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Foundations Basic Well Log Tool Physics and

Formation Evaluation
Log Interpretation Methods

A K S Kakani
September 2014

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION - QUICKLOOK

Qualitative Interpretation Quicklook


Three quick look (qualitative) methods exist for rapidly locating pay (oil
or gas) from logs without performing calculations (next section).
The three quick look methods are:
Side by side technique
Overlay technique
Neutron-Density Crossover

All are effective in experienced hands and are widely used. It is


recommended to use them to have a general idea of the presence of
hydrocarbons in the well

Side by Side Technique (1)


Logs are scaled so both the resistivity and porosity curves move in the
same direction (left or right) in water filled zones.
Resistivity increases to the right.
Porosity decreases to the right (decreasing porosity causes increasing
resistivity).
As the porosity varies, both the porosity and resistivity curves will move
in the same direction (right or left) as long as the rock is water filled.
If the rock contains hydrocarbons, the resistivity and porosity curves will
go in opposite directions.
These last two statements are the basis for qualitative hydrocarbon
detection.
Shale reduces the amount of separation, but the effect still holds true.

Side by Side Technique (2)


Lay the resistivity and porosity logs side by side with depths aligned.
Only three things cause the resistivity to go to high values:
Low porosity
Hydrocarbons
Fresh Water (discarded by local area knowledge)
Look for any place where the resistivity increases. Check to see if the
porosity decreases there. If the porosity decreases, the zone is most
likely water bearing (resistivity increase due to decreasing porosity). If
the porosity increases (or remains the same), this is a potential
hydrocarbon bearing zone.
The zone one wants to find has high resistivity AND high porosity
(hydrocarbon bearing).
This side by side technique is a good, first, fast-look method.

Exercise - Side by Side Technique


Find the pay zone,
what kind of
hydrocarbon is
there? Is there a
water zone, where
is the OWC?

Other Techniques
Overlay Technique

The overlay technique consists of laying the resistivity log on top the porosity
log on a light table, with depths aligned. Slide the resistivity log left or right
(sideward) to align the deep resistivity curve on top the porosity curves in a
clean high porosity zone.

Maintain this same relative position and examine the overlaid logs over the
entire log.

The logs (deep resistivity and porosity) should track each other fairly well,
except in hydrocarbon bearing zones. In hydrocarbon bearing zones the
resistivity will lie significantly to the right of the porosity curves. Look for this
separation of resistivity curve to the right of the porosity curves, making sure
the two curves remain on top each other in water sands.

Neutron-Density Crossover

It consists of looking at only the neutron-density curves for crossover and


mirror imaging. Such crossover with mirror imaging means gas is present.
Nothing else causes such a response. Be sure the mirror imaging is
present, as washouts or lithology can cause mere crossover .

Low Resistivity Pay


A certain type of pay sand exists fairly commonly in certain type
environments that is not as obvious on the resistivity logs as
conventional pay sands.
This type sand is called a Low Resistivity Pay sand. It is marked by a
much lower resistivity than would be expected for a pay sand.
Basically, shales or very fine pores reduce the resistivity to much lower
than normal values for hydrocarbon bearing sands.
Low resistivity Pay sands can be quite prolific producers.
The key to spotting them is a very careful study for even a small
resistivity increase over what should be there for a water sand. The use
of image logs and cores are also a good help to identify these sanda.
Detecting these sands requires experience, and preferable specific
experience in the area of question

SATURATION

Saturation
 The saturation of a formation represents the amount of a given fluid
present in the pore space.

Sw = Swirr + Sw"free"
water

So = Soresidual + So"free"

oil

Matrix

 The porosity logs react to the pore space.


 The resistivity logs react to the fluids in the pore space.
 The combination of the two measurements gives the saturation

Saturation Basics (1)


 Rw = resistivity of water in the pore space.
 Define Ro = resistivity of a rock totally filled with water.

R0
F=
F: Formation Factor.R w

 At constant porosity F is constant.


 As porosity increases, Ro decreases and F decreases.

 Experiments have shown that F is inversely proportional to m.

 m: is called the "cementation exponent".


 a: is called the "lithology" constant.

a
F= m

Saturation Basics (2)


Saturation can be expressed as a ratio of the resistivities:

Snw

R0
=
Rt

where n is the "saturation exponent", an empirical constant.


Substituting for Ro:

Snw

FR w
=
Rt

Substituting for F:

Rw
Rt

Archies Saturation Equation

Rw
Rt

 The Archie equation is hence very simple. It links porosity and


resistivity with the amount of water present, Sw.
 Increasing porosity, , will reduce the saturation for the same Rt.
 Increasing Rt for the same porosity will have the same effect.

Invaded Zone
 The same method can be applied to the invaded zone. The
porosity is identical, the lithology is assumed to be the same,
hence the constants a, n, m are the same.
 The changes are the resistivities which are now Rxo and Rmf
measured by the MSFL tool.
 The equation is then:

n
Sxo

aRmf
= m
Rxo

Other Relationships
 Dividing for Sxo and Sw, with n set to 2
1
2

Sw R xo R t
=
Sxo R mf R w
 Observations suggest:

S
 Hence:

xo

1
5

5
8

R xo R t
Sw =

R mf R w

 providing a quick look saturation answer when porosity is not available.

Archie parameters


Rw

= resistivity of connate water.

= "cementation factor", set to 2 in the simple case.

= "saturation exponent", set to 2 in the simple case.

= constant, set to 1 in the simple case.

Two common sets of numbers for these constants are:


 In a simple carbonate, the parameters are simplified to:
 m = 2,
 n = 2,
 a=1
 In a sandstone the following values are often quoted:
 m = 2.15,
 n = 2,
 a = 0.62

Rw
Rt

Rw determination
 Rw is an important parameter.
 Sources include:
 Client.
 Local tables / knowledge.
 SP.
 Resistivity plus porosity in water zone.
 RFT sample.
 From Rxo and Rt tools.

Rw from Rwa
 If Sw = 1, the saturation equation can become:

 Assuming simple values for a, m, n.


 Procedure is to:
 Compute an Rwa (Rw apparent) using this relationship.
 Read the lowest value over a porous zone which contains water
 This is the method employed by most computer based interpretation
systems.

Rw from resistivity
1
2

Sw R xo R t
=

Sxo R mf R w

 In a water zone Sw = 1, thus the alternative saturation equation


becomes:

 The value of Rmf is measured; Rxo and Rt are measured, the


value of Rw can be calculated.

Other Archie Parameters


 The constants a, m, n are an integral part of Archie's
saturation equation. They can, and do, vary. They are
usually taken from local knowledge if at all possible.

 n is dependent on the wettability of the rocks; in


the common water wet case it is usually close to 2.
 a and m are dependent on the lithology and pore
systems of the rock.

F Relation chart

Computing Saturation
The standard saturation equation can be used with special
attention taken to obtain the correct value for the cement
exponent m:


In vuggy formations this will be greater than 2. The


resistivity logs see read higher as the pathway is more
tortuous. Saturations calculated with an m of 2 will show
too much hydrocarbon


In fractured formations m will be less than one as the


resistivity pathways are straight. In this case saturations
computed with m = 2 will show too much water.


Variation of m
m reflects the tortuosity
of the formation, the
pathway for electrical
current flow Carbonates
have complex porosities
and hence current
pathways an values of m

Variable m
Hence in a carbonate the major problem is the determination
of m


A good method of determining m is as follows:

In a water zone, rearranging Archies formula

Log Rt = - m log + log (aRw)

Plotting on a log-log scale, slope will give m, and the


intercept a . The assumption is that m is constant through the
entire reservoir.


M relationship to secondary porosity

This chart gives the value of the fracture or vug porosity


as a function of the total porosity and the cementation
factor, m.

DUAL WATER MODEL

Shale and Saturation


 The Archie equation has to be changed to take
account of the shale effect.
 The shale looks like low resistivity so another term is
added to the equations.
 The result is an equation which will can be used to
compute water saturation in shaly sands.
 All these equations return to Archies equation if there
is no shale present.

Saturation Equations (1)


 Indonesia Equation

=
V

V cl

1
2

cl

cl

1
R

*
e

 Nigeria Equation

1
R

1 .4
cl

aR

cl

n
w

 Waxman-Smits Equation

1
R

=
t

S
F

2
w

BQ
F

 Dual Water Equation

m
t

n
wt

S
S

wb
wt

(C

wb

Saturation Equations (2)


One of the difficulties is the number of equations
available for shaly sands.
They are often country oriented, Nigeria, Venuzeula..
The choice of equation is dictated by local practice.
Waxman-Smits (WS) and Dual Water (DW) approach
the problem from experiments on the clay properties and
are thus more realistic and universal.

Dual water
The Dual Water Model takes the basic work of Waxman
Smits and expands it for use with logged information
It divides the formation into solids and fluids.
It splits the clay into dry clay and its associated water,
called bound water
The standard definitions for porosity and saturation to
describe the fractions of fluids in the formation are
expanded to include the new model.

Dual water model definitions


hydrocarbon

total
porosity

t
fluids
unit
volume

far
water

hy
effective
porosity

wf

bound
water

wb

dry
clay

Vdcl

solids

clean
matrix

wf+ hy

Vcl
wet clay

Clean to Shale
t
Matrix

Far Water

t
Matrix

t
Matrix

Dry Colloid

t
Dry Colloid

Bound water

Dual Water definitions


The total porosity is given by

wb

(1

wb

+ tS

wb

the porosities are combined to give the saturations of the fluids present

wb

wf

hy

wt

wt

cl

wb
t

saturation of bound water

wf
t

saturation of free water (this is Sw)

hy
t

Hydrocarbon saturation

wf

+ S
= V

hy

dcl

+ S

Total water saturation is the sum


of the saturations of the two waters

wb

total water saturation plus hydrocarbon saturation


must be one

= 1
+

wb

wet clay volume includes the


volume of bound water

Simplified DWM (1)


Archie Equation can be generalized into the following form;

S2wt

Rf
= 2
t Rt

where;
Swt

- total water saturation

ft

- total porosity

Rt

- true formation resistivity

Rf

- resistivity of the water(s)

The equation can be solved if Rf is known.

Simplified DWM (2)


 1) Clean water bearing zone
 Swt = 1
 t2Rt = Rf
 This is Rwf, the resistivity of Free water
 2) Clean 100% shale zone
 Swt = 1
 t2Rt = Rf
 This is Rwb, the resistivity of Bound water
 These are the two end points. To give a universal solution they are
combined linearly using the volume of shale.

Practical DWM
The standard equation for the water saturation is expressed in terms of the
conductivity, as it is linear.

m
t

S
a

n
wt

wf

S
S

wb

(C

wb

wt

This equation is in terms of measured quantities, porosity and


resistivity and parameters that can be found, the far and bound
water conductivities.

wf

DWM Saturation solution


The solution to the equation is

wt

where

wb

(C

2 C

and

wb

Practical outputs
The equations give total water saturation Swt and total porosity
t. These have to be transformed into effective saturation, Sw
and effective porosity, wf (or e)

wf

S wt S wb
1 S wb

(S

wt

wb

Dual water equation solution


This derivation of the Dual Water equations is valid for any rock with
any mixture of fluids

It is possible to use the Dual Water Model to make a manual


computation of a shaly zone.


However computer programs are best equipped to handle the


calculations.

The selection of key parameters is essential to obtain the correct


answers,
 Cwf - free water conductivity
 Cwb - bound water conductivity
 Swb - bound water saturation


t - total porosity

SHALES

Shale Deposition Types


Porosity

Clean formation

Structural shale

Porosity

Porosity

Matrix

Matrix

Laminar shale

Dispersed shale

Porosity

Matrix

Shale

Shale

Porosity

Shale

Shale

Matrix

Matrix

Clay Minerals


N (thermal) Pe

 Kaolinite 2.54

59.6

1.85

 Illite

47.9

3.97

 Smectite 2.02

87

1.70

 Chlorite

59.6

4.07

2.52
2.73

 Most shales are comprised of these clay minerals.


 Clay minerals frequently occur together in "mixed layers", e.g. Illite Montmorillonite.
 Kaolinite Al, Si, little K
 Illite

K, Fe, Mg, Si

 Smectite Very high porosity.


 Chlorite

Fe, Mg, no K

Shale and Logs (1)


 Shales have properties that have important
influences on log readings:
 They have porosity.
 The porosity is filled with salted water.
 They are often radioactive.
 Resistivity logs exhibit shales as low resistivity zones.

Shale and Logs (2)


 Neutron porosity logs exhibit shales as high porosity.

 Density and sonic logs react to the porosity and matrix changes.
 Gamma ray logs react to shale radioactivity.

Shale Corrections
 The electrical properties of shales greatly influence the
calculation of fluid saturations.
 A layer of water close to the clay surface is electrically
charged.
 Archie's equation assumes that the formation water is the only
electrically-conductive material in the formation.
 The clay layer requires an additional term in the saturation
equation.
 Porosity tools can be corrected for the shale effect. An
"effective porosity" can be computed as compared to a "total
porosity" which includes the shale effect.

Shale Volume (1)


 The volume of shale must be computed to correct the tool
readings.

 This is achieved using simple equations such as:

Vcl =

GRlog GRmin
GRmax GRmin

 or

Vcl =

SPlog SPmin
SPmax SPmin

Shale Volume (2)


 However, as every tool reacts to shale, each tool is a shale
indicator. For example:

(1 S

)+

ma

(1

cl

)+

 Shale volume can be computed from different sources and


from crossplots of different kinds of log data.
 The ideal method of computing shale volume is to use the
Neutron Density plot.

cl

cl

LITHOLOGY AND POROSITY

Lithology and Porosity




The next major step in the procedure is lithology identification. Lithology data gives information on
porosity and other parameters.

Lithology of a formation can be:

Simple

Dirty

Complex

Lithology Determination
 The lithology can be obtained in several ways:
 From the cuttings (depth problems).
 From local knowledge (good during development).
 From the known depositional environment (good in general basis).
 From a log Quicklook (good starting point).
 From individual log readings (difficult if there are no areas of zero
porosity).
 From crossplots (the best method).

Lithology and Porosity Tools


 All tools react to lithology - usually in conjunction with the
porosity.
 Major lithology tools are:
 Neutron - reacts to fluid and matrix.
 Density - reacts to matrix and fluid.
 Sonic - reacts to a mixture of matrix and fluid,
complicated by seeing only primary porosity.
 SGT - identifies shale types and special minerals.
 NMR - magnetic resonance reacts to the porosity with
a small element if lithology.

Crossplots
 Combines properties
from both
measurements, thus
eliminating
ambiguities. The most
common crossplot is
the Density Neutron.

Volume


Formation model:

Water-bearing, mono-mineral.

This formation can be described by the density tool and the neutron tool.

2 equations for 1 unknown:

system is over-determined.

 for limestone:

Nma = 0

 for sand:

Nma = 0.04

mf

mf

+
+

ma

(1


(1 )

ma

Crossplot Solution
 The plot is a straight line from the matrix point to the 100%
porosity, water point. It is scaled in porosity.

Neutron-density X-plot (1)


 This crossplot
has b plotted
against the
corrected
neutron
porosity. Fluid
density in this
plot is
1.0g/cm3.

Neutron-density X-plot (2)


 This plot is the
same as the
previous one
except that the
fluid density
here is 1.19
g/cm3.

Dual Mineral model

mf

+ Vm1

m1

+ V m2

m2

= N mf + V

+ V

m1 N m1
m2 N m2
1 = + Vm1 + V m2
(Material Balance Equation)

3 unknown : , Vm1 , V m2 , 3 equations


system is just determined

Dual Mineral plot

The plot now has two lines, one from each matrix point. The equi-porosity lines join the lines, any
point falling between can be assigned its porosity the zero porosity line is scaled in ratio (or percent)
of the two minerals. This can be extended to the water point. Points falling inside the lines can be
subdivided in mineral percent

Dual mineral plot expanded

Crossplot example
This is a typical
frequency
crossplot. The
lines are the
limestone,
sandstone and
dolomite lithology
lines

Z-axis Plot

Other Crossplots
There are numerous other crossplots to identify minerals
using combinations of tools.


ma - Uma

b - Pe

MID plot (
n, b, t)

MN plot (
n, b, t)

The z -axis is used for clarification.

Pe - b Crossplot
 This plot is ideal to
identify the lithology
in conjunction with
the neutron density
plot.

ma - Uma (1)

ma - Uma
(2)
Uma
determination

Matrix Identification Plot


 The Matrix Identification Plot
uses neutron, density and
sonic data as inputs. An
apparent crossplot porosity is
found on a density-neutron
and a sonic neutron
crossplot. The values are
entered into the relevant
section of the following chart
and the values of tmaa and
maa read;

MN plot

 The MN plot uses


data from the
neutron, density and
sonic logs to solve
complex lithology.
Used when Pef is not
available or as extra
information.

Hydrocarbon Effect


The presence of light hydrocarbons especially gas, in the invaded zone seriously
affects the main porosity tools, the density and neutron.

Both tools are calibrated to read correctly in water-filled rock.

Light hydrocarbon has a lower hydrogen index, hence the neutron reads low and
the low density of the fluid makes the density low.

Points exhibiting this problem plot above and to the right of the lithology line on the
crossplot.

Hydrocarbon Effect Correction

Complete Well Evaluation


Perform a complete well evaluation, determining VSH, f, RT, RW, SW, lithology type, fluid
contents on the attached log, assume all environmental corrections have already been
made