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The image.

its mathematical and

physical background
Linearity also concerns more general
elements of vector spaces, for instance, functions. The linear combination is a key
concept in linear mathematics, permitting the expression of a new element of a vector
space as a sum of known elements multiplied by coefficients (scalars, usually real numbers) .
A general linear combination of two vectors x , y can b e written as ax + by, where a , b are
Fourier transform

The discrete Fourier transform is analogous to the continuous one and may be efficiently
computed using the fast Fourier transform algorithm.

The properties of linearity, shift of position, modulation, convolution, multiplication, and

correlation are analogous to the continuous case, with the difference of the discrete
periodic nature of the image and its transform.


The discrete Fourier transform can be defined according to equation (11.2)


be a transform matrix of size J x J :

The inverse transform matrix is

and the inverse Fourier transform is given by

The kernel function of the discrete transform (11.8) is

Considering implementation of the discrete Fourier transform, equation (11.8) can be


The term in square brackets ... one-dimensional Fourier transform of the m-th line can be
computed using standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) procedures (usually assuming
N=2k ).
Each line is substituted with its Fourier transform, and the one-dimensional discrete
Fourier transform of each column is computed.

Periodicity is an important property of the discrete Fourier transform.

Fourier spectra play an important role.

The Fourier transform of a real function is a complex function

where R(u,v) and I(u,v) are, respectively, the real and imaginary components of F(u,v).

The magnitude function |F(u,v)| is called the frequency spectrum of image f(m,n)

The phase spectrum (u,v) and power spectrum P(u,v) are used

two crosses are visible; one is formed by the image borders and depicts the x and y axes
in the spectrum.
... the second is rotated by approximately 10 o anti-clockwise with respect to the first.
This cross comes from the image data its directions correspond to the main edge
directions present in the image.
It is important to realize that the frequency spectrum lines seem to be rotated by 90
degrees with respect to the edge image edge directions because of the perpendicular
relationship between image edges and the image intensity changes (in this case, the
sinusoidal basis functions) assessing the frequency character of the edges.

Discrete cosine transform

There are four definitions of the discrete cosine transform, sometimes denoted DCT-I,
The most commonly used discrete cosine transform in image processing and compression
is DCT-II - using equation (11.2) and a square N x N image, the discrete transform matrix
can be expressed as

In the two-dimensional case, the formula for a normalized version of the discrete cosine
transform (forward cosine transform DCT-II) may be written

and the inverse cosine transform is

Note that the discrete cosine transform computation can be based on the Fourier
transform - all N coefficients of the discrete cosine transform may be computed using a
2N -point fast Fourier transform.

Discrete cosine transform forms the basis of JPEG image compression.

Wavelets Transform

Wavelets represent another approach to decompose complex signals into sums of basis
Fourier functions are localized in frequency but not in space, in the sense that they isolate
frequencies, but not isolate occurrences of those frequencies.
Small frequency changes in a Fourier transform will produce changes everywhere in the
time domain.
Wavelets are local in both frequency (via dilations) and time (via translations) and
therefore are able to analyze data at different scales or resolutions better than simple sines
and cosines.
Sharp spikes and discontinuities normally take fewer wavelet bases to represent than if
sine-cosine basis functions are used.
These types of signals generally have a more compact representation using wavelets than
with sine-cosine functions.
In the same way as Fourier analysis, wavelets are derived from a basis function called the
Mother function or analyzing wavelet.
The simplest Mother function is the Haar Mother function shown below.

Haar wavelet coefficients. The coefficients in the upper left corner are related to a low resolution
image while the other panels correspond to high resolution features.

Wavelets are often used for data compression and image noise suppression.

data to be expressed as a linear combination in

a new coordinate system consisting of orthogonal basis vectors. These basis vectors
are the eigen-vectors, and the inherent orthogonality of eigen-vectors secures mutual
independence. For an n x n square regular matrix A,.
Other orthogonal image transforms

Many other orthogonal image transforms exist.

Hadamard, Paley, Walsh, Haar, Hadamard-Haar, Slant, discrete sine transform, wavelets,

The significance of image reconstruction from projections can be seen in computed

tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography
(PET), astronomy, holography, etc., where image formation is based on the Radon

Applications of orthogonal image transforms

Many filters used in image pre-processing were presented - the convolution masks in
most cases were used for image filtering or image gradient computation.

In the frequency domain, such operations are usually called spatial frequency filtering.

A convolution filter h can be represented by its Fourier transform

(term-by-term multiplication, not a matrix multiplication)

The filtered image g can be obtained by applying the inverse Fourier transform to G.

Some basic examples of spatial filtering are linear low-pass and high-pass frequency