elements.

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

18

8.2.1 Bergerons Method for Solutions in Time-Domain


Under consideration of the border conditions depicted in Figure 11, eq (28) can be written as:

U I Z
U I Z
U r s s C e l s s C e l
2
2

U I Z
U I Z
ZC I r s s C e l s s C e l
2
2

(36)

(37)

and subtracting (37) from (36):

U r ZC I r U s ZC I s e l

(38)

or rewritten as

Ir

U
Ur
Is s
ZC
ZC

l
e

(39)

The expression U Zc I of the border condition at the sending end s is the same at the receiving end
l
r after multiplication with the propagation factor e
.
Repeating the same procedure but setting now the initial conditions at node r and then travelling with
the wave from node r to node s, we obtain

U s ZC I s U r ZC I r e l

(40)

or rewritten as

Is

Us
U
I r r e l
ZC
ZC

(41)

Equations (38) and (40), or equations (39) and (41), define the Bergerons equations in the frequency
domain. The method models the line by controlled current sources J with parallel admittances YC at
both ends as shown in Figure 12 or alternatively, by controlled voltage source V in series with the
impedance Z C as in Figure 13, where

U
J r I r r e l
ZC

Vr U r I r ZC e l

(42)
(43)

Ir

Is
Us

YC

Jr

Js

YC

Ur

Figure 12: Bergerons method. Equivalent circuit with controlled current sources

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

19

Is

ZC

ZC

Us

Vr

Ir

Ur

Vs

Figure 13: Bergerons method. Equivalent circuit with controlled voltage sources
The inverse Fourier transform converts the set of equation into the time domain:

us (t ) F 1 ZC I s U r ZC I r e l

ur (t ) F 1 ZC I r U s ZC I s e l

(44)
(45)

or rewritten

U
U

is (t ) F 1 s I r r e l
Zc
Zc

U
U

ir (t ) F 1 r I s s e l
Zc
Zc

(46)

(47)

where both, the characteristic impedance

ZC ZC ( )

R j L
G j C

(48)

and the propagation constant

( ) ( ) j ( )

R j L G j C

(49)

are frequency dependent, even for constant per unit-length line parameters R, L, G and C.

8.2.2 Constant Parameters Model


A simple model for constant distributed parameters can be obtained for the case of lossless and
distortionless lines. In that case, (48) reduces to

ZC
being real and constant. The dumping coefficient

L
C

(50)

and hence from (49)

j j L C

(51)

The propagation velocity is the same regardless of frequency and it is given by

L C

(52)

so that we can define a travel time (frequency independent) as


TechRef Overhead Lines Models

20

l
v

l L C
In terms of travel time, the propagation constant can be rewritten as

l j l j L C l j
and after simplifications we can rewrite (44) and (45) as

U s ZC I s Vr
U r ZC I r Vs

(53)

with

Vr U r ZC I r e j
Vs U s ZC I s e j

(54)

The inverse Fourier transform of the phase shift e


in the frequency domain becomes a time delay
in the time domain and the set of equations (53) and (54) transforms to

us (t ) Z C is (t ) ur
ur (t ) Z C ir (t ) us
ur ur (t 0 ) Z C ir (t )

(55)

us us (t 0 ) Z C is (t )
Idem in term of current sources:

is (t )

us (t )
ir (t )
ZC

ir (t )

ur (t )
is (t )
ZC

u (t )
ir (t ) ir (t ) r
ZC
is (t ) is (t )

(56)

us (t )
ZC

For the transient simulation the voltages and currents at one side of the line are calculated upon the
voltage and current at the other side one time delay back in time (picked up from the history vector),
which is the Bergerons method.
For the distributed constant parameters model the settings are adjusted on the EMT page of the line
element (ElmLne) or line coupling element (ElmTow) as following:

Line Model: Constant parameter

Frequency for travel time estimation: enter a representative frequency for the transient under
analysis. This frequency is used in (33) to calculate the propagation constant. In case of a
non-transposed line, the frequency-dependent modal transformation matrix is calculated at
this frequency as well.

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Note: press the Calculate Line Parameters button any time you modify these parameters or
enter new ones. The programme will start then the calculation of the propagation factor and the
characteristic impedance at the specified frequency and set up the model.

8.2.3 Frequency Dependent Parameters Model


Except for lossless and distortionless lines as seen above, the characteristic impedance and propagation
constant are frequency dependent. The variation of Zc and with the frequency is most pronounced
in the zero sequence mode and hence frequency-dependent models should be preferred when zero
sequence currents or voltages are involved. This is for example the case of single phase-to-ground
faults.
Approximation by Rational Functions
To handle frequency dependent parameters PowerFactory supports the approach proposed by J. Marti
[1],[3]. The characteristic impedance and the propagation factor are developed in rational functions and
then the poles and zeros of the rational expressions calculated using a Bodes approximation.
For the propagation factor

A e l :

Aapp s e s min k
with

s j

and

s z1 s z2 s zn
s p1 s p2 s pm

(57)

n m . Expanding into partial fractions


Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.

(58)

Idem for the characteristic impedance:

Z c app s k
with

s z1 s z2 s zn
s p1 s p2 s pn

(59)

s j . Expanding into partial fractions


Z c app s k0

k1
k2

s p1 s p2

kn
s pn

(60)

The accuracy of the model depends on the quality of the rational function approximations for A and
Zc . To verify the approximation PowerFactory plots the exact and approximated solutions of A and
Zc in the EMT-Simulation tab page of the line (ElmLne) and line coupling (ElmTow) elements as shown
in Figure 14. Note that you will need to jump between dialog pages using
to display the plots.
Right click on the plot to zoom in and out.

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Figure 14: Bode approximations of A and Zc for the zero-sequence


Solution in Time-Domain
In the following, only equations for the equivalent circuit with current sources are described. Similar
equations can be rewritten however for the equivalent circuit with voltage sources as well.
Explicitly writing the frequency-dependent parameters, the input current at node s is

Is

Us

Z C

J r

U
J r I r r
ZC

The inverse Fourier transform of the controlled current source


convolution integral and hence

Jr

can be evaluated by means of the

i t u

jr t ir t u r
a u du
Zc
0

(61)

with a t F 1 A , min travel time of the fastest waves and max travel time of the slowest ones.
The convolution integral has only need to be evaluated between min and max because a t is zero
up to t min and tends to zero for t max .

a (t ) is the inverse Fourier transform of A( ) . With A( ) developed in partial fractions (58), the
inverse Fourier transform becomes then a sum of exponentials:

0
aapp t p t
1
min
k2e p2 t min

k1e

for t min

(62)

kme pm t min for t min

Similarly, the inverse Fourier transform of (60) results in exponential terms of the form et / RC that
corresponds to a RC network as shown in Figure 15 where

R0 k0

and

Ri

ki
1
, Ci
pi
ki

i s (t )

us (t )

C1

R1

C2

R2

Cn

Rn

j r (t )

j s (t )

with

i 1 n

(63)

C1

R1

C2

R2

i r (t )

ur (t )
Cn

R0

Rn

R0

Figure 15: Equivalent circuit for the frequency dependent model


Then with a (t ) being a sum of exponential functions and the Z c developed as a RC-network, equation
(61) can be solved using recursive convolution.
TechRef Overhead Lines Models

23

The distributed frequency-dependent parameters model is adjusted on the EMT page of the line
element (ElmLne) or line coupling element (ElmTow) as following:

Line Model: Frequency dependent parameter

Frequency for travel time estimation: enter a representative frequency for the transient under
analysis. The frequency-dependent modal transformation matrix is calculated at this
frequency.

Min and Max. Frequency of parameter fitting: enter the minimum and maximum frequency for
the approximation by rational functions of the propagation factor (54) and the characteristic
impedance (56).

Tolerance for Bode approximation: defined the maximum error in % that is desired for the
Bode approximation of the propagation factor (54) and the characteristic impedance (56). The
lower the tolerance the higher the number poles and zeros of the approximated rational
expressions.

Note: press the Calculate Line Parameters button any time you modify these parameters or
enter new ones. The programme will start then the calculation of the propagation factor and the
characteristic impedance at the specified frequency and set up the model.

8.2.4 Diagonalization
The models presented in 8.2 implicitly assume a single phase line. In reality however, distributed
parameter models are required for three-phase long line or for transmission system with multiple 3phase circuits. To scope with them, equations (33) to (35) have to be diagonalized. After
diagonalization, the mutually coupled equations of the 3-phase system transform to 3 independent,and
hence decoupled, single phase systems.
The diagonalization in PowerFactory is carried out as follows:

Balanced lines: the impedance and admittance matrices of these lines are diagonal-cyclic, i.e.
Z/Y-matrices of the form (4). This is normally the case of transposed lines. To diagonalize the
matrices PowerFactory uses the transformation into symmetrical components according to
(10). The transformation matrix is knows a-priori and it is a constant transformation matrix,
hence not frequency-dependent.

Unbalanced lines: this is typically the case of lines without transposition. The Z/Y-matrices are
not longer diagonal-cyclic; hence to diagonalize them, a transformation into modal
components is required. In that case, the transformation matrices are not known a-priori but
are determined from an eigenvalue and eigenvector calculation. Furthermore the
transformation matrices are frequency-dependent.

Eigenvalues/Eigenvectors:

For unbalanced lines and steady-state calculations (for instance harmonic load flow or frequency
sweeps), PowerFactory calculates the transformation matrices, and therefore the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors, at every single frequency of interest to account for the frequency-dependency of the
transformation matrices.
In the EMT-simulation, the transformation matrix is calculated at a single frequency, i.e. at the one
specified by the user on the EMT page of the element diaglog ElmLne or ElmTow, and then it assumes
that the transformation matrix is constant. Furthermore it approximates the complex transformation
matrix (eigenvectors) by the real part.

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9 Input Parameters
Table 2: Input parameter of the line type (TypLne)
Name

Description

Unit

Range

Default

Symbol

loc_name

Name

uline

Rated Voltage

kV

x>=0

sline

Rated Current

kA

x>0

InomAir

Rated Current (in air)

kA

x>0

frnom

Nominal Frequency

Hz

x>=0

50

aohl_

Cable / OHL (overhead line)

systp

System Type

AC:DC

AC

nlnph

No. of Phases

01:02:03

nneutral

No. of Neutrals

00:01

rline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Resistance R'

x>=0

R1'

X1'
L1'
R0'
X 0'
L'0
Rn'

cab

Ohm/km

(20C)
xline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Reactance X'

Ohm/km

lline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Inductance L'

mH/km

x>=0

rline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Resistance R0'

Ohm/km

x>=0

xline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Reactance X0'

Ohm/km

x>=0

lline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Inductance L0'

mH/km

x>=0

rnline

Parameters per Length, Neutral:

Ohm/km

x>=0

Ohm/km

x>=0

X n'

mH/km

x>=0

L'n

Ohm/km

x>=0

R'pn

Ohm/km

x>=0

X 'pn

mH/km

x>=0

L'pn

x>=20

80

Ohm/km

x>=0

1/K

x>=0

0.00403

Resistance Rn'
xnline

Parameters per Length, Neutral:


Reactance Xn'

lnline

Parameters per Length, Neutral:


Inductance Ln'

rpnline

Parameters per Length, Phase-Neutral Coupling:


Resistance Rpn'

xpnline

Parameters per Length, Phase-Neutral Coupling:


Reactance Xpn'

lpnline

Parameters per Length, Phase-Neutral Coupling:


Inductance Lpn'

tmax

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Max. Operational


Temperature

rline_tmax

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Resistance R' at


max. operational temperature

alpha

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Temperature


Coefficient

mlei

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Conductor

Al

Material
bline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Susceptance B'

uS/km

cline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Capacitance C'

uF/km

tline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Ins. Factor

gline

Parameters per Length 1,2-Sequence: Conductance G'

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

0
uS/km

B1'
C1'
tg
1
'
G1

26

bline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Susceptance B0' uS/km

cline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Capacitance C0'

uF/km

Ices

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Earth-Fault

A/km

'
B
0
'
C
0

Current
tline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Ins. Factor

gline0

Parameters per Length Zero Sequence: Conductance

uS/km

tg

'
G
0

Bn'
'
C
n
'
B
pn

G0'
bnline

Parameters per Length, Neutral: Susceptance Bn'

uS/km

x>=0

cnline

Parameters per Length, Neutral: Capacitance Cn'

uF/km

x>=0

bpnline

Parameters per Length, Phase-Neutral Coupling:

uS/km

x>=0

uF/km

x>=0

Susceptance Bpn'
cpnline

Parameters per Length, Phase-Neutral Coupling:


Capacitance Cpn'

rtemp

Max. End Temperature

x>0

80

Ithr

Rated Short-Time (1s) Current (Conductor)

kA

x>=0

picln

Inrush Peak Current: Ratio Ip/In

p.u.

pitln

Inrush Peak Current: Maximum Time

fcharC1

Frequency Dependency of Pos.-Sequence Capacitance:

'
pn

C1'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)
fcharC0

Frequency Dependency of Zero-Sequence Capacitance:


C0'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)

fcharR1

Frequency Dependencies of Pos.-Sequence Impedance:


R1'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)

fcharL1

Frequency Dependencies of Pos.-Sequence Impedance:


L1'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)

fcharR0

Frequency Dependencies of Zero-Sequence Impedance:


R0'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)

fcharL0

Frequency Dependencies of Zero-Sequence Impedance:


L0'(f) (ChaPol,ChaVec,ChaMat)

pStoch

Stochastic model (StoTyplne)

manuf

Manufacturer

chr_name

Characteristic Name

for_name

Foreign Key

dat_src

Data source

doc_id

Additional Data ()

desc

Description

miso

Insulation Material

iopt_cnd

Cable is

mlt

cmeth

Installation Method (IEC 364)

iopt_ord

Conductors

qurs

Nominal Cross Section

mm*2

cabdiam

Outer Diameter

mm

iopt_dir

Arrangement

lcost

Line Cost

TechRef Overhead Lines Models

MAN

tre

hor
$/km

x>=0

27

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10 References
[1]

H. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book. 1992.

[2]

B. R. Oswald, Netzberechnung 2, Berechnung transienter Vorgnge in Elektroenergieversorgungsnetzen, VDE Verlag 1996.

[3]

J.R. Marti, The problem of frequency dependence in transmission line modelling. PhD. Thesis, The
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, April 1981.

[4]

D. Oeding, B.R. Oswald, Elektrische Kraftwerke und Netze, Springer Verlag, 6. Auflage, 2004.

[5]

DIgSILENT, PowerFactory Technical Reference: Overhead line constants.

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