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RESUMEN

El objetivo de esta investigacin fue analizar la prevalencia de gingivitis asociada a


placa y periodontitis crnica en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 del Centro de
Salud Rural Disperso de Bajos de Chila, Oaxaca.

Este estudio es de tipo descriptivo, prospectivo, observacional y transversal. Se


realiz en los meses de febrero a mayo del ao 2014 con la participacin de 104
pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de seleccin. Se realiz un cuestionario al
paciente y examen periodontal usando la historia clnica de la Facultad de
Odontologa de la Universidad Autnoma Benito Jurez de Oaxaca.

La relacin mujer-hombre fue de 1.8:1 El rango de edad fue de 33 a 79 aos de


edad, con media de 57.4; el promedio de control glucmico fue de 180.1 mg/dl y
71.2% tena un control glucmico moderado a malo; 100% desconoca el significado
de los trminos gingivitis, periodontitis crnica y enfermedad periodontal y slo el
5.8% pensaba que la enfermedad periodontal es ms frecuente en un paciente con
diabetes que uno que no la padece; 97.1% cepillaba diariamente sus dientes, pero
slo 17.3% lo haca 3 veces al da, adems los pacientes no usaban otro mtodo
adicional para su higiene bucal; en 94.2% la tcnica de cepillado era incorrecta. Se
reportaron recesiones gingivales en el 100%, lesiones de furca en el 76%, bolsas
periodontales en 92.3%; 90.4% de movilidad dental; 24% de supuracin y en 100%
se report placa bacteriana, clculo dental y sangrado al sondeo. El IHOS promedio
fue de 4.7 y el 94.2% report mala higiene. 100% report gingivitis asociada a placa
y 92.3% periodontitis crnica. El grupo de edad ms afectado fue el de 61 a 80 aos.
El 100% de los pacientes con 16 a 25 aos de evolucin reportaron gingivitis severa
y periodontitis severa. El 100% de los casos de periodontitis crnica severa se
concentraron en el grupo de mala higiene bucal de acuerdo al IHOS.

Palabras clave:

Prevalencia,

gingivitis,

periodontitis crnica,

enfermedad

periodontal, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, investigacin.

ABSTRACT:
The objective of this research was to analyze the prevalence of gingivitis
associated with plaque and chronic periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes
mellitus of the Dispersed Rural Health Center of Bajos de Chila, Oaxaca.
This study is descriptive, prospective, observational and transversal type. It was
carried out during the months of February to May, 2014 with the participation of 104
patients who met the selection criteria. Each patient completed a questionnaire and
received periodontal examination using the clinical history of the Faculty of
Odontology of the Autonomous University Benito Jurez of Oaxaca.
The female to male relation was 1.8:1. The age range was between 33 to 79 years
old, with a mean of 57.4; the average glycemic control was 180 mg/dl and 71.2%
had moderate to poor glycemic control; 100% didn't know the meaning of the terms
gingivitis, chronic periodontitis nor periodontal disease and only 5.8% thought that
periodontal disease is more frequent in patients with diabetes those ones without;
97.1 % brushed their teeth daily, but only 17.3% did it 3 times a day, in addition
patients did not use another method for oral hygiene; in 94.2% brushing technique
was incorrect. Gingival recessions were reported in 100%, furcation lesions in 76%,
92.3% in periodontal pockets; 90.4% of tooth mobility; 24% of suppuration and 100%
there was reported bacterial plaque, dental calculus and bleeding on probing. The
OHI average was 4.7 and 94.2% reported poor hygiene. 100% reported gingivitis
associated with plaque and 92.3% chronic periodontitis. The most seriously affected
group was 61 to 80 years old. 100% of patients who had 16-25 years of evolution
reported severe gingivitis and severe periodontitis. 100% of cases of severe
periodontitis were concentrated in the group of poor oral hygiene according to OHI.

Key words: Prevalence, gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal disease,


diabetes mellitus type 2, research.
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