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PROBLEMY TRANSPORTU

2008

Tom 3 Zeszyt 1

Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Transport Engineering,

Department of Railway Transport

J. Basanaviiaus g. 28, LT-03224, Vilnius, Lithuania

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gediminas.vaiciunas@ti.vgtu.lt

PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

Summary. Railway transport usually employed for passenger transportation embraces

passenger locomotives, diesel trainsets and electric trains as well as railcars. Diesel or

electric trains are mostly used on suburban routes, while passenger or electric

locomotives haul the carriages on interurban routes.

. ,

, , -

, . -

,

.

1. INTRODUCTION

In Lithuania, only about 9 % of railways have been electrified yet, therefore, the choice of the

type of traction and vehicle for passenger transportation is a significant problem. For this purpose, a

comparative analysis of diesel locomotives and their performance (based on the cost analysis of the

consumed fuel, diesel oil, as well as maintenance and repairs) should be performed. This paper

presents and discusses the results obtained in the investigation of the above problems.

2. FUEL CONSUMPTION

Fuel consumption depends on many factors (e.g. mass of the rolling stock, its speed, axle loading,

carriage structure), however, since the operating conditions of rail vehicles are similar, these factors

are equally important for all of them. On the other hand, service life and technical condition of a rail

vehicle are the most important factors determining its fuel consumption. Thus, fuel consumption is the

main indicator of the performance of traction rolling stock. Usually, it is expressed as a relative value,

e.g. 1000 tkm or 10000 tkm. This quantity is referred to as relative fuel consumption. This method of

calculating fuel consumption per unit of work is quite satisfactory for freight locomotives. However,

as far as passenger locomotives are concerned, the above indicator shows the work done in carrying

46

containers rather than passengers. Therefore, it is used only when passenger flows do not differ

considerably.

The dependence of relative fuel consumption of passenger locomotives of various age and the

power of 2200 kW on various factors, established in investigating their performance, is shown in Fig

1. About 80 % of experimental data are in the solution interval 2 % of the presented equation (1).

kg/10000 tkm

47

46

45

44

43

42

32

33

34

35

36

37

Passenger locomotive age, years

Fig. 1. The relationship between relative fuel consumption of passenger locomotives and their age

. 1.

As shown in Fig 1, the variation of fuel consumption of passenger locomotive is about 0.3 kg /

10000 tkm. (0.7 %) per year. Mathematically, the relationship between relative fuel consumption and

the locomotive age may be expressed by a linear equation:

d kel = 0,687 x + 21,46 ;

(1)

where: x is the age of a locomotive, years; d is relative fuel consumption, kg / 10000 tkm.

The variation of relative fuel consumption of diesel trainsets with the power of 736 kW is shown in

Fig 2.

kg/10000 tkm

54

53

52

11

12

13

14

15

Fig. 2. Variation of fuel consumption of diesel locomotives

. 2.

16

47

As seen in the diagram, fuel consumption of diesel trainsets, which are getting older, is uniformly

increasing by approximately 0.12 kg / 10000 tkm. (0.23 %) annually (which is 2.5 times lower than

that for diesel locomotives). Relative fuel consumption variation can be expressed by the following

equation:

d Ddyz _ t = 0,108 x + 51

(2)

In the service life range from 12 to 15 years, 12 to 15 years, 80 % of experimental data are in the

solution interval 0.2 % of the equation (2).

Therefore, it is more economical to carry passengers by diesel locomotives than by diesel

trainsets, though the comparison is relative because diesel locomotives are twice as old as diesel

trainsets. On the other hand, the upgraded diesel trainsets allow for varying the number of carriages

(when required) more freely as well as using only one motor coach, while having the drivers cab in

the other. Moreover, when less fuel is consumed, a smaller amount of pollutants (CO, CO2, NOx,

CxHy, and solid particles) is released into the atmosphere.

3. OIL CONSUMPTION

kg/10000 tkm

Other materials are used by traction rolling stock besides fuel. The amount of diesel oil used is

closely connected to the rolling stock condition. Diesel oil is not a source of power, therefore, its use

indicates a poor state of the engine. The relationships between relative oil consumption and the age of

the locomotives are given in Figs 3, 4.

1

32

33

34

35

36

37

Fig. 3. The relationship between relative consumption of diesel oil by passenger locomotives and their age

. 3.

As shown in Fig 3, the consumption of diesel oil by passenger locomotive grows by about 0.095

kg / 10000 tkm. (2.1 %) per year. The relationship between relative diesel oil consumption by

passenger locomotives may be described by the following mathematical expression:

a Kel = 0,069 x + 0,238 .

(3)

where: a is relative diesel oil consumption, kg/10000 tkm.

The variation of relative oil consumption by diesel trainsets, depending on their age, is shown in

Fig 4.

48

kg/1000 tkm

Diesel oil

2

Transmission oil

1

0

11

12

13

14

15

16

Fig 4. Variation of relative diesel and transmission oil consumption by diesel trainsets

. 4. -

As shown in Fig 4, relative diesel oil consumption by diesel trainsets does not vary considerably,

making about 2 kg / 10000 tkm. The annual consumption of diesel oil by diesel trainsets varies

according to the expression:

(4)

The variation of annual consumption of transmission oil by diesel trainsets may be described by

the formula:

a tr = 0,3275 x + 3,262 ;

(5)

4. REPAIR COSTS

Maintenance and repair of rolling stock may be assessed in hours of terminal delay. This

evaluation method was used because delay hours are easy to calculate and to operate. The delay time

actually indicates the amount and effectiveness of repair work in Lithuania. It also shows the

reliability of rolling stock. Another aspect is the correctness of this approach. The statistical data

shows that terminal delay time (in hours) is proportional to the expenses. It means that the relationship

between terminal delay time and the locomotive age will be equal to the similar cost relationship. The

relationships between relative terminal delay and the locomotive age are presented in Figs 5, 6.

49

h/10000 tkm

0,1

0,05

0

32

33

34

35

36

37

Fig. 5. The relationship between relative delay time and age of passenger locomotives

. 5.

As shown in Fig 5, variation of relative passenger locomotive delay time makes about 0.0035

h/10000 tkm (7 %) per year. By approximating the relationship given in Fig 5, we get the regression

equation:

(6)

h/10000 tkm.

0,3

0,25

0,2

0,15

0,1

0,05

0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Fig 6. The relationship between relative delay time and age of diesel trainsets

. 6. -

As shown in Fig 6, the variation of relative terminal delay of diesel trainsets is about 0.033

h/10000 tkm (20 %) per year. By approximating the relationship given in Fig 6, we obtain the

following equation:

(7)

50

5. CONCLUSIONS

than fuel consumption by passenger locomotives.

2. Fuel consumption by passenger diesel locomotives increases with their age according to

linear dependence, while fuel consumption by passenger diesel locomotives increases by 0.7

% and by diesel trainsets by 0.23 % per year.

3. Relative diesel oil consumption by passenger locomotives increases by about 2.1 % per

year. Relative diesel oil consumption by diesel trainsets grows insignificantly.

4. Relative terminal delay of passenger rolling stock increases in time according to linear

dependence: for diesel locomotives it increases by about 7 % per year, while for diesel

trainsets the increase is 20 % per year.

5. The investigation results show that, taking into account fuel and diesel oil consumption as well

as time of terminal delay due to repair, it would be more rational to use passenger locomotives if the

routes are long and passenger flows are relatively large. To determine more exactly rational route

length, some additional research is needed.

Bibliography

1. Vaiinas G., Lingaitis L.P., Bureika G.: The determination of a complex criterion for assessing

the performance of traction rolling stocks, Transport, v. XIX, 2, Technika, Vilnius, 2004, p. 63-68.

2. Lingaitis L.P., Vaiinas G.: Asymmetry of freight flows and Lithuanian railways capacity, The 6th

International Conference Environmental Engineering, Selected papers. Volume 1, edited by D.

Cygas and K. D. Froehner, Vilnius, 2005, 3 p.

3. Lingaitis L.P., Vaiinas G.: An optimization model of traction rolling stock operation. Journal of

Maintenance and Reliability, 3(15), 2002, p. 26-30.

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