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Clean Energy Options

Outline of Presentation
The Present Status of Power in India
Clean Energy Options

Hydro Power
Geothermal Energy
Solar Energy
Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Safety

Radioactive Emissions
Transportation
Wastage Disposal
Other Environmental Effects

Conclusions

India at a Glance
Area

: 3.287 million sq. km.

Population

: 1.2 billion

GDP

: $ 500 billion

Installed capacity

: 120,000 MW

Projected demand
by 2012

: 212,000 MW

Shortfall in Power

: 92,000 MW

Over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to electricity.


Over one third of India's rural population lacked electricity

Power Generation in India


Targets & Achievements
Five Year Plan

Year

Target (MW)

Achievement (MW)

Eighth Plan

1992 - 1997

30,538

16,423

Ninth Plan

1997 - 2002

40,245

19,015

Tenth Plan

2002 - 2007

41,110

21,180

Eleventh Plan

2007 - 2012

78,577

Data not Available

Modes of Power Generation

World-over

India

Thermal Power

Thermal Power Plant - Efficiency

Pollution

Waste Heat

Transmission Line
Losses
3 units (7.5%)
67 units
Waste
Energy

Fuel
100
units

End User
Power Plant

33 units
Electricity

Coal in India
Quantity

Reserves
Proven
91 billion Tons
Indicated 116 billion Tons
Inferred 37 billion Tons
TOTAL 245 billion Tons
Coal reserves:
> 250 years at present levels
of consumption
Concentrated in Eastern India

Quality
Heating
Value
(BTU/lb)

Ash
Content
(%)

Sulfur

Illinois # 6

10,900

11.00

3.25

Wyodak

11,960

5.97

0.40

WPC Utah

11,240

5.32

0.61

Indian
Coal

6,500

25-45

<0.5

(%)

Problems in Thermal Power

Indian coal is of low calorific value and high ash content.


The iron content is low in India's coal
The natural fuel value of Indian coal is poor.
Despite abundant reserves of coal, India can't produce
enough to feed its power plants.
India's coal sector is hampered by primitive mining
techniques and rife with theft and corruption
Shoddy transport infrastructure
Environmental Issues:
Ash generation > 200 million Tons
CO2 emissions > 850 Million Tons
Particulate emissions

Clean Energy Options

Hydro Power in India


Total installed capacity of Hydro
Power in India 36,000 MW.
Indias exploitable Hydro Electric
potential is estimated to be 1.5 lakh
MW.
So far only 23% of this potential
has been harnessed.
An estimated potential of about
15,000 MW of Small Hydro Projects
exist in India.

Potential Projects in small


hydropower

Geothermal Energy in India

Indian Geothermal provinces


can produce up to 10600 MW of
power.
Government has identified 340
hot springs in the country and are
planning to develop some of the
Geothermal fields for power
generation.

Solar Energy in India

India receives solar energy


equivalent to over 5000
trillion KWh/year, which is far
more than the total energy
consumption of the country.

The daily average solar


energy incident over India
varies from 4 -7 KWh/m2
depending upon the location.

Wind Power in India

There is an estimated
Gross Potential of 45,000
MW
Centre for Wind Energy
Technology has been
established.
Wind resource Map is
given here (w/m2 = Watt
per square meter):

Renewable energy potential of India

Technologies

Units

Potential

Achievements
(2004)

Wind Power

MW

45,000

2,483

Small hydro power


(upto 25 MW)

MW

15,000

1,603

Biomass power

MW

19,500

681

Solar water
heating

million m2
(collector area)

140

0.8

Waste-to-energy

MW

2500

25

Biogas plants

million

12

3.6

Nuclear Power

Why Nuclear Power

The cost of electricity in USA


1.72 cents/kWh from nuclear
2.21 cents/kWh from coal
7.51 cents/kWh from natural
gas

Electricity from new nuclear


plants would be a modest
percentage higher than from
new coal plants.

If Govt. imposed a
reasonable tax on CO2
emissions, nuclear electricity
would become cheaper.

The cost of electricity in USA (Cents)

Advantages of Nuclear Power

Substantial base load energy producing capability


No greenhouse gas emissions during operation
Does not produce air pollutants
The quantity of waste produced is small
Small number of major accidents
Low fuel costs; Large fuel reserves
Ease of transport and stockpiling of fuel
Future designs may be small and modular

Nuclear Power Plant


Steam

Steam
produced

Generator
Turbine

Electricity
Heat

Nuclear Power Plants


Work best at constant power
Excellent for baseload power

Power output range of 40 to 2000 MW


Current designs are 600 to1200 MW

441 licensed plants operating in 31 countries


Produce about 17% of global electrical energy

Nuclear Power Generation (%)

World over
scenario

Here we are

Nuclear Safety

Types of Radiation

Types of Radiation
Alpha radiation
Cannot penetrate the skin
Blocked out by a sheet of paper
Dangerous in the lung

Beta radiation
Can penetrate into the body
Can be blocked out by a sheet of aluminum foil

Gamma radiation
Can go right through the body
Requires several inches of lead or concrete, or a yard or
so of water, to block it.

Neutron radiation
Normally found only inside a nuclear reactor

Worldwide average per capita


dose from natural and manmade radiation
1

effective dose (mSv)

Worldwide annual per capita

10

0.1
0.01
0.001

0.0001
Natural
sources

Diagnostic
Atmospheric
medical X-ray
Nuclear
examination
testing

Nuclear
Power
Production

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006

Sources of Radiation

Rocks, Soil &


Radon 37%

Medical 51%

Equivalent Risk Factor


Equivalent Risk Factor in comparison to
nuclear exposure in India

Half a bottle of wine


650 km air travel
100 km car travel
Three fourth of cigarette smoking
1.5 m of mountain climbing
Use of oral contraceptive pills for 15 days

Reactor Safety Design


Containment Vessel
1.5-inch thick steel

Shield Building Wall


3 foot thick reinforced concrete

Dry Well Wall


5 foot thick reinforced concrete

Bio Shield
4 foot thick leaded concrete with
1.5-inch thick steel lining inside and out

Reactor Vessel
4 to 8 inches thick steel

Reactor Fuel
Weir Wall
1.5 foot thick concrete

Evolution of Nuclear Power Systems


Generation I
Early Prototype Generation II
Reactors
Commercial Power
Reactors

Generation III
Advanced
LWRs

Generation IV

Shippingport
Dresden,Fermi-I
Magnox

LWR: PWR/BWR
CANDU
VVER/RBMK

1960

1970

1980

Gen III

Gen II

Gen I

1950

System 80+ AP1000


EPR
ABWR

Enhanced safety
Improved
economics
Minimized
Wastes
Proliferation
resistance

1990

2000

2010

Gen IV

2020

2030

Energy Source Death Rate


(deaths per TWh)
Coal world average
Oil
Biofuel / Biomass
Natural Gas
Hydro
Solar
Wind
Nuclear

161
36
12
4
1.4
0.44
0.15
0.04

Why India is safer than Japan


Comparative Seismic Hazard b/w India & Japan

Nuclear Transportation

Nuclear Transportation
3 million packages of radioactive
materials are shipped each year
in the U.S
Vehicles carrying radioactive
materials have been involved in
transportation accidents
However, No deaths or serious
injuries have resulte
Containers for transporting
nuclear material are tested to
survive various types of
crashes and exposure to fire.

Impact with a locomotive at 80mph

Nuclear Waste

Wastes in Fuel Preparation and Plant


Operation
Million tonnes
per GWyr

Ash

0
Coal

Oil

Natural
gas

Wood

Toxic
waste

0.1

Radioactive
waste (HLW)

Ash

0.2

Ash

0.3

Gas sweetening
waste

0.4

Flue gas
desulphurization

Flue gas
desulphurization

0.5

Nuclear

Solar
PV
Source: IAEA, 1997

Nuclear Waste Disposal

If all the used fuel produced by U.S.


nuclear power plants in nearly 50 years
were stacked end to end, it would cover a
football field to a depth of less than 10
yards.
96% of this waste can be recycled.
Currently, USA dispose their waste in
Yucca Mountain which is an Isolated,
desolate, uninhabited land in Nevada

Environmental Issues

Air pollution impacts (PM10)


and other impacts

Relative environmental impact of


Different Technologies

High
Biomass
Technologies

Low

Nuclear

Existing coal
technologies
no gas cleaning
New coal
Natural gas technologies
technologies

Wind

Low

High

Greenhouse gas impacts


Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006

Carbon Dioxide Emissions


Comparison
Natural Gas

1.2

0.2

0.004

0.022
0.0250.025

1.04

0.79

0.06

0.58

0.38

Coal

0.47

Solar-PV

0.4

Wind

0.6

Nuclear

0.8

Geothermal

Hydro

CO2 Emissions (kg CO 2 /kWh)

1.4

0.1

0
* Source: J. Davidson (2000)

Other environmental advantages

Nuclear energy requires less


land use than most other forms
of green energy.
Nuclear energy does not deplete
useful resources
o There is no other commercial
use for Uranium

Nuclear reactors emit no


greenhouse gasses during
operation.
Over their full lifetimes, nuclear
reactors result in comparable
emissions to renewable forms of
energy such as wind and solar.[

Land needed by wind or solar energy to


match Annual Nuclear Energy of USA

Nuclear Power & Climate Change

Clearly, there are issues surrounding the


technology that need continued attention

Finance

Maintaining and improving safety performance


standards

Waste disposal / spent fuel management

Non-proliferation and physical security

BUT: If you are serious about protecting the


climate you cannot ignore nuclear energy

Nuclear energy needs public tolerance and


political support

Challenges and strategies


A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan
its economy on the basis of large scale import of
energy resources or energy technology
Indigenous development of energy technologies
based on domestic fuel resources should be a
priority for us.
Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of
the total electric power required 50 years from
now, in order to limit energy import dependence in
percentage terms at about the current level.

Sources of Clean Energy - USA

A quote by Patrick Moore


a founding member of Greenpeace

"In the 1970s, I equated nuclear energy to holocaust.


Now, my views have changed.
Nuclear energy may be the energy source that can save our planet
from another possible disaster - catastrophic climate change.
Wind and solar can't replace coal, nuclear, and hydro. Natural gas
is too expensive.
Nuclear is, by elimination, the only viable substitute for coal. It is
that simple.

There is no power as costly as no-power

Homi Bhabha

Thank you !