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Cracked Section Properties

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Cracked Section Properties


CTBridge allows input of a variety of cross section types including box girder shapes,
rectangular and circular shapes. Sometimes the user desires to model sections that have
been cracked and thus have smaller properties than those for the full section.

CTBridge allows the user to apply cracked factors to the following properties:

Area

X Axis Moment of Inertia

Y Axis Moment of Interia

Torsion

The default cracked factor is 1.0 for all sections. The cracked sections properties are
used in all subsequent calculations from the finite element model generation to the
specification checks.

The use can choose to show the gross section properties or cracked section properties
when working in the cross section input window. In addition, a note appears in the
properties part of the input window that indicates a cracked section.

Loading in CTBridge
The current CTBridge loadings are

Dead Load

Added Dead Load

Live Load

Prestress Load

Temperature Load

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Creep and Shrinkage Load*

*Creep and Shrinkage Load is not included in the superstructure load combination.

Trucks, Lanes, Vehicles


CTBridge is set up so that the user is required to enter a minimum of live load data, so
long as default information obtained from the design specification is valid. However,
the user is allowed to depart from the default information and create used defined
trucks, lanes and vehicles. CTBridge does not place restrictions on what the user can
define, but there is a process to making it all work that the user should be aware of.

The first and perhaps most important concept to understand is the difference between live
load information derived from the design specification and that defined by the user. The
specification derived live loads include a suite of trucks, lanes and vehicles. The user
cannot change this information, and the GUI enforces this by disabling all edit fields
associated with specification data.
The user can create new trucks, lanes and vehicles. The user can also copy specification
data into user data, and then modify it at will. The GUI distinguishes between
specification and user defined data by allowing the user to select the appropriate
button.

The second important concept to understand is the relationship between trucks, lanes and
vehicles. Truck and lane definitions are fairly self-explanatory. Vehicles on the other
hand are a collection of trucks and/or lanes that are analyzed and enveloped. When
CTBridge analyzes a point in the structure, the results from each truck and lane
combination within a vehicle are determined, but only the controlling truck and/or lane
results for that vehicle are included in the load combination for that point. In some
cases (permit and fatigue), the vehicle will only include one truck. In other cases
(design), a number of truck and lane combinations are included in the vehicle and
enveloped accordingly.
With this concept in mind, the user can define a truck or lane, but this information will
not be analyzed unless the truck or lane is included within a vehicle.

The following figure shows the definition for an LRFD HL-93 specification truck.

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There are two or three default vehicles based on the design specification: Design, Permit
and Fatigue. Since they are specification based, they cannot be changed. However, these
vehicles can be used as a starting point for a user defined vehicle by choosing the copy
option. Any number of specification or user trucks and lanes can be included in the user
vehicle.

The following figure shows the definition of the LRFD Design Vehicle. Note that it is
made up of a series of trucks and lanes. These are enveloped at each analysis points.

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This leads into discussion of the third concept. Once a user defined vehicle has been
created, appropriate load factors must be set to include the vehicle in the analysis. By
default, all load factors for a user defined vehicle are initially set to 0. This
concept also holds true for user defined point and concentrated loads that are not part
of the dead load or additional dead load.

The last concept is that of ctive loads. For the user defined vehicle to be included
in the analysis, it must be identified as an active load. By the same token, the user
can deactivate any vehicle (or load for that matter) thereby excluding it from analysis.

An example might help illustrate these concepts. Suppose a user wishes to create a user
defined permit vehicle. These are the steps the user might take:

1. Create the user defined permit truck.


2. Copy the default specification permit vehicle to a new user defined vehicle.
3. In the new vehicle, replace the existing truck with the user defined truck.

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4. Add the appropriate load factors for the new permit vehicle
factors for the existing specification permit vehicle.

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they might match the

5. Go to the load control dialog. Make sure that the new user defined vehicle is
active, and deactivate the specification permit vehicle.

Number Of Lanes
The live load distribution (number of live load lanes) may be program determined or user
specified. The user can specify one or more 'lane layouts' to override program
calculated values. If there are no lane layouts, the program will calculate the number
of lanes based on geometry and specification equations.

It should be noted that the multiple presence factor is not used in any live load
factoring.

Program Calculated:

There are two main divisions of live load distribution: for superstructure members and
for substructure members. When applying the LRFD specification for superstructure
members, the program uses whole width design equations for box girder sections. The
equations are found in Chapter 4 of the specification and depend on the force effect
under consideration. If a box girder section is not found at the point under
consideration, the number of lanes is set to 1.0.

When applying the LFD specification for superstructure members, the overall width is
determine from the section in question and the number of lanes is computed by dividing
the width by 14.0, conforming to whole width design for box girders.

For substructure members, the integer portion of 12 ft wide lanes that can fit within the
overall width of the section in question is used. There are other specification
provisions for decks less than 24 ft wide that come into play.

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User Specified:

The user can specify a layout of lane information, but the application is slightly
different for superstructure and substructure members. The user can also choose to apply
different lane distribution criteria for different vehicle types, and for superstructure
members can further refine the layout depending on force effect.

For superstructure members, there is always a beginning number of lanes. The user can
specify the number of lanes at any other point in the superstructure. For analysis
between the described points, the program will linearly interpolate the number of live
load lanes. For points beyond the last description, the program will use the value in
the last description.

For substructure members, there is also a beginning number of lanes. The user can then
describe the number of lanes at any other substructure. For substructures not described
by the user, the number of lanes from the previous substructure is used. So the user
could only describe the number of lanes at the beginning and that number would be used at
every other substructure location.

Uniform Temperature Load


Uniform temperature load was added in CTBridge version 1.4.8. California Amendments to
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification amend to us Procedure A temperature range to
design thermal movement associated with a uniform temperature change. LRFD 3.12.2.

CTBridge adapt the CA amendment recommendation to use the base construction temperature
as 60 F and
T, 35 F, both rise or fall of less as default values. Users can overwrite the default
values as shown in the dialogue below.

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Creep And Shrinkage


Creep and shrinkage force was added in CTBridge version 1.5.3. Internally, CTBridge uses
an equivalent uniform temperature load to calculate creep and shrinkage response. The
default value for Creep & Shrinkage is 0.63" per 100 feet span. This value is
recommended in Memo to Designer 7-10 for post tension reinforced concrete bridge.

Currently, creep and shrinkage is for substructure design only. It is not included in
the load combination for superstructure design.

Support Settlement Analysis Using CTBridge


Bridge settlement was added in version 1.5.1 under user defined load. Settlement

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analysis allows the user to compute the demand on bridge components due to support
settlement. The implementation is pretty general allowing specification of settlement in
the form of displacements as well as rotations in any direction, utilizing the existing
User Load graphic interface in the program.

The following is a brief guide intended to assist the user with using this new option in
CTBridge:

The User may specify settlement at abutments and/or at bent column supports.

The specified settlements may be in the form of displacement or rotation.

The settlements may be specified in local or global coordinates system as defined in


CTBridge online Help document. The use of Global Coordinates system is recommended.

The settlement force effects are input to CTBridge through the existing User Loads
interface.
The participation of Settlement force effects in LRFD or LFD Load combinations is
handled like any other user specified load cases. The user will populate the
CTBridge generated cells of the Load Factor Table with proper load factors for all
the relevant limit state load combinations.
Imposed displacements and rotations may only be applied to a support that is fixed
in the direction of the settlement. Unpredictable and erroneous results will be
produced otherwise. It should be noted that a support fixed in global coordinates
may not be fixed in the local coordinates.
The imposed displacements at the abutments are applied to the superstructure spans
at location of the support. The followings are examples of abutment settlement:

For settlement of 1st abutment, specify displacement (or rotation) at the


beginning of the 1st span.
For settlement of last abutment, specify displacement (rotation) at the end of
the last span.

For settlement at bent column supports, specify displacement (or rotation) at the
beginning of the column where it is attached to the support in question.

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Effective Dimensions
Effective dimensions in a span are meant to describe the boundary between the end span
diaphragm and the more flexible interior part of the span. The practical effect of
entering an effective dimension is to move the reporting of forces away from the
centerline of support. This typically reduces the fictitiously high forces found at the
centerline of support.

An effective dimension can be modeled with or without a rigid link. A rigid link is an
element with very stiff properties and no mass. If a rigid link is applied, the user
should computed the weight of the entire diaphragm and enter it as a point load at the
span end.

If a rigid link is not applied, the span properties are used all the way to the
connection at centerline of support. In this case, the effective dimension just shifts
the analysis point away from the support centerline. When a rigid link is not used and
assuming a box girder span section, the weight of the diaphragm concrete within the cells
should be applied as a point load at the span end. CTBridge reports the cell areas to
allow easier calculation of this weight.

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Support Width
See span effective dimensions.

Default Supports
During the creation of a bridge model, the user will encounter the concept of default
supports. Basically, when the user creates a span, the program doesn't know what to
support the span with so it places a default support at one of both of the span ends. A
default support gets applied whenever the true support condition is unknown.

When bents are created, they can replace existing default supports. If a bent is removed
from the model, a default support is placed in its stead.

The user can also replace defaults supports with a user-defined support. The userdefined support is similar to a default support except that it will apply to only one
location in the bridge. When a user-defined support is removed, it is replaced by a
default support.

The user is able to modify the default support, but the modifications will apply wherever
a default support is found. For example, if the user changes the default support to a
roller, all default supports will be rollers.

The default support cannot be deleted.

The following figures show a progression of model building where default support come
into play.

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The first span is supported by default supports at either end.

A second span is added and is supported by another default span at the end.

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The user has replaced the default support the end of span 2 with a user created roller
support. In addition, a bent is added to the structure and is placed between the spans.
The bent replaces the default support that previously existed.

Note that a bent can also be placed at the abutments.

Units
CTBridge allows input data and output results to be in either English (US) units or
Metric (SI) units. These units are commonly referred to as "user units".

CTBridge also allows the user to choose between the LRFD specification (in US and SI
units), or the LFD specification (in US units only).

The specification units are completely separate from the user units. In other words, it
is possible for a user to describe a bridge in US units, and analyze the bridge according
to the LRFD SI specification.

The following figure is a depiction of the typical toolbar set up in CTBridge. In this
figure, both the user units and specification units can be seen:

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User units:

Specification units:

In addition to user and specification units, CTBridge also provides unit conversion with
most input data. This conversion is not permanent and amounts to a local "unit
calculator".

For example, a user could choose to view unit conversions of a data item, change the item
to a different set of units and exit the window. When the user re-enters the window, the
data item will be shown in the user units of the program, not the converted units.

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An example of the unit calculator is shown below:

Specification
CTBridge applies the provisions of the following specifications:

AASHTO LRFD, 4th Edition, 2007 Interim Revisions and Incorporating California
Amendments (Blue Sheets) Dec. 2008, US or SI version
Caltrans Bridge Design Specifications, LFD 16th Edition, 1998 (Caltrans 2000)

The default specification is LRFD - US, but this may be changed at any time. However, it
is recommended to set the specification prior to entering model data. CTBridge applies
default values where possible, and these defaults sometimes depend on the specification.
This is particularly true with the live load trucks, lanes, and vehicles, and the load
factors.

If the user has not modified load factors or created user defined live load information,
there should be no problem switching between specifications. If this type of data has
been created, some of it might be lost during the specification change.

Sign Convention
There are several sign conventions at work in CTBridge. These conventions affect the

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layout of the model, the orientation and loading of members within the model, and the
meaning of results.

The global sign convention is used when laying out the nodes. Loads can also be placed
in the global direction. An example of a global load is gravity, which is oriented in
the negative global Y direction. The global directions can be seen by double clicking
the compass at the lower left of the model view. The global X direction coincides with N
90 E, global Y is directed upward vertically, and global Z is due south following the
right hand rule. These directions are shown in the figure below.

Member local sign conventions are important for orienting the member and its section
properties. In addition, members can be loaded in the local directions. Prestress force
coefficients are resolved and applied in the local span directions. The reporting of
member forces is also done in the local directions of the members. The local sign
convention for each type of member is illustrated the figure above.

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