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Social Function

To present (at least) two points of view about an issue.


Generic Structure
1. Issue:

Statement
Preview

2. Arguments for against or statement of differing points of view:

Point
Elaboration

3. Conclusion or recommendation
Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
1. Focus on generic human and generic non-human Participants
2. Use of:

Material Processes, e.g. has produced, have developed, to feed


Relational Processes, e.g., is, could have, cause are
Mental Processes, e.g., feel.

3. Use of Comparative, contrastive and Consequential conjunctions


4. Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction).
Berikut adalah contoh Discussion text / example of discussion text:
Convenience or Care?
When something issued by someone, we say it has been consumed. We as consumers use many
things, both natural and processed. We consume more of the Earths resources than other animals
do and, as a result, we cause problems for the environment.
Like all animals, we need clean air and water, food and shelter for survival. Unlike other
animals, however, we have certain want. These are items that are not necessary for our
survival, but that we want because they make our lives easier or more enjoyable.
Environments claims that a great deal of waste is created by both the production and the
consumption of these items or product. Disposable products, such a pens, take away food

containers, plates, shavers and cutlery, are made using the Earths resources. When these
products are thrown away, the resources are lost.
Another example of waste is the unnecessary packaging on many products. The material is often
not recycled and used again.
Throwing thing away also increases pollution. The amount of disposable plastic litter that ends
up in waterways is a serious problem. When this waste reaches the oceans, it can kill marine life.
Industrialist counter these arguments with their own point of view. They claim that consumers
expect to be able to purchase food which is attractively presented, prepackaged to extent its life
and easy to store. In a busy society, convenience is a priority. Products which make life easier,
era in demand. Industrialist argue that they cater to this perceived need.
Packaging is also big business and provides jobs for many people who might otherwise be
unemployed and a burden to society.
Environmentalist declare that for thousands of year, people survived perfectly well with reusable products. However, people of the twenty-first century have become used to wing in a
thrown-away society. It is up to each one of us to dispose of waste products carefully, recycle
as much as possible and to reduce the stress on our environment. Think when buying prepackaged goods and consider whether the same products can be bought without the extra
wrappings. Lets make the best of what we have.

Theme : The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power


Nuclear power
generated
mined
submarines
huge
fossil fuels
advantages costs coal
expansive
greenhouse effect.
waste.
reliable.
buried
die away
safety
a nuclear accident

produces
sealed up
increasingly

The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power


Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the
world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria,
England in 1956.
Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power
produces around 11% of the world's energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It
cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant
are as follow:

It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.

It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse
effect.
It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.
It produces small amount of waste.
It is reliable.

On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for
many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is reliable, a lot of
money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident ca be a major
accident.
People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest
growing source of power in many parts of the world.
Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text
Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. It is important to to
get the understanding between the two differences. In many social activities, discussion is the
effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought, perception and
recommendation.
This example of discussion text present the two poles, between the advantage and disadvantage
of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. It is a case which need to be talked and
discussed from two points. They are represented in the generic structure which is used:
Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph, it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in
fulfilling the needed energy.
Supporting Point: In the second paragraph, it is presented the advantages of nuclear power plant
to be used as the source of the world's energy needed
Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. It gives the contradictory idea in
using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.
Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should
concern in the matter of nuclear energy.

Theme : Giving Children Homework; Pro and Con


given

homework

A further point
Parents
done

additional time

pointless
support

sense

independent

claim

argue

arguments

against

point of view.

learned

Furthermore

claim

balance

weekend

Giving Children Homework; Pro and Con

There are a lot of discussion as to whether children should be given homework or not. Is it
enough for children having time to study at school or needing additional time in home for study
after school time?
Some people claim that children do enough work in school already. They also argue that children
have their hobbies which they want to do after school, such as sport or music. A further point
they make is that a lot of homeworks are pointless and does not help the children learn at all.
However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Parents and teachers argue
that it is important to find out whether children can work on their own without the support from
the teacher. They say that the evening is a good time for children to sit down and think about
what they have learned in school.
Furthermore they claim that the school day is too short to get anything done. It makes sense to
send home tasks like independent reading or further writing task which do not need the teacher
support.
I think, on balance, that some homework is good idea but that should only given at the weekend
when children have more time.

Theme :
Hacking: Pro and Contra?
hacker
enjoy
exploring
hacking.
legal
illegal
breaking into
considered
try
strengths
weaknesses crimes
white collar criminals robbers
money launderers
break up
Security system
object to
break into
vital institutions
destroy
sell
treachery
government
accessing
eliminating blame

stretch
views
dare
case
credit card forgers
reason
worst
conspiracy
nut shell

capability
positive points
finding
catch
caught
skills
secret
responsible
wealth

Hacking: Pro and Contra?


Do you know what a hacker is? Well, a hacker is a person who enjoys exploring the details of
programmable systems on computers and they like to stretch the capability of the systems. And
you know what, the activities they do in the computers are called hacking.
So, whats the problem with hacking and its hackers? Well, the problem is whether hacking
and its hackers is legal or illegal? What I mean is that people in the world have many different
views about hacking and the hackers. Some of them take sides, but many object.
To get back to what I was saying previously, let us see the positive points of a hacker, shall we?
Although in most places breaking into computer systems is considered illegal, I believe that
hackers dont do anything illegal because they only want to know and try the systems. I dare to

say that a hacker likes finding the strengths and the weaknesses of a computer system. They feel
proud if they can find the weaknesses. So I dont really see the crimes in this case. In addition,
these hackers sometimes help the police catch the white collar criminals, such as bank robbers,
money launderers, credit card forgers. For example, in 2000, the U.S. hackers caught some
Singaporean hackers who made Virus Love to break up the programs of the U.S. National
Security system.
Nevertheless, those who object to the good points of a hacker say that hacking is a crime. The
reason is that some hackers use their brilliant skills to break into banks and other vital institutions
where they can get money, destroy information, and the worst thing is they can get secret
information and sell it to another country. This is a treachery.
Take for example, in 1994, The U.S. government broke a conspiracy of computer hackers out of
Majorca, Spain. These hackers were responsible for accessing and eliminating 190,000 telephone
credit card numbers over computer bulletin boards in America and Europe. Seeing this fact, I
dont blame those who think negatively about hackers.
To put the whole thing in a nut shell, I personally think that hackers are not bad people with their
brilliant skills. However, they could be bad because of money orientation to get the wealth.
Thats just the point.
Birth Control
Most people agree that some form of family limitation or spacing is desirable for the good of the
family and society. But individuals and groupsespecially religious groupsdiffer sharply on the
methods of birth control that they consider moral and acceptable.
Couples that practice birth control do so for various reasons. They may want to limit or space
their children, or to have no children at all. Young couples often postpone having children so that
both partners can work full-time. Other couples space their children so they can give each child
as much attention as possible. Some women are advised by their doctors to avoid pregnancy for
health reasons. In many countries with rapidly growing populations, the government encourages
couples to limit the size of their families.
Even though birth control has gained in acceptance, opposition to the practice is continuous.
Some people fear that birth control encourages sexual relations outside marriage or that
government might impose birth control. Some religious groups oppose birth control on moral
grounds.
Some religious groups teach that artificial methods of birth control are immoral because they
separate the two purposes of intercourse in marriageconjugal love and the procreation of
children. Although they oppose all artificial birth control, they consider natural family planning
acceptable.

Theme : Birth Control


limitation s desirable for the good of the family and society. But individuals and groups
especially religious groupsdiffer sharply on the methods of birth control that they consider
moral and acceptable.
Couples that practice birth control do so for various reasons. They may want to limit or space
their children, or to have no children at all. Young couples often postpone having children so that
both partners can work full-time. Other couples space their children so they can give each child
as much attention as possible. Some women are advised by their doctors to avoid pregnancy for
health reasons. In many countries with rapidly growing populations, the government encourages
couples to limit the size of their families.
Even though birth control has gained in acceptance, opposition to the practice is continuous.
Some people fear that birth control encourages sexual relations outside marriage or that
government might impose birth control. Some religious groups oppose birth control on moral
grounds.
Some religious groups teach that artificial methods of birth control are immoral because they
separate the two purposes of intercourse in marriageconjugal love and the procreation of
children. Although they oppose all artificial birth control, they consider natural family planning
acceptable.

Gift Card Bring Advantages and Disadvantages


Gift cards become more popular during recent years. For example, in one season of holiday,
sales reach $19 billion in United Stated and seem to grow more in the following season due to
their convenience in the side of consumers and retailers.
In retailers side, gift cards bring them some benefits. Selling gift card in simply selling product.
When the cards are sold, they will get benefit. Additionally, gift card tends to be a matter of
image and trend which means it is not strictly influenced by the functionality. Since gift card is
the trend, the sales will increase significantly.
However, there is potential disadvantages in the side of consumers. For example, itune gift cards
apply process in the way of completing the shopping. they need do one step to another steps in
processing the shopping. Likely, most of the steps apply time and date of validity or expiration.
When certain step loose that validating date, the gift cards may be in risk. The gift card can be
rejected to redeem. Again, in retailers side, producing card its self is costly. It means that there is
additional cost which retailers have to pay.
In whatever thing, we need to be wise. if we can use that gift

National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an
appeal by the go-vernment on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is
necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary
questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam?, will the
quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without natipnal exam?
People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will
drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.
Hoever there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in
our high school education say that it doesn't need the national exams because the quality of education
does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of
students' competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students' competences throughout the
semester.
In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of
students' cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.

The advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning


A few years ago, distance learning was seen as an inferior way but nowadays even famous and
established traditional colleges and universities are providing distance learning courses and it is
generally considered a way to improve one's life.
However, people still argue whether distance learning give more advantage or disadvantage.
Some of them who see the benefit of distance learning will say that distance learning needs no
commuting. Of course it saves money and time that students would take. Furthermore, distance
learning can be done at any students convenience. Mostly of the classes of distance learning are
asynchronous. It means that students do not have to attend a lecture at a fixed particular time and
place. Students can review the assignments and do their homework during off-hours or from
home. Additionally, distance learning gives more accessibility. No one can deny it. People with
limited mobility may encounter the problem when they take traditional class. With the online
class system, the problem is absent.
Despite the many advantages, the other people will see that distance learning is costly and needs
complex technology. To attend online learning, student must have a computer with possibly
access to the internet. Admitted or not, such technology devices are not always available for
common students. Another disadvantage of distance learning is that it does not provide
immediate feedback. Unlikely traditional classroom, students have to wait for the feedback and
comment until the instructor has review the works and sent response to them. Most of the time
students will study alone. Distance learners may feel isolated or miss that social physical
interaction that comes with attending a traditional classroom
Regarding the individuals learning style, some students are able to learn when there is a live
interaction between them and the available of accompanying teacher while others dont really

need it. So before deciding a choice of attending distance learning or not, each student needs to
do a fair analysis regarding the kind of person he/she is.

The Pros and Cons of School Uniform


School uniforms are dress codes that are determined by the teaching institutions and students has to
follow the designed code obediently everyday. Many people believe that school uniforms should be
applied but the others don't.
Uniforms have various advantages for both the family and the child. A united school apparel can relief a
financial stress of the backs of many families. As kids tend to compete and imitate each other, the race
of following new trends in fashion or, providing different attire for every school day is considered a
financial burden, not every family can afford it.
Additionally, a uniform creates a sense of equality between all pupils. Young kids tend to judge others
according to their look and what they wear. Uniting their school attire will draw their attention to other
criteria and, the only advantage of one student over another would be personality, academic
achievement or being good at sports.
On the other hand, as repetition can lead to boredom, children can get frustrated of wearing same thing
to school every day. Also, prevent their first steps of individuality by taking away their right to choose
what to wear on their own free well.
In conclusion, I believe uniforms arent meant to suppress the creativity or freedom of children. It helps
redirecting kids creativity towards more important things than outer look, and waive financial burden of
their families.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Home


Office
Everybody like home sweet home however making office at home is possible and recommend. Of course
home office will has both advantage and disadvantage. Therefore it is wise to consider the strengths and
weaknesses to have a home office.
Some people will agree that having office at home will make benefit. It saves time. We need no
commuting which occasionally takes a long time. Besides we are free to set the work schedule. Having
home office will save money as we need not to purchase or lease of office space from rent companies.
What make it more flexible is that we can set part or all parts of our home just as a real office. What we
need is only a wireless router to cover all parts of our house with Internet. We can run our business
wherever part of house we want, from living room, bed room, veranda, etc even we can make sell or
purchase by online shopping for things we need. Furthermore Working at home might reduce stress,

effort and time and divert it to other more productive things because while working, we are close to our
families.
However making home as office also has some disadvantages. For some people, keeping the schedule is
hard in flexible time. Such people type will harder if they are working just from home. There will no clear
border between working and breaking. Working just from home also reduces the possibility to meet
new people. It is true that computer and Internet connection possibly relate people every time and
everywhere but we will interact with them in a dimension which is not real face.
So considering carefully what we actually need in running our business is very recommended before
choosing to have office at home or not.

Using Cell Phone in the School ( Discussion Text )

In this globalization era, we separate from technology, including cell phone. Now, many people
have cell phone. Including us, we also have cell phone , havent us? But there is a controversy
about using cell phone at school. Some people against with the using cell phone at school, but
some people support it.
Those who agree to use cell phone at school will bring beneficial. For example, we can browse
the internet with our cell phone to find out some lessons that we dont understand. Another
beneficial of using cell phone is if we havent scientific calculator and a dictionary or too heavy
to bring dictionary to school, we can down load scientific calculator and digital dictionary to our
cell phone. So, we can study with our cell phone.
Not everyone agree with this idea, however some people feel that it could have terrible effect.
When the student feel bored with his lessons maybe be quietly use his cell phone to play game or
to access social networking such as facebook or send short message to his friend. So, it will
disturb his lessons. The fatal effect is when student have something about porn in his cell phone.
It makes his moral so bad.
The school rules therefore made rules about using cell phone at school. It can make the students
moral so bad. But, it can use to support our study.