Anda di halaman 1dari 7

CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE AMONG SMALL

MEDIUM ENTERPRISE CONTRACTOR IN PONTIAN, JOHOR


Mohd Zainurrain Bin Md Zin, Riduan Bin Yunus
Faculty Of Civil And Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat
zaiaz.8837@gmail.com

Abstract
The construction industry is a major contributor to solid waste in Malaysia. Improper waste management can
cause problems to the environment, health and safety. A proper understanding is required among the
stakeholders in managing construction waste. It is important to catalyst the waste mitigation in reducing the
negative impacts to the environment. The study identifies the significant construction waste causes and solution
in reducing construction waste. Wood, steel, and cement are the major materials causes by the error during
construction. This in turn would disrupt the ecosystem environment because of the wood wastage. Contractors
who run small and medium businesses need to be concerned about this so that no more waste is rampant.
Recycling should become an identity in the present because it can be availed either in economic, social and
environmental protection.
Keywords: Construction, Waste, Management

1.0

Introduction

Construction activities are the most important activities in the development process. However,
construction activities contribute to generating waste during construction. The construction industry
produces large amount of waste, equal to four times produce in households and more than 50%
deposited in landfill. Either construction or demolition of building can produce that type of waste.
Waste has direct impact on the productivity, material loss and completion time of project which
resulting in loss of a significant amount of revenue. These waste generation activities consume time
and effort without adding values to the client thus resulting losses in material, delay in meeting the
stipulated time and execution of unnecessary work [1]. The factors that contribute to the generation of
construction waste are various.
Waste management in the building industry in Malaysia has become a major environmental
issue in recent years. Although this issue has been playing around the media for quite some time, but
there are little action taken to control the waste generation. Moreover when we look this issue around
the rural area where some contractor did not take for granted about waste management. Therefore, this
research was studied on the construction waste management at Pontian, Johor to identify the suitable
method that can be conduct in waste management.

1.1

Problem Statement

Due to the rapid development of the construction industry, construction waste condition
becomes worse in this country. Nevertheless, the cost managing waste is often relatively higher than
the benefits that the organization may gain from such management. Therefore, the waste management
gain less attention comparison to construction cost and time management in construction site.
According to the statistic in Waste Management Framework Planning in Sarawak, most of the
construction waste are informally dumped which contributed 41% of the amount of construction
waste whereas there is only 10% of the construction waste is recycled [2].

Seminar on Civil and Environmental Engineering Final Year Projects


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 1-5 June 2014

1.2

Objectives
1. To identify advantages of construction waste management practiced by the contractor.
2. To identify the effectiveness of the solution and the appropriate management of
construction waste and can be carried out in Pontian, Johor.
3. Suggest the appropriate approach in the management of construction waste for small and
medium enterprises contractors.

1.3

Scope

The scope of this study focused on small medium enterprise which is registered with CIDB
grade 1 to grade 5. It was conducted with selected contractor around Pontian, Johor. The studied
focused on management of construction waste. Data was collected using the questionnaires.

2.0

Literature Review

2.1

Construction Waste

Waste is also can be defined as any materials by product of human and industrial activity that
has no residual value. Waste materials are substances that are no longer in use resulting from the
construction, repair and culling. Construction waste is the word used for various types of waste
includes waste that comes from the construction and demolition of buildings and civil structures, soil,
rock, vegetation removed during cut and fill work and also waste materials associated with the
construction and maintenance road. Construction waste can be described as building materials and
solid waste produced during and after the construction work [3]. Construction waste is waste materials
that no longer used which resulting from the construction, repair and demolition. As well as materials
such as concrete, asphalt, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, glass and composite materials [4].
Table 1: Type of Construction Waste
Type of Waste
Wood

Concrete

Steel
Brick
Others

Explanation
Plywood
Prop wood
Excess of sawn timber
Substructure
Structure
Drain
Reinforcement bars
Aluminum frames
Clay brick
Cement bricks
Plastic
Gypsum and Cement
Ceramics
PVC pipe
Ducts and wiring
Paper
Zinc
Aggregates
Plaster
Paint
Nail
Bolts
Wire sand, laterite soil
Oil machine

Source
Formwork
Roof trusses
Foundation, piling
Beams, columns, floor slabs
Drainage
Windows, ceilings, doors
Beams, columns
Wall
Fence works
Finishing works
Ceiling work
Pipe work
Electrical works
Earthworks
Truss installation
Roof installation
Paint job

(Lau, Whyte & Law, 2008)


2

2.2

Causes of Construction Waste

There are numerous factors that will lead to the construction waste. Bossink and Brouwers have
classified the causes of construction waste [5].

i.

Design

Some designers are not well experienced in the construction design. Complexity of detailing
and lack of information in the drawing usually can confusing and wrongly interpreted by the
contractor. Design changes also can cause the wastage of materials.

ii.

Acquisition

Basically, contractor makes the material order based on the document contractor. Unfortunately,
some contractor makes the order that do not meet the demands of the project in the document
contract. Besides that, error in surveying also can cause the waste because of too much order the
materials by contractor.

iii.

Control of Raw Materials and Operation

Basically raw materials are easy to break down. Negligence in storage will be invited to the
damage. When the raw material is damaged it will not automatically be used again because a result of
faulty raw materials will not be the same as the material that still in a good condition.
Faulty made by tradesperson or laborers during operation of construction seem to be
unavoidable. Uncertain required quantity of material and delays in passing of information to the
contractor on types and sizes of products to be used caused the previous activities have to be deleted.

2.3

Construction Waste Management

In Malaysia, the construction industry produces waste that is too much that can cause pollution
to the environment. The waste of raw materials showed 36.78% as a result of residential areas,
28.34% of the construction industry and manufacturing, and the rest of the way agriculture and
34.93% [6]. This proves that the construction industry produces a lot of waste both during
construction.
Waste construction can give an impact to the environment and it will become worse if the waste
management did not implement in the every project. So, Hierarchy concept can be as a foundation to
manage easily in construction management.

Reduction of Source
Reuse
Recycle
Disposal

Figure 1: Hierarchy Concept


(EU Waste Management: 1997)

3.0

Methodology

The study will through some stage which is identify the objectives, literature review, collecting
data by questionnaire, data analysis, and last but not least conclusion. Site visit are conducted along
the distribution of questionnaire.

3.1

Questionnaire

The purpose of the questionnaire is to get the feedback from the respondent about the
construction management. Therefore, the entire question involve in this questionnaire related to
construction management.
The questionnaire is divided to five parts which is:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Part A: Background of respondents project


Part B: Types of waste construction.
Part C: The cause of the waste construction on site.
Part D: Methods to overcome the problem of waste of construction.
Part E: Comments and suggestions

After got a feedback from respondent, all the question will be analyze as a result and
discussion.

4.0

Results and Discussions

4.1

Analysis Types of Waste Construction

Table 2 shows the average index for the type of waste construction. Calculation shows that the
waste timber is the highest revenue recorded an average index of 3.63. Next followed by steel and
cement which respectively recorded 3.33 and 3.23. Concrete registered within 3 indexes of 3.2 and the
rest are in the range of index 2.
Table 2: The Average Index of Construction Wastes
Waste
Materials
Wood
Concrete
Steel
Brick
Plastic
Cement
Ceramics
PVC Pipe
Wiring
Channel
Paper
Zinc
Aggregates
Plaster
Paint
Nail
Bolts

Frequency
Total

Average
index

Rank

Status

10

30

3.63

Medium

3
3
3
5
3
6
6

4
3
6
8
5
7
10

9
8
7
11
7
13
8

12
13
12
6
12
4
6

2
3
2
0
3
0
0

30
30
30
30
30
30
30

3.2
3.33
3.13
2.6
3.23
2.5
2.47

4
2
5
6
3
7
8

Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium

10

30

2.33

11

Low

8
8
9
9
12
8
10

9
10
8
9
4
12
9

6
8
5
9
8
5
8

7
4
7
3
6
5
3

0
0
1
0
0
0
0

30
30
30
30
30
30
30

2.4
2.27
2.43
2.2
2.27
2.23
2.13

10
12
9
14
12
13
15

Low
Low
Medium
Low
Low
Low
Low

Wire
Sand
Red Land
Land
Oil Machine

8
8
8
8
14

7
7
7
9
4

10
9
10
6
4

5
6
2
5
7

0
0
3
2
1

30
30
30
30
30

2.4
2.43
2.5
2.47
2.23

10
9
7
8
13

Low
Medium
Medium
Medium
Low

Based on studies, the wood is often the primary waste generated for each project [7]. Pontian
known to most of the village houses. Accordingly, respondents recorded here housing a major activity
in the construction project. When involving housing in villages mostly used wood design. In addition,
the use of wood during the manufacturing of beams and columns are also very much. Therefore, the
wood became the main construction waste among respondents compared with other residues.

4.2

Analysis the Causes of the Waste Construction on Site

Table 3 shows the average index for causes of the waste construction. Construction errors
recorded a major source index where the average is 3.53 and the second followed with an average
index of 3.5 causes from the effects of weather. Next is the cause of climate change condition, with an
average index of 3.3
Table 3: The Average Index of Causes of the Waste Construction
Frequency
Causes

Lack of info on the type and


size of material in the design
documents.
Design changes
Error information on the size
and materials in design
documents
Determine the type and
material waste generated
regardless
Orders that do not meet the
demands of the project in the
document design
First order calculation error in
quantity surveying
Raw material damage due to
no good management in
storage and use.
Planning the construction of
an incomplete
Lack of control of the site
Lack of construction waste
management plan
Lack of experience
Construction errors
Rework
Subcontractors are not
efficient
Worker productivity is less
Monitoring and control of
inadequate
Lack of site workers
Lack of coordination between
the

Total

Average
index

Rank

Status

16

30

2.67

11

30

2.67

10

30

2.53

11

30

2.53

11

10

30

2.4

14

Low

10

30

2.4

14

Low

10

30

2.47

12

11

30

2.63

10

10

30

2.83

11

30

2.47

12

8
2
6

6
5
3

11
8
13

5
5
8

0
10
0

30
30
30

2.43
3.53
2.77

13
1
8

10

30

3.03

14

30

3.2

10

30

3.03

11

30

2.97

11

30

2.97

Medium

Medium
Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium

Lack of technical staff


(skilled workers)
Change of materials
Effects of weather

14

30

3.03

5
4

1
3

10
6

8
8

6
9

30
30

3.3
3.5

3
2

Medium
Medium
Medium

The work of human hands is certainly not going to run away from mistakes. The reasons can be
highlighted from construction errors are, lack of focus on the job, employees not very skilled,
dishonest in work and do not take for granted in doing a job. Climatic factors usually associated with
rain. Wood, steel, cement and other materials will undergo a change of material properties and the
possibility cannot be used again. Other causes are also involved in the generation of waste but are less
common and usually can be controlled.

4.3

Analysis Methods to Overcome the Problem of Waste of Construction

Table 4 shows the average index for methods to overcome the problem of waste of
construction. The entire average index for the method more than index 3. Recycling of waste
construction was the top method with average index 3.67. Next method is planning for waste
reduction with an average index 3.63. The use of precast index recorded an average of 3.5. Then the
control of the use and communication in position 4 and 5 respectively, which recorded an average
index of 3.3 and 3.2.
Table 4: The Average Index of Methods to Overcome the Problem of Waste of Construction
Frequency

Methods
Planning programs to
reduce waste
Control of the uses of
materials
Good Communication
Recycling
The use of precast

Total

Averag
e index

Rank

14

30

3.63

10

30

3.3

4
3
3

4
2
3

10
6
8

6
10
8

6
9
8

30
30
30

3.2
3.67
3.5

5
1
3

Status

Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium

Recycling can helps to solve financially issued [7]. As examples of concrete formwork made
of wood can be reused for the next job. Furthermore, if the new formwork only use once it can be
stored and reused for future projects. Planning programs to reduce waste can be carried out before the
start of a project. Prior to the occurrence of something undesirable it is best planned in advance so that
something happens in the future is assured.

5.0

Conclusions

The result of the study on construction waste management among contractors was showed
satisfactory results. All objectives in this study have been achieved with complete and systematic data
collection.

5.1

Identify the Benefits of Construction Waste Management among Small and


Medium Enterprise Contractor.

Based on the discussion, good waste management can help to reduce capital spending to buy
construction materials by using recycling methods. In addition, it can help the quality of the
production of high quality work if two-way communication going well. Furthermore, it can help avoid
wasting raw materials such as wood and indirectly to protect and preserve the environment.

5.2

Identify the effectiveness of solution and the appropriate management of


construction waste and can be carried out in Pontian, Johor.

Based on the literature review, listed the appropriate rules and can be practiced at the site.
However, many of the contractors show recycling is the best step in managing construction waste and
it is conveniently performed in Pontian. This method is the easiest way to solve the waste problem
and can give an advantage to the contractor when they sent to the recycling center. Most waste can be
sent to a recycling center nearby.

5.3

Proposed an appropriate approach that can be conducted by SME contractor in


Pontian, Johor.

The proper method for contractors around the Pontian is reused as raw material as provided for
in the system hierarchy. This technique can be used when beginning a project like reusing materials
unused steel to make reinforcement for slabs and components that is small and do not involve any
load. The bricks are not used again used as a work support and others. In conclusion, the contractor
has a variety of methods and let them make better planning so that the construction industry would
thrive no matter the city or in rural areas.

References
[1]

A. Serpell, A. Venturi, and J. Contreras, Characterization of waste in building construction projects,


3rd workshop on lean construction, Albuquerque, 1995 J. Cohen, Statistical power analysis for the
behavioral sciences, 2nd ed., 1988.

[2]

Chong Ted Tsiang and Eulogius Justine Rajang (2006) Waste Management Framework Planning in
Sarawak. Waste Management Conference & Exhibition. 16-17 May 2006. Kuala Lumpur, Hotel Nikko

[3]

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Mala Chandrakanthi, Patrick Hettiaratchi, Bolivar Prado. (2002).


Optimisation
of the Waste Management for Construction Projects Using
Simulation. University of Calgary.
Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference.

[4]

Lau, H.H, Whyte, A. Law, P.L. (2008). Composition and Characteristic of Construction Waste Generated
By Residential Housing Project. International journal of Environmental Research, 2(3), 261-268.

[5]

Bossink, B. A. G. and Brouwers, H. J. H, 1996. Construction Waste: Quantification and Source


Evaluation. Journal of Construction engineering and Management, March, 55-60.

[6]

Hassan MN, Yusoff MK, Sulaiman WNA, Rahman RA. (1998). Issues and problems of solid waste
management in Malaysia. Proceedings on national review on environmental quality management in
Malaysia: Towards the nest two decades.

[7]

Sharifah Meryam Binti Shareh Musa, Haryati bin Shafii & Syarifah Nursyahadilla Binti Syed Muhammad
Zubir (2009). Potensi Kitar Semula Dalam Industri Pembinaan: Kajian Kes Daerah Batu Pahat, Johor.
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia