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158 tayangan71 halaman6.-Log Interpretation Methods

Nov 24, 2014

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6.-Log Interpretation Methods

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158 tayangan

6.-Log Interpretation Methods

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Formation Evaluation

Log Interpretation Methods

A K S Kakani

September 2014

Three quick look (qualitative) methods exist for rapidly locating pay (oil

or gas) from logs without performing calculations (next section).

The three quick look methods are:

Side by side technique

Overlay technique

Neutron-Density Crossover

recommended to use them to have a general idea of the presence of

hydrocarbons in the well

Logs are scaled so both the resistivity and porosity curves move in the

same direction (left or right) in water filled zones.

Resistivity increases to the right.

Porosity decreases to the right (decreasing porosity causes increasing

resistivity).

As the porosity varies, both the porosity and resistivity curves will move

in the same direction (right or left) as long as the rock is water filled.

If the rock contains hydrocarbons, the resistivity and porosity curves will

go in opposite directions.

These last two statements are the basis for qualitative hydrocarbon

detection.

Shale reduces the amount of separation, but the effect still holds true.

Lay the resistivity and porosity logs side by side with depths aligned.

Only three things cause the resistivity to go to high values:

Low porosity

Hydrocarbons

Fresh Water (discarded by local area knowledge)

Look for any place where the resistivity increases. Check to see if the

porosity decreases there. If the porosity decreases, the zone is most

likely water bearing (resistivity increase due to decreasing porosity). If

the porosity increases (or remains the same), this is a potential

hydrocarbon bearing zone.

The zone one wants to find has high resistivity AND high porosity

(hydrocarbon bearing).

This side by side technique is a good, first, fast-look method.

Find the pay zone,

what kind of

hydrocarbon is

there? Is there a

water zone, where

is the OWC?

Other Techniques

Overlay Technique

The overlay technique consists of laying the resistivity log on top the porosity

log on a light table, with depths aligned. Slide the resistivity log left or right

(sideward) to align the deep resistivity curve on top the porosity curves in a

clean high porosity zone.

Maintain this same relative position and examine the overlaid logs over the

entire log.

The logs (deep resistivity and porosity) should track each other fairly well,

except in hydrocarbon bearing zones. In hydrocarbon bearing zones the

resistivity will lie significantly to the right of the porosity curves. Look for this

separation of resistivity curve to the right of the porosity curves, making sure

the two curves remain on top each other in water sands.

Neutron-Density Crossover

mirror imaging. Such crossover with mirror imaging means gas is present.

Nothing else causes such a response. Be sure the mirror imaging is

present, as washouts or lithology can cause mere crossover .

A certain type of pay sand exists fairly commonly in certain type

environments that is not as obvious on the resistivity logs as

conventional pay sands.

This type sand is called a Low Resistivity Pay sand. It is marked by a

much lower resistivity than would be expected for a pay sand.

Basically, shales or very fine pores reduce the resistivity to much lower

than normal values for hydrocarbon bearing sands.

Low resistivity Pay sands can be quite prolific producers.

The key to spotting them is a very careful study for even a small

resistivity increase over what should be there for a water sand. The use

of image logs and cores are also a good help to identify these sanda.

Detecting these sands requires experience, and preferable specific

experience in the area of question

SATURATION

Saturation

The saturation of a formation represents the amount of a given fluid

present in the pore space.

Sw = Swirr + Sw"free"

water

So = Soresidual + So"free"

oil

Matrix

The resistivity logs react to the fluids in the pore space.

The combination of the two measurements gives the saturation

Rw = resistivity of water in the pore space.

Define Ro = resistivity of a rock totally filled with water.

R0

F=

F: Formation Factor.R w

As porosity increases, Ro decreases and F decreases.

a: is called the "lithology" constant.

a

F= m

Saturation can be expressed as a ratio of the resistivities:

Snw

R0

=

Rt

Substituting for Ro:

Snw

FR w

=

Rt

Substituting for F:

Rw

Rt

Rw

Rt

resistivity with the amount of water present, Sw.

Increasing porosity, , will reduce the saturation for the same Rt.

Increasing Rt for the same porosity will have the same effect.

Invaded Zone

The same method can be applied to the invaded zone. The

porosity is identical, the lithology is assumed to be the same,

hence the constants a, n, m are the same.

The changes are the resistivities which are now Rxo and Rmf

measured by the MSFL tool.

The equation is then:

n

Sxo

aRmf

= m

Rxo

Other Relationships

Dividing for Sxo and Sw, with n set to 2

1

2

Sw R xo R t

=

Sxo R mf R w

Observations suggest:

S

Hence:

xo

1

5

5

8

R xo R t

Sw =

R mf R w

Archie parameters

Rw

In a simple carbonate, the parameters are simplified to:

m = 2,

n = 2,

a=1

In a sandstone the following values are often quoted:

m = 2.15,

n = 2,

a = 0.62

Rw

Rt

Rw determination

Rw is an important parameter.

Sources include:

Client.

Local tables / knowledge.

SP.

Resistivity plus porosity in water zone.

RFT sample.

From Rxo and Rt tools.

Rw from Rwa

If Sw = 1, the saturation equation can become:

Procedure is to:

Compute an Rwa (Rw apparent) using this relationship.

Read the lowest value over a porous zone which contains water

This is the method employed by most computer based interpretation

systems.

Rw from resistivity

1

2

Sw R xo R t

=

Sxo R mf R w

becomes:

value of Rw can be calculated.

The constants a, m, n are an integral part of Archie's

saturation equation. They can, and do, vary. They are

usually taken from local knowledge if at all possible.

the common water wet case it is usually close to 2.

a and m are dependent on the lithology and pore

systems of the rock.

F Relation chart

Computing Saturation

The standard saturation equation can be used with special

attention taken to obtain the correct value for the cement

exponent m:

resistivity logs see read higher as the pathway is more

tortuous. Saturations calculated with an m of 2 will show

too much hydrocarbon

resistivity pathways are straight. In this case saturations

computed with m = 2 will show too much water.

Variation of m

m reflects the tortuosity

of the formation, the

pathway for electrical

current flow Carbonates

have complex porosities

and hence current

pathways an values of m

Variable m

Hence in a carbonate the major problem is the determination

of m

intercept a . The assumption is that m is constant through the

entire reservoir.

as a function of the total porosity and the cementation

factor, m.

The Archie equation has to be changed to take

account of the shale effect.

The shale looks like low resistivity so another term is

added to the equations.

The result is an equation which will can be used to

compute water saturation in shaly sands.

All these equations return to Archies equation if there

is no shale present.

Indonesia Equation

=

V

V cl

1

2

cl

cl

1

R

*

e

Nigeria Equation

1

R

1 .4

cl

aR

cl

n

w

Waxman-Smits Equation

1

R

=

t

S

F

2

w

BQ

F

m

t

n

wt

S

S

wb

wt

(C

wb

One of the difficulties is the number of equations

available for shaly sands.

They are often country oriented, Nigeria, Venuzeula..

The choice of equation is dictated by local practice.

Waxman-Smits (WS) and Dual Water (DW) approach

the problem from experiments on the clay properties and

are thus more realistic and universal.

Dual water

The Dual Water Model takes the basic work of Waxman

Smits and expands it for use with logged information

It divides the formation into solids and fluids.

It splits the clay into dry clay and its associated water,

called bound water

The standard definitions for porosity and saturation to

describe the fractions of fluids in the formation are

expanded to include the new model.

hydrocarbon

total

porosity

t

fluids

unit

volume

far

water

hy

effective

porosity

wf

bound

water

wb

dry

clay

Vdcl

solids

clean

matrix

wf+ hy

Vcl

wet clay

Clean to Shale

t

Matrix

Far Water

t

Matrix

t

Matrix

Dry Colloid

t

Dry Colloid

Bound water

The total porosity is given by

wb

(1

wb

+ tS

wb

the porosities are combined to give the saturations of the fluids present

wb

wf

hy

wt

wt

cl

wb

t

wf

t

hy

t

Hydrocarbon saturation

wf

+ S

= V

hy

dcl

+ S

of the saturations of the two waters

wb

must be one

= 1

+

wb

volume of bound water

Archie Equation can be generalized into the following form;

S2wt

Rf

= 2

t Rt

where;

Swt

ft

- total porosity

Rt

Rf

1) Clean water bearing zone

Swt = 1

t2Rt = Rf

This is Rwf, the resistivity of Free water

2) Clean 100% shale zone

Swt = 1

t2Rt = Rf

This is Rwb, the resistivity of Bound water

These are the two end points. To give a universal solution they are

combined linearly using the volume of shale.

Practical DWM

The standard equation for the water saturation is expressed in terms of the

conductivity, as it is linear.

m

t

S

a

n

wt

wf

S

S

wb

(C

wb

wt

resistivity and parameters that can be found, the far and bound

water conductivities.

wf

The solution to the equation is

wt

where

wb

(C

2 C

and

wb

Practical outputs

The equations give total water saturation Swt and total porosity

t. These have to be transformed into effective saturation, Sw

and effective porosity, wf (or e)

wf

S wt S wb

1 S wb

(S

wt

wb

This derivation of the Dual Water equations is valid for any rock with

any mixture of fluids

computation of a shaly zone.

calculations.

answers,

Cwf - free water conductivity

Cwb - bound water conductivity

Swb - bound water saturation

t - total porosity

SHALES

Porosity

Clean formation

Structural shale

Porosity

Porosity

Matrix

Matrix

Laminar shale

Dispersed shale

Porosity

Matrix

Shale

Shale

Porosity

Shale

Shale

Matrix

Matrix

Clay Minerals

N (thermal) Pe

Kaolinite 2.54

59.6

1.85

Illite

47.9

3.97

Smectite 2.02

87

1.70

Chlorite

59.6

4.07

2.52

2.73

Clay minerals frequently occur together in "mixed layers", e.g. Illite Montmorillonite.

Kaolinite Al, Si, little K

Illite

K, Fe, Mg, Si

Chlorite

Fe, Mg, no K

Shales have properties that have important

influences on log readings:

They have porosity.

The porosity is filled with salted water.

They are often radioactive.

Resistivity logs exhibit shales as low resistivity zones.

Neutron porosity logs exhibit shales as high porosity.

Density and sonic logs react to the porosity and matrix changes.

Gamma ray logs react to shale radioactivity.

Shale Corrections

The electrical properties of shales greatly influence the

calculation of fluid saturations.

A layer of water close to the clay surface is electrically

charged.

Archie's equation assumes that the formation water is the only

electrically-conductive material in the formation.

The clay layer requires an additional term in the saturation

equation.

Porosity tools can be corrected for the shale effect. An

"effective porosity" can be computed as compared to a "total

porosity" which includes the shale effect.

The volume of shale must be computed to correct the tool

readings.

Vcl =

GRlog GRmin

GRmax GRmin

or

Vcl =

SPlog SPmin

SPmax SPmin

However, as every tool reacts to shale, each tool is a shale

indicator. For example:

(1 S

)+

ma

(1

cl

)+

from crossplots of different kinds of log data.

The ideal method of computing shale volume is to use the

Neutron Density plot.

cl

cl

The next major step in the procedure is lithology identification. Lithology data gives information on

porosity and other parameters.

Simple

Dirty

Complex

Lithology Determination

The lithology can be obtained in several ways:

From the cuttings (depth problems).

From local knowledge (good during development).

From the known depositional environment (good in general basis).

From a log Quicklook (good starting point).

From individual log readings (difficult if there are no areas of zero

porosity).

From crossplots (the best method).

All tools react to lithology - usually in conjunction with the

porosity.

Major lithology tools are:

Neutron - reacts to fluid and matrix.

Density - reacts to matrix and fluid.

Sonic - reacts to a mixture of matrix and fluid,

complicated by seeing only primary porosity.

SGT - identifies shale types and special minerals.

NMR - magnetic resonance reacts to the porosity with

a small element if lithology.

Crossplots

Combines properties

from both

measurements, thus

eliminating

ambiguities. The most

common crossplot is

the Density Neutron.

Volume

Formation model:

Water-bearing, mono-mineral.

This formation can be described by the density tool and the neutron tool.

system is over-determined.

for limestone:

Nma = 0

for sand:

Nma = 0.04

mf

mf

+

+

ma

(1

(1 )

ma

Crossplot Solution

The plot is a straight line from the matrix point to the 100%

porosity, water point. It is scaled in porosity.

This crossplot

has b plotted

against the

corrected

neutron

porosity. Fluid

density in this

plot is

1.0g/cm3.

This plot is the

same as the

previous one

except that the

fluid density

here is 1.19

g/cm3.

mf

+ Vm1

m1

+ V m2

m2

= N mf + V

+ V

m1 N m1

m2 N m2

1 = + Vm1 + V m2

(Material Balance Equation)

system is just determined

The plot now has two lines, one from each matrix point. The equi-porosity lines join the lines, any

point falling between can be assigned its porosity the zero porosity line is scaled in ratio (or percent)

of the two minerals. This can be extended to the water point. Points falling inside the lines can be

subdivided in mineral percent

Crossplot example

This is a typical

frequency

crossplot. The

lines are the

limestone,

sandstone and

dolomite lithology

lines

Z-axis Plot

Other Crossplots

There are numerous other crossplots to identify minerals

using combinations of tools.

ma - Uma

b - Pe

MID plot (

n, b, t)

MN plot (

n, b, t)

Pe - b Crossplot

This plot is ideal to

identify the lithology

in conjunction with

the neutron density

plot.

ma - Uma (1)

ma - Uma

(2)

Uma

determination

The Matrix Identification Plot

uses neutron, density and

sonic data as inputs. An

apparent crossplot porosity is

found on a density-neutron

and a sonic neutron

crossplot. The values are

entered into the relevant

section of the following chart

and the values of tmaa and

maa read;

MN plot

data from the

neutron, density and

sonic logs to solve

complex lithology.

Used when Pef is not

available or as extra

information.

Hydrocarbon Effect

The presence of light hydrocarbons especially gas, in the invaded zone seriously

affects the main porosity tools, the density and neutron.

Light hydrocarbon has a lower hydrogen index, hence the neutron reads low and

the low density of the fluid makes the density low.

Points exhibiting this problem plot above and to the right of the lithology line on the

crossplot.

Perform a complete well evaluation, determining VSH, f, RT, RW, SW, lithology type, fluid

contents on the attached log, assume all environmental corrections have already been

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