Anda di halaman 1dari 93

Unmanned aerial vehicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation <#mw-navigation>, search <#p-search>
"UAV" redirects here. For other uses, see UAV (disambiguation)
A group photo of aerial demonstrators at the United States Naval
unmanned aerial vehicle air demonstration (2005)
Camclone T21 unmanned autonomous vehicle fitted with CSIRO
guidance system used to inspect power lines (2009)
An *unmanned aerial vehicle* (*UAV*), commonly known as a *drone* and
also referred to as an *unpiloted aerial vehicle* and a *remotely
piloted aircraft* (*RPA*) by the International Civil Aviation
Organization </wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization> (ICAO),
is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. ICAO classify unmanned
aircraft into two types under Circular 328 AN/190.^[1] <#cite_note-1>
* Autonomous </wiki/Autonomous> aircraft
Autonomous aircraft are considered to be not suitable for
regulation due to legal and liability issues
* Remotely piloted aircraft
Remotely piloted aircraft are subject to civil regulation under
ICAO and under the relevant National aviation authority
There are many different names for these aircraft. They are called UAS
(unpiloted air system), UAV (unpiloted aerial vehicle), RPAS (remote
piloted aircraft systems) and model aircraft. It has also become popular
to refer to them as drones. Their flight is controlled either
autonomously by onboard computers or by the remote control
</wiki/Remote_control_vehicle> of a pilot </wiki/Aviator> on the ground
or in another vehicle. The typical launch and recovery method of an
unmanned aircraft is by the function of an automatic system or an
external operator on the ground.^[2] <> Historically,
UAVs were simple remotely piloted aircraft </wiki/Aircraft>, but
autonomous control is increasingly being employed.^[3]
<#cite_note-nytimes-3> ^[/not in citation given
They are usually deployed for military and special operation
</wiki/Special_operation> applications, but also used in a small but
growing number of civil applications, such as policing and firefighting,
and nonmilitary security work, such as inspection of power or pipelines.

UAVs are often preferred for missions that are too "dull, dirty or
dangerous"^[4] <#cite_note-4> for manned aircraft.
[hide <#>]
* 1 History <#History>
* 2 Legal regulation in the United States
* 3 Classification <#Classification>
o 3.1 Classifications by the United States military
+ 3.1.1 U.S. Air Force tiers <#U.S._Air_Force_tiers>
+ 3.1.2 U.S. Marine Corps tiers <#U.S._Marine_Corps_tiers>
+ 3.1.3 U.S. Army tiers <#U.S._Army_tiers>
+ 3.1.4 Future Combat Systems (FCS) (U.S. Army) classes
+ 3.1.5 Unmanned aircraft system <#Unmanned_aircraft_system>
* 4 Uses <#Uses>
o 4.1 Remote sensing <#Remote_sensing>
o 4.2 Commercial aerial surveillance <#Commercial_aerial_surveillance>
o 4.3 Commercial and motion picture filmmaking
o 4.4 Sports <#Sports>
o 4.5 Domestic policing <#Domestic_policing>
o 4.6 Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production
o 4.7 Disaster relief <#Disaster_relief>
o 4.8 Scientific research <#Scientific_research>
o 4.9 Armed attacks <#Armed_attacks>
o 4.10 Civilian casualties <#Civilian_casualties>
o 4.11 Aerial target practice in training of human pilots
o 4.12 Search and rescue <#Search_and_rescue>
o 4.13 Conservation <#Conservation>
o 4.14 Animal rights <#Animal_rights>
o 4.15 Maritime patrol <#Maritime_patrol>
o 4.16 Forest fire detection <#Forest_fire_detection>
o 4.17 Archaeology <#Archaeology>
o 4.18 Future potential <#Future_potential>
* 5 Design and development considerations
o 5.1 Certification aspects <#Certification_aspects>
o 5.2 Degree of autonomy <#Degree_of_autonomy>
o 5.3 Endurance <#Endurance>
o 5.4 Detect and avoid <#Detect_and_avoid>
o 5.5 Hardening of the control stations
o 5.6 Buddy attacks <#Buddy_attacks>
* 6 Existing UAV systems <#Existing_UAV_systems>
* 7 Historical events involving UAVs <#Historical_events_involving_UAVs>
* 8 Domestic aerial surveillance and other incidents
o 8.1 Australia <#Australia>
+ 8.1.1 Sydney Harbour Bridge collision
+ 8.1.2 Endure Batavia drone incident


o 8.2 Belgium <#Belgium>

o 8.3 Brazil <#Brazil>
o 8.4 Canada <#Canada>
+ 8.4.1 Vancouver International Airport incidents
o 8.5 Democratic Republic of Congo <#Democratic_Republic_of_Congo>
o 8.6 France <#France>
+ 8.6.1 Nuclear power plant overflights
o 8.7 Germany <#Germany>
o 8.8 India <#India>
o 8.9 Japan <#Japan>
o 8.10 Nepal <#Nepal>
o 8.11 Republic of Ireland <#Republic_of_Ireland>
+ 8.11.1 Prison drug smuggling incident
+ 8.11.2 Legal status <#Legal_status>
o 8.12 USSR <#USSR>
o 8.13 South Africa <#South_Africa>
o 8.14 United Kingdom <#United_Kingdom>
o 8.15 United States <#United_States>
+ 8.15.1 Surveillance and policing <#Surveillance_and_policing>
o 8.16 Countermeasures <#Countermeasures>
+ 8.16.1 Non-police uses <#Non-police_uses>
+ 8.16.2 JFK International incident <#JFK_International_incident>
+ 8.16.3 Virginia Bull Run crash <#Virginia_Bull_Run_crash>
+ 8.16.4 Manhattan drone crash <#Manhattan_drone_crash>
+ 8.16.5 New York drone conference <#New_York_drone_conference>
+ 8.16.6 Georgia prison tobacco smuggling incident
+ 8.16.7 Tallahassee airliner near-collision
+ 8.16.8 St Louis building collision
+ 8.16.9 Staples Center incident <#Staples_Center_incident>
+ 8.16.10 George Washington bridge incident
+ 8.16.11 Anti-UAV legislation <#Anti-UAV_legislation>
o 8.17 Venezuela <#Venezuela>
o 8.18 Vietnam <#Vietnam>
9 UAV operations <#UAV_operations>
10 UAVs in popular culture <#UAVs_in_popular_culture>
11 Public opinion in the US (military use)
12 Lobbying in the US <#Lobbying_in_the_US>
13 Morality (military use) <#Morality_.28military_use.29>
o 13.1 Civilian death <#Civilian_death>
o 13.2 Technology <#Technology>
14 Legality (military use) <#Legality_.28military_use.29>
15 See also <#See_also>
16 References <#References>
17 External links <#External_links>

Main article: History of unmanned aerial vehicles


Ryan Firebee </wiki/Ryan_Firebee> was a series of target drones
</wiki/Target_drone>/unpiloted aerial vehicles.
The idea of a pilotless aircraft is not a new concept. The concept of
drones dates back to the mid-1800s, when Austrians sent off unmanned,
bomb-filled balloons as a way to attack Venice. The drone seen today
started innovation in the early 1900s, and was originally used for
target practice to train military personnel. It continued to be
developed during World War I, when the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company
came up with the a pilotless aerial torpedo that would drop and explode
at a particular, preset time.^[5] <#cite_note-5> The earliest attempt at
a powered unmanned aerial vehicle was A. M. Low </wiki/Archibald_Low>'s
"Aerial Target" of 1916.^[6] <#cite_note-autogenerated1-6> Nikola Tesla
</wiki/Nikola_Tesla> described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat
vehicles in 1915.^[7] <#cite_note-armyeyes-7> A number of
remote-controlled airplane advances followed during and after World War
I, including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane
</wiki/Hewitt-Sperry_Automatic_Airplane>. The first scale RPV (Remote
Piloted Vehicle) was developed by the film star and model airplane
</wiki/Model_airplane> enthusiast Reginald Denny
</wiki/Reginald_Denny_(actor)> in 1935.^[6]
<#cite_note-autogenerated1-6> More were made in the technology rush
during World War II; these were used both to train antiaircraft gunners
and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany </wiki/Nazi_Germany> also
produced and used various UAV aircraft during the course of WWII. Jet
engines </wiki/Jet_engine> were applied after World War II in such types
as the Teledyne Ryan </wiki/Ryan_Aeronautical> Firebee I
</wiki/Ryan_Firebee> of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft
</wiki/Beechcraft> also got in the game with their Model 1001
</w/index.php?title=Model_1001&action=edit&redlink=1> for the United
States Navy </wiki/United_States_Navy> in 1955.^[6]
<#cite_note-autogenerated1-6> Nevertheless, they were little more than
remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam Era </wiki/Vietnam_Era>.
The birth of U.S. UAVs (called RPVs at the time) began in 1959 when
United States Air Force </wiki/United_States_Air_Force> (USAF) officers,
concerned about losing pilots </wiki/Aviator> over hostile territory,
began planning for the use of piloted </wiki/Unmanned_aircraft>
flights.^[8] <#cite_note-8> This plan became intensified when Francis
Gary Powers </wiki/Francis_Gary_Powers> and his "secret" U-2
</wiki/Lockheed_U-2> were shot down over the Soviet Union
</wiki/Soviet_Union> in 1960. Within days, the highly classified
</wiki/Classified_information> UAV program was launched under the code
name of "Red Wagon".^[9] <#cite_note-9> The 2 and 4 August 1964, clash
in the Tonkin Gulf </wiki/Tonkin_Gulf_Incident> between naval units of
the U.S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's highly classified
UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War
</wiki/Vietnam_War>.^[10] <#cite_note-10> When the "Red Chinese"^[11]
<#cite_note-11> showed photographs of downed U.S. UAVs via /Wide World
Photos/,^[12] <#cite_note-12> the official U.S. response was "no comment."
There are two prominent UAV programs within the United States: that of
the military and that of the Central Intelligence Agency
</wiki/Central_Intelligence_Agency> (CIA). The militarys UAV program is
overt, meaning that the public recognizes which government operates it
and, therefore, it only operates where US troops are stationed. The
CIAs program is clandestine. Missions performed by the CIAs UAV
program do not always occur where US troops are stationed.^[13]

The Israeli Tadiran Mastiff </wiki/Tadiran_Mastiff>, which first flew in
1973, is seen as the first modern battlefield UAV, due to its data-link
system, endurance-loitering, and live video streaming.^[14] <#cite_note-14>
The CIAs UAV program was commissioned as a result of the 11 September
terrorist attacks </wiki/September_11_attacks> and the increasing
emphasis on operations for intelligence gathering in 2004.^[15]
<#cite_note-15> This clandestine program is primarily being used in
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia.^[/citation needed
</wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/] UAVs collect intelligence in these
countries by loitering around their target. The CIAs first UAV program
is called the Eagle Program. It was led by Duane Clarridge
</wiki/Duane_Clarridge>, the director of the Counterterrorism Center
</wiki/Counterterrorism_Center>. This program constructed the CIAs
first using off the shelf technology, which included items such as
garage door openers and model airplanes.^[/citation needed
Only on 26 February 1973, during testimony before the United States
House Committee on Appropriations
</wiki/United_States_House_Committee_on_Appropriations>, the U.S.
military officially confirmed that they had been utilizing UAVs in
Southeast Asia (Vietnam).^[16] <#cite_note-16> Over 5,000 U.S. airmen
had been killed and over 1,000 more were either missing in action (MIA
</wiki/Missing_In_Action>) or captured (prisoners of war/POW
</wiki/POW>). The USAF 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing
</wiki/100th_Strategic_Reconnaissance_Wing> had flown approximately
3,435 UAV missions during the war^[17] <#cite_note-17> at a cost of
about 554 UAVs lost to all causes. In the words of USAF General
</wiki/General> George S. Brown </wiki/George_S._Brown>, Commander, Air
Force Systems Command </wiki/Air_Force_Systems_Command>, in 1972, "The
only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don t want to needlessly expend
the man in the cockpit."^[18] <#cite_note-Wagner_p._208-18> Later that
same year, General John C. Meyer </wiki/John_C._Meyer>, Commander in
Chief, Strategic Air Command </wiki/Strategic_Air_Command>, stated, "we
let the drone do the high-risk flying ... the loss rate is high, but we
are willing to risk more of them ... /they save lives!"^[18]
<#cite_note-Wagner_p._208-18> /
During the 1973 Yom Kippur War </wiki/Yom_Kippur_War>, Soviet-supplied
surface-to-air missile batteries in Egypt and Syria caused heavy damage
to Israeli fighter jets </wiki/Fighter_jet>. As a result, Israel
developed the first UAV with real-time surveillance.^[19]
<#cite_note-19> ^[20] <#cite_note-20> ^[21] <#cite_note-21> The images
and radar decoying provided by these UAVs helped Israel to completely
neutralize </wiki/Operation_Mole_Cricket_19> the Syrian air defenses
</wiki/Air_defense> at the start of the 1982 Lebanon War
</wiki/1982_Lebanon_War>, resulting in no pilots downed.^[22]
<#cite_note-WSJLevinson-22> The first time UAVs were used as
proof-of-concept of super-agility post-stall controlled flight in combat
flight simulations was with tailless, stealth technology-based,
three-dimensional thrust vectoring flight control, jet steering UAVs in
Israel in 1987.^[23] <#cite_note-23>
With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies as seen
in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs grew within the higher echelons
of the U.S. military. In the 1990s, the U.S. Department of Defense gave

a contract to U.S. corporation AAI Corporation </wiki/AAI_Corporation>

of Maryland along with Israeli company Mazlat. The U.S. Navy bought the
AAI Pioneer UAV that was jointly developed by American AAI Corporation
and Israeli Mazlat, and this type of UAV is still in use. Many of these
Pioneer and newly developed U.S. UAVs were used in the 1991 Gulf War.
UAVs were seen to offer the possibility of cheaper, more capable
fighting machines that could be used without risk to aircrews. Initial
generations were primarily surveillance aircraft
</wiki/Surveillance_aircraft>, but some were armed, such as the General
Atomics MQ-1 Predator </wiki/General_Atomics_MQ-1_Predator>, which
utilized AGM-114 Hellfire </wiki/AGM-114_Hellfire> air-to-ground
missiles </wiki/Air-to-ground_missile>. An armed UAV is known as an
unmanned combat air vehicle </wiki/Unmanned_combat_air_vehicle> (UCAV).
As a tool for search and rescue </wiki/Search_and_rescue>, UAVs can help
find humans lost in the wilderness, trapped in collapsed buildings, or
adrift at sea.
In February 2013, it was reported that UAVs were used by at least 50
countries, several of which made their own: for example, Iran, Israel
and China.^[24] <#cite_note-NatGeo-24>
As of 2012, the United States Air Force employed 7,494 UAVs, and that
means that almost 1 out of 3 US Air Force aircraft are UAVs.^[25]
<#cite_note-25> ^[26] <#cite_note-Singer-26> Unlike other UAVs, the
Predator was armed with Hellfire missiles </wiki/Hellfire_missiles> so
that it can terminate the target that it locates (Carafano & Gudgel,
2007). This was done after Predators sighted Osama Bin Laden
</wiki/Osama_Bin_Laden> multiple times but could not do anything about
it other than send back images. In addition, the Predator is capable of
orchestrating attacks by pointing lasers at the targets (Singer, 2009b).
This is important, as it puts a robot in a position to set off an
attack. Their overall success is apparent because from June 2005 to June
2006 alone, Predators carried out 2,073 missions and participated in 242
separate raids (Singer, 2009a).
In contrast to the Predator, which is remotely piloted via satellites by
pilots located 7,500 miles away, the Global Hawk </wiki/Global_Hawk>
operates virtually autonomously.^[26] <#cite_note-Singer-26> The user
merely hits the button for take off and for land, while the UAV gets
directions via GPS and reports back with a live feed. Global Hawks have
the capability to fly from San Francisco and map out the entire state of
Maine before having to return.^[26] <#cite_note-Singer-26> In addition,
some UAVs have become so small that they can be launched from ones hand
and maneuvered through the street.^[26] <#cite_note-Singer-26> These
UAVs, known as Ravens </wiki/RQ-11_Raven>, are especially useful in
urban areas, such as Iraq, in order to discover insurgents and potential
ambushes the next block up (Carafano & Gudgel, 2007). UAVs are
especially useful because they can fly for days at a time. According to
Carafano & Gudgel, insurgents are loathe to stay in the open for more
than a few minutes at a time for fear of UAVs locating them (2007)
Legal regulation in the United States[edit
The US Federal Aviation Administration
</wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration> has adopted the name /unmanned
aircraft/ (UA) to describe aircraft systems without a flight crew on
board.^[27] <#cite_note-FAA_summary-27> More common names include /UAV/,

/drone/, /remotely piloted vehicle/ (/RPV/), /remotely piloted aircraft/

(/RPA/), and /remotely operated aircraft/ (/ROA/). These "limited-size"
(as defined by the /Fdration Aronautique Internationale
</wiki/F%C3%A9d%C3%A9ration_A%C3%A9ronautique_Internationale>/) unmanned
aircraft flown in the USA s National Airspace System
</wiki/National_Airspace_System>, flown solely for recreation and sport
purposes, such as models, are generally^[/citation needed
</wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/] flown under the voluntary safety
standards of the Academy of Model Aeronautics
</wiki/Academy_of_Model_Aeronautics>,^[28] <#cite_note-28> the United
States national aeromodeling organization. To operate a UA for
non-recreational purposes in the United States, according to the FAA
users must obtain a /Certificate of Authorization/ (COA) to operate in
national airspace.^[29]
<#cite_note-FAA:_Certificate_of_Authorization_or_Waiver_.28COA.29-29> At
the moment, COAs require a public entity as a sponsor. For example, when
BP needed to observe oil spills, they operated the Aeryon Scout
</wiki/Aeryon_Scout> UAVs under a COA granted to the University of
Alaska Fairbanks.^[30]
<#cite_note-Unmanned_aircraft_to_assist_oil_spill_response-30> COAs have
been granted for both land and shipborne operations.^[31]
The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012
<#cite_note-32> sets a deadline of 30 September 2015, for the agency to
establish regulations to allow the use of commercial drones. In the
meantime, the agency claims it is illegal to operate commercial unmanned
aerial vehicles, but approves non-commercial flights under 400 feet if
they follow Advisory Circular 91-57, Model Aircraft Operating Standards,
published in 1981.^[27] <#cite_note-FAA_summary-27> However, the FAA s
attempt to fine a commercial drone operator for a 2011 flight were
thrown out on 6 March 2014 by NTSB judge Patrick Geraghty, who found
that the FAA had not followed the proper rulemaking procedures and
therefore had no UAV regulations.^[33] <#cite_note-33> The FAA will
appeal the judgement.^[34] <#cite_note-34> Texas EquuSearch, which
performs volunteer search and rescue operations, was also challenging
FAA rules in 2014.^[35] <#cite_note-35>
As of August 2013, commercial unmanned aerial system^[36]
<#cite_note-36> (UAS) licenses were granted on a case-by-case basis,
subject to approval by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The
agency expects that five years after it unveils a regulatory framework
for UASs weighing 55 pounds or less, there will be 7,500 such devices in
the air.^[37] <#cite_note-WashPost20130816-37> In December 2013, the FAA
announced six operators it was authorizing to conduct research on drone
technology, to inform its pending regulations and future developments.
These were the University of Alaska </wiki/University_of_Alaska>
(including locations in Hawaii and Oregon), the state of Nevada
</wiki/Nevada>, Griffiss International Airport
</wiki/Griffiss_International_Airport> in New York State, the North
Dakota Department of Commerce
Texas A&M UniversityCorpus Christi
</wiki/Texas_A%26M_University%E2%80%93Corpus_Christi>, and Virginia Tech
</wiki/Virginia_Tech>.^[38] <#cite_note-38>
In May 2014, a group of major news media companies filed an /amicus
</wiki/Amicus_curiae>/ brief in a case before the U.S. s National

Transportation Safety Board

</wiki/National_Transportation_Safety_Board>, asserting that the FAA
</wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration> s "overly broad" administrative
limitations against private UAS operations cause an "impermissible
chilling effect on the First Amendment
</wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution> newsgathering
rights of journalists", the brief being filed three months before a
scheduled rollout of FAA commercial operator regulations.^[39]
The term *unmanned aircraft system* (*UAS*) emphasizes the importance of
other elements beyond an aircraft itself. A typical UAS consists of the
* unmanned aircraft (UA);
* control system, such as ground control station
</wiki/Ground_control_station> (GCS);
* control link, a specialized datalink </wiki/Datalink>; and
* other related support equipment.
For example, the RQ-7 Shadow </wiki/RQ-7_Shadow> UAS consists of four
UAs, two GCSs, one portable GCS, one Launcher, two Ground Data Terminals
(GDTs), one portable GDT, and one Remote Video Terminal. Certain
military units are also fielded with a maintenance support vehicle.
Because of this systemic approach, unmanned aircraft systems have not
been included in the United States Munitions List Category VIII
Aircraft and Associated Equipment. Vice versa, the Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle Systems are clearly mentioned at paragraph 121-16 Missile
Technology Control Regime Annex of the United States Munitions List.
More precisely, the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex levels
rocket and unmanned aerial vehicle systems together.^[/citation needed
The term UAS was since adopted by the United States Department of
Defense </wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense> (DOD) and the
British Civil Aviation Authority
</wiki/Civil_Aviation_Authority_(United_Kingdom)> (CAA).
The term used previously for unmanned aircraft system was
unmanned-aircraft vehicle system (UAVS).
Question book-new.svg </wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg>
This section *does not cite </wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources> any
references or sources </wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability>*. Please help
improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources
</wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing/1>. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed
</wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence>. /(February 2013)/
Although most UAVs are fixed-wing aircraft </wiki/Fixed-wing_aircraft>,
rotorcraft </wiki/Rotorcraft> designs (i.e., RUAVs) such as this MQ-8B
Fire Scout </wiki/Northrop_Grumman_MQ-8_Fire_Scout> are also used.

UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories (although

multi-role airframe platforms are becoming more prevalent):
* Target and decoy providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that
simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
* Reconnaissance providing battlefield intelligence
* Combat providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see
Unmanned combat air vehicle </wiki/Unmanned_combat_air_vehicle>)
* Logistics UAVs specifically designed for cargo and logistics operation
* Research and development used to further develop UAV technologies
to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraft
* Civil and Commercial UAVs UAVs specifically designed for civil and
commercial applications
Schiebel S-100 </wiki/Schiebel_Camcopter_S-100> fitted with a
Lightweight Multirole Missile
They can also be categorised in terms of range/altitude and the
following has been advanced as relevant at such industry events as
ParcAberporth </wiki/ParcAberporth> Unmanned Systems forum:
* Hand-held 2,000 ft (600 m) altitude, about 2 km range
* Close 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude, up to 10 km range
* NATO type 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude, up to 50 km range
* Tactical 18,000 ft (5,500 m) altitude, about 160 km range
* MALE (medium altitude, long endurance)
</wiki/Medium-altitude_long-endurance_unmanned_aerial_vehicle> up to
30,000 ft (9,000 m) and range over 200 km
* HALE (high altitude, long endurance) over 30,000 ft (9,100 m) and
indefinite range
* HYPERSONIC high-speed, supersonic (Mach 15) or hypersonic (Mach 5+)
50,000 ft (15,200 m) or suborbital altitude, range over 200 km
* ORBITAL low earth orbit (Mach 25+)
* CIS Lunar Earth-Moon transfer
* CACGS Computer Assisted Carrier Guidance System for UAVs
The United States military employs a tier system
</wiki/U.S._Military_UAV_tier_system> for categorizing its UAVs.
Classifications by the United States military[edit
The modern concept of U.S. military UAVs is to have the various aircraft
systems work together in support of personnel on the ground. The
integration scheme is described in terms of a "Tier" system and is used
by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft
elements in an overall usage plan for integrated operations. The Tiers
do not refer to specific models of aircraft but rather roles for which
various models and their manufacturers competed. The U.S. Air Force
</wiki/U.S._Air_Force> and the U.S. Marine Corps
</wiki/U.S._Marine_Corps> each has its own tier system, and the two
systems are themselves not integrated.
U.S. Air Force tiers[edit

An MQ-9 Reaper </wiki/MQ-9_Reaper>, a hunter-killer
</wiki/Hunter-killer_armored-vehicle_team> surveillance UAV
* Tier N/A: Small/Micro UAV. Role filled by BATMAV (Wasp Block III
</wiki/AeroVironment_Wasp_III>).^[40] <#cite_note-40>
* Tier I: Low altitude, long endurance. Role filled by the Gnat 750
</wiki/GNAT-750>.^[41] <#cite_note-vector-41>
* Tier II: Medium altitude, long endurance (MALE). Role currently
filled by the Predator and MQ-9 Reaper
* Tier II+: High altitude, long endurance conventional UAV (or HALE
UAV). Altitude: 60,000 to 65,000 feet (19,800 m), less than 300
knots (560 km/h) airspeed, 3,000-nautical-mile (6,000 km) radius, 24
hour time-on-station capability. Complementary to the Tier IIIaircraft. Role currently filled by the RQ-4 Global Hawk
* Tier III-: High altitude, long endurance low-observable UAV. Same
parameters as, and complementary to, the Tier II+ aircraft. The RQ-3
DarkStar </wiki/Lockheed_Martin_RQ-3_DarkStar> was originally
intended to fulfill this role before it was "terminated".^[42]
<#cite_note-42> ^[43] <#cite_note-43> Role now filled by RQ-170
Sentinel </wiki/Lockheed_Martin_RQ-170_Sentinel>.
U.S. Marine Corps tiers[edit
* Tier N/A: Micro UAV. Wasp III </wiki/AeroVironment_Wasp_III> fills
this role, driven largely by the desire for commonality with the
USAF BATMAV.^[44] <#cite_note-44>
* Tier I: Role currently filled by the Dragon Eye </wiki/Dragon_Eye>
but all ongoing and future procurement for the Dragon Eye program is
going now to the RQ-11B Raven B </wiki/RQ-11_Raven>.
* Tier II: Role currently filled by the ScanEagle </wiki/ScanEagle>.
* Tier III: For two decades, the role of medium range tactical UAV was
filled by the Pioneer UAV. In July 2007, the Marine Corps announced
its intention to retire the aging Pioneer fleet and transition to
the RQ-7 Shadow </wiki/RQ-7_Shadow> tactical unmanned aircraft
system by AAI Corporation </wiki/AAI_Corporation>. The first Marine
Shadow systems have already been delivered, and training for their
respective Marine Corps units is underway.^[45] <#cite_note-45>
^[46] <#cite_note-46>
U.S. Army tiers[edit
* Tier I: Small UAV. Role filled by the RQ-11B Raven
* Tier II: Short Range Tactical UAV. Role filled by the RQ-7B Shadow
200 </wiki/AAI_RQ-7_Shadow>.
* Tier III: Medium Range Tactical UAV. Role currently filled by the
MQ-5A/B Hunter </wiki/IAI_RQ-5_Hunter> and IGNAT/IGNAT-ER, but
transitioning to the Extended Range Multi-Purpose (ERMP) MQ-1C Gray
Eagle </wiki/General_Atomics_MQ-1C_Grey_Eagle>.

Future Combat Systems (FCS) (U.S. Army) classes[edit

* Class I: For small units. Role to be filled by all new UAV with some
similarity to micro air vehicle </wiki/Micro_air_vehicle>.
* Class II: For companies (cancelled).^[47] <#cite_note-watch-47>
* Class III: For battalions (cancelled).^[47] <#cite_note-watch-47>
* Class IV: For brigades. Role to be filled by the RQ-8A/B / MQ-8B
Fire Scout </wiki/MQ-8_Fire_Scout>.
Unmanned aircraft system[edit
An unmanned aircraft system (UAS) includes ground stations and other
elements besides the actual aircraft. The term was first officially used
by the FAA in early 2005 and subsequently adopted by DoD that same year
in their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 20052030.^[48]
<#cite_note-48> The official acronym /UAS/ is also used by the
International Civil Aviation Organization
</wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization> (ICAO) and other
government aviation regulatory organizations.
Predator </wiki/General_Atomics_MQ-1_Predator> launching a Hellfire missile
The military role of unmanned aircraft systems is growing at
unprecedented rates. In 2005, tactical- and theater-level unmanned
aircraft alone had flown over 100,000 flight hours in support of
Operation Enduring Freedom </wiki/Operation_Enduring_Freedom> and
Operation Iraqi Freedom </wiki/Operation_Iraqi_Freedom>, in which they
are organized under Task Force Liberty
</w/index.php?title=Task_Force_Liberty&action=edit&redlink=1> in
Afghanistan and Task Force ODIN </wiki/Task_Force_ODIN> in Iraq. Rapid
advances in technology are enabling more and more capability to be
placed on smaller airframes, which is spurring a large increase in the
number of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) being deployed on the
battlefield. The use of SUAS in combat is so new that no formal DoD wide
reporting procedures have been established to track SUAS flight hours.
As the capabilities grow for all types of UAS, nations continue to
subsidize their research and development, leading to further advances
and enabling them to perform a multitude of missions. UAS no longer only
perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions,
although this still remains their predominant type. Their roles have
expanded to areas including electronic attack </wiki/Electronic_attack>,
strike missions, suppression </wiki/Suppression_of_enemy_air_defenses>
or destruction of enemy air defense, network node or communications
relay, combat search and rescue </wiki/Search_and_rescue>, and
derivations of these themes. These UAS range in cost from a few thousand
dollars to tens of millions of dollars, with aircraft ranging from less
than one pound to over 40,000 pounds.^[/citation needed
When the Obama administration announced in December 2009, the deployment
of 30,000 new troops in Afghanistan, there was already an increase of
attacks by unmanned Predator UAVs against Taliban and al-Qaeda militants
in Afghanistan and Pakistan s tribal areas
</wiki/Federally_Administered_Tribal_Areas>, of which one probably
killed a key member of al-Qaeda. However, neither Osama bin Laden

</wiki/Osama_bin_Laden> nor Ayman al-Zawahiri </wiki/Ayman_al-Zawahiri>

was the likely target, according to reports. According to a report of
the New America Foundation </wiki/New_America_Foundation>, armed UAV
strikes had dramatically increased under President Obama even before
his deployment decision. There were 43 such attacks between January and
October 2009. The report draws on what it deems to be /"credible"/ local
and national media stories about the attacks. This can be compared to a
total of 34 in all of 2008, which was President Bush s last full year in
office. Between 2006 and 2009, UAV-launched missiles allegedly had
killed between 750 and 1,000 people in Pakistan, according to the
report. Of these, about 20 people were said to be leaders of al-Qaeda,
Taliban, and associated groups. Overall, 66% to 68% of the people killed
were militants, and 31% to 33% were civilians. U.S. officials disputed
the percentage for civilians.^[49] <#cite_note-49> The U.S. Air Force
has recently begun referring at least to larger UAS like Predator,
Reaper, and Global Hawk as Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) to highlight
the fact that these systems are always controlled by a human operator at
some location.
However, artificial intelligence is advancing to the point where the
aircraft are easily capable of taking off, landing, and flying
themselves. Then they simply have to be instructed as to their mission.
The military distinguishes between "man /in/ the loop"(piloted) and "man
/on/ the loop" (supervised) systems, with "fully autonomous" (issued
orders) growing organically from the second into a third category. A.I.
systems have been capable of making decisions and planning sequences of
actions for decades; as of 2013, few fully autonomous systems have been
constructed, but this is more a matter of convenience and technical
implementation than of any fundamental barrier.^[/citation needed
To distinguish UAVs from /missiles/, a UAV is defined as a "powered,
aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic
forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted
remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or
nonlethal payload".^[50] <#cite_note-50> Therefore, cruise missiles
</wiki/Cruise_missile> are not considered UAVs because, like many other
guided missiles, the vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, even
though it is also unmanned and in some cases remotely guided.
As of January 2014, the U.S. military operates a large number of
unmanned aerial systems: 7,362 RQ-11 Ravens </wiki/RQ-11_Raven>; 990
AeroVironment Wasp IIIs </wiki/AeroVironment_Wasp_III>; 1,137
AeroVironment RQ-20 Pumas </wiki/AeroVironment_RQ-20_Puma>; and 306
RQ-16 T-Hawk </wiki/RQ-16_T-Hawk> small UAS systems and 246 Predators
and MQ-1C Grey Eagles </wiki/MQ-1C_Grey_Eagle>; 126 MQ-9 Reapers
</wiki/MQ-9_Reaper>; 491 RQ-7 Shadows </wiki/RQ-7_Shadow>; and 33 RQ-4
Global Hawk </wiki/RQ-4_Global_Hawk> large systems.^[51] <#cite_note-51>
Aeryon Scout in flight
InView Unmanned Aircraft System </wiki/InView_Unmanned_Aircraft_System>
for use in scientific, commercial and state applications.

The RQ-7 Shadow </wiki/RQ-7_Shadow> is capable of delivering a 20 lb
(9.1 kg) "Quick-MEDS" canister to front-line troops.
Aerovision Fulmar </wiki/Aerovision_Fulmar>, developed by Aerovision for
civilian applications
IAI Heron </wiki/IAI_Heron>, an unmanned aerial vehicle developed by the
Malat (UAV) division of Israel Aerospace Industries
A UAV detecting an underground facility
A Hydra Technologies Ehcatl </wiki/Hydra_Technologies_Eh%C3%A9catl>
taking-off for a surveillance mission
Hermes 450 </wiki/Hermes_450> reconnaissance UAV of the Brazilian Air
Force </wiki/Brazilian_Air_Force>.
Beyond the military applications of UAVs with which "drones" became most
associated, numerous civil aviation uses have been developed, including
aerial surveying of crops,^[37] <#cite_note-WashPost20130816-37>
acrobatic aerial footage in filmmaking,^[37]
<#cite_note-WashPost20130816-37> search and rescue operations,^[37]
<#cite_note-WashPost20130816-37> inspecting power lines and
pipelines,^[52] <#cite_note-WashPost20130819-52> counting wildlife,^[52]
<#cite_note-WashPost20130819-52> delivering medical supplies to remote
or otherwise inaccessible regions,^[53] <#cite_note-TED201311-53> with
some manufacturers rebranding </wiki/Rebranding> the technology as
"unmanned aerial systems" (UASs) in preference over the
military-connotative term "drones."^[37]
<#cite_note-WashPost20130816-37> Further uses include reconnaissance
operations,^[54] <#cite_note-MotionCoord-54> border patrol
missions,^[54] <#cite_note-MotionCoord-54> forest fire detection,^[54]
<#cite_note-MotionCoord-54> surveillance,^[54]
<#cite_note-MotionCoord-54> search & rescue missions,^[54]
<#cite_note-MotionCoord-54> detection of illegal hunting,^[55]
<#cite_note-55> land surveying,^[56] <#cite_note-WashPost20140917-56>
fire and large-accident investigation,^[56]
<#cite_note-WashPost20140917-56> landslide measurement,^[56]
<#cite_note-WashPost20140917-56> illegal landfill detection,^[56]
<#cite_note-WashPost20140917-56> and crowd monitoring.^[56]
Remote sensing[edit
UAV remote sensing functions include electromagnetic spectrum
</wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum> sensors, gamma ray sensors, biological
sensors, and chemical sensors. A UAV s electromagnetic sensors
typically include visual spectrum </wiki/Visual_spectrum>, infrared
</wiki/Infrared>, or near infrared </wiki/Near_infrared> cameras as well

as radar systems. Other electromagnetic wave detectors such as microwave

and ultraviolet spectrum sensors may also be used but are uncommon.
Biological sensors are sensors capable of detecting the airborne
presence of various microorganisms and other biological factors.
Chemical sensors </wiki/Chemical_sensors> use laser spectroscopy
</wiki/Laser-induced_breakdown_spectroscopy> to analyze the
concentrations of each element </wiki/Chemical_element> in the air.
Commercial aerial surveillance[edit
Aerial surveillance of large areas is made possible with low cost UAV
systems. Surveillance applications include livestock monitoring,
wildfire mapping, pipeline security, home security, road patrol, and
anti-piracy. The trend for the use of UAV technology in commercial
aerial surveillance is expanding rapidly with increased development of
automated object detection approaches.^[57] <#cite_note-57>
Commercial and motion picture filmmaking[edit
In both Europe and the United States, UAV videography is a legal gray
area. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and their European
equivalents have not issued formal regulations and guidelines
surrounding drones in the private sector. UAV technology has advanced
too quickly for bureaucrats to handle.
The FAA is debating offering guidelines for drone operators in the
private sector by 2015, and European regulators are meeting on 9
February to iron out rules for UAVs in EU airspace. Domestically,
lobbyists are petitioning the agency to give wide leeway to the use of
unmanned aircraft for commercial photography, videography, and
surveillance purposes. At the same time, lobbyists for occupations that
stand to lose business to drones such as commercial pilots are
petitioning the FAA to restrict drone use as well.
FAA regulations generally permit hobbyist drone use when they are flown
below 400 feet, and within the UAV operators line of sight. For
commercial drone camerawork inside the United States, industry sources
state that usage is largely at the de facto consent or benign neglect
of local law enforcement. Use of UAVs for filmmaking is generally
easier on large private lots or in rural and exurban areas with fewer
space concerns. In certain localities such as Los Angeles and New York,
authorities have actively interceded to shut down drone filmmaking
efforts due to concerns driven by safety or terrorism.^[58]
<#cite_note-SS1-58> ^[59] <#cite_note-SS2-59> ^[60] <#cite_note-SS3-60>
On 2 June 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration
</wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration> (FAA) said it had received a
petition from the Motion Picture Association of America
</wiki/Motion_Picture_Association_of_America> seeking approval for the
use of drones in video and filmmaking. Seven companies behind the
petition argued that low-cost drones could be used for shots that would
otherwise require a helicopter or a manned aircraft, which would reduce
costs. Drones are already used by movie makers and media in other parts
of the world. The FAA is required by Congress
</wiki/United_States_Congress> to come up with rules for commercial use
of drones by 2015.^[61] <#cite_note-DronesMovies-61>

Drones are starting to be used in sports photography and cinematography.
For example, they were used in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi for
filming skiing and snowboarding events. Some advantages of using
unmanned aerial vehicles in sports are that they allow video to get
closer to the athletes, they are more flexible than cable-suspended
camera systems.^[62] <#cite_note-62>
Domestic policing[edit
UAVs are increasingly used for domestic police work in Canada and the
United States:^[58] <#cite_note-SS1-58> ^[59] <#cite_note-SS2-59> a
dozen US police forces had applied for UAV permits by March 2013.^[24]
<#cite_note-NatGeo-24> Texas politician and commentator Jim Hightower
</wiki/Jim_Hightower> has warned about potential privacy abuses from
aerial surveillance.^[63] <#cite_note-JH1-63> ^[64] <#cite_note-JH2-64>
In February 2013, Seattle Mayor Michael McGinn responded to protests by
scrapping the Seattle Police Departments plan to deploy UAVs.^[65]
First drone-assisted arrest of an American
On 28 January 2014, a North Dakota cattle rancher was sentenced to three
years in prison, with all but six months suspended, for terrorizing
police officers who were trying to arrest him at his property in 2011.
The case garnered national attention because it was the first time a
law-enforcement agency had used an unmanned aerial vehicle to assist in
carrying out an arrest. The Predator drone was from the Department of
Homeland Security s Customs and Border Patrol.^[66] <#cite_note-66>
Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production[edit
UAVs can be used to perform geophysical surveys, in particular
geomagnetic surveys^[67] <#cite_note-67> where the processed
measurements of the Earth s differential magnetic field strength are
used to calculate the nature of the underlying magnetic rock structure.
A knowledge of the underlying rock structure helps trained geophysicists
to predict the location of mineral deposits. The production side of oil
and gas exploration and production entails the monitoring of the
integrity of oil and gas pipelines and related installations. For
above-ground pipelines, this monitoring activity could be performed
using digital cameras mounted on one or more UAVs.^[68] <#cite_note-68>
The InView UAV </wiki/InView_Unmanned_Aircraft_System> is an example of
a UAV developed for use in oil, gas, and mineral exploration and
production activities.
Disaster relief[edit
UAVs transport medicines and vaccines, and retrieve medical samples,
into and out of remote or otherwise inaccessible regions.^[53]

<#cite_note-TED201311-53> Drones can help in disaster relief by

gathering information from across an affected area. Drones can also help
by building a picture of the situation and giving recommendations for
how people should direct their resources to mitigate damage and save
lives.^[69] <#cite_note-69>
Scientific research[edit
Unmanned aircraft are especially useful in penetrating areas that may be
too dangerous for manned aircraft. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration </wiki/National_Oceanic_and_Atmospheric_Administration>
(NOAA) began utilizing the Aerosonde </wiki/Insitu_Aerosonde> unmanned
aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane </wiki/Hurricane> hunter. AAI
Corporation subsidiary Aerosonde Pty Ltd </wiki/Aerosonde_Ltd>. of
Victoria </wiki/Victoria_(Australia)>, Australia, designs and
manufactures the 35-pound system, which can fly into a hurricane and
communicate near-real-time data directly to the National Hurricane
Center </wiki/National_Hurricane_Center> in Florida </wiki/Florida>.
Beyond the standard barometric pressure and temperature data typically
culled from manned hurricane hunters, the Aerosonde system provides
measurements far closer to the waters surface than previously captured.
NASA later began using the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk
</wiki/Northrop_Grumman_RQ-4_Global_Hawk> for extended hurricane
Further applications for unmanned aircraft can be explored once
solutions have been developed for their accommodation within national
airspace, an issue currently under discussion by the Federal Aviation
Administration </wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration>. UAVSI, the UK
manufacturer, also produces a variant of their Vigilant light UAS
(20 kg) designed specifically for scientific research in severe
climates, such as the Antarctic.^[/citation needed
There have also been experiments with using UAVs as a construction and
artwork tool^[70] <#cite_note-70> at locations such as the ETH
Zurich.^[71] <#cite_note-71>
Armed attacks[edit
See also: Targeted killing </wiki/Targeted_killing>, Unmanned combat
aerial vehicle </wiki/Unmanned_combat_aerial_vehicle> and Drone attacks
in Pakistan </wiki/Drone_attacks_in_Pakistan>
MQ-1 Predator </wiki/MQ-1_Predator> UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles
</wiki/AGM-114_Hellfire> are increasingly used by the U.S. as platforms
for hitting ground targets. Armed Predators were first used in late 2001
from bases in Pakistan </wiki/Pakistan> and Uzbekistan
</wiki/Uzbekistan>, mostly aimed at assassinating high profile
individuals (terrorist leaders, etc.) inside Afghanistan. Since then,
there have been many reported cases of such attacks taking place in
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia.^[72]
<#cite_note-SauerSchoernigKillerDrones-72> The advantage of using an
unmanned vehicle rather than a manned aircraft in such cases is to avoid
a diplomatic embarrassment should the aircraft be shot down and the
pilots captured, since the bombings take place in countries deemed

friendly and without the official permission of those countries.^[73]

<#cite_note-73> ^[74] <#cite_note-74> ^[75] <#cite_note-75> ^[76]
A Predator based in a neighboring Arab country was used to kill
suspected al-Qaeda </wiki/Al-Qaeda> terrorists in Yemen </wiki/Yemen> on
3 November 2002. This marked the first use of an armed Predator as an
attack aircraft outside of a theater of war such as Afghanistan.^[77]
The U.S. has claimed that the Predator strikes killed at least nine
senior al-Qaeda leaders and dozens of lower-ranking operatives,
depleting its operational tier in what U.S. officials described as the
most serious disruption of al-Qaeda since 2001.^[78]
<#cite_note-latimes1-78> It was claimed that the Predator strikes took
such a toll on al-Qaeda that militants began turning violently on one
another out of confusion and distrust.^[78] <#cite_note-latimes1-78> A
senior U.S. counter-terrorism official said: "They have started hunting
down people who they think are responsible" for security breaches.
"People are showing up dead, or disappearing."^[78]
By October 2009, the CIA claimed to have killed more than half of the 20
most wanted al-Qaeda terrorist suspects in targeted killings using
UAVs.^[79] <#cite_note-autogenerated3-79> By May 2010, counter-terrorism
officials said that UAV strikes in the Pakistani tribal areas had killed
more than 500 militants since 2008 and no more than 30 (5%) nearby
civilians mainly family members who lived and traveled with the
targets.^[80] <#cite_note-nytimes6-80> ^[81] <#cite_note-reuters1-81>
UAVs linger overhead after a strike, in some cases for hours, to enable
the CIA to count the bodies and attempt to determine which, if any, are
civilians.^[81] <#cite_note-reuters1-81> A Pakistani intelligence
officer gave a higher estimate of civilian casualties, saying 20% of
total deaths were civilians or non-combatants.^[81]
In February 2013, U.S. Senator Lindsey Graham stated that 4,756 people
have been killed by U.S. UAVs.^[82] <#cite_note-82>
CIA </wiki/CIA> officials became concerned in 2008, that targets in
Pakistan were being tipped off to pending U.S. UAV strikes by Pakistani
intelligence, when the U.S. requested Pakistani permission prior to
launching UAV-based attacks.^[78] <#cite_note-latimes1-78> The Bush
administration therefore decided in August 2008 to abandon the practice
of obtaining Pakistani government permission before launching missiles
from UAVs, and in the next six months the CIA carried out at least 38
Predator </wiki/Predator_drone> strikes in northwest Pakistan, compared
with 10 in 2006 and 2007 combined.^[78] <#cite_note-latimes1-78>
In 2012, the USAF </wiki/USAF> trained more UAV pilots than ordinary jet
fighter </wiki/Jet_fighter> pilots for the first time.^[83] <#cite_note-83>
One issue with using armed drones to attack human targets is the size of
the bombs being used and the relative lack of discrimination of the
100 lb (45 kg) Hellfire </wiki/AGM-114_Hellfire>, which was designed to
eliminate tanks and attack bunkers.^[84] <#cite_note-84> Smaller weapons
such as the Raytheon </wiki/Raytheon> Griffin </wiki/Griffin_(missile)>
and Small Tactical Munition </wiki/Small_Tactical_Munition> are being
developed as a less indiscriminate alternative,^[85] <#cite_note-85> and
development is underway on the still smaller US Navy

</wiki/US_Navy>-developed Spike missile </wiki/Spike_(missile)>.^[86]

<#cite_note-86> The payload-limited Predator A </wiki/MQ-1_Predator> can
also be armed with six Griffin missiles, as opposed to only two of the
much-heavier Hellfires.
The United States armed forces currently have no defense against low
level drone attack, but the Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense
</wiki/Joint_Integrated_Air_and_Missile_Defense_Organization> is working
to repurpose existing systems to defend American forces.^[87]
Civilian casualties[edit
Questions have been raised about the accuracy of UAV-based missile
strikes. In March 2009, /The Guardian </wiki/The_Guardian>/ reported
allegations that Israeli </wiki/Israel> UAVs armed with missiles killed
48 Palestinian civilians </wiki/Palestinian_people> in the Gaza Strip
</wiki/Gaza_Strip>, including two small children in a field and a group
of women and girls in an otherwise empty street.^[88] <#cite_note-88> In
June, Human Rights Watch </wiki/Human_Rights_Watch> investigated six UAV
attacks that were reported to have resulted in civilian casualties and
alleged that Israeli forces either failed to take all feasible
precautions to verify that the targets were combatants or failed to
distinguish between combatants and civilians.^[89] <#cite_note-89> ^[90]
<#cite_note-90> ^[91] <#cite_note-91> In July 2009, Brookings
Institution </wiki/Brookings_Institution> released a report stating that
in the United States-led drone attacks in Pakistan
ten civilians died for every militant killed.^[92] <#cite_note-92> ^[93]
<#cite_note-93> S. Azmat Hassan </wiki/S._Azmat_Hassan>, a former
ambassador of Pakistan, said in July 2009 that American UAV attacks were
turning Pakistani opinion against the United States and that 35 or 40
such attacks only killed 8 or 9 top al-Qaeda operatives.^[94]
Although it may never be known how many civilians have died as a result
of U.S. UAV strikes in Pakistan, there are estimates of hundreds or
thousands of innocent bystanders who have perished in such attacks.^[95]
<#cite_note-95> Pakistani authorities released statistics indicating
that between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009, U.S. RQ-1 Predator
</wiki/RQ-1_Predator> and RQ-9 Reaper </wiki/RQ-9_Reaper> UAV strikes
have killed over 700 innocent civilians. The website
PakistanBodyCount.Org (by Zeeshan-ul-hassan Usmani
</wiki/Zeeshan-ul-hassan_Usmani>, a Fulbright Scholar
</wiki/Fulbright_Scholar> at the Florida Institute of Technology
</wiki/Florida_Institute_of_Technology>) shows 1,065 civilian deaths
between June 2004 and 30 January 2010 and tallies 103 UAV strikes
carried out by the United States.^[96] <#cite_note-96>
With the increase of UAV strikes, January 2010 proved to be a deadly
month in Pakistan with 123 innocent civilians killed, according to a
story in The International News. In addition, it has been reported that
160 children have died from UAV-launched attacks in Pakistan.^[97]
<#cite_note-97> Further, over 1,000 civilians have been injured.^[98]
<#cite_note-98> This evidence runs counter to the Obama administration s
claim that "nearly for the past year there hasn t been a single
collateral death" due to UAV-based attacks.^[99] <#cite_note-99>

According to the 24 February 2010 policy analysis "The Year of the

Drone", released by the New America Foundation
</wiki/New_America_Foundation>, the civilian fatality rate since 2004 is
approximately 32%. The study reports that 114 reported UAV-based missile
strikes in northwest Pakistan from 2004 to present killed between 830
and 1,210 individuals, around 550 to 850 of whom were militants.^[100]
After more than 30 UAV-based strikes hit civilian homes in Afghanistan
in 2012, President Hamid Karzai </wiki/Hamid_Karzai> demanded that such
attacks end, but the practice continues in areas of Pakistan, Yemen, and
Somalia that are not in war zones. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter
</wiki/Jimmy_Carter> has criticized such use of UAVs: "We don t know how
many hundreds of innocent civilians have been killed in these
attacks...This would have been unthinkable in previous times."^[101]
In October 2013, the Pakistani government revealed that since 2008,
civilian casualties made up only 3 percent of deaths from drone strikes.
Since 2008, there have been 317 drone strikes that killed 2,160 Islamic
militants and 67 civilians. This is far less than previous government
and independent organization calculations of collateral damage from
these attacks.^[102] <#cite_note-102>
An attack by the US in December 2013, in a wedding procession in Yemen,
killed 12 men and wounded at least 15 other people, including the bride.
US and Yemeni officials said the dead were members of the armed group
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), but witnesses and relatives
told Human Rights Watch the casualties were civilians. Witnesses and
relatives told Human Rights Watch that no members of AQAP were in the
procession and provided names and other information about those killed
and wounded. They said the dead included the grooms adult son and the
bride received superficial face wounds. The local governor and military
commander called the casualties a mistake and gave money and assault
rifles to the families of those killed and wounded a traditional
gesture of apology in Yemen. A few days after the incident, Yemeni MPs
voted for a ban against the use of drones in Yemen, though it is unclear
what effect this will have on drone usage.^[103] <#cite_note-103> ^[104]
Aerial target practice in training of human pilots[edit
Since 1997, the U.S. military has used more than 80 F-4 Phantoms
</wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_F-4_Phantom_II> converted into robotic planes
for use as aerial targets for combat training of human pilots.^[105]
<#cite_note-ABC20130926-105> The F-4s were supplemented in September
2013 with F-16s </wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon> as more
realistically maneuverable targets.^[105] <#cite_note-ABC20130926-105>
Search and rescue[edit
UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the
United States. This was demonstrated by the use of UAVs during the 2008
hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas. Micro UAVs, such as the
Aeryon Scout </wiki/Aeryon_Scout>, have been used to perform Search and

Rescue activities on a smaller scale, such as the search for missing

persons.^[106] <#cite_note-police_using_drone_in_sar-106> For example,
Predators, operating between 18,00029,000 feet above sea level,
performed search and rescue and damage assessment. Payloads carried were
an optical sensor, which is a daytime and infrared </wiki/Infra_red>
camera in particular, and a synthetic aperture radar
</wiki/Synthetic_aperture_radar> (SAR). The Predator s SAR is a
sophisticated all-weather sensor capable of providing photographic-like
images through clouds, rain or fog, and in daytime or nighttime
conditions, all in real-time. A concept of coherent change detection in
SAR images allows for exceptional search and rescue ability: photos
taken before and after the storm hits are compared, and a computer
highlights areas of damage.^[107] <#cite_note-107> ^[108] <#cite_note-108>
UAVs have been tested as airborne lifeguards, locating distressed
swimmers using thermal cameras and dropping life preservers
</wiki/Lifebuoy> to plural swimmers.^[109] <#cite_note-----109>
See also: International Anti-Poaching Foundation
In June 2012, WWF </wiki/World_Wide_Fund_for_Nature> announced it will
begin using UAVs in Nepal </wiki/Nepal> to aid conservation
</wiki/Conservation_movement> efforts following a successful trial of
two aircraft in Chitwan National Park </wiki/Chitwan_National_Park>,
with ambitions to expand to other countries, such as Tanzania and
Malaysia. The global wildlife organization plans to train ten personnel
to use the UAVs, with operational use beginning in the fall.^[110]
<#cite_note-110> ^[111] <#cite_note-111> In August 2012, UAVs were used
by members of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
</wiki/Sea_Shepherd_Conservation_Society> in Namibia to document the
annual seal cull.^[112] <#cite_note-112> In December 2013, the Falcon
UAV was selected by the Namibian Govt and WWF to help combat rhino
poaching.^[113] <#cite_note-113> The drones will be monitoring rhino
populations in Etosha National Park and will use RFID sensors.^[114]
Animal rights[edit
In Pennsylvania, Showing Animals Respect and Kindness (SHARK) used
drones to monitor people shooting at pigeons for sport.^[115]
<#cite_note-Atherton2013-115> One of their Octocopter drones was shot
down by hunters.^[116] <#cite_note-Chang2012-116>
In March 2013, the Times published a controversial story that UAV
conservation nonprofit </wiki/Nonprofit> ShadowView </wiki/ShadowView>,
founded by former members of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
</wiki/Sea_Shepherd_Conservation_Society>, had been working for several
months with anti-hunting charity The League Against Cruel Sports
</wiki/League_Against_Cruel_Sports> to expose illegal fox hunting
</wiki/Fox_hunting> in the UK </wiki/UK>.^[117] <#cite_note-117> Hunt
supporters have argued that using UAVs to film hunting is an invasion of
privacy.^[118] <#cite_note-118>

In April 2013, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

</wiki/People_for_the_Ethical_Treatment_of_Animals> announced its
intention to use drones to monitor hunters, as well as possibly
industrial farms, fishing areas, and "other venues where animals
routinely suffer and die". Some gun owners responded by suggesting
they d shoot down these drones.^[119] <#cite_note-Russell2013-119>
In 2014, Will Potter </wiki/Will_Potter> proposed using drones to
monitor conditions on factory farms </wiki/Factory_farms>. The idea is
to circumvent ag-gag </wiki/Ag-gag> prohibitions by keeping the drones
on public property but equipping them with cameras sensitive enough to
monitor activities on the farms.^[120] <#cite_note-ZaraAgGag2014-120>
Potter raised nearly $23,000 in 2 days for this project on Kickstarter
</wiki/Kickstarter>.^[120] <#cite_note-ZaraAgGag2014-120>
Maritime patrol[edit
Japan is studying how to deal with the UAVs the PRC is starting to use
to enforce their claims on unmanned islands.^[121] <#cite_note-121>
Forest fire detection[edit
/See: Forestry unmanned aerial vehicles
Another application of UAVs is the prevention and early detection of
forest fires. The possibility of constant flight, both day and night,
makes the methods used until now (helicopters, watchtowers, etc.) become
obsolete.^[/citation needed </wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/] Cameras
and sensors that provide real-time emergency services, including
information about the location of the outbreak of fire as well as many
factors (wind speed, temperature, humidity, etc.) that are helpful for
fire crews to conduct fire suppression.
In Peru archaeologists use drones to speed up survey work and protect
sites from squatters, builders and miners. Small drones helped
researchers produce three-dimensional models of Peruvian sites instead
of the usual flat maps and in days and weeks instead of months and
years.^[122] <#cite_note-peru-122>
Drones have replaced expensive and clumsy small planes, kites and helium
balloons. Drones costing as little as 650 have proven useful. In 2013
drones flew over at least six Peruvian archaeological sites, including
the colonial Andean town Machu Llacta 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) above sea
level. The drones continue to have altitude problems in the Andes,
leading to plans to make a drone blimp </wiki/Blimp>, employing open
source software.^[122] <#cite_note-peru-122>
Jeffrey Quilter, an archaeologist with Harvard University said, "You can
go up three metres and photograph a room, 300 metres and photograph a
site, or you can go up 3,000 metres and photograph the entire
valley."^[122] <#cite_note-peru-122>

In September 2014 drones weighing about .5 kg were used for 3D mapping

of the above-ground ruins of the Greek city of Aphrodisias
</wiki/Aphrodisias>.^[123] <#cite_note-123>
Future potential[edit
In December 2013, the DHL </wiki/DHL_Express> parcel service subsidiary
of Deutsche Post AG tested a "microdrones md4-1000" for delivery of
In the military sector, Predators and Reapers are tailor-made for
counterterrorism operations and in war zones in which the enemy lacks
sufficient firepower to shoot them down, but are not designed to
withstand antiaircraft defenses or air-to-air combat; in September 2013
the chief of the Air Combat Command </wiki/Air_Combat_Command> stated
that current UAVs were "useless in a contested environment unless
manned aircraft were put there to protect them.^[124]
<#cite_note-WashPost201311-124> A 2012 Congressional Research Service
</wiki/Congressional_Research_Service> (CRS) report indicated that in
the future, UAVs may be able to perform a variety of tasks beyond their
present roles in intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and strikes;
the CRS report listed resupply, combat search and rescue, aerial
refueling, and air to air combat ("a more difficult future task") as
possible future undertakings.^[125] <#cite_note-125> The U.S. Department
of Defense s /Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2013-2038/ foresees
UAVs having a more important place in combat, recognizing that the near
future will involve making sure the technology works at all, before
exploiting their potential in the following decade.^[126]
<#cite_note-WashPost20121227-126> Beyond solving technical issues,
issues to be resolved include human-UAV interaction, managing expected
increases in amounts of information generated by UAV fleets,
transitioning from direct human control to UAVs automatic adaptation to
changing conditions, and developing UAV-specific munitions.^[126]
In the private sector, initial attempts at commercial use of UAVs, such
as the Tacocopter company for the food delivery, were blocked by FAA
regulation.^[127] <#cite_note-127> </wiki/> founder
Jeff Bezos </wiki/Jeff_Bezos> December 2013 announcement that Amazon is
planning rapid delivery of lightweight commercial products using UAVs
was met with skepticism, with perceived obstacles including federal and
state regulatory approval, public safety, reliability, individual
privacy, operator training and certification, security (hacking),
payload thievery, and logistical challenges.^[128]
<#cite_note-Politico20131202-128> In July 2014 it was revealed Amazon
was working on its 8th and 9th drone prototypes, some that could fly 50
miles per hour and carry 5-pound packages, and had applied to the FAA to
test them.^[129] <#cite_note-FAAamazon-129>
In December 2013, in a research project of Deutsche Post AG subsidiary
DHL </wiki/DHL_Express>, a sub-kilogram quantity of medicine was
delivered via a prototype Microdrones parcelcopter, raising
speculation that disaster relief </wiki/Emergency_management> may be the
first place the company will use the technology.^[130] <#cite_note-130>
^[131] <#cite_note-131>

In February 2014, the prime minister and cabinet affairs minister of the
United Arab Emirates </wiki/United_Arab_Emirates> (UAE) announced that
the UAE planned to launch a fleet of UAVs for civilian purposes.^[132]
<#cite_note-FT_UAE-132> Plans were for the UAVs to use fingerprint and
eye-recognition systems to deliver official documents such as passports,
ID cards and licenses, and supply emergency services at accidents. A
battery-powered prototype four rotor UAV about half a metre across was
displayed in Dubai </wiki/Dubai>.^[133] <#cite_note-133>
In 2014, Fendi </wiki/Fendi> started making plans to use drones to show
its catwalk fashions.^[134]
Solar-powered atmospheric satellites </wiki/Atmospheric_satellite>
("atmosats") designed for operating at altitudes exceeding 20 km (12
miles, or 60,000 feet) for as long as five years can perform duties more
economically and with more versatility than low earth orbit
</wiki/Low_earth_orbit> satellites.^[135]
<#cite_note-TechCrunch20140304-135> Likely applications include weather
monitoring, disaster recovery, earth imaging, and communications.^[135]
In 2014, a company called Sensepost demonstrated at a security
conference in Singapore a quadricopter UAV with software which could
steal data from smartphones in the vicinity - such as identities,
passwords and banking data. The software attacked smartphones with WIFI
switched on by impersonating a previously used network ^[136]
Google </wiki/Google_(company)> revealed in August 2014 it had been
testing unmanned aerial vehicles in Australia </wiki/Australia> for two
years. The Google X </wiki/Google_X> program known as "project wing"
aims to produce drones that can deliver not only products sold via
e-commerce, but larger delivery items^[137] <#cite_note-137>
The European Union </wiki/European_Union> sees benefits and challenges
for civilian drones, and in 2014 proposes a set of regulations to
control the effects of drones on peoples safety, security and privacy.
Drone market share could be up to 10% of aviation in 10 years, and the
EU suggests streamlining R&D </wiki/Research_and_development>
efforts.^[138] <#cite_note-138>
Design and development considerations[edit
UAV design and production is a global activity with manufacturers all
across the world. The United States and Israel </wiki/Israel> were
initial pioneers in this technology, and U.S. manufacturers had a market
share of over 60% in 2006, with U.S. market share due to increase by
510% through 2016.^[139] <#cite_note-avweek_20070115_uavs-139> Northrop
Grumman </wiki/Northrop_Grumman> and General Atomics
</wiki/General_Atomics> are the dominant manufacturers in this industry
on the strength of the Global Hawk and Predator/Mariner systems.^[139]
<#cite_note-avweek_20070115_uavs-139> According to the Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute
</wiki/Stockholm_International_Peace_Research_Institute>, Israeli
companies were behind 41% of all UAVs exported in 2001-2011.^[140]
<#cite_note-140> The European market share represented 4% of global

revenue in 2006.^[139] <#cite_note-avweek_20070115_uavs-139>

In December 2013, the Federal Aviation Administration announced its
selections six states that will host test sites emphasizing respective
research goals: Alaska (sites with a wide variety of climates), Nevada
(formulating standards for air traffic control and UAV operators), New
York (integrating UAVs into congested airspace), North Dakota (human
impact; use in temperate climates), Texas (safety requirements and
airworthiness testing), and Virginia (assessing operational and
technical risk).^[141] <#cite_note-bbc-test-sites-announced-141>
Some universities offer UAS research and training programs or academic
degrees.^[52] <#cite_note-WashPost20130819-52>
Development costs for American military UAVs, as with most military
programs, have tended to overrun their initial estimates. This is mostly
due to changes in requirements during development and a failure to
leverage UAV development programs over multiple armed services. This has
caused United States Navy </wiki/United_States_Navy> UAV programs to
increase in cost from 0% to 5%, while United States Air Force
</wiki/United_States_Air_Force> UAV programs have increased from 60% to
284%.^[142] <#cite_note-142>
On October 12, 2014, the Linux Foundation and leading technology
companies launched the open source Dronecode Project. The Dronecode
Project goal is to help meet the needs of the growing UAV community with
a neutral governance structure and coordination of funding for resources
and tools which the community needs.^[143]
Certification aspects[edit
One of the main barriers to rapid full-scale growth of commercial
unmanned aircraft is the concern for safety. As a myriad of
certification agencies scramble to keep up with the unique demands of
this fast-growing industry, one thing is clear where applicable,
pertinent certification standards for manned aircraft are starting to
apply. For the complex electronics that provide communication and
control of these systems, this means a swift move towards compliance
with DO-178C </wiki/DO-178C> and DO-254 </wiki/DO-254> for software and
hardware development.^[144] <#cite_note-Navigating-144> In most cases,
the unmanned aircraft can only be operated as part of a system, hence
the term unmanned aircraft system or UAS. The UAS consists of an
unmanned aircraft (UA), a remote pilot station and the command, control
and communications links that join them; as such, safety considerations
address all of these elements.^[145] <#cite_note-Yearbook-145>
In 2011,^[145] <#cite_note-Yearbook-145> the International Civil
Aviation Organization </wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization>
of the United Nations published Circular 328 this document states a
UAS should demonstrate equivalent levels of safety as manned aircraft
and thus meet relevant government rules for flight and flight equipment.
Within the United States, the Congress passed a bill in 2012 that
mandated the FAA create a plan for allowing UAS into commercial
airspace. Subsequently, the FAA issued the Integration of Civil
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS)
Roadmap.^[144] <#cite_note-Navigating-144>

As of 2014^[update]
, obtaining an experimental airworthiness certificate
</wiki/Airworthiness_certificate#Special_Airworthiness_Certificates> for
a particular UAS is the only way /civil operators/ of unmanned aircraft
are accessing the National Airspace System
</wiki/National_Airspace_System> of the United States.^[146]
<#cite_note-146> FAA Order 8130.34 </wiki/FAA_Order_8130.34>,
/Airworthiness Certification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems/, establishes
procedures for issuing this certification, and as such establishes
guidance standards for certification aspects of development and
operation, which may be addressed by adoption of such standards as
ARP4754A </wiki/ARP4754>, and DO-178C </wiki/DO-178C>.^[147]
The FAA roadmap is, in essence, maturation of the acceptance of UAVs
from this experimental aircraft certification to requiring the same
standard airworthiness type certification </wiki/Type_certificate> of
manufacturing design as is now required of conventional manned
aircraft.^[144] <#cite_note-Navigating-144>
Degree of autonomy[edit
UAV monitoring and control at CBP </wiki/Office_of_Air_and_Marine>
HiMAT </wiki/Highly_Maneuverable_Aircraft_Technology> remote cockpit
synthetic vision display (Photo: NASA </wiki/NASA> 1984)
Early UAVs used during the Vietnam War captured video that was recorded
to film or tape on the aircraft. These aircraft often flew either in a
straight line or in preset circles collecting video until they ran out
of fuel and landed. After landing, the film was recovered for analysis.
Because of the simple, repetitive nature of these operations, the
aircraft were often called "drones". As new radio control systems became
available, UAVs were often remote controlled, and the term "remotely
piloted vehicle" came into vogue. Today s UAVs often combine remote
control and computerized automation. More sophisticated versions may
have built-in control or guidance systems to perform low-level human
pilot duties, such as speed and flight-path stabilization, and simple
scripted navigation functions, such as waypoint following. In news and
other discussions, the term "drone" is still often mistakenly used to
refer to these more sophisticated aircraft.^[/citation needed
Most early UAVs were not autonomous at all. The field of air-vehicle
autonomy is a recently emerging field, largely driven by the military to
develop battle-ready technology.^[148] <#cite_note-wahren09uavgc-148>
Compared to the manufacturing of UAV flight hardware, the market for
autonomy technology is fairly immature and undeveloped.^[/citation
needed </wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/]
Autonomy technology that is important to UAV development falls under the
following categories:
* Sensor fusion </wiki/Sensor_fusion>: Combining information from



different sensors for use on board the vehicle including the

automatic interpretation of ground imagery ^[149]
<#cite_note-sokalski10uavsalient-149> ^[150]
Communications: Handling communication and coordination between
multiple agents in the presence of incomplete and imperfect information
Path planning: Determining an optimal path for vehicle to follow
while meeting certain objectives and mission constraints, such as
obstacles or fuel requirements
Trajectory Generation (sometimes called Motion planning
</wiki/Motion_planning>): Determining an optimal control maneuver to
take in order to follow a given path or to go from one location to
Trajectory Regulation: The specific control strategies required to
constrain a vehicle within some tolerance to a trajectory
Task Allocation and Scheduling: Determining the optimal distribution
of tasks amongst a group of agents within time and equipment constraints
Cooperative Tactics: Formulating an optimal sequence and spatial
distribution of activities between agents in order to maximize the
chance of success in any given mission scenario

Autonomy is commonly defined as the ability to make decisions without

human intervention. To that end, the goal of autonomy is to teach
machines to be "smart" and act more like humans. The keen observer may
associate this with the developments in the field of artificial
intelligence </wiki/Artificial_intelligence> made popular in the 1980s
and 1990s, such as expert systems </wiki/Expert_system>, neural networks
</wiki/Neural_network>, machine learning </wiki/Machine_learning>,
natural language processing </wiki/Natural_language_processing>, and
vision. However, the mode of technological development in the field of
autonomy has mostly followed a bottom-up approach, such as hierarchical
control systems </wiki/Hierarchical_control_system>,^[151]
<#cite_note-151> and recent advances have been largely driven by the
practitioners in the field of control science </wiki/Control_(science)>,
not computer science.^[/citation needed
</wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/] Similarly, autonomy has been and
probably will continue to be considered an extension of the controls field.
To some extent, the ultimate goal in the development of autonomy
technology is to replace the human pilot. It remains to be seen whether
future developments of autonomy technology, the perception of the
technology, and, most importantly, the political climate surrounding the
use of such technology will limit the development and utility of
autonomy for UAV applications. Also as a result of this, synthetic
vision </wiki/Synthetic_vision> for piloting has not caught on in the
UAV arena as it did with manned aircraft. NASA utilized synthetic vision
for test pilots on the HiMAT </wiki/HiMAT> program in the early 1980s
(see photo), but the advent of more autonomous UAV autopilots greatly
reduced the need for this technology.^[/citation needed
Interoperable UAV technologies became essential as systems proved their
mettle in military operations, taking on tasks too challenging or
dangerous for troops. NATO addressed the need for commonality through
STANAG (Standardization Agreement) 4586. According to a NATO press
release, the agreement began the ratification process in 1992. Its goal
was to allow allied nations to easily share information obtained from
unmanned aircraft through common ground control station technology.
Aircraft that adhere to the STANAG </wiki/STANAG> 4586 protocol are
equipped to translate information into standardized message formats;

likewise, information received from other compliant aircraft can be

transferred into vehicle-specific messaging formats for seamless
interoperability. Amendments have since been made to the original
agreement based on expert feedback from the field and an industry panel
known as the Custodian Support Team. Edition Two of STANAG 4586 is
currently under review. There are many systems available today that are
developed in accordance with STANAG 4586, including products by industry
leaders such as AAI Corporation, CDL Systems
</w/index.php?title=CDL_Systems&action=edit&redlink=1>, and Raytheon,
all three of which are members of the Custodian Support Team for this
protocol.^[/citation needed </wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>/]
Military analysts, policy makers, and academics debate the benefits and
risks of *lethal autonomous robots* (LARs), which would be able to
select targets and fire without approval of a human. Some contend that
LAR drones would be more precise, less likely to kill civilians, and
less prone to being hacked.^[152] <#cite_note-Foust2013-152> Heather
Roff replies that LARs may not be appropriate for complex conflicts, and
targeted populations would likely react angrily against them.^[152]
<#cite_note-Foust2013-152> Will McCants </wiki/Will_McCants> argues that
the public would be more outraged by machine failures than human error,
making LARs politically implausible.^[152] <#cite_note-Foust2013-152>
According to Mark Gubrud, claims that drones can be hacked are overblown
and misleading, and moreover, drones are /more/ likely to be hacked if
they re autonomous, because otherwise the human operator would take
control: "Giving weapon systems autonomous capabilities is a good way to
lose control of them, either due to a programming error, unanticipated
circumstances, malfunction, or hack, and then not be able to regain
control short of blowing them up, hopefully before they ve blown up too
many other things and people."^[153] <#cite_note-Gubrud2013-153>
Because UAVs are not burdened with the physiological limitations of
human pilots, they can be designed for maximized on-station times. The
maximum flight duration of unmanned aerial vehicles varies widely.
Internal combustion engine aircraft endurance depends strongly on the
percentage of fuel burned as a fraction of total weight (the Breguet
</wiki/Louis_Charles_Breguet> endurance equation) and so is largely
independent of aircraft size.^[/citation needed
UEL UAV-741 Wankel engine for UAV operations
Because of the small size, weight, very low vibration and high power to
weight ratio, Wankel rotary engines </wiki/Wankel_engine> are
increasingly being used in UAV aircraft.^[154] <#cite_note-154> The
engine is approximately one third of the size and weight of a piston
engine of equivalent power output, which offers significant advantages
for UAV aircraft.^[155] <#cite_note-155> Additionally: the engine rotors
cannot seize, since rotor casings expand more than rotors; the engine is
not susceptible to shock-cooling during descent; it does not require an
enriched mixture for cooling at high power and having no reciprocating
parts, there is less vulnerability to damage when the engines revolves
higher than the designed maximum running operation. The attributes of
the Wankel engine transpire into less fuel usage in UAVs giving greater

range or a higher payload.^[156] <#cite_note-156>

Solar-electric UAVs hold potential for unlimited flight, a concept
originally championed by the AstroFlight Sunrise
</wiki/AstroFlight_Sunrise> in 1974^[157]
<#cite_note-ProjectSunrisePg1-157> ^[158]
<#cite_note-ProjectSunrisePg13-158> ^[159] <#cite_note-google2004-159>
^[160] <#cite_note-NASA2008-160> and the much later Aerovironment Helios
Prototype </wiki/Helios_Prototype>, which was destroyed in a 2003 crash.
Electric UAVs kept aloft indefinitely by laser power-beaming^[161]
<#cite_note-laser-power_beaming-161> technology represent another
proposed solution to the endurance challenge. This approach is advocated
by Jordin Kare </wiki/Jordin_Kare> and Thomas Nugent.
One of the major problems with UAVs is the lack of inflight refueling
capability. In 2012, the US Air Force was promoting research that should
end in an inflight UAV refueling capability.^[162]
<> A UAV-UAV simulated refuelling flight using
two Global Hawks </wiki/Northrop_Grumman_RQ-4_Global_Hawk> was achieved
in 2012.^[163] <#cite_note-163>
One of the uses for a high endurance UAV would be to "stare" at the
battlefield for a long period of time to produce a record of events that
could then be played backwards to track where improvised explosive
devices (IEDs </wiki/Improvised_explosive_device>) came from. Air Force
Chief of Staff John P. Jumper </wiki/John_P._Jumper> started a program
to create these persistent UAVs, but this was stopped once he was
replaced.^[164] <#cite_note-164>
In 2007, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA
</wiki/DARPA>) revealed a program to develop technology for a UAV with
an endurance capability of over 5 years. The program, entitled VULTURE
(Very-high altitude, Ultra-endurance, Loitering Theater Unmanned
Reconnaissance Element^[165] <#cite_note-165> ), entered Phase II on 14
September 2010, with a contract signed with Boeing for development of
the SolarEagle </wiki/Boeing_SolarEagle> flight demonstrator.^[166]
Notable high endurance flights UAV
Flight time
QinetiQ Zephyr </wiki/QinetiQ_Zephyr> Solar Electric
336 hours 22
923 July 2010 ^[167] <#cite_note-167>
QinetiQ Zephyr </wiki/QinetiQ_Zephyr> Solar Electric
82 hours 37
2831 July 2008
^[168] <#cite_note-168>
Boeing Condor </wiki/Boeing_Condor>
58 hours 11 minutes
aircraft is currently in the Hiller Aviation Museum
</wiki/Hiller_Aviation_Museum>, CA.


^[169] <#cite_note-169>
Penguin B UAV Factory 54 hours 27 minutes
57 July 2012 ^[170]
RQ-4 Global Hawk </wiki/RQ-4_Global_Hawk>
33.1 hours
22 March 2008
Set an endurance record for a full-scale, operational unmanned
aircraft.^[171] <#cite_note-171>
Fotros </wiki/Fotros_(UCAV)>
30 hours
17 November 2013
endurance depends on number of ASM </wiki/Air-to-surface_missile> and
flight path.^[172] <#cite_note-172>
QinetiQ Zephyr </wiki/QinetiQ_Zephyr> Solar Electric
54 hours
September 2007 ^[173] <#cite_note-173> ^[174] <#cite_note-174>

IAI Heron </wiki/IAI_Heron>

52 hours
^[175] <#cite_note-175>
^[176] <#cite_note-176>
Israel Aerospace Industries Eitan </wiki/IAI_Eitan>
70+ hours
^[177] <#cite_note-177>
AC Propulsion Solar Electric
48 hours 11 minutes
3 June 2005
MQ-1 Predator </wiki/MQ-1_Predator>
40 hours 5 minutes
GNAT-750 </wiki/GNAT-750>
40 hours
^[180] <#cite_note-180>
^[181] <#cite_note-181>
TAM-5 </wiki/The_Spirit_of_Butts_Farm> 38 hours 52 minutes
11 August
Smallest UAV to cross the Atlantic
^[182] <#cite_note-182> ^[183] <#cite_note-183>
Aerosonde </wiki/Insitu_Aerosonde>
38 hours 48 minutes
3 May 2006
^[184] <#cite_note-184>
Shahed 129 </wiki/Shahed_129> 24 hours
^[185] <#cite_note-185>
TAI Anka </wiki/TAI_Anka>
24 hours
30 December 2010
Bayraktar Tactical UAS </wiki/Draft:Bayraktar_Tactical_UAS>
24 Hours 34
6 August 2014 Flight demonstrated at Kesan Airport of
Turkey.^[187] <#cite_note-187>
Detect and avoid[edit
The U.K. s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has stated that it will
require non-military drones larger than 20 kg to be able to
automatically sense other aircraft and steer to avoid them, a technology
still missing in civilian UAVs as of 2012.^[188]
Hardening of the control stations[edit
Given the increasing military use of cyber attacks against Microsoft
</wiki/Microsoft> software, the United States Armed Forces
</wiki/United_States_Armed_Forces> have moved towards Linux
</wiki/Linux> ground control software.^[189] <#cite_note-189> ^[190]
Buddy attacks[edit
The USAF said in 2012, that it will focus development of UAVs to be
collaboratively networked with manned aircraft in "buddy attacks," while
continuing to be able to fly as standalone systems.^[191] <#cite_note-191>
Existing UAV systems[edit
Ambox current red.svg </wiki/File:Ambox_current_red.svg>
This section is *outdated*. Please update this article to reflect
recent events or newly available information. /(September 2013)/

UAVs have been developed and deployed by many countries around the
world. For a list of models by country, see: /List of unmanned aerial
vehicles </wiki/List_of_unmanned_aerial_vehicles>/. The use of unmanned
aerial systems, however, is not limited to state powers: non-state
actors can also build, buy and operate these combat vehicles.^[26]
The export of UAVs or technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at
least 300 km is restricted in many countries by the Missile Technology
Control Regime </wiki/Missile_Technology_Control_Regime>. At the center
of the American military s continued UAV research is the MQ-X, which
builds upon the capabilities of the Reaper and Predator UAVs. As
currently conceived, the MQ-X would be a stealthier and faster
fighter-plane sized UAV capable of any number of missions:
high-performance surveillance; attack options, including retractable
cannons and bomb or missile payloads; and cargo capacity.^[192]
China has exhibited some UAV designs, but its ability to operate them is
limited by the lack of high endurance domestic engines, satellite
infrastructure, and operational experience.^[193] <#cite_note-193>
Historical events involving UAVs[edit
* In 1981, the Israeli IAI Scout </wiki/IAI_Scout> drone, is operated
in combat missions by the South African Defence Force
</wiki/South_African_Defence_Force> against Angola during Operation
Protea </wiki/Operation_Protea>.^[194] <#cite_note-zaloga22-194>
* In 1982, UAVs operated by the Israeli Air Force
</wiki/Israeli_Air_Force> are instrumental during Operation Mole
Cricket 19 </wiki/Operation_Mole_Cricket_19>, where both IAI Scout
</wiki/IAI_Scout> and Tadiran Mastiff </wiki/Tadiran_Mastiff> are
used to identity SAM sites, while Samson decoy UAVs are used to
activate and confuse Syrian radar.^[194] <#cite_note-zaloga22-194>
^[195] <#cite_note-195>
* During the Persian Gulf War </wiki/Persian_Gulf_War>, Iraqi Army
</wiki/Iraqi_Army> forces surrendered to the UAVs of the USS
/Wisconsin/ </wiki/USS_Wisconsin_(BB-64)>.^[196] <#cite_note-196>
^[197] <#cite_note-197>
* In October 2002, a few days before the U.S. Senate
</wiki/United_States_Senate> vote on the Authorization for Use of
Military Force Against Iraq Resolution
</wiki/Legality_of_the_Iraq_War#United_States>, about 75 senators
were told in closed session </wiki/Closed_session> that Saddam
Hussein </wiki/Saddam_Hussein> had the means of delivering
biological </wiki/Biological_weapon> and chemical weapons
</wiki/Chemical_weapons> of mass destruction by UAVs that could be
launched from ships off the Atlantic coast to attack U.S. eastern
seaboard cities </wiki/East_Coast_of_the_United_States>. Colin
Powell </wiki/Colin_Powell> suggested in his presentation to the
United Nations that they had been transported out of Iraq and could
be launched against the U.S.^[198] <#cite_note-198> It was later
revealed that Iraq s UAV fleet consisted of only a few outdated
Czech training drones.^[199] <#cite_note-199> At the time, there was
a vigorous dispute within the intelligence community as to whether
CIA s conclusions about Iraqi UAVs were accurate. The U.S. Air Force
</wiki/U.S._Air_Force>, the agency most familiar with UAVs, denied
outright that Iraq possessed any offensive UAV capability.^[200]

* The first US targeted UAV killing outside the conventional
battlefield took place on 3 November 2002, in the Marib district of
Yemen. Six alleged terrorists were killed in their SUV by a
UAV-fired missile.^[201] <#cite_note-201> The command centre was in
Tampa, Florida, USA.
* In December 2002, the first ever dogfight </wiki/Dogfight> involving
a UAV occurred when an Iraqi MiG-25 </wiki/MiG-25> and a U.S. RQ-1
Predator </wiki/RQ-1> fired missiles at each other. The MiG s
missile destroyed the Predator.^[202] <#cite_note-202>
* The U.S. deployed UAVs in Yemen </wiki/Yemen> to search for and kill
Anwar al-Awlaki </wiki/Anwar_al-Awlaki>,^[203] <#cite_note-203> an
American and Yemen imam, firing at and failing to kill him at least
once^[204] <#cite_note-204> before he was killed in a UAV-launched
missile attack in Yemen on 30 September 2011. The targeted killing
of an American citizen was unprecedented. However, nearly nine years
earlier in 2002, U.S. citizen Kemal Darwish was one of six men
killed by the first UAV strike outside a war zone, in Yemen.^[205]
* In December 2011, Iran captured a United States RQ-170 unmanned
aerial vehicle </wiki/Iran%E2%80%93U.S._RQ-170_incident> that flew
over Iran and rejected President Barack Obama </wiki/Barack_Obama> s
request to return it to the US.^[206] <#cite_note-206> ^[207]
<#cite_note-207> Iranian officials claim to have recovered data from
the U.S. surveillance aircraft. However, it is not clear how Iran
brought it down.^[208] <#cite_note-208> There have also been claims
that Iran spoofed the GPS signal used by the UAV^[24]
<#cite_note-NatGeo-24> and hijacked it into landing on an Iranian
* In December 2013, The U.S. Navy has successfully launched an
Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) from a submerged submarine, the first
step to providing mission intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities to the U.S. Navys submarine
force.^[209] <#cite_note-209>
Domestic aerial surveillance and other incidents[edit
The topic of this article *may not meet Wikipedia s general notability
guideline </wiki/Wikipedia:Notability>*. Please help to establish
notability by adding reliable, secondary sources
</wiki/Wikipedia:Identifying_reliable_sources> about the topic. If
notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged
</wiki/Wikipedia:Merge>, redirected </wiki/Wikipedia:Redirect>, or
deleted </wiki/Wikipedia:Deletion_policy>.
/Find sources:/ "Unmanned aerial vehicle"
<//> **
ewspapers&source=newspapers> **
<//> **
<//> ** JSTOR
cc=on&wc=on> **
free images

/(November 2013)/
Although UAVs are today most commonly associated with military actions,
UAVs are increasingly used by civilian government agencies, businesses,
and private individuals. In the United States, for example, government
agencies use UAVs such as the RQ-9 Reaper </wiki/RQ-9_Reaper> to patrol
the nation s borders, scout property, and locate fugitives.^[210]
<#cite_note-210> One of the first authorized for domestic usage was the
ShadowHawk UAV in service in Montgomery County, Texas, and is being used
by their SWAT and emergency management offices.^[211] <#cite_note-211>
Sydney Harbour Bridge collision[edit
On 2 October 2013, a UAV collided with Sydney Harbour Bridge
</wiki/Sydney_Harbour_Bridge>.^[212] <#cite_note-smh-mystery-drone-212>
The craft, which carried a camera, was found about 10pm near a southern
pylon of the bridge on a rail line.^[212]
<#cite_note-smh-mystery-drone-212> ^[213]
<#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> Although it was found the day
before the International Navy Fleet Review, police believed there was no
connection with the event.^[212] <#cite_note-smh-mystery-drone-212> The
Civil Aviation Safety Authority </wiki/Civil_Aviation_Safety_Authority>
started an investigation and anti-terrorism officers were alerted,
though police said they didn t believe it was suspicious and was for
recreational use.^[212] <#cite_note-smh-mystery-drone-212> A CASA
spokesman said that they had been contacted by the New South Wales
Police Force </wiki/New_South_Wales_Police_Force>.^[212]
<#cite_note-smh-mystery-drone-212> He added that those operating
remotely piloted aircraft should keep them at least 30m away from
structures, buildings and people, to check with the local council where
they could be used and that the airspace around the bridge was
restricted for all aircraft, including small ones.^[212]
The craft turned out to belong to Edward Prescott, who had lost control
of it while testing it and thought it was lost in the harbour.^[213]
<#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> He said that he never intended
it to fly into the bridge and later discovered that his craft had been
in the news.^[213] <#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> He said that
he contacted the aviation authorities and Sydney police as soon as he
heard of the news.^[213] <#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> The
New South Wales police stated that the matter had been investigated and
deemed not suspicious and that the police team managing the
International Fleet Review had been notified, but that police transport
command had handled the matter.^[213]
<#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> The police returned the craft
to Mr Prescott.^[213] <#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> The Civil
Aviation Safety Authority </wiki/Civil_Aviation_Safety_Authority> has
completed a review of the incident but as of late November 2013 has not
decided what action, if any, to take.^[213]
<#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213> Mr Prescott was in Sydney as
part of the support crew for the Australian tour of Rihanna

</wiki/Rihanna>.^[213] <#cite_note-smh-i-dont-know-whether-213>
Endure Batavia drone incident[edit
In April 2014, triathlete </wiki/Triathlon> Raija Ogden was injured in
an incident in Geraldton </wiki/Geraldton>, Western Australia
<#cite_note-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone-214> She claimed
that she was injured when the drone collided with her during the
race.^[214] <#cite_note-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone-214>
Warren Abrahams, the owner of the UAV denied that it had collided with
her and that she had been injured when she was frightened by the falling
UAV and tripped.^[214]
<#cite_note-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone-214> Raija Ogden
disputed these claims saying that "I have lacerations on my head from
the drone and the ambulance crew took a piece of propeller from my
<#cite_note-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone-214> Civil
Aviation Safety Authority spokesman Peter Gibson said that evidence
warranted an investigation.^[214]
Warren Abrahams claimed that video footage of the event supported his
<#cite_note-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone-214> In a radio
interview he suggested that his drone had been hacked by someone who had
taken control of it, but when contacted by Guardian Australia, he seemed
to withdraw the statement.^[214]
In July 2014, CASA referred the operators of the UAV to the Commonwealth
Director of Public Prosecutions
</wiki/Director_of_Public_Prosecutions_(Australia)>, which may lead to a
prosecution if the latter decides there is enough evidence for a court
case.^[215] <#cite_note-smh-drone-operators-referred-215>
Timing equipment caused interference with the operation of the UAV while
it was close to people on the ground.^[215]
<#cite_note-smh-drone-operators-referred-215> CASA regulations require
that UAVs be at least 30m from people and shouldn t be operated in a way
that creates a hazard.^[215] <#cite_note-smh-drone-operators-referred-215>
The operator may not have the licence required to operate a
multicopter.^[215] <#cite_note-smh-drone-operators-referred-215>
In November 2014 the Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions
decided not to procees with a charge of reckless operation against
Warren Abrahams, though CASA said its lawyers would take a number of
weeks to determine whether to fine him.^[216]
Warren Abrahams commented on his social media page: "Just got the call
from CASA (Civil Aviation Safety Authority) no charges against us for
incident in April" and "Just letting everyone know as investigation has
taken this long. Sorry to all those who thought they could charge me ha
ha you idiots!!!"^[216]
Simon Teakle, president of the triathlon club, called the comments harsh
and insensitive to Raija Ogden, something Warren Abrahams denied.^[216]

In 2013, The Flemish Research Institute for Nature and Forest
</wiki/Research_Institute_for_Nature_and_Forest> and the Flanders Marine
Institute </wiki/Flanders_Marine_Institute> planned to use a UAV with a
camera and a detection system that automatically recognizes different
types of vegetation, trees and individual plants in order to make
regular assessments of the biodiversity of the Flemish terrain. Their
previous system of using 25 civil servants to map the country was
unsatisfactory and time-consuming.^[217] <#cite_note-217>
Didier Deschamps </wiki/Didier_Deschamps> claimed that a UAV flew over
the French teams training camp in Ribeiro Preto
</wiki/Ribeir%C3%A3o_Preto> before their 2014 World Cup
</wiki/2014_FIFA_World_Cup> match with Honduras.^[218]
<#cite_note-guardian-france-drone-218> Deschamps wasn t as amused as
some of his players were by the incident, though he was content to leave
the investigation to FIFA </wiki/FIFA>.^[218]
Vancouver International Airport incidents[edit
In April 2014, video of a UAV flying close to an airliner as it landed
at Vancouver International Airport
</wiki/Vancouver_International_Airport> attracted criticism from several
quarters as well as an investigation.^[219]
The video showed footage of the airliner on final approach taken from a
camera on board the UAV.^[219]
Transport Canada </wiki/Transport_Canada> spokesman Rod Nelson said his
department was investigating with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
</wiki/Royal_Canadian_Mounted_Police> to identify the operator.^[219]
Model Aeronautics Association of Canada
</wiki/Model_Aeronautics_Association_of_Canada> board of directors
member Steve Hughes said that pilots like the one in question were
damaging the hobby of flying model aircraft.^[219]
In March 2014, a remote-controlled helicopter was reported by the crew

of a Boeing 777 </wiki/Boeing_777> flying 30 miles from their craft at

the same airport, though nothing connects the two incidents.^[219]

Democratic Republic of Congo[edit

A UAV in Goma </wiki/Goma> as part of MONUSCO </wiki/MONUSCO>
peacekeeping mission
In August 2013, the Italian defence company Selex ES </wiki/Selex_ES>
provided an unarmed surveillance drone to be deployed in the Democratic
Republic of Congo </wiki/Democratic_Republic_of_Congo> to monitor
movements of armed groups in the region and to protect the civilian
population more effectively.^[220] <#cite_note-220>
In October 2014 an Israeli tourist was arrested in front of Notre Dame
de Paris </wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris> and spent the night in jail.^[221]
<#cite_note-jpost-drone-paris-221> The following morning he was fined
400 Euro foroperating an aircraft non-compliant with safety
laws.^[221] <#cite_note-jpost-drone-paris-221> He said he wasn t aware
that it was illegal to fly drones in Paris and that he d photographed
Notre Dame, Htel-Dieu de Paris </wiki/H%C3%B4tel-Dieu_de_Paris> and a
police station as he wanted to photograph Parisian monuments for private
purposes.^[221] <#cite_note-jpost-drone-paris-221>
Nuclear power plant overflights[edit
In October and November 2014 unidentified civilian UAVs were seen flying
near 13 nuclear power plants, including Le Blayais
</wiki/Blayais_Nuclear_Power_Plant> and Gravelines
<#cite_note-nyt-unidentified-drones-above-french-nuclear-222> The
Secretariat-General for National Defence and Security
issued a statement that the flights were an "organized
<#cite_note-nyt-unidentified-drones-above-french-nuclear-222> Initial
suspicion fell upon Greenpeace </wiki/Greenpeace>, who denied any
<#cite_note-nyt-unidentified-drones-above-french-nuclear-222> The
organisation did however point out the power stations were vulnerable to
aerial attack.^[222]
Overflights of nuclear power plants are illegal in France, with a
punishment of a year in prison and a fine of 75,000 if an aircraft

comes within 5km horizontally or 1km vertically of a plant.^[222]

In November 2014 two men and a woman were arrested near the Belleville
Nuclear Power Plant </wiki/Belleville_Nuclear_Power_Plant> with two
UAVs.^[223] <#cite_note-nyt-3-found-with-drones-223> French media
reported that they didn t seem to have any connection with the
unidentified flights.^[223] <#cite_note-nyt-3-found-with-drones-223>
The Deutsche Bahn </wiki/Deutsche_Bahn> (German national railways) said
in 2013 that it would test small surveillance UAVs with thermal
</wiki/Thermal> cameras to prosecute vandals who spray graffiti
</wiki/Graffiti> on its property at night. Graffiti incidents cost the
Deutsche Bahn $10 million per year to clean up.^[224] <#cite_note-224>
On 11 May 2014 Francescos Pizza of Mumbai </wiki/Mumbai> made a test
delivery from a branch in Lower Parel </wiki/Lower_Parel> to the roof of
a building in Worli </wiki/Worli>.^[225]
<#cite_note-times-of-india-been-there-drone-that-225> Police in Mumbai
began an investigation on the grounds that security clearances had not
been sought.^[226] <#cite_note-226> Many police departments have
procured drones for law and order and aerial surveillance even though
the DGCA has no guidelines on operation of drones.^[227]
<#cite_note-227> ^[228] <#cite_note-228> ^[229] <#cite_note-229> ^[230]
<#cite_note-230> ^[231] <#cite_note-231> ^[232] <#cite_note-232>
Japanese farmers have been using Yamaha </wiki/Yamaha_Motor_Company> s
R-50 and RMAX unmanned helicopters to dust their crops since 1987.^[233]
<#cite_note-IEEE-233> ^[234] <#cite_note-234>
T-Hawk </wiki/Honeywell_RQ-16_T-Hawk>^[235] <#cite_note-235> and Global
Hawk </wiki/Northrop_Grumman_RQ-4_Global_Hawk>^[236] <#cite_note-236>
drones were used to gather information about the damaged Fukushima
Number 1 nuclear plant </wiki/Fukushima_Daiichi_Nuclear_Power_Plant> and
disaster-stricken areas of the Thoku region </wiki/T%C5%8Dhoku_region>
after the March 2011 tsunami
</wiki/2011_T%C5%8Dhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami>. Anti-whaling
</wiki/Anti-whaling> activists used an Osprey UAV (made by Kansas-based
Hangar 18) in 2012 to monitor Japanese whaling ships
</wiki/Whaling_ships> in the Antarctic.^[237] <#cite_note-237>
In 2012, the World Wildlife Fund </wiki/World_Wildlife_Fund> supplied
two FPV Raptor 1.6 UAVs^[238] <#cite_note-238> to the Nepal National
Parks. These UAVs were used to monitor rhinos tigers and elephants and

deter poachers.^[239] <#cite_note-239> The UAVs were equipped with time

lapse cameras and could fly for 18 miles at 650 feet.^[240]
Republic of Ireland[edit
In 2012, Loitering Theatre group flew Parrot AR.Drones
</wiki/Parrot_AR.Drone> near ras an Uachtarin
</wiki/%C3%81ras_an_Uachtar%C3%A1in>, the Magazine Fort
</wiki/Magazine_in_Phoenix_Park>, a prison facility and offices of
Google on Barrow Street and also Facebook.^[241]
<#cite_note-siliconrepublic-aerial-assault-241> Footage filmed by the
group was shown at an exhibit run by the Dublin Science Gallery
<#cite_note-siliconrepublic-aerial-assault-241> The Irish Aviation
Authority stated that this was prohibited as Dublin city is classed as a
restricted area.^[242] <#cite_note-thejournal-ie-drones-dublin-242>
A separate group, called Tomorrows Thoughts Today, who had attended the
same event were detained on their return to the UK at London Southend
Airport </wiki/London_Southend_Airport> under the Terrorism Act
<#cite_note-thejournal-ie-drones-dublin-242> ^[243]
<#cite_note-silicon-republic-drone-group-held-243> They were released
after a couple of hours questioning.^[243]
In April 2014, Raymond Fogarty put a video of Cork City
</wiki/Cork_(city)> from a UAV that received publicity.^[244]
<#cite_note-244> ^[245] <#cite_note-245> ^[246] <#cite_note-246> He was
criticised for flying the UAV without a licence by Steve Slade of SkyTec
Ireland and by Paudie Barry of Baseline Surveys Ireland.^[247]
Mr. Barry described Mr. Fogartys as having acted recklessly and
Mr Fogarty said he hadn t been contacted by the Irish Aviation
Authority, but acknowledged that he had been naive in not looking up the
laws and that he had contacted the IAA to get a licence.^[247]
The IAA declined to comment on the case but stated that licences were
required to operate UAVs.^[247]

Prison drug smuggling incident[edit

Around 11am on 24 June 2014. a quadcopter crashed into an exercise yard
of Wheatfield Prison </wiki/Wheatfield_Prison>, Clondalkin
</wiki/Clondalkin>, Dublin 22 </wiki/Dublin_22>.^[248]
^[249] <#cite_note-rte-airborne-device-crashes-249> ^[250]

<#cite_note-ii-remote-control-drone-250> The quadcopter collided with

wires designed to prevent helicopters landing to aid escapes, causing it
to crash.^[248]
^[249] <#cite_note-rte-airborne-device-crashes-249> ^[250]
<#cite_note-ii-remote-control-drone-250> A package containing drugs hung
from the quadcopter by a rope and was seized by a group of prisoners
before prison staff could get to it.^[248]
^[249] <#cite_note-rte-airborne-device-crashes-249> ^[250]
<#cite_note-ii-remote-control-drone-250> One prisoner swallowed the
drugs and was placed into solitary confinement along with several
^[250] <#cite_note-ii-remote-control-drone-250> The quadcopter was badly
damaged by the crash, though an unsuccessful attempt was made to fly it
out of the prison.^[248]
^[249] <#cite_note-rte-airborne-device-crashes-249> ^[250]
<#cite_note-ii-remote-control-drone-250> The quadcopter was handed over
to an Garda Sochna </wiki/Garda_S%C3%ADoch%C3%A1na> and both they and
the prison service are holding their own investigations.^[248]
^[249] <#cite_note-rte-airborne-device-crashes-249> ^[250]
Legal status[edit
In May 2012, the Irish Aviation Authority
</wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority> published a document setting out safety
requirements for any unmanned aerial system, regardless of mass.^[251]
<#cite_note-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace-251> An appendix
contained an application form to apply to operate a UAS.^[252]
<#cite_note-iaa-uas-application-252> The only previous legislation had
been the "Irish Aviation Authority (Rockets and Small Aircraft) Order,
2000".^[251] <#cite_note-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace-251>
^[253] <#cite_note-iaa-rockets-small-aircraft-order-253>
The IAA policy is that unmanned aerial systems may not be flown without
the operator receiving a specific permission from the IAA.^[251]
<#cite_note-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace-251> Where such a
craft is to be used for commercial work, the operator must apply for an
aerial work permission from the IAA.^[251]
<#cite_note-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace-251> Flying UAS
outside the direct, unaided line of sight of the operator is not allowed
for safety reasons.^[251]
<#cite_note-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace-251> It is not
permitted to use vision-enhancing systems, such as first-person view
On 15 November 2012, the Irish Aviation Authority introduced a
requirement that remotely piloted aircraft needed to be registered to
comply with Statutory Instrument 634 or 2005 "Nationality and
Registration of Aircraft" Order.^[254]
<#cite_note-iaa-rpa-registration-requirements-254> ^[255]

On 12 July 2014, the Irish Times </wiki/The_Irish_Times> reported that

the Irish Aviation Authority had issued permits to 22 operators to use
UAVs in the Republic, as opposed to 14 the year before.^[256]
<#cite_note-it-aviation-body-has-issued-22-drone-permits-256> The IAA
said each permit issued by the IAA containted the stated reason the
operator was using the UAV but that it could not release details of
those who were licenced because of data protection legislation.^[256]
The Tu-141 </wiki/Tupolev_Tu-141> "Swift" reusable Soviet operational
and tactical reconnaissance drone is intended for reconnaissance to a
depth of several hundred kilometers from the front line at supersonic
speeds.^[257] <#cite_note-257> The Tu-123 </wiki/Tupolev_Tu-123> "Hawk"
is a supersonic long-range reconnaissance drone (UAV) intended for
conducting photographic and signals intelligence to a distance of
3200 km; it was produced since 1964.^[258] <#cite_note-258> The La-17P
(UAV) is a reconnaissance UAV produced since 1963.^[259]
<#cite_note-259> Since 1945, the Soviet Union also produced
"doodlebug".^[260] <#cite_note-260> There are 43 known Soviet UAV
models.^[261] <#cite_note-261>
South Africa[edit
In December 2012, the Kruger National Park </wiki/Kruger_National_Park>
started using a Seeker </wiki/Denel_Dynamics_Seeker> II UAV against
rhino poachers. The UAV was loaned to the South African National Parks
</wiki/South_African_National_Parks> authority by its manufacturer,
Denel Dynamics </wiki/Denel_Dynamics> of South Africa.^[262]
<#cite_note-Times-262> ^[263] <#cite_note-263>
In June 2013, police officers apprehended a man who flew a multicopter
outside the hospital that Nelson Mandela </wiki/Nelson_Mandela> was
in.^[264] <#cite_note-news24-techno-tussle-264> The pilot of the craft
was questioned for several hours by police then released.^[265]
<#cite_note-times-za-arrested-cameraman-apologises-265> His equipment
and footage were confiscated.^[265]
<#cite_note-times-za-arrested-cameraman-apologises-265> The pilot
apologised for his actions and said he did not intend to invade Nelson
Mandelas privacy.^[265]
In April 2014, the South African Civil Aviation Authority
</wiki/South_African_Civil_Aviation_Authority> announced that it would
clamp down on the illegal flying of UAVs in South African
<#cite_note-news24-caa-to-crackdown-on-illegal-drone-flights-266> They
also stated that as they had not authorised any such flights, existing
ones were being done illegally.^[266]
<#cite_note-news24-caa-to-crackdown-on-illegal-drone-flights-266> A
growth in the use of UAVs had prompted the SACAA to integrate them into
South African airspace, but until regulations were in place people
operating them could be fined up to R50,000 and face up to 10 years

United Kingdom[edit
In 2007, Merseyside Police </wiki/Merseyside_Police> was reported to be
conducting tests with a UAV.^[267]
<#cite_note-bbc-police-test-drone-spy-267> ^[268]
<#cite_note-bbc-pilotless-police-drone-takes-off-268> Merseyside Police
caught a car thief with a UAV in 2010, but about a week later had to
stop UAV operations as the UAV was not licenced. Regulations introduced
at the start of 2010 required any aerial surveillance by unmanned
aircraft - no matter the size of the drone - to be licenced.^[269]
<#cite_note-bbc-unlicenced-merseyside-drone-269> ^[270]
<#cite_note-guardian-police-drone-arrest-backfires-270> A licence was
granted by the Civil Aviation Authority </wiki/Civil_Aviation_Authority>
but the UAV was lost soon after during a training exercise in Aigburth
</wiki/Aigburth>, Liverpool </wiki/Liverpool>, when it crashed in the
River Mersey </wiki/River_Mersey>.^[271]
<#cite_note-bbc-police-drone-crashes-271> and the police stated the UAV
would not be replaced due to operational limitations and the cost of
staff training.^[271] <#cite_note-bbc-police-drone-crashes-271>
In 2012, the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
</wiki/Ulster_Society_for_the_Prevention_of_Cruelty_to_Animals> used a
quadcopter </wiki/Quadcopter> UAV to deter badger baiters
</wiki/Badger-baiting> in Northern Ireland.^[272] <#cite_note-272> In
March 2013, the British League Against Cruel Sports
</wiki/League_Against_Cruel_Sports> announced they had carried out trial
flights with UAVs and planned to use a fixed-wing OpenRanger and an
"Octocopter" to gather evidence to make private prosecutions against
illegal hunting of foxes </wiki/Fox_hunting> and other animals.^[262]
<#cite_note-Times-262> The UAVs were supplied by ShadowView
</wiki/ShadowView>. A spokesman for Privacy International
</wiki/Privacy_International> said that "licencing and permission for
drones is only on the basis of health and safety, without considering
whether privacy rights are violated."^[262] <#cite_note-Times-262> The
CAA </wiki/Civil_Aviation_Authority_(United_Kingdom)> rules are that UAV
aircraft less than 20 kilograms in weight must be in direct visual
contact with the pilot, cannot fly within 150 meters of a congested area
or within 50 meters of a person or vehicle, and cannot be used for
commercial activity.^[188] <#cite_note-20120829BBC-188> ^[262]
In March 2014, Sussex Police </wiki/Sussex_Police> announced a pilot
project using an Aeryon Skyranger
</wiki/Miniature_UAV#Aeryon_Labs_.22SkyRanger.22> for three months at
Gatwick Airport </wiki/Gatwick_Airport>.^[273]
<#cite_note-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick-273> The project was funded by the
Association of Chief Police Officers
</wiki/Association_of_Chief_Police_Officers> to test the effectiveness
of the technology in policing.^[273]
<#cite_note-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick-273> The equipment cost 35,000 with
the training of four police officers costing 10,000.^[273]
<#cite_note-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick-273> In October 2014 it was reported
that five English police forces (Merseyside, Staffordshire,^[188]
<#cite_note-20120829BBC-188> Essex, Wiltshire and the West Midlands) had
obtained or operated unmanned aerial vehicles for observation.^[274]

In April 2014, Robert Knowles of Barrow-in-Furness

</wiki/Barrow-in-Furness> was prosecuted by the Civil Aviation Authority
and pleaded guilty of flying a small UAV within 50 m of the Walney
Bridge </wiki/Walney_Bridge> and the BAE Systems </wiki/BAE_Systems>
submarine testing facility.^[275]
<#cite_note-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction-275> ^[275]
<#cite_note-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction-275> Knowles claimed that
he had been flying in a field a mile and a half from the BAE Systems
base but had lost radio contact with the craft, which flew on for more
than three minutes after that.^[275]
<#cite_note-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction-275> He was fined 800
and ordered to pay legal costs </wiki/Costs_in_English_law> of
3,500.^[275] <#cite_note-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction-275> The
CAA claimed that the case raised safety issues related to flying
unmanned aircraft.^[275]
In October 2014 it was reported that a UAV had flown within 25 metres of
an ATR 72 </wiki/ATR_72> passenger airliner on 30 May 2014.^[276]
^[277] <#cite_note-bbc-southend-uav-277> ^[278]
<#cite_note-airprox-southend-report-278> The aircraft was approaching
London Southend Airport </wiki/London_Southend_Airport> and about to
intercept the ILS </wiki/Instrument_landing_system> glide slope when the
copilot reported seeing a small craft flying about 100m to the right of
the aircraft.^[276]
^[277] <#cite_note-bbc-southend-uav-277> ^[278]
<#cite_note-airprox-southend-report-278> The copilot and Air Traffic
Controller agreed it was probably a quadcopter - it was seen flying as
close as 25m to the aircraft.^[276]
^[277] <#cite_note-bbc-southend-uav-277> ^[278]
<#cite_note-airprox-southend-report-278> Southend ATC couldn t detect
the craft on radar - subsequent examination of radar from other sites
produced several brief but inconclusive radar signals.^[278]
<#cite_note-airprox-southend-report-278> Police were contacted, but the
operator of the UAV could not be found.^[276]
^[277] <#cite_note-bbc-southend-uav-277> ^[278]
United States[edit
Surveillance and policing[edit
UAVs can be powerful surveillance tools by carrying camera systems
capable of license plate scanning and thermal imaging as well as radio
equipment </wiki/Warflying> and other sensors.^[279] <#cite_note-279>
The Electronic Frontier Foundation
</wiki/Electronic_Frontier_Foundation> filed a Freedom of Information
Act </wiki/Freedom_of_Information_Act> request on 10 January 2012
against the Federal Aviation Administration.^[280] <#cite_note-280> As a
result of the request, the FAA released a list of the names of all
public and private entities that have applied for authorizations to fly
UAVs domestically.^[281] <#cite_note-281> Some of these government

licenses belong to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection

</wiki/U.S._Customs_and_Border_Protection>, a component of the
Department of Homeland Security </wiki/Department_of_Homeland_Security>.
UAVs have been used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection to patrol
United States borders since 2005, and the agency currently owns 10
UAVs^[282] <#cite_note-282> with plans to use armed drones.^[283]
A May 2012, report issued by the DHS Inspector General found that CBP
"needs to improve planning of its unmanned aircraft systems program to
address its level of operation, program funding, and resource
requirements, along with stakeholder needs".^[284] <#cite_note-284>
Also, despite the Bureaus limited mission to safeguard the borders, the
Bureau often flies missions for the FBI </wiki/FBI>, the Department of
Defense </wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense>, NOAA </wiki/NOAA>,
local law enforcement, and other agencies. In December 2011, the CBP
made headlines when reporters discovered that the agency s UAVs were
being used to assist local law enforcement in relation to cattle raiding
</wiki/Cattle_raiding> in North Dakota without receiving prior approval
from the FAA or any other agency.^[285] <#cite_note-285>
Individuals in the United States have few legal privacy protections from
aerial surveillance conducted through UAVs. In Florida v. Riley
</wiki/Florida_v._Riley>,^[58] <#cite_note-SS1-58> the United States
Supreme Court held that individuals do not have the right to privacy
from police observation from public airspace. The weakness of legal
protection from UAV surveillance have led to calls from civil liberties
advocacy groups for the U.S. government to issue laws and regulations
that establish both privacy protections and greater transparency
regarding the use of UAVs to gather information about individuals.^[286]
<#cite_note-286> As an example, the American Civil Liberties Union
</wiki/American_Civil_Liberties_Union> (ACLU) has warned of a "nightmare
scenario" in the future where the police might be able, with computer
technology, to combine mobile phone tracking
</wiki/Mobile_phone_tracking> with video data and build up a database of
people s routine daily movements.^[24] <#cite_note-NatGeo-24>
In February 2013, Seattle </wiki/Seattle> mayor Michael McGinn
</wiki/Michael_McGinn> ordered the Seattle Police Department
</wiki/Seattle_Police_Department> to abandon plans to use UAVs after
objections from residents.^[287]
<#cite_note-ap-komonews-drones-returned-287> Two DraganflyerX6 craft had
been purchased with a federal grant and the police had been granted FAA
approval though they had not started using them.^[287]
<#cite_note-ap-komonews-drones-returned-287> The vehicles were to be
returned to the manufacturer.^[287]
<#cite_note-ap-komonews-drones-returned-287> Seattle Police Department
had announced in October 2012 that they were drafting a policy and they
were one of the first police forces in the United States to receive
approval from the federal government to use UAVs.^[288]
<#cite_note-ap-komonews-police-draft-drone-policy-288> Opponents of the
programme included the Washington chapter of the ACLU.^[287]
<#cite_note-ap-komonews-drones-returned-287> The ACLU has also been
concerned with privacy over drones that the Los Angeles Police
Department </wiki/Los_Angeles_Police_Department> had acquired.^[289]
On 24 February 2012, the Electronic Privacy Information Center
</wiki/Electronic_Privacy_Information_Center>, joined by over 100
organizations, experts, and members of the public, submitted a petition

to the FAA requesting a public rule-making on the privacy impact of UAV

use in U.S. airspace.^[290] <#cite_note-290> In June 2012, Senator Rand
Paul </wiki/Rand_Paul> and Representative Austin Scott both introduced
legislation that would require law enforcement to obtain a warrant
before using a UAV to conduct surveillance of criminal activities.^[291]
<#cite_note-291> EPIC has stated that transparency and accountability
must be built into the FAA s system of UAV/UAS/RPV regulation in order
to provide basic protections to the public.^[292] <#cite_note-292>
While Congress rapidly moves ahead to authorize further use of domestic
UAVs, many remain skeptical regarding privacy concerns.^[59]
<#cite_note-SS2-59> Some privacy scholars argue that the domestic use of
UAVs for surveillance will ultimately benefit privacy by encouraging
society to demand greater privacy rights.
Associated today with the theatre of war, the widespread domestic
use of drones for surveillance seems inevitable. Existing privacy
law </wiki/Privacy_law> will not stand in its way. It may be
tempting to conclude on this basis that drones will further erode
our individual and collective privacy. Yet the opposite may happen.
Drones may help restore our mental model of a privacy violation.
They could be just the visceral jolt society needs to drag privacy
law into the twenty-first century.
M. Ryan Calo^[293] <#cite_note-293>
FBI </wiki/FBI> Director Robert Mueller </wiki/Robert_Mueller> testified
before the Senate Judiciary Committee </wiki/Senate_Judiciary_Committee>
on 19 June 2013 that the FBI owns and uses UAVs for the purposes of
"surveillance".^[294] <#cite_note-294>
It is illegal to shoot down a drone with a firearm. However, under
certain circumstances it is not illegal to fly a tethered balloon from
private property. And if a drone was to hit the fine wires hanging from
the balloon, said wires being used as enhanced aerials for a radio, the
balloon s owner may be able to mount a civil court case against the
drone s owner for damage caused by the drone to the balloon. Ditto if
the drone was to hit a kite being flown from private property. Or if a
flock of trained racing pigeons were to be hit by the drone, again the
pigeon s owners may be able to sue to drone s operators for damage done
to the pigeons.
Non-police uses[edit
Law enforcement and other government agencies are not the only entities
that use UAVs. Private citizens and media organizations
</wiki/Drone_journalism> use UAVs as well for the purposes of
surveillance, recreation, or personal land assessment. Some farming
initiatives utilize UAVs for crop spraying </wiki/Crop_spraying>, as
they are often cheaper than a full-sized helicopter. Occupy Wall Street
</wiki/Occupy_Wall_Street> journalist Tim Pool </wiki/Tim_Pool> uses
what he calls an /Occucopter/ for live feed coverage of Occupy movement
</wiki/Occupy_movement> events.^[295] <#cite_note-295> The "occucopter"
is an inexpensive radio controlled </wiki/Radio_controlled> quadcopter

</wiki/Quadcopter> with cameras attached and controllable by Android

</wiki/Android_(operating_system)> devices or iOS </wiki/IOS_(Apple)>.
In February 2012, an animal rights group used a MikroKopter
</wiki/MikroKopter> hexacopter to film hunters shooting pigeons in South
Carolina. The hunters then shot the UAV down.^[296] <#cite_note-296>
UAVs also have been shown to have many other civilian uses, such as
agriculture, Hollywood, and in the construction industry.^[297]
<#cite_note-297> Falkor Systems, a pioneer in the consumer use of UAV
technology, has targeted extreme sports photography and video for drone
use, focusing on skiing and base-jumping activities.^[298]
<#cite_note-298> On 24 July 2014, a drone was used in search & rescue
operations to successfully located an elderly gentleman with dementia
who went missing for 3 days.^[299] <#cite_note-searchrescule-299>
JFK International incident[edit
In March 2013, an Alitalia </wiki/Alitalia> pilot on final approach to
runway 31 right at John F. Kennedy International Airport
</wiki/John_F._Kennedy_International_Airport> reported seeing a small
UAV near his aircraft.^[300] <#cite_note-nyt-alitialia-report-drone-300>
^[301] <#cite_note-wired-Alitalia-report-drone-301> ^[302]
<#cite_note-csm-alitalia-report-drone-302> ^[303]
<#cite_note-latimes-alitalia-report-drone-303> Both the FAA and FBI were
reported to be investigating.^[300]
<#cite_note-nyt-alitialia-report-drone-300> ^[301]
<#cite_note-wired-Alitalia-report-drone-301> ^[302]
<#cite_note-csm-alitalia-report-drone-302> ^[303]
Virginia Bull Run crash[edit
In August 2013, a UAV filming events at the Virginia Bull Run in
Dinwiddie County, Virginia </wiki/Dinwiddie_County,_Virginia> crashed
into the crowd, causing minor injuries.^[304]
<#cite_note-atlantic-bull-run-crash-304> ^[305]
Manhattan drone crash[edit
In September 2013, a UAV flying over Manhattan </wiki/Manhattan>
collided with a building and crashed on the pavement below near a
businessman who reported the incident to the police.^[306]
<#cite_note-wabc-helicopter-drone-crash-306> The pilot seemed to lack
experience controlling it as it collided with several buildings before
the collision that made it crash.^[306]
<#cite_note-wabc-helicopter-drone-crash-306> In October 2013 it was
reported that a man had been arrested days after the incident had been
reported in the media and that he had been charged with reckless
endangerment.^[307] <#cite_note-wabc-helicopter-drone-arrest-307> He was
identified because he was seen in the video recorded by the drone.^[307]
<#cite_note-wabc-helicopter-drone-arrest-307> In 2014 the Federal
Aviation Authority fined this man, David Zablidowsky $2,200 for flying a
UAV from a building on East 38th Street, Manhattan.^[308]

In a letter to Zablidowsky the FAA said that his operation of the UAV
was "flying in restricted airspace without getting permission from
controllers and flying in a "careless or reckless manner" and
"endangered the safety of the national airspace system".^[308]
This is the first FAA attempt to penalise a non-commercial flight.^[308]

New York drone conference[edit

In October 2013, the Drones and Aerial Robotics Conference was held at
New York University </wiki/New_York_University>.^[309]
<#cite_note-nyt-drones-conference-309> ^[310]
<#cite_note-bbc-drone-conference-310> The attendees included Missy
Cummings </wiki/Missy_Cummings>, Daniel Suarez
</wiki/Daniel_Suarez_(author)>, Christopher Kippenberger
</wiki/Christopher_Kippenberger>, Vijay Kumar
</wiki/Vijay_Kumar_(roboticist)> as well as many hobbyists and
academics.^[309] <#cite_note-nyt-drones-conference-309> A protest by
Granny Peace Brigade </wiki/Granny_Peace_Brigade> against military and
police use of drones was held outside.^[309]
Georgia prison tobacco smuggling incident[edit
In November 2013, four people in Morgan, Georgia </wiki/Morgan,_Georgia>
were arrested for allegedly attempting to smuggle contraband into
Calhoun State Prison with a six-rotor remote controlled
helicopter.^[311] <#cite_note-nbc-drone-contraband-311> ^[312]
<#cite_note-gawker-drone-312> The suspects were found with "probably
about one or two pounds of tobacco rolled up".^[311]
<#cite_note-nbc-drone-contraband-311> ^[312] <#cite_note-gawker-drone-312>
Tallahassee airliner near-collision[edit
On 22 March 2014, US Airways </wiki/US_Airways> Flight 4650 nearly
collided with a drone while landing at Tallahassee Regional Airport
</wiki/Tallahassee_Regional_Airport>. The plane, a Bombardier CRJ200
</wiki/Bombardier_CRJ200>, was at an altitude of 2,300 feet (700 m) when
it came dangerously close to the drone, described by one of the pilots
"as a camouflaged F-4 fixed-wing aircraft that was quite small". Jim
Williams, head of the UAV office at the Federal Aviation Administration
</wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration>, said: "The risk for a small
[drone] to be ingested into a passenger airline engine is very real."
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
</wiki/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation> was investigating the incident,
which was the first known instance of a large airliner nearly colliding

with a drone in the U.S.^[313] <#cite_note-wsj-tallahassee-313> ^[314]

St Louis building collision[edit
In early May 2014, a damaged DJI Phantom II quadrotor was discovered on
a 30th floor balcony of One Metropolitan Square
</wiki/One_Metropolitan_Square> in St. Louis, Missouri
</wiki/St._Louis,_Missouri>.^[315] <#cite_note-315> ^[316]
<#cite_note-316> ^[317] <#cite_note-317> ^[318] <#cite_note-318>
Staples Center incident[edit
Fans of the Los Angeles Kings </wiki/Los_Angeles_Kings> were celebrating
a victory over the New York Rangers </wiki/New_York_Rangers> outside the
Staples Center </wiki/Staples_Center> on Friday 13 2014 when a UAV was
seen flying over the crowd.^[319]
<#cite_note-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours-319> ^[320]
<#cite_note-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone-320> ^[321]
The crowd began throwing objects at the UAV, bringing it close enough to
the ground for members of the crowd to grab it and it was seriously
damaged with a skateboard.^[319]
<#cite_note-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours-319> ^[320]
<#cite_note-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone-320> A video of the incident
was posted online, which was widely viewed.^[321]
Claims that the UAV belonged to the Los Angeles Police Department
</wiki/Los_Angeles_Police_Department> were reported in the media, but
the LAPD denied this and said they were treating the craft as lost
property.^[319] <#cite_note-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours-319>
^[320] <#cite_note-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone-320> One journalist
remarked that the craft resembled a DJI Phantom rather than the two
Draganflyer X6 </wiki/Draganflyer_X6> craft bought by the LAPD a couple
of weeks before the incident.^[321]
In a resulting action in September 2014, the California State Senate
passed rules imposing strict regulations on how law enforcement and
other government agencies can use drones. The legislation would require
law enforcement agencies to obtain a warrant before using an unmanned
aircraft, or drone, except in emergencies.^[322] <#cite_note-322>
George Washington bridge incident[edit
An NYPD </wiki/NYPD> helicopter saw a UAV near the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge
</wiki/Spuyten_Duyvil_Bridge> in the early hours of 7 July 2014.^[323]
<#cite_note-wnbc-nypd-helicopter-323> The helicopter followed the UAV to
the George Washington Bridge </wiki/George_Washington_Bridge> and it had
to change course to avoid colliding with the craft.^[323]
<#cite_note-wnbc-nypd-helicopter-323> After this, the helicopter
followed the UAV to Inwood </wiki/Inwood,_Manhattan>, where they found
two men and a second drone.^[323] <#cite_note-wnbc-nypd-helicopter-323>
Wilkins Mendoza and Remy Castro were arrested and charged with a single
count of Class D reckless endangerment, the charge resulting from the

pilots view that the UAV endangered the helicopter.^[324]

<#cite_note-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested-324> A prosecutor asked
the men be released without bail, to which a judge agreed.^[324]
<#cite_note-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested-324> Prosecutors said the
UAV had flown at 2000 feet, but a defence attorney claimed it had a
maximum height of 300 feet.^[324]
<#cite_note-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested-324> A journalist for The
Register </wiki/The_Register> claimed that this claim might not stick in
court as a recent flight of the same model of UAV reached over 3000
feet.^[325] <#cite_note-325>
Anti-UAV legislation[edit
Some locations, such as Charlottesville, Virginia
</wiki/Charlottesville,_Virginia>, Iowa City, Iowa
</wiki/Iowa_City,_Iowa> and St. Bonifacius, Minnesota
</wiki/St._Bonifacius,_Minnesota> have passed legislation that limits
use of UAVs.^[326]
<#cite_note-usnews-charlotte-anti-drone-legislation-326> ^[327]
<#cite_note-whotv-uncommon-ordinance-327> ^[328] <#cite_note-328> In New
York </wiki/New_York> state, the city of Syracuse
</wiki/Syracuse,_New_York> considered declaring the city a "Warrantless
Surveillance Drone Free Zone" but put the legislation on hold after city
counsellors became aware of a memorandum of understanding between the
Justice Department </wiki/United_States_Department_of_Justice> and the
Federal Aviation Administration
</wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration>.^[329] <#cite_note-329>
In June 2012, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez </wiki/Hugo_Chavez>
claimed that Venezuela had begun producing its own UAV. General Julio
Morales added that the UAV had a range of 100 kilometres (about 60
miles), a maximum altitude of 3,000 metres (about 10,000 feet), could
fly for 90 minutes, measured three by four metres, and was a part of a
system to survey and monitor pipelines, dams, and other rural
infrastructure. General Morales was the president of the state-run Cavim
arms manufacturer that developed the aircraft.^[330]
<#cite_note-Chavez-330> ^[331] <#cite_note-331>
In May 2013, The Vietnam Space Technology Institute successfully
conducted 37 UAV flights in the central Lam Dong </wiki/Lam_Dong>
province. Research for the UAVs began in 2008 and was later funded by
the state in 2011.^[332] <#cite_note-investvine-332>
UAV operations[edit
In the U.S., thousands of civilian UAV operators work for contractors,
piloting and maintaining UAVs.^[333] <#cite_note-Economist20130606-333>

Up to four UAVs and about 400 to 500 pilot and ground support personnel
are required for a single 24-hour-coverage combat air patrol
(CAP).^[124] <#cite_note-WashPost201311-124> A 2011 study by the Air
Force School of Aerospace Medicine
</wiki/Brooks_Air_Force_Base#Aerospace_Medicine> indicated that nearly
50% of spy UAV operators suffer from high stress.^[333]
<#cite_note-Economist20130606-333> The president of a civilian UAV
operators union, the Association of Unmanned Operation (AUO), cited
long working hours and decreasing wages as U.S. involvement in wars in
Iraq and Afghanistan was reduced and as a result of the U.S.
government s budget sequestration </wiki/Budget_sequestration>.^[333]
An August 2013, Brookings Institution study reported that in the U.S.
Air Force there were approximately 1,300 remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)
pilots, 8.5 percent of total Air Force pilots, up from 3.3 percent in
2008.^[334] <#cite_note-Brookings201308-334> The study indicated that
the U.S. military s combat air patrol (CAP) daily missions requirement
is growing at a faster pace than RPA pilots can be trained, with an
attrition rate during RPA flight screening being three times that of
traditional pilots and a 13% lower promotion rate to Major than other
officers.^[334] <#cite_note-Brookings201308-334>
As of mid-2014, the U.S. air force is training more drone pilots than
fighter and bomber pilots combined.^[335] <#cite_note-335> This large
cohort is sometimes referred to as the chair-force.^[336]
<#cite_note-336> ^[337] <#cite_note-337> ^[338] <#cite_note-338>
UAVs in popular culture[edit
* /Toys </wiki/Toys_(film)>/ (1992) depicts unwitting child soldiers
</wiki/Child_soldiers> in training to fly UAVs.
* UAVs were used^[/clarification needed
</wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify>/] in episodes of the
science-fiction </wiki/Science-fiction> television series, /Stargate
SG-1 </wiki/Stargate_SG-1>/ (1997-2007) and /Dark Angel
</wiki/Dark_Angel_(TV_series)>/ (2000-2002).
* A UCAV AI, called EDI, was central to the sci-fi action film
/Stealth </wiki/Stealth_(film)>/ (2005).
* UAVs also feature in video games, such as /Tom Clancy s Ghost Recon
</wiki/Tom_Clancy%27s_Ghost_Recon>/ (2001-), /Battlefield
</wiki/Battlefield_(series)>/ (2002-), /Call of Duty
</wiki/Call_of_Duty>/ (2003-), /F.E.A.R. </wiki/F.E.A.R.>/ (2005),
and /inFamous </wiki/InFamous>/ (2009).^[339] <#cite_note-339>
* An MQ-9 reaper controlled by a rogue supercomputer appears in the
film /Eagle Eye </wiki/Eagle_Eye>/ (2008).
* The hapless would-be terrorists in the film /Four Lions
</wiki/Four_Lions>/ (2010) are targeted by and attempt to shoot down
an RQ-1 Predator </wiki/RQ-1_Predator>.
* /The Bourne Legacy </wiki/The_Bourne_Legacy_(film)>/ (2012 film)
features a Predator UAV pursuing the protagonists.
* An episode of the TV show /Castle </wiki/Castle_(TV_series)>/, first
broadcast in May 2013, featured a UAV hacked by terrorists.^[340]
* The British movie /Hummingbird </wiki/Hummingbird_(film)>/ (2013)
ends with ambiguity as to whether the main protagonist is taken down
by a drone or not.
* /24: Live Another Day </wiki/24:_Live_Another_Day>/, the ninth

season of "24 </wiki/24_(TV_series)>", revolves around the usage of

UAVs resembling the /BAE Systems Taranis
</wiki/BAE_Systems_Taranis>/ by terrorists who have created a device
to override control from a military base.
Public opinion in the US (military use)[edit
In February 2013, Fairleigh Dickinson University
</wiki/Fairleigh_Dickinson_University> s PublicMind poll found that 48%
of American voters believe it is "illegal for the U.S. government to
target its own citizens living abroad with drone attacks. Just 24% say
that it s legal."^[341] <#cite_note-341> "The public clearly makes an
assumption very different from that of the Obama administration or Mr.
Brennan: the public thinks targeting American citizens abroad is out of
bounds," Peter Woolley, founding director of PublicMind and professor of
political science at FDU, said to CNN.^[342] <#cite_note-342>
In the same poll, however, by a wide six-to-one margin (75% vs.13%),
voters approved of the U.S. military using UAVs to carry out attacks
abroad on people and other targets deemed a threat to the U.S.
Republicans, men, and whites approve more strongly than Democrats,
women, and non-whites, but approval is robust in all demographic
categories. Voters also approve of the CIA using UAVs to carry out
attacks abroad by a strong three-to-one margin (65% vs. 21%), but this
approval is significantly less than approval for the U.S. military
carrying out such attacks.^[343] <#cite_note-343>
Despite this broad-based public support, there are a number of vocal
critics of the increasing use of UAVs to track and kill terrorists and
militants. A major criticism of drone strikes is that they result in
excessive collateral damage. David Kilcullen and Andrew Exum wrote in
the New York Times
that "according to Pakistani sources, they have also killed some 700
civilians. This is 50 civilians for every militant killed, a hit rate of
2 percent." Other studies have put the civilian casualty rate anywhere
between 4 and 35 percent.^[344] <#cite_note-344> It is difficult to
reconcile these figures because the drone strikes are often in areas
that are inaccessible to independent observers and the data includes
reports by local officials and local media, neither of whom are reliable
sources. Critics also fear that by making killing seem clean and safe,
so-called surgical UAV strikes will allow the United States to remain in
a perpetual state of war. However, others maintain that drones "allow
for a much closer review and much more selective targeting process than
do other instruments of warfare" and are subject to Congressional
oversight.^[345] <#cite_note-etzioni2013-345> Like any military
technology, armed UAVs will kill people, combatants and innocents alike,
thus "the main turning point concerns the question of whether we should
go to war at all."^[345] <#cite_note-etzioni2013-345>
Lobbying in the US[edit
"Movie makers, real-estate agents, criminal-defense lawyers and farmers
are among at least 68 groups with a newfound political interest in
drones according to Center for Responsive Politics data compiled by
Bloomberg".^[346] <#cite_note-bloomberg-346> At least 28 universities

and local government agencies as well as Amazon hope to use drones

civilly someday. Limited commercial operations for drones weighing less
than 55 pounds (25 kilograms) is a proposal due to be decided upon by
the end of the year. In June 2014, the Motion Picture Association of
America </wiki/Motion_Picture_Association_of_America> stated its support
of an FAA exemption for the use of small drones in limited low risk
scenarios in film and television productions.^[347]
Morality (military use)[edit
The unmanned aspect of UAVs is primarily what sets them apart from
manned aircraft. This aspect also raises certain moral concerns. Some
believe that the asymmetry of fighting humans with machines that are
controlled from a safe distance lacks integrity and honor that was once
valued during warfare. Others feel that if such technology is available,
then there is a moral duty to employ it in order to save as many lives
as possible.^[348] <#cite_note-348> Another potential moral issue with
UAVs is that because they do not allow for pilot casualties, some fear
that they will be used more frivolously, and that human lives affected
by UAV-based strikes will not be regarded with as much consideration as
with manned aerial attacks.
Civilian death[edit
Some critics emphasize that the use of drones promotes not only a
physical, but emotional disengagement from on the ground combat, for
example, which is historically the foundation of military combat. This
has a number of implications. Individuals taking on a critique of drone
use challenge the supposed sense of morality and ethics that is taken on
when justifying drone use. The evolution of new types of warfare creates
a growing detachment from direct combat via the increased use of drones,
and distances combatants from the consequences of their actions.
Therefore, the use of drones is often associated with the idea that it
is more ethical; the minimization of U.S. casualties due to this
distancing, for example, is another reason drone use is increasingly
looked at as an improved technique of war. Critics argue this detachment
is failing to address the reality of innocent civilians being killed
through this war strategy.
The use of drones can be understood as a manifestation and extension of
the technological revolution in military affairs (RMA) discourse. The
hegemonic masculinities in the American military influenced the
development of technology as it became more prevalent following the
Second World War </wiki/Second_World_War>.^[349] <#cite_note-349> The
entrenchment of this masculinity is even apparent in the present day, as
women quite often have inferior positions to men in technology research,
development, and use. These concerns are not only limited to drone use;
cyborgs </wiki/Cyborgs> are also a manifestation of technology and new
wars developing from RMA. These new types of technologies create new
ways in which soldiers are conceptualized. Traditionally, soldiers were
considered to be physical combatants, whereas now, technology in warfare

blurs the distinction between autonomous users and who is representative

of a soldier.^[350] <#cite_note-350> ^[/dubious
</wiki/Wikipedia:Disputed_statement> discuss

Legality (military use)[edit

A confidential Justice Department memo concludes that the U.S.
government can order the killing of American citizens if they are
believed to be senior operational leaders of Al-Qaeda </wiki/Al-Qaeda>
or an associated force even if there is no intelligence indicating
they are engaged in an active plot to attack the U.S.^[351]
<#cite_note-Isikoff-351> The secrecy surrounding such strikes is quickly
emerging as a central issue in the hearing of White House
</wiki/White_House> counterterrorism adviser John O. Brennan
</wiki/John_O._Brennan>, a key architect of the UAV campaign, to be CIA
director. Brennan was the first administration official to publicly
acknowledge UAV-based strikes in a speech last year, calling them
consistent with the inherent right of self-defense. In a separate talk
at the Northwestern University Law School, Attorney General Eric Holder
</wiki/Eric_Holder> specifically endorsed the constitutionality of
targeted killings of Americans, saying they could be justified if
government officials determine that the target poses an imminent threat
of violent attack.^[351] <#cite_note-Isikoff-351> But the confidential
Justice Department white paper </wiki/White_paper> introduces a more
expansive definition of self-defense or imminent attack than described
by Brennan or Holder in their public speeches It refers, for example, to
what it calls a broader concept of imminence than actual intelligence
about any ongoing plot against the U.S. homeland. "The condition that an
operational leader presents an imminent threat of violent attack
against the United States does not require the United States to have
clear evidence that a specific attack on U.S. persons and interests will
take place in the immediate future, the memo states.^[351]
<#cite_note-Isikoff-351> Instead, an informed, high-level official of
the U.S. government may determine that the targeted American has been
recently involved in activities posing a threat of a violent attack
and there is no evidence suggesting that he has renounced or abandoned
such activities. (The memo does not define recently or activities.)
As in Holders speech, the confidential memo lays out a three-part test
that would make targeted killings of American lawful: in addition to the
suspect being an imminent threat, capture of the target must be
infeasible, and the strike must be conducted according to laws of war
</wiki/Laws_of_war> principles. But the memo elaborates on some of
these factors in ways that go beyond what the attorney general said
publicly. For example, it states that U.S. officials may consider
whether an attempted capture of a suspect would pose an undue risk to
U.S. personnel involved in such an operation. If so, U.S. officials
could determine that the capture operation of the targeted American
would not be feasible, making it lawful for the U.S. government to order
a killing instead, the memo concludes. The undated memo is entitled
Lawfulness of a Lethal Operation Directed Against a U.S. Citizen who is
a Senior Operational Leader of Al Qaeda </wiki/Al_Qaeda> or An
Associated Force. It was provided to members of the Senate Intelligence
and Judiciary committees in June 2013 by administration officials on the
condition that it be kept confidential and not discussed publicly.^[351]

<#cite_note-Isikoff-351> Although not an official legal memo, the white

paper was represented by administration officials as a policy document
that closely mirrors the arguments of classified memos on targeted
killings by the Justice Departments Office of Legal Counsel
</wiki/Office_of_Legal_Counsel>, which provides authoritative legal
advice to the president and all executive branch agencies. The
administration has refused to turn over to Congress or release those
memos publicly or to even publicly confirm their existence. A source
with access to the white paper, which is not classified, provided a copy
to NBC News </wiki/NBC_News>.^[351] <#cite_note-Isikoff-351>
The white paper also includes a more extensive discussion of why
targeted strikes against Americans does not violate constitutional
protections afforded to American citizens as well as a U.S. law that
criminalizes the killing of U.S. nationals overseas. It also discusses
why such targeted killings would not be a war crime or violate a U.S.
executive order banning assassinations. A lawful killing in
self-defense is not an assassination, the white paper reads. In the
Departments view, a lethal operation conducted against a U.S. citizen
whose conduct poses an imminent threat of violent attack against the
United States would be a legitimate act of national self-defense that
would not violate the assassination ban. Similarly, the use of lethal
force, consistent with the laws of war, against an individual who is a
legitimate military target would be lawful and would not violate the
assassination ban.^[351] <#cite_note-Isikoff-351>
See also[edit
Portal icon </wiki/File:Aviacionavion.png>
Portal icon </wiki/File:Animation2.gif>

Aviation portal
Robotics portal

* Ardupilot </wiki/Ardupilot> (Open-source autopilot hardware and

* Delivery drone </wiki/Delivery_drone>
* List of unmanned aerial vehicles
* Micro air vehicle </wiki/Micro_air_vehicle>
* Miniature UAV </wiki/Miniature_UAV>
* Missile Technology Control Regime
* Open-source robotics </wiki/Open-source_robotics>
* Paparazzi Project </wiki/Paparazzi_Project> (Open-source autopilot
hardware and software)
* Radio-controlled aircraft </wiki/Radio-controlled_aircraft>
* Satellite Sentinel Project </wiki/Satellite_Sentinel_Project>
* Quadcopter </wiki/Quadcopter>
* Targeted killing </wiki/Targeted_killing>
* List of films featuring drones </wiki/List_of_films_featuring_drones>
* Kettering Bug </wiki/Kettering_Bug>
Facilities, units and programs
* 82d Aerial Targets Squadron </wiki/82d_Aerial_Targets_Squadron>

* International Aerial Robotics Competition

* ParcAberporth </wiki/ParcAberporth>
* Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Battlelab
</wiki/Unmanned_Aerial_Vehicle_Battlelab>, U.S. Air Force facility
* Intelligence collection management
* Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance
* Measurement and signature intelligence
1. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-1>*
2. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-af.mil_2-0>* "Air Force officials announce
remotely piloted aircraft pilot training pipeline"
/, 9 June 2010.
3. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-nytimes_3-0>* Pir Zubair Shah
</wiki/Pir_Zubair_Shah> (18 June 2009). "Pakistan Says U.S. Drone
Kills 13"
/New York Times </wiki/New_York_Times>/.
4. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-4>* Tice, Brian P. (Spring 1991). "Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles The Force Multiplier of the 1990s"
/Airpower Journal/. Retrieved 6 June 2013. "When used, UAVs should
generally perform missions characterized by the three Ds: dull,
dirty, and dangerous." ^[/dead link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
5. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-5>* Says, Robert Kanyike. "History of U.S.
Retrieved 17 February 2014.
6. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-autogenerated1_6-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-autogenerated1_6-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-autogenerated1_6-2>
Taylor, A. J. P. /Jane s Book of Remotely Piloted Vehicles/.
7. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-armyeyes_7-0>* Dempsey, Martin E. Eyes of the
Army U.S. Army Roadmap for Unmanned Aircraft Systems 20102035
Size: 9MB /United States Army </wiki/United_States_Army>/, 9 April
2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
8. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-8>* Wagner p. xi
9. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-9>* Wagner p. xi, xii
10. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-10>* Wagner p. xii
11. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-11>* Wagner p. 79
12. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-12>* Wagner p. 78 & 79 photos
13. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-13>* Mayer. "The Predator War"
Retrieved 2009.

14. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-14>* The /Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli

Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History:/ A Political,
Social, and Military History/, ABC-CLIO, 12 May 2008, by Spencer C.
Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 1054-55/
15. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-15>* Radsan, AJ; Murphy (2011). "Measure
Twice, Shoot Once: Higher Care for Cia-Targeted Killing". /Univ.
Ill. Law Rev.:12011241/.
16. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-16>* Wagner p. 202
17. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-17>* Wagner p. 200 & 212
18. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Wagner_p._208_18-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Wagner_p._208_18-1> Wagner p. 208
19. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-19>* "A Brief History of UAVs"
20. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-20>* "Russia Buys A Bunch Of Israeli UAVs"
21. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-21>* Azoulai, Yuval (24 October 2011).
"Unmanned combat vehicles shaping future warfare"
/Globes </wiki/Globes>/.
22. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-WSJLevinson_22-0>* Levinson, Charles (13
January 2010). "Israeli Robots Remake Battlefield"
<>. /The Wall
Street Journal </wiki/The_Wall_Street_Journal>/. p. A10. Retrieved
13 January 2010.
23. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-23>* Gal-Or, Benjamin (1990). /Vectored
Propulsion, Supermaneuverability & Robot Aircraft/. Springer Verlag.
ISBN </wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number> 3-540-97161-0
24. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-NatGeo_24-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-NatGeo_24-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-NatGeo_24-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-NatGeo_24-3> Horgen, John (March 2013) Unmanned Flight
National Geographic, Retrieved 20 February 2013
25. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-25>*
26. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Singer_26-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Singer_26-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-Singer_26-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-Singer_26-3> ^/*e*/ <#cite_ref-Singer_26-4> Singer, Peter
W. "A Revolution Once More: Unmanned Systems and the Middle East"
The Brookings Institution <>, November 2009.
27. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-FAA_summary_27-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-FAA_summary_27-1> Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the
National Airspace System
28. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-28>* "Model "Academy of Model Aeronautics
National Model Aircraft Safety Code""
<>. 1 January 2014.
29. *Jump up ^
"FAA: Certificate of Authorization or Waiver (COA)"
30. *Jump up ^
"Unmanned aircraft to assist oil spill response"
31. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Shipborne_CoA_31-0>* "Aeryon Scout Micro-UAV
Provides Aerial Perspective for Ship-Based Wildlife Research Project
in Bering Sea"

32. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-32>*
33. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-33>* Robillard, Kevin (6 March 2014). "Judge
strikes down small drones ban"
/ Politico LLC. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
34. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-34>* Krasny, Ros; Maler, Sandra (7 March
2014). "U.S. FAA will appeal ruling on commercial drone use"
/ (Thomson Reuters). Retrieved 7 March 2014.
35. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-35>*
36. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-36>* Ahlers, Mike. 7 November 2013. FAA takes
initial steps to introduce private drones in U.S. skies
<> CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
37. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-WashPost20130816_37-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130816_37-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130816_37-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130816_37-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130816_37-4> Fung, Brian (16 August 2013). "Why
drone makers have declared war on the word drone"
<>. /The Washington Post/.
Archived from the original
on 17 August 2013.
38. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-38>* FAA Selects Six Sites for Unmanned
Aircraft Research <>
39. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-WashPost20140507_39-0>* Fung, Brian (7 May
2014). "Major news outlets call the FAAs drone restrictions a
violation of the First Amendment"
/The Washington Post/. Archived
<> from the original on 8 May
2014. /FAA v. Pirker/ brief is posted here
40. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-40>* [1]
<>^[/dead link
41. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-vector_41-0>* History of Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles <>
42. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-42>* Comparison of USAF Tier II, II+ and IIIsystems
<>^[/dead link
43. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-43>* USAF Tier system
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
44. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-44>* [2]
<>^[/dead link
45. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-45>* USMC powerpoint presentation of tier

46. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-46>* Detailed description of USMC tier system
47. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-watch_47-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-watch_47-1> [3]
<>^[/dead link
48. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-48>* [4]
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
49. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-49>* "Drone aircraft in a stepped-up war in
Afghanistan and Pakistan"
Iran design uav engine WWW.UAV.IR
50. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-50>* The Free Dictionary
Retrieved 19 November 2010
51. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-51>* Pentagon Plans for Cuts to Drone Budgets
-, 2 January 2014
52. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-WashPost20130819_52-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130819_52-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20130819_52-2> Peterson, Andrea (19 August 2013).
"States are competing to be the Silicon Valley of drones"
<>. /The Washington Post/.
Archived from the original
on 22 August 2013.
53. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-TED201311_53-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-TED201311_53-1> Raptopoulos, Andreas (June 2013). "No
roads? Theres a drone for that"
<>. TED (conference)
</wiki/TED_(conference)>. Archived from the original
on 21 November 2013. (Click "Show transcript".)
54. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-MotionCoord_54-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-MotionCoord_54-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-MotionCoord_54-2>
^/*d*/ <#cite_ref-MotionCoord_54-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-MotionCoord_54-4> Abdessameud, Abdelkader, and Abdelhamid
Tayebi. 2013. /Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles: Attitude Synchronisation and Formation Control/.
of printed book by Springer Science+Business Media
55. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-55>* Lallanilla, Marc (23 March 2013). "9
Totally Cool Uses for Drones"
/LiveScience/. TechMedia Network. Viewed 4 March 2014.
56. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-WashPost20140917_56-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20140917_56-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20140917_56-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20140917_56-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20140917_56-4> McFarland, Matt (17 September

2014). "In Switzerland, police find a use for drones"

<>. /The Washington Post/.
Archived from the original
on 20 September 2014.
57. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-57>* Gaszczak, A; T.P. Breckon; J.W. Han
(January 2011). "Robot journal article"
<>. /Proc. SPIE Conference
Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXVIII: Algorithms and
Techniques/ *7878* (78780B). doi
58. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-SS1_58-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-SS1_58-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-SS1_58-2> Ungerleider, Neal
(31 January 2013). "See What You Can Do With Drone Filmmaking"
/UAV Drones/. USA: fastcocreate.
59. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-SS2_59-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-SS2_59-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-SS2_59-2> Ungerleider, Neal
(15 February 2012). "Unmanned Drones Go From Afghanistan To
/UAV Drones/. USA:
60. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-SS3_60-0>* Lavrinc, Damon (17 May 2012).
"Forget the Helicopter: New Drone Cuts Cost of Aerial Video"
<>. /Wired (website)
</wiki/Wired_(website)>/ (New York </wiki/New_York,_NY>: Cond Nast
</wiki/Cond%C3%A9_Nast>). Archived
from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
61. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-DronesMovies_61-0>* "Seven movie makers seek
permission to use drone for shooting"
/Los Angeles Herald/. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
62. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-62>* Feltman, Rachel. "The Future of Sports
Photography: Drones"
The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
63. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-JH1_63-0>* Hightower, Jim (25 January 2013).
"Here come the drones"
<>. /Domestic
Drones/. Austin: Saddle-Burr Productions.
64. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-JH2_64-0>* Hightower, Jim (5 February 2013).
"The drone-industrial complex wants 30,000 eyes in the sky spying on
us Americans by 2020"
<>. /Domestic
Drones/. Austin: Saddle-Burr Productions.
65. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-65>* Tim Phillips, "Manufacturers Market
Drones Before the Law Specifies How They Can Be Used"
Activist Defense, 16 February 2013.
66. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-66>* Jason Koebler. "North Dakota Man
Sentenced to Jail In Controversial Drone-Arrest Case"

US News. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
67. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-67>* "Our UAV"
<>. Universal Wing.
28 July 2005. Retrieved 31 March 2012. ^[/dead link
68. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-68>* "InView papers and presentations"
<>. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
69. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-69>*
"Smart Software Uses Drones to Plot Disaster Relief." /- Tech/.
N.p., n.d. Web. 11 March 2014.
70. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-70>* For a couple of examples, see the videos
/Construction with Quadrotor Teams/
on YouTube </wiki/YouTube> and /Flying Robots Build a 6-Meter Tower/
on YouTube </wiki/YouTube>
71. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-71>* Flying Robots Build a 6-Meter Tower |
ZeitNews <>
72. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-SauerSchoernigKillerDrones_72-0>* Sauer,
Frank/Schoernig Niklas, 2012: Killer drones: The silver bullet of
democratic warfare?, in: Security Dialogue 43 (4): 363380, Retrieved 1
September 2012.
73. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-73>* Fox News
74. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-74>* Defense Industry Daily
75. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-75>* MSNBC <>
76. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-76>* Globe and Mail
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
77. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-77>* Federation of American Scientists
78. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-latimes1_78-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-latimes1_78-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-latimes1_78-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-latimes1_78-3> ^/*e*/ <#cite_ref-latimes1_78-4> Greg
Miller (22 March 2009). "U.S. missile strikes said to take heavy
toll on Al Qaeda"
/Los Angeles Times/. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
79. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-autogenerated3_79-0>* Terry Gross, host (21
October 2009). "Jane Mayer: The Risks Of A Remote-Controlled War"
NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
80. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-nytimes6_80-0>* "U.S. Approval of Killing of
Cleric Causes Unease"
<>^[/dead link
</wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] , Scott Shane, The New York Times, 13
May 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2010.

81. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-reuters1_81-0> ^/*b*/

<#cite_ref-reuters1_81-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-reuters1_81-2> Entous,
Adam (19 May 2010). "How the White House learned to love the drone"
Reuters. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
82. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-82>* Terkel, Amanda (21 February 2013).
"Lindsey Graham: Drone Strikes Have Killed 4,700 People"
Huffington Post.
83. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-83>* Will UAVs displace fighter jets soon?
84. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-84>* Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper
<> William
Matthew; Defense News; 31 May 2010
85. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-85>* "AUVSI: Raytheon designing UAV-specific
Retrieved 19 December 2010.
86. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-86>* Efforts Are Underway to Arm Small UAVs
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] Aviation Week; 17 October 2008
87. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-87>* Stewart, Joshua (2 August 2014).
"Modified UAVs raise concerns for infantry"
/ (Gannett Government Media). Retrieved 2
August 2014.
88. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-88>* /The Guardian/, 23 March 2009. "Cut to
pieces: the Palestinian family drinking tea in their courtyard:
Israeli unmanned aerial vehicles the dreaded drones caused at
least 48 deaths in Gaza during the 23-day offensive."
Retrieved on 3 August 2009.
89. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-89>* "Precisely Wrong: Gaza Civilians Killed
by Israeli Drone-Launched Missiles"
<>, Human
Rights Watch </wiki/Human_Rights_Watch>, 30 June 2009.
90. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-90>* "Report: IDF used RPV fire to target
YNET, 30 June 2009
91. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-91>* "Israel/Gaza: Civilians must not be
targets: Disregard for Civilians Underlies Current Escalation"
Human Rights Watch. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
92. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-92>* Drones kill 10 civilians for one
militant: US report
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] , Dawn (newspaper)
</wiki/Dawn_(newspaper)>, 21 July 2009
93. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-93>* "Do Targeted Killings Work?"
Brookings Institution </wiki/Brookings_Institution>, 14 July 2009

94. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-94>* /Newsweek/, 8 July 2009. Anita Kirpalani,

"Drone On. Q&A: A former Pakistani diplomat says America s most
useful weapon is hurting the cause in his country."
<> Retrieved on 3 August 2009.
95. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-95>* Peter Bergen and Katherine Tiedemann (18
October 2009). "Revenge of the Drones"
New America Foundation. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
96. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-96>* "Home"
Retrieved 31 March 2012.
97. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-97>* Woods, Chris (11 August 2011). "Over 160
children reported among drone deaths"
The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
98. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-98>* Woods, Chris (10 August 2011). "You
cannot call me lucky drones injure over 1,000"
The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
99. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-99>* Muhammad Idrees Ahmad (30 July 2011).
"Fighting Back against the CIA drone war"
Al Jazeera. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
100. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-100>* Peter Bergen and Katherine Tiedemann.
"20042011" <>. New
America Foundation. Retrieved 10 September 2011. ^[/dead link
101. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-101>* Carter, Jimmy (24 June 2012). "A Cruel
and Unusual Record"
/New York Times/.
102. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-102>* Pakistan says 3% of drone deaths
-, 31 October 2013
103. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-103>* "US: Yemen Drone Strike May Violate
Obama Policy"
Human Rights Watch.
104. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-104>* "The Aftermath of Drone Strikes on a
Wedding Convoy in Yemen"
/The New York Times/.
105. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-ABC20130926_105-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-ABC20130926_105-1> "US Air Force successfully flies
unmanned F-16, says robotic planes will only be used as target
practice " <>. Australian
Broadcasting Corporation. 26 September 2013. Archived from the
on 14 October 2013.
106. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-police_using_drone_in_sar_106-0>* "Police use

drone helicopter in search"

107. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-107>* AP Texas News
<>^[/dead link
108. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-108>* 2008 Search and Rescue Missions
<>^[/dead link
109. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref----_109-0>* McFarland, Matt (30 January 2014).
"One day a drone might throw you a life preserver"
<>. /The Washington Post/ and
/Fast Company/. Archived from the original
on 31 January 2014.
110. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-110>* "Drones to protect Nepal s endangered
species from poachers"
<>. /BBC
News/. 20 June 2012.
111. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-111>* Nepal to train rangers to handle drone
aircraft to save rhinos | Business Standard
112. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-112>* "Sea Shepherd Aerial drone to monitor
seal slaughter"
31 August 2012.
113. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-113>*
114. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-114>*
115. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Atherton2013_115-0>* Atherton, Kelsey D. (26
Sep 2013). "Activist Drone Catches Pigeon Shooters"
Popular Science. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
116. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Chang2012_116-0>* Chang, David (20 Nov 2012).
"Flying Camera From Animal Rights Group Shot Down at Pigeon Shoot"
NBC 10 Philadelphia. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
117. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-117>* "Animal activists to use drones in fight
against illegal hunting"
<>. 16 March
118. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-118>* "Animal welfare charity is to use DRONES
to spy on people illegally hunting"
/Daily Mail/ (London). 17 March 2013.
119. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Russell2013_119-0>* Russell, Lauren (12 Apr
2013). "PETA eyes drones to watch hunters, farmers"
CNN. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
120. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-ZaraAgGag2014_120-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-ZaraAgGag2014_120-1> Zara, Christopher (12 Jun 2014).
"Fighting Ag-Gag Laws With Drones? Journalist Eyes The Skies For

Factory-Farm Investigations"
International Business Times. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
121. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-121>* Keck, Zachary (20 September 2013).
"Japan May Shoot Down Chinese Drones"
/ The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
122. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-peru_122-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-peru_122-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-peru_122-2> Reuters in
Lima. "Peru s archaeologists turn to drones to help protect and
explore ancient ruins | World news"
ient-ruins>. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
123. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-123>* Hudson, Hal (24 September 2014).
"Air-chaeological drones search for ancient treasures"
(2988). New Scientist. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
124. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-WashPost201311_124-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost201311_124-1> Whitlock, Craig (13 November 2013).
"Drone combat missions may be scaled back eventually, Air Force
chief says" <>. /The Washington
Post/. Archived from the original
on 21 November 2013.
125. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-125>* Gertler, Jeremiah (3 January 2013).
"U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems"
<>. Federation of
American Scientists website, publishing document of the
Congressional Research Service.
126. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-WashPost20121227_126-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-WashPost20121227_126-1> Fung, Brian (27 December 2013).
"The next 25 years in military drone technology, in 1 chart"
<>. /The Washington Post/.
Archived from the original
on 13 January 2014.
127. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-127>* Gilbert, Jason (20 August 2012).
"Tacocopter Aims To Deliver Tacos Using Unmanned Drone Helicopters"
/The Huffington Post/.
128. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Politico20131202_128-0>* Robillard, Kevin;
Byers, Alex (2 December 2013). "Amazon drones: Obstacles to the
Bezos dream" <>. /Politico/.
Archived from the original
on 6 December 2013.
129. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-FAAamazon_129-0>* "E-commerce giant Amazon
seeks FAA nod for testing drones"
/Seattle Bulletin/. Retrieved 11 July 2014.

130. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-130>* Fuest, Benedikt (9 December 2013). "DHL

testet erstmals Paketlieferung per Drohne"
/Die Welt/.
131. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-131>* Elliot, Danielle (9 December 2013). "DHL
testing delivery drones"
<>. CBS News.
132. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-FT_UAE_132-0>* Kerr, Simon (11 February 2014)
UAE to develop fleet of drones to deliver public services
The Financial Times, World News, Retrieved 12 February 2014
133. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-133>* Sleiman, Mirna (10 February 2014) Aerial
ID card renewal: UAE to use drones for government services
Reuters, Retrieved 12 February 2014
134. *Jump up ^
Zargani, Luisa (18 February 2014). "Fendi Partnering With Google to
Livestream Runway Show"
WWD. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
135. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-TechCrunch20140304_135-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-TechCrunch20140304_135-1> Perez, Sarah; Constine, Josh (4
March 2014). "Facebook In Talks To Acquire Drone Maker Titan
Aerospace" <>. TechCrunch.
Archived from the original
on 4 March 2014.
136. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-136>* Gittleson, Kim (28 March 2014)
Data-stealing Snoopy drone unveiled at Black Hat
<> BBC News,
Technology, Retrieved 29 March 2014
137. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-137>* Inside Google s Secret Drone-Delivery
(2014-08-28), /The Atlantic </wiki/The_Atlantic>/
138. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-138>* Kallas, Siim </wiki/Siim_Kallas>.
"European Commission calls for tough standards to regulate civil
drones <>"
/European Commission </wiki/European_Commission>/, 8 April 2014.
Retrieved 9 April 2014.
139. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-avweek_20070115_uavs_139-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-avweek_20070115_uavs_139-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-avweek_20070115_uavs_139-2> "UAVs on the Rise."
Dickerson, L. /Aviation Week & Space Technology
</wiki/Aviation_Week_%26_Space_Technology>/. 15 January 2007.
140. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-140>* Israel an unmanned air systems (UAS)
super power
Defense Update.
141. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bbc-test-sites-announced_141-0>* "US announces
six drone test sites"
<>. BBC News

</wiki/BBC_News>. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.

142. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-142>* Defense Acquisitions: Opportunities
Exist to Achieve Greater Commonality and Efficiencies among Unmanned
Aircraft Systems <>
143. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Linux_Foundation_143-0>* "Linux Foundation and
Leading Technology Companies Launch Open Source Dronecode Project"
/Linux Foundation/. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
144. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Navigating_144-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Navigating_144-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-Navigating_144-2>
/Navigating Regulatory Compliance for UAV Electronics Development/
/NASA Tech Briefs/. 1 May 2014.
145. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Yearbook_145-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Yearbook_145-1> Cary, Leslie; Coyne, James. "ICAO
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), Circular 328"
/2011-2012 UAS Yearbook - UAS: The Global Perspective/. Blyenburgh &
Co. pp. 112115.
146. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-146>* "Fact Sheet Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Federal Aviation Administration. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
147. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-147>* "Transitioning to DO-178C and ARP4754A
for UAV software development using model-based design"
/Military Embedded Systems/. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
148. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-wahren09uavgc_148-0>* Wahren, K., Cowling, I.,
Patel, Y., Smith, P., Breckon, T.P. (March 2009). "Development of a
Two-Tier Unmanned Air System for the MoD Grand Challenge". /Proc.
24th International Conference on Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems/.
pp. 13.113.9.
149. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-sokalski10uavsalient_149-0>* Sokalski, J;
Breckon, T.P; Cowling, I. (April 2010). "Automatic Salient Object
Detection in UAV Imagery"
(pdf). /Proc. 25th International Conference on Unmanned Air Vehicle
Systems/. pp. 11.111.12. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
150. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-gaszczak11uavpeople_150-0>* Gaszczak, A.,
Breckon, T.P., Han, J. (2011). "Real-time People and Vehicle
Detection from UAV Imagery"
(pdf). /Proc. SPIE Conference Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision
XXVIII: Algorithms and Techniques/ *7878* (78780B). doi
<>. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
151. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-151>* Shim, D. H, Kim, H. J., Sastry, S.,
/Hierarchical Control System Synthesis for Rotorcraft-based Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles/
152. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Foust2013_152-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Foust2013_152-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-Foust2013_152-2>
Foust, Joshua (8 October 2013). "Why America Wants Drones That Can

Kill Without Humans"

Defense One. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
153. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Gubrud2013_153-0>* Gubrud, Mark Avrum (11
October 2013). "New Foustian pro-Terminator meme infection
spreading" <>. /Mark Gubrud s Weblog/.
Retrieved 15 July 2014.
154. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-154>* "New rotary takes flight in India"
<>. Retrieved 6
February 2014.
155. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-155>* "Rotron Advanced Rotary Engines for UAV,
VTOL & Military Applications" <>. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
156. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-156>* "Rotron Rotary Engine Operational
Capabilities" <>.
Retrieved 6 February 2014.
157. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-ProjectSunrisePg1_157-0>* Boucher, Roland
(n.d.). "Project Sunrise pg 1"
Retrieved 23 September 2009.
158. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-ProjectSunrisePg13_158-0>* Boucher, Roland
(n.d.). "Project Sunrise pg 13"
<>. Retrieved 23
September 2009.
159. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-google2004_159-0>* Newcome, Laurence R.
(2004). /Unmanned aviation: a brief history of unmanned aerial
vehicles/ <>. Retrieved
23 September 2009.
160. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-NASA2008_160-0>* Curry, Marty (March 2008).
"Solar-Power Research and Dryden"
Retrieved 15 September 2009.
161. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-laser-power_beaming_161-0>* "Wireless Power
for UAVs"
162. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-xconomy.com_162-0>* Northrop Grumman Planning
First UAV-to-UAV Aerial Refueling
163. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-163>* Kwan, Carissa (5 October 2012) Two
Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Fly in Close Formation, Move AHR
Program Closer to Autonomous Aerial Refueling
Northrop Grumman multimedia release, Retrieved 1 April 2013
164. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-164>* counter_ied_backtracking.mpg
on YouTube </wiki/YouTube>^[/dead link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
165. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-165>* "Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY)
2008/2009 Budget Estimates, February 2007: Research, Development,
Test and Evaluation, Defensewide, Volume 1 Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency"
<>. DARPA.
February 2007. pp. 248249. 0603286E. Archived

from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.

166. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-166>* "Boeing Wins DARPA Vulture II Program"
<> (Press
release). Boeing. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
167. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-167>* QinetiQ press release
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
168. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-168>* QinetiQ press release
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
169. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-169>* Hiller Aviation Museum reference to the
flight <>
170. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-170>* "UAV Factory News"
171. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-171>* "Northrop Grumman s Global Hawk Unmanned
Aircraft Sets 33-Hour Flight Endurance Record"
aft_Sets_33_Hour_Flight_Endurance_Record_999.html>. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
172. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-172>* "Northrop Grumman s Global Hawk Unmanned
Aircraft Sets 33-Hour Flight Endurance Record"
ous-drone/>. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
173. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-173>* QinetiQ press release
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
174. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-174>* New Scientist article
175. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-175>* "Spies That Fly: Time Line of UAVs"
<>. PBS
</wiki/Public_Broadcasting_Service> /NOVA </wiki/Nova_(TV_series)>/.
176. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-176>* "Heron 1"
Israel Aerospace Industries
</wiki/Israel_Aerospace_Industries>. ^[/dead link
177. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-177>* Egozi, Arie (30 January 2012). "Israeli
Heron TP crashes as test flight goes wrong". Flight International
(Flightglobal). Retrieved 5 April 2012.
178. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-178>* AC Propulsion release describing the
link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
179. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-179>* UAV Forum reference
<>^[/dead link
</wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] Federation of American Scientists
reference <>
180. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-180>* Directory of US Military Rockets and
Missiles reference to the flight
181. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-181>* UAV Endurance Prehistory reference
<>^[/dead link
182. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-182>* TAM Homepage <>

183. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-183>* TAM-5 FAQ page

184. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-184>* Aerosonde release on the flight
<>^[/dead link
185. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-185>* "iranian new uavs"
<> (in pr).
186. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-186>* "Ekonom nsansz Hava Arac Gelitirme
Projesi imzaland ZAMAN"
(in Turkish). Retrieved 31 March 2012.
187. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-187>* "TURKEY BREAKS NATIONAL RECORD FOR
08/07/2014. Check date values in: ||date=| (help
188. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-20120829BBC_188-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-20120829BBC_188-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-20120829BBC_188-2>
Reed, Jim (29 August 2012). "The skies open up for large civilian
drones" <>. BBC News
Technology. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
189. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-189>* Thomson, Iain. "US Navy buys Linux to
guide drone fleet."
<> /The
Register/, 8 June 2012.
190. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-190>* Leyden, John. "US killer spy drone
controls switch to Linux."
/The Register/, 12 January 2012.
191. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-191>* Majumdar, Dave. "Anti-access/area denial
challenges give manned aircraft edge over UAVs."
/Flight Global/, 25 July 2012.
192. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-192>* Singer, Peter W. "How the US Military
Can Win the Robotic Revolution"
The Brookings Institution <>, 17 May 2010.
193. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-193>* Axe, David. "US Drones Trump China
<> /The
Diplomat/, 7 February 2011.
194. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-zaloga22_194-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-zaloga22_194-1> /Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Robotic Air
Warfare 1917-2007/, By Steven Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 19 July
2011, page 22
195. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-195>* Grant, Rebecca. "The Bekaa Valley War".
Air Force Magazine Online 85 (June 2002). Retrieved 22 August 2009.
196. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-196>* Federation of American Scientists
</wiki/Federation_of_American_Scientists>. Pioneer Short Range (SR)
UAV <>. Retrieved
26 November 2006.
197. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-197>* National Air and Space Museum
</wiki/National_Air_and_Space_Museum>, Smithsonian Institution
</wiki/Smithsonian_Institution>. Pioneer RQ-2A
at the Wayback Machine </wiki/Wayback_Machine> (archived January 17,

2008) 14 September 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2006.

198. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-198>* Senator Bill Nelson </wiki/Bill_Nelson>
(28 January 2004) "New Information on Iraq s Possession of Weapons
of Mass Destruction",
/Congressional Record/
199. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-199>* Lowe, C. (16 December 2003) "Senator:
White House Warned of UAV Attack,"
<>^[/dead link
</wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] /Defense Tech/
200. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-200>* Hammond, J. (14 November 2005) "The U.S.
intelligence failure and Iraq s UAVs"
<>^[/dead link
</wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/] /The Yirmeyahu Review/
201. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-201>* The intrigue behind the drone strike /
The Christian Science Monitor -
202. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-202>* Pilotless Warriors Soar To Success
/, 25 April 2004. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
203. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-203>* Coughlin, Con; Sherwell, Philip (2 May
2010). "American drones deployed to target Yemeni terrorist"
/The Daily Telegraph </wiki/The_Daily_Telegraph>/ (London).
204. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-204>* "Anwar al-Awlaki Targeted By U.S. Drones
After Osama Bin Laden Raid"
ABC News. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
205. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-205>* OK, fine. Shoot him. Four words that
heralded a decade of secret US drone killings: The Bureau of
Investigative Journalism
206. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-206>* "Obama says U.S. has asked Iran to
return drone aircraft"
/CNN/. 15 December 2011.
207. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-207>* "Ahmadinejad: Iran has been able to
control U.S. drone"
/CNN/. 15 December 2011.
208. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-208>* "Iran says it s almost done decoding US
drone" <>.
/MSNBC/. 15 December 2011. ^[/dead link </wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>/]
209. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-209>* Cenciotti, David (6 December 2013).
"U.S. Navy successfully launched a surveillance drone from a
submerged submarine"
<>. The
Aviationist. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
210. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-210>* Pasztor, Andy; Emshwiller, John (21
April 2012). "Drone Use Takes Off on the Home Front"
/The Wall Street Journal/.
211. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-211>* Campoy, Ana (13 December 2011). "The
Law s New Eye in the Sky"

/The Wall Street Journal/.
212. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-smh-mystery-drone_212-5> Kontominas, Bellinda (4 October
2013). "Mystery drone collides with Sydney Harbour Bridge"
The Sydney Morning Herald </wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald>.
Retrieved 5 October 2013.
213. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-5> ^/*g*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-6> ^/*h*/
<#cite_ref-smh-i-dont-know-whether_213-7> Cosier, Colin (26 November
2013). " I don t know whether it s a bomb or not : Train driver
flummoxed after drone hits Sydney Harbour Bridge"
Sydney Morning Herald </wiki/Sydney_Morning_Herald>. Retrieved 27
November 2013.
214. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-5> ^/*g*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-air-safety-triathlete-struck-drone_214-6> Safi,
Michael (8 April 2014). "Air safety investigation into drone
incident with triathlete"
The Guardian </wiki/The_Guardian>. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
215. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-smh-drone-operators-referred_215-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-smh-drone-operators-referred_215-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-smh-drone-operators-referred_215-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-smh-drone-operators-referred_215-3> Grubb, Ben (8 July
2014). "Drone operators involved in athlete s injury referred to
Director of Public Prosecutions"
The Sydney Morning Herald </wiki/The_Sydney_Morning_Herald>.
Retrieved 8 July 2014.
216. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
Taillier, Sarah (7 November 2014). "Geraldton drone operator s

social media post labelled insensitive after triathlon charge

ABC Online </wiki/ABC_Online>. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
217. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-217>* Strarckx, Senne (17 April 2013)
Biodiversity magnified
Flanders today, Retrieved 23 April 2013
218. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-guardian-france-drone_218-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-france-drone_218-1> James, Stuart (14 June
2014). "Fifa investigating Frances claims that a drone spied on
The Guardian </wiki/The_Guardian>. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
219. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
Elliot, Jost (23 April 2014). "Drone flight near Vancouver airport
attracts Transport Canada, RCMP attention"
CTV News </wiki/CTV_News>. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
220. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-220>* Michelle Nichols (1 August 2013).
"Italian firm to provide surveillance drone for U.N. in Congo"
221. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-jpost-drone-paris_221-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-jpost-drone-paris_221-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-jpost-drone-paris_221-2> "Israeli tourist arrested for
flying drone over Paris"
5 October 2014.
222. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-nyt-unidentified-drones-above-french-nuclear_222-4> de la
BAUME, Maa (3 November 2014). "Unidentified Drones Are Seen Above
French Nuclear Plants"

The New York Times </wiki/The_New_York_Times>. Retrieved 9 November
223. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-nyt-3-found-with-drones_223-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-nyt-3-found-with-drones_223-1> Bilefsky, Dan (6
November 2014). "France Arrests 3 With Drones by Power Plant"
The New York Times </wiki/The_New_York_Times>. Retrieved 9 November
224. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-224>* (27 May 2013) German railways to test
anti-graffiti drones
<> BBC News Europe,
Retrieved 27 May 2013
225. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-times-of-india-been-there-drone-that_225-0>*
"Been there, drone that: Pizza air-delivery in Mumbai"
The Times of India </wiki/The_Times_of_India>. 22 May 2014.
Retrieved 29 May 2014.
226. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-226>* Rajput, Rashmi (24 May 2014). "Mumbai
police seeks explanation on drone pizza delivery"
The Hindu </wiki/The_Hindu>. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
227. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-227>*
228. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-228>*
229. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-229>*
230. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-230>*
231. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-231>*
232. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-232>*
233. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-IEEE_233-0>* Ross, Philip E. (27 February
2014) Chris Andersons Expanding Drone Empire
IEEE Spectrum, Retrieved 8 March 2014
234. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-234>* (2014) Yamaha RMAX Type IG/Type II
unmanned helicopter <> Yamaha
Company website, Retrieved 8 March 2014
235. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-235>* Madrigal, Alexis C. (28 April 2011)
Inside the Drone Missions to Fukushima
The Atlantic, Retrieved 1 April 2013
236. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-236>* Takateru, Doi (17 August 2011) Defense
Ministry plans its version of Global Hawk aircraft
The Asahi Shimbun, Retrieved 1 April 2013

237. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-237>* Franklin, Jonathan (1 January 2012)

Whaling: campaigners use drones in the fight against Japanese
The Guardian, Retrieved 8 April 2013
238. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-238>* FPV Raptor
<> Cheap Drones,
Retrieved 27 July 2013
239. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-239>* (12 September 2012) New Technology to
Fight Wildlife Crime
World Wildlife Fund Stories, Retrieved 27 September 2014
240. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-240>* Richardson, Nigel (27 July 2013) Joining
forces to save the Bengal tiger
The Telegraph, Retrieved 27 July 2013
241. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-siliconrepublic-aerial-assault_241-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-siliconrepublic-aerial-assault_241-1> "Aerial assault on
Facebook and Google as part of Dublin Hack the City attempt
Silicon Republic. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
242. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-thejournal-ie-drones-dublin_242-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-thejournal-ie-drones-dublin_242-1> "Drone group
held under terrorist act at London airport after Dublin show"
one-unmanned-legal-licence-496562-Jun2012/>. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
243. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-silicon-republic-drone-group-held_243-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-silicon-republic-drone-group-held_243-1> "Quadcopter
drone group held in London airport on suspicion of terrorism"
Silicon Republic. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
244. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-244>* Flaherty, Rachael (25 April 2014).
"Drone footage of Cork city gives birds eye view"
The Irish Times </wiki/The_Irish_Times>. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
245. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-245>* "Drone captures aerial footage of Cork"
Irish Independent </wiki/Irish_Independent>.
246. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-246>* "Amazing drone footage shows Cork city
in all its glory"
Irish Examiner </wiki/Irish_Examiner>. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 27
April 2014.
247. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/

Ftharta, Conall (26 April 2014). "Drone pilot denies claims he
acted recklessly while filming Cork video"
Irish Examiner </wiki/Irish_Examiner>. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
248. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
Lally, Conor (25 June 2014). "Remote control helicopter used to
smuggle drugs into prison"
The Irish Times </wiki/The_Irish_Times>. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
249. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-rte-airborne-device-crashes_249-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-rte-airborne-device-crashes_249-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-rte-airborne-device-crashes_249-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-rte-airborne-device-crashes_249-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-rte-airborne-device-crashes_249-4> "Airborne device
crashes at Wheatfield Prison"
<>. RTE News
</wiki/RTE_News>. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
250. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-ii-remote-control-drone_250-5> Feehan, Conor; Hutton,
Brian (25 June 2014). "Video: Remote control drone carrying drugs
crash-lands at Wheatfield Prison"
Irish Independent </wiki/Irish_Independent>. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
251. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-iaa-operation-of-uas-in-irish-airspace_251-5> "Operation
of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Irish Airspace"
<>. Irish
Aviation Authority </wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority>. Retrieved 6
July 2013.
252. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-iaa-uas-application_252-0>* "APPLICATION TO

<>. Irish
Aviation Authority </wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority>. Retrieved 6
July 2013.
253. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-iaa-rockets-small-aircraft-order_253-0>*
"Irish Aviation Authority (Rockets and Small Aircraft) Order, 2000"
<>. Irish
Aviation Authority </wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority>. Retrieved 6
July 2013.
254. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-iaa-rpa-registration-requirements_254-0>*
"Registration Requirements for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)"
<>. Irish Aviation Authority
</wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority>. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
255. *Jump up ^
"Irish Aviation Authority (Nationality and Registration of Aircraft)
Order, 2005"
<>. Irish
Aviation Authority </wiki/Irish_Aviation_Authority>. Retrieved 6
July 2013.
256. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
McMahon, Aine (12 July 2014). "Aviation body has issued 22 drone
The Irish Times </wiki/The_Irish_Times>. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
257. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-257>* " -141 "
<>. Retrieved 6
February 2014.
258. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-258>* " -123 "
<>. Retrieved 6
February 2014.
259. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-259>* " -17"
<>. Retrieved 6
February 2014.
260. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-260>* "-
" <>. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
261. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-261>* " "
<>. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
262. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Times_262-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Times_262-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-Times_262-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-Times_262-3> Sclesinger, Fay (16 March 2013) "Animal
activists to use drones in fight against illegal hunting" The Times,
Page 17 ; subscription required
263. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-263>* Conway-Smith, Erin (11 January 2013)
South Africa sics drones on rhino poachers
Global Post, Retrieved 19 March 2013
264. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-news24-techno-tussle_264-0>* "Techno-tussle at
Mandela hospital"
News24 </wiki/News24>. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
265. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-times-za-arrested-cameraman-apologises_265-0> ^/*b*/

<#cite_ref-times-za-arrested-cameraman-apologises_265-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-times-za-arrested-cameraman-apologises_265-2> "Arrested
cameraman apologises for Mandela drone journalism"
The Times (South Africa) </wiki/The_Times_(South_Africa)>. 29 June
2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
266. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
"CAA to hit illegal drone flyers with hefty fines"
News24 </wiki/News24>. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
267. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bbc-police-test-drone-spy_267-0>* "Police test
drone spy helicopters"
BBC News. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
268. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bbc-pilotless-police-drone-takes-off_268-0>*
"Pilotless police drone takes off"
BBC News. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
269. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bbc-unlicenced-merseyside-drone_269-0>*
"Unlicensed Merseyside Police drone grounded"
<>. BBC News. 16 February
2010. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
270. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-guardian-police-drone-arrest-backfires_270-0>*
Lewis, Paul (15 February 2010). "Eye in the sky arrest could land
police in the dock"
London: The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
271. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-bbc-police-drone-crashes_271-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-bbc-police-drone-crashes_271-1> "Police drone
crashes into River Mersey". BBC News. 31 October 2011.
272. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-272>* (13 March 2012) USPCA drones join fight
against badger cruelty
<> BBC News
Northern Ireland, Retrieved 19 March 2013
273. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick_273-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick_273-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-bbc-news-sussex-gatwick_273-2> "Radio-controlled aircraft
trialled by Gatwick police"
<>. BBC News
</wiki/BBC_News>. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
274. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-274>* (22 October 2014) UK drones: Concern
over increase in use <> BBC
News UK, Retrieved 22 October 2014
275. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction_275-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction_275-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction_275-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction_275-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-guardian-uk-first-drone-conviction_275-4> Arthur, Charles
(2 April 2014). "UK s first drone conviction will bankrupt me, says
Cumbrian man"
The Guardian </wiki/The_Guardian>. Retrieved 2 April 2014.

276. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/

<#cite_ref-the-independent-quadcopter-drone-deliberately-flown_276-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-the-independent-quadcopter-drone-deliberately-flown_276-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-the-independent-quadcopter-drone-deliberately-flown_276-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-the-independent-quadcopter-drone-deliberately-flown_276-3> Vincen
James (27 October 2014). "Quadcopter drone flew deliberately close
to UK passenger plane"
The Independent </wiki/The_Independent>. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
277. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-bbc-southend-uav_277-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-bbc-southend-uav_277-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-bbc-southend-uav_277-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-bbc-southend-uav_277-3> "Quadcopter drone flew too
close to Southend-bound plane"
<>. BBC News
</wiki/BBC_News>. 27 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
278. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-airprox-southend-report_278-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-airprox-southend-report_278-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-airprox-southend-report_278-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-airprox-southend-report_278-3> ^/*e*/
<#cite_ref-airprox-southend-report_278-4> "AIRPROX REPORT No
Retrieved 2 November 2014.
279. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-279>* Harley Geiger (21 December 2011). "The
Drones Are Coming"
Center for Democracy & Technology. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
280. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-280>* Jennifer Lynch (10 January 2012).
"Drones are Watching You"
Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
281. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-281>* Jennifer Lynch (19 April 2012). "FAA
Releases Lists of Drone Certificates Many Questions Left
Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
282. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-282>* Amie Stepanovich. "Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles and Drones" <>. Electronic
Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
283. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-283>* "The Border Patrol Wants to Arm Drones"
284. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-284>* OIG 85/05/12
285. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-285>* Bennett, Brian (10 December 2011).
"Police Employ Predator Plane Spy Drones on Home Front"
/Los Angeles Times/.
286. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-286>* Harley Geiger (21 December 2011). "How
Congress Should Tackle the Drone Privacy Problem"
Center for Democracy & Technology. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
287. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-ap-komonews-drones-returned_287-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-ap-komonews-drones-returned_287-1> ^/*c*/

<#cite_ref-ap-komonews-drones-returned_287-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-ap-komonews-drones-returned_287-3> Valdes, Manuel (7
February 2013). "Mayor grounds Seattle police drone program"
Associated Press </wiki/Associated_Press>. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
288. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-ap-komonews-police-draft-drone-policy_288-0>*
"Seattle police drafting policy for using drones"
Associated Press </wiki/Associated_Press> and KOMO-TV
</wiki/KOMO-TV>. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
289. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-LAPD_drones_289-0>* Lopez, Andrew (1 June
2014). "Drones Given to LAPD Raise Privacy Concerns"
/NBC San Diego </wiki/KNSD>/. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
290. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-290>* FAA_533e-Petition
291. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-291>* Amie Stepanovich (12 June 2012). "New
Report Finds Border Surveillance Drone Program Inefficient and
Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
292. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-292>* Amie Stepanovich (9 May 2012). "EPIC
Stresses Need For Privacy Evaluation in Drone Testing"
Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
293. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-293>* Calo, M. Ryan (12 December 2011). "The
Drone as Privacy Catalyst"
/Stanford Law Review </wiki/Stanford_Law_Review> Online/. 64
(Stanford Law School </wiki/Stanford_Law_School>). Stan. L. Rev.
Online (29). ISSN
</wiki/International_Standard_Serial_Number> 1939-8581
<//>. Archived from the original
<> on
31 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
294. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-294>* Kravets, David (19 June 2013). "FBI
Admits It Surveils U.S. With Drones"
<>. /Wired/.
Retrieved 20 June 2013. "FBI Director Robert Mueller said today the
bureau was surveiling the United States with drones. The revelation
was during an FBI oversight hearing before the Senate Judiciary
Committee and comes as the bureau, along with the National Security
Agency, are on the defensive about revelations that they are
obtaining metadata on Americans phone records and Americans
private data from companies like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and
others. The FBI is not alone in monitoring the U.S. with drones."
295. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-295>* Noel Sharkey and Sarah Knuckey (22
December 2011). "OWS Fights Back Against Police Surveillance by
Launching "Occucopter" Citizen Drone"
/Occupy Wall Street/. Retrieved 26 December 2011. "Tim Pool, an
Occupy Wall Street protester, has acquired a Parrot AR.Drone
</wiki/Parrot_AR.Drone> he amusingly calls the "occucopter""
296. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-296>* Keneally, Meghan (20 February 2012)
Hunters take aim at an animal rights group s video drone

The Daily Mail, retrieved 5 February 2013
297. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-297>* /Drone Home/
11 February 2013 /Time/
298. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-298>*
299. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-searchrescule_299-0>* "Drone Finds Missing
Man" <>.
/Drones Den/.
300. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-nyt-alitialia-report-drone_300-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-nyt-alitialia-report-drone_300-1> McGeehan,
Patrick; Goldstein, Joseph (5 March 2013). "Pilot Says Drone Flew
Past Jet Nearing J.F.K."
The New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
301. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-wired-Alitalia-report-drone_301-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-wired-Alitalia-report-drone_301-1> Kravets, David
(5 March 2013). "FBI Investigating Unidentified Drone Spotted Near
JFK Airport"
Wired </wiki/Wired_(website)>. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
302. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-csm-alitalia-report-drone_302-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-csm-alitalia-report-drone_302-1> Mulrine, Anna (5
March 2013). "Mystery drone near JFK airport: FBI seeks public s
help in investigation"
The Christian Science Monitor </wiki/The_Christian_Science_Monitor>.
Retrieved 4 August 2013.
303. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-latimes-alitalia-report-drone_303-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-latimes-alitalia-report-drone_303-1> Muskal,
Michael (5 March 2013). "FAA investigating report of drone aircraft
over JFK airport"
Los Angeles Times </wiki/Los_Angeles_Times>. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
304. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-atlantic-bull-run-crash_304-0>* Madrigal,
Alexis (26 August 2013). "Drone Hits Spectators Watching the Running
of the Bulls (in Virginia)"
The Atlantic </wiki/The_Atlantic>. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
305. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-wtvr-bull-run-crash_305-0>* Dutton, Nick;
Bryan, Alix (26 August 2013). "EXCLUSIVE VIDEO: Drone crashes into
crowd at Great Bull Run"
</wiki/WTVR-TV>[[{{subst:DATE}}|{{subst:DATE}}]] ^[/disambiguation
. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
306. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-wabc-helicopter-drone-crash_306-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-wabc-helicopter-drone-crash_306-1> Hoffer, Jim (3
October 2013). "EXCLUSIVE: Small drone crash lands in Manhattan"

ABC News </wiki/ABC_News>. Retrieved 5 October 2013.

307. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-wabc-helicopter-drone-arrest_307-0>
^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-wabc-helicopter-drone-arrest_307-1> Hoffer, Jim
(18 October 2013). "EXCLUSIVE: Brooklyn man arrested for flying
drone over Manhattan"
ABC News </wiki/ABC_News>. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
308. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
Levin, Alan (3 May 2014). "Drone Operator Fined After Almost Hitting
NYC Pedestrian"
<>. </wiki/>. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
309. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-nyt-drones-conference_309-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-nyt-drones-conference_309-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-nyt-drones-conference_309-2> Flegenheimer, Matt (11
October 2013). "At Drone Conference, Talk of Morals and Toys"
The New York Times </wiki/The_New_York_Times>. Retrieved 13 October
310. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bbc-drone-conference_310-0>* McKelvey, Tara
(15 October 2013). "Rise of the drone hobbyists"
<>. BBC News
</wiki/BBC_News>. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
311. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-nbc-drone-contraband_311-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-nbc-drone-contraband_311-1> Perez, Lindsay (27 November
2013). "Drone tries to sneak contraband into Georgia prison"
<>. </wiki/>. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
312. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-gawker-drone_312-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-gawker-drone_312-1> Gallagher, Sean (27 November 2013).
"Drone crew caught attempting to deliver smokes to prison inmates"
Ars Technica </wiki/Ars_Technica>. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
313. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-wsj-tallahassee_313-0>* Nicas, Jack (9 May
2014). "FAA: U.S. Airliner Nearly Collided With Drone in March"
/The Wall Street Journal/. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
314. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-businessinsider-tallahassee_314-0>* Zhang,
Benjamin (9 May 2014). "FAA: US Airways Plane Nearly Collided With
/Business Insider/. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
315. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-315>* Moffitt, Kelly (8 May 2014). "Police

investigating drone crash into Met Square building"

St. Louis Business Journal </wiki/St._Louis_Business_Journal>.
316. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-316>* Calhoun, Michael (8 May 2014). "Drone
Strikes Downtown St. Louis Building"
KMOX </wiki/KMOX>.
317. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-317>* Jonsson, Patrik (8 May 2014). "Whose
drone is it? St. Louis high-rise crash heralds age of private
The Christian Science Monitor </wiki/The_Christian_Science_Monitor>.
318. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-318>* Murphy, Kevin (8 May 2014). "St. Louis
police seek owner of drone that crashed into high-rise"
Reuters </wiki/Reuters>.
319. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours_319-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours_319-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-lapd-drone-staples-not-ours_319-2> Serna, Joseph;
Chang, Cindy (16 June 2014). "LAPD: Drone above L.A. Kings fans
outside Staples Center wasn t ours"
Los Angeles Times </wiki/Los_Angeles_Times>. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
320. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone_320-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone_320-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-latimes-mystery-surrounds-drone_320-2> Serna, Joseph;
Bennett, Brian (16 June 2014). "Mystery surrounds drone that flew
above L.A. Kings victory party"
Los Angeles Times </wiki/Los_Angeles_Times>. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
321. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
McNeal, Greg (14 June 2014). "Video Shows Kings Fans Knocking Drone
Out Of Sky, Did It Belong To LAPD?"
Retrieved 17 June 2014.
322. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-322>* Segar, Mike. "California Senate approves
measure banning warrantless drone surveillance"
Reuters. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
323. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-wnbc-nypd-helicopter_323-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-wnbc-nypd-helicopter_323-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-wnbc-nypd-helicopter_323-2> "NYPD Helicopter Nearly
Struck by Drone Near George Washington Bridge: Police"

WNBC </wiki/WNBC>. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
324. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/
<#cite_ref-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested_324-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested_324-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-nydn-two-men-from-inwood-arrested_324-2> Morales, Mark;
Burke, Kerry; Jacobs, Shayna (7 July 2014). "Two men from Inwood
arrested after they flew drone near George Washington Bridge, nearly
hit NYPD helicopter"
New York Daily News </wiki/New_York_Daily_News>. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
325. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-325>* Haines, Lester (8 July 2014). "Manhattan
drone pair cuffed for NYPD chopper near miss"
Retrieved 8 July 2014.
326. *Jump up ^
<#cite_ref-usnews-charlotte-anti-drone-legislation_326-0>* Koebler,
Jason (5 February 2013). "City in Virginia Becomes First to Pass
Anti-Drone Legislation"
U.S. News & World Report </wiki/U.S._News_%26_World_Report>.
Retrieved 3 December 2013.
327. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-whotv-uncommon-ordinance_327-0>* "NO DRONES:
Iowa City Passes Uncommon Ordinance"
WHO-DT </wiki/WHO-DT>. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
328. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-328>* Meersman, Tom (6 April 2013). "St.
Bonifacius says no to drones"
<>. Star Tribune
</wiki/Star_Tribune>. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
329. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-329>* Kenyon, Jim (2 October 2013). "Drone
free zone put on hold in Syracuse"
WTVH </wiki/WTVH>. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
330. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-Chavez_330-0>* (14 June 2012) Chavez unveils
surveillance drone
<> BBC News
Latin America & Caribbean, Retrieved 8 April 2013
331. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-331>* (14 June 2012) Chavez shows off first
Venezuelan drone
<> Dawn.c
Retrieved 6 April 2013
332. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-investvine_332-0>* Maierbrugger, Arno (22 May
2013). "Vietnam builds its own drones"
<>. /Inside
Investor/. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
333. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Economist20130606_333-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Economist20130606_333-1> ^/*c*/
<#cite_ref-Economist20130606_333-2> "Drone warfare: Alone with a
/The Economist/. 6 June 2013.
334. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Brookings201308_334-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Brookings201308_334-1> Hoagland, Bradley T. (August

2013). "Manning the Next Unmanned Air Force / Developing RPA Pilots
of the Future" <>. Brookings
Institution. Archived from the original
on 22 August 2013. Referenced by Subbaraman, Nidhi (22 August
2013). "Air Force wants drone pilots, but incentives lacking, says
report" <>. NBC News. Archived
from the original
on 22 August 2013.
335. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-335>* Dilbert at war: The stressful lives of
the chair force
336. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-336>* Grounded at Studio Theatre: A new view
of drone warfare
337. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-337>* Pattern of Life, a tale of modern
338. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-338>* Theater Review: New Rep explores
powder-keg issue of military drones
339. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-339>* US Navy UAVs in Action, Neubeck,
(Squadron/Signal Publications 2010)
340. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-340>* What to Watch on Monday: A drone strike
on Castle |
341. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-341>* Fairleigh Dickinson University s
PublicMind. (7 February 2013) Public Say It s Illegal to Target
Americans Abroad as Some Question CIA Drone Attacks
<> Press release.
342. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-342>* CNN Political Ticker blog. (7 February
2013) Poll: Americans back drone attacks, but not on U.S. citizens
343. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-343>* "Respondents Question CIA Drone Attacks"
Retrieved 27 August 2013.
344. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-344>* Shane, Scott (11 August 2011). "C.I.A.
Is Disputed on Civilian Toll in Drone Strikes"
/The New York Times/. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
345. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-etzioni2013_345-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-etzioni2013_345-1> Etzioni, Amitai (MarchApril 2013).
"The Great Drone Debate"

/Military Review/.
346. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-bloomberg_346-0>* Levin, Alan; Laura LItvan
(12 May 2014). "Filmmakers to Farmers Seeking Drone Bonanza in
/Bloomberg BNUsinessweek/. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
347. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-2014HR-FAA_347-0>* Giardina, Carolyn (2 June
2014). "FAA to Consider Hollywood Request for Exemption to Use
Drones for Filming"
Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
348. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-348>* Carroll, Rory (2 August 2012). "The
philosopher making the moral case for US drones"
/The Guardian/.
349. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-349>* Blanchard, Eric
(2011). "The Technoscience Question in Feminist International
Relations: Unmanning the U.S. War on Terror". In J. Ann Tickner and
Laura Sjoberg. /Feminism and International Relations: Conversations
about the Past, Present and Future/. New York: Routledge. p. 152.
350. *Jump up ^ <#cite_ref-350>* Masters, Cristina
(2010). Laura J. Shepherd, ed. /Gender Matters in Global Politics: A
Feminist Introduction to International Relations/. New York:
Routledge. p. 183.
351. ^ Jump up to: ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-0> ^/*b*/
<#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-1> ^/*c*/ <#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-2> ^/*d*/
<#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-3> ^/*e*/ <#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-4> ^/*f*/
<#cite_ref-Isikoff_351-5> Isikoff, Michael. "Justice Department memo
reveals legal case for drone strikes on Americans"
Retrieved 2013.
* Wagner, William. "Lightning Bugs and other Reconnaissance Drones;
The can-do story of Ryan s unmanned spy planes". 1982, /Armed Forces
Journal </wiki/Armed_Forces_Journal> International/, in cooperation
with Aero Publishers, Inc.
* Carafano, J., & Gudgel, A. (2007). The Pentagons robots: Arming the
future [Electronic version]. Backgrounder 2093, 1-6.
* Singer, P. (2009a). Military robots and the laws of war [Electronic
version]. The New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology and Society, 23,
* Singer, P. (2009b). Wired for war: The robotics revolution and
conflict in the 21st century. New York: Penguin Group.
External links[edit
Wikinews has related news: /*Fifteen killed by US drone strikes in

Northern Waziristan
Wikimedia Commons has media related to /*Unmanned aerial vehicles
* History of WWI-era UAVs
<> Remote Piloted
Aerial Vehicles : The "Aerial Target" and "Aerial Torpedo" in the USA
* Defense Update reports about UAV employment in Persistent
* Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment
Implications and Legislative Responses
<> Congressional Research
Service, 6 September 2012.
* Commercial Drones: A Dogfight at the FAA; The aviation agency
prepares for a deluge of unmanned aircraft in U.S. skies
9 February 2012
* Integration of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National
Airspace System Roadmap
* Unmanned Systems Technology
<>, Directory of UAV
technical components
* UVS International <> Non Profit
Organization representing manufacturers of unmanned vehicle systems
(UVS), subsystems and critical components for UVS and associated
equipment, as well as companies supplying services with or for UVS,
research organizations and academia.
[show <#>]
* v </wiki/Template:Mobile_robots>
* t </wiki/Template_talk:Mobile_robots>
* e
Mobile robots </wiki/Mobile_robot>
Walking </wiki/Legged_robot>
* Humanoid </wiki/Humanoid_robot> (list </wiki/Template:Humanoid_robots>)
* Android </wiki/Android_(robot)> (list </wiki/Template:Androids>)
* Hexapod </wiki/Hexapod_(robotics)> (list </wiki/List_of_hexapod_robots>)
* Unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) </wiki/Unmanned_ground_vehicle>
* Automated guided vehicle (AGV) </wiki/Automated_guided_vehicle>
* Unmanned ground combat vehicle (UGCV)
* Driverless car </wiki/Autonomous_car>
* Automatic train operation (ATO) </wiki/Automatic_train_operation>

(list </wiki/List_of_driverless_trains>)

*Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)*

Unmanned aircraft system </wiki/Unmanned_aircraft_system>
Aerobot </wiki/Aerobot>
Helicam </wiki/Helicam>
Unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) </wiki/Unmanned_combat_air_vehicle>
Unmanned Aircraft </wiki/Unmanned_Aircraft>
Ornithopter </wiki/Ornithopter>

* Unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) </wiki/Unmanned_underwater_vehicle>
* Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)
* Intervention AUV (I-AUV) </wiki/Intervention_AUV>
* Remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROUV)
* Underwater glider </wiki/Underwater_glider>
* Unmanned surface vehicle (USV) </wiki/Unmanned_surface_vehicle>
* Unmanned space vehicle </wiki/Unmanned_space_vehicle>
* Robotic spacecraft </wiki/Robotic_spacecraft> (list
* Robotic telescope </wiki/Robotic_telescope>
* Space probe </wiki/Space_probe>
* Unmanned resupply spacecraft </wiki/Unmanned_resupply_spacecraft>
(list </wiki/List_of_unmanned_spaceflights_to_the_ISS>)

Domestic </wiki/Domestic_robot>
Military </wiki/Military_robot>
Rescue </wiki/Rescue_robot>
Medical </wiki/Robotic_surgery>
Disability </wiki/Disability_robot>
Agricultural </wiki/Agricultural_robot>
BEAM robotics </wiki/BEAM_robotics>
Microbotics </wiki/Microbotics>
Nanorobotics </wiki/Nanorobotics>


/See also:/ Unmanned vehicle </wiki/Unmanned_vehicle_(disambiguation)>

Robotics </wiki/Robotics>
Robot locomotion </wiki/Robot_locomotion>
Autonomous robot </wiki/Autonomous_robot>
Autonomous logistics </wiki/Autonomous_logistics>
Radio-controlled model </wiki/Radio-controlled_model>
Remote control vehicle </wiki/Remote_control_vehicle>
Remote control animal </wiki/Remote_control_animal>

* /Categories: Radio control </wiki/Category:Radio_control>/

* Unmanned vehicles </wiki/Category:Unmanned_vehicles>

[show <#>]
* v </wiki/Template:Robotics>
* t </wiki/Template_talk:Robotics>
* e <//>
Robotics </wiki/Robotics>
Main articles

Outline </wiki/Outline_of_robotics>
Glossary </wiki/Glossary_of_robotics>
Index </wiki/Index_of_robotics_articles>
History </wiki/History_of_robots>
Future of robotics </wiki/Future_of_robotics>
Geography </wiki/Geography_of_robotics>
Robot Hall of Fame </wiki/Robot_Hall_of_Fame>
Roboethics </wiki/Roboethics>
Robotic laws </wiki/Robotic_laws>
Human-robot interaction </wiki/Robotics#Human-robot_interaction>
AI Competitions

Shadow Hand Bulb large.jpg </wiki/File:Shadow_Hand_Bulb_large.jpg>


Humanoid </wiki/Humanoid>
Android </wiki/Android_(robot)>
Animatronic </wiki/Animatronics>
Biomorphic </wiki/Biomorphic_robotics>
Hexapod </wiki/Hexapod_(robotics)>
Industrial </wiki/Industrial_robot>
Articulated </wiki/Articulated_robot>
Domestic </wiki/Domestic_robot>
Entertainment </wiki/Entertainment_robot>
Juggling </wiki/Juggling_robot>
Military </wiki/Military_robot>
Medical </wiki/Robotic_surgery>
Service </wiki/Service_robot>
Disability </wiki/Disability_robot>
Prosthesis </wiki/Prosthesis#Robotic_prostheses>
Agricultural </wiki/Agricultural_robot>
Food service </wiki/Automated_restaurant>
Retailing </wiki/Automated_retailing>
BEAM robotics </wiki/BEAM_robotics>
Microbotics </wiki/Microbotics>
Nanorobotics </wiki/Nanorobotics>
/List of robots </wiki/Outline_of_robotics#Specific_robots>/
/Fictional robots </wiki/List_of_fictional_robots_and_androids>/

Classifications </wiki/Mobile_robot#Classification>

Ground </wiki/Unmanned_ground_vehicle>
Polar </wiki/Mobile_robots#Classification>
Space </wiki/Robotic_spacecraft>
Swarm </wiki/Swarm_robotics>
Underwater </wiki/Autonomous_underwater_vehicle>

Locomotion </wiki/Robot_locomotion>

Wheels </wiki/Robotics#Rolling_robots>
Tracks </wiki/Continuous_track>
Walking </wiki/Legged_robot>
Running </wiki/Robot_locomotion#Running>
Swimming </wiki/Robot_locomotion#Swimming>
Climbing </wiki/Climber_(BEAM)>
Hopping </wiki/Robot_locomotion#Hopping>
Metachronal motion </wiki/Robot_locomotion#Metachronal_motion>
Brachiating </wiki/Robot_locomotion#Brachiating>

Navigation </wiki/Mobile_robot_navigation>
* Manual </wiki/Mobile_robot#Manual_remote_or_tele-op>, remote
</wiki/Remote_operation> or tele-op </wiki/Telerobotics>
* Guarded tele-op </wiki/Mobile_robot#Guarded_tele-op>
* Line-following robot </wiki/Mobile_robot#Line-following_robot>
* Autonomously randomized robot
* Autonomously guided robot </wiki/Mobile_robot#Autonomously_guided_robot>
* Sliding autonomy </wiki/Mobile_robot#Sliding_autonomy>
Research </wiki/Robotics#Robot_research>

Roboticist </wiki/Roboticist>
Areas </wiki/Areas_of_robotics>
Evolutionary </wiki/Evolutionary_robotics>
Kits </wiki/Robot_kit>
Simulator </wiki/Robotics_simulator>
Suite </wiki/Robotics_suite>
Open-source </wiki/Open-source_robotics>
Software </wiki/Robot_software>
Adaptable </wiki/Adaptable_robotics>
Developmental </wiki/Developmental_robotics>
Paradigms </wiki/Robotic_paradigms>
Ubiquitous </wiki/Ubiquitous_robot>


Category *Category </wiki/Category:Robotics>*

Commons page *Commons <//>*
Portal *Portal </wiki/Portal:Robotics>*
WikiProject *WikiProject </wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Robotics>*

[show <#>]
* v </wiki/Template:Aviation_lists>
* t </wiki/Template_talk:Aviation_lists>
* e
Lists relating to aviation </wiki/Aviation>
* Aircraft </wiki/List_of_aircraft>
o manufacturers </wiki/List_of_aircraft_manufacturers>
* Aircraft engines </wiki/List_of_aircraft_engines>
o manufacturers </wiki/List_of_aircraft_engine_manufacturers>
* Airlines </wiki/List_of_airlines>
o Defunct airlines </wiki/List_of_defunct_airlines>

o Helicopter airlines </wiki/List_of_helicopter_airlines>

Airports </wiki/List_of_airports>
Aerobatic teams </wiki/List_of_aerobatic_teams>
Civil authorities </wiki/List_of_civil_aviation_authorities>
Gliders </wiki/List_of_gliders>
Museums </wiki/List_of_aerospace_museums>
Registration prefixes
* Rotorcraft </wiki/List_of_rotorcraft>
o manufacturers </wiki/List_of_rotorcraft_manufacturers_by_country>
* Timeline </wiki/Timeline_of_aviation>


Air forces </wiki/List_of_air_forces>

Experimental </wiki/List_of_experimental_aircraft>
Missiles </wiki/List_of_missiles>
Unmanned </wiki/List_of_unmanned_aerial_vehicles>
Weapons </wiki/List_of_aircraft_weapons>

Accidents / incidents
* Commercial airliners
o by location
* Fatalities </wiki/List_of_fatalities_from_aviation_accidents>
o by death toll
* General aviation
* Military
* By registration </wiki/List_of_aircraft_by_tail_number>

Airspeed </wiki/Flight_airspeed_record>
Altitude </wiki/Flight_altitude_record>
Distance </wiki/Flight_distance_record>
Endurance </wiki/Flight_endurance_record>
Firsts </wiki/List_of_firsts_in_aviation>
Large </wiki/List_of_large_aircraft>
Most-produced aircraft </wiki/List_of_most-produced_aircraft>
Most-produced rotorcraft </wiki/List_of_most-produced_rotorcraft>

Retrieved from
Categories </wiki/Help:Category>:

Military terminology </wiki/Category:Military_terminology>

Signals intelligence </wiki/Category:Signals_intelligence>
Unmanned aerial vehicles </wiki/Category:Unmanned_aerial_vehicles>
Emerging technologies </wiki/Category:Emerging_technologies>

Hidden categories:

* Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls

* All articles with dead external links
* Articles with dead external links from September 2013
* Articles with dead external links from March 2012
* CS1 Turkish-language sources (tr)
* CS1 errors: dates </wiki/Category:CS1_errors:_dates>
* Articles with links needing disambiguation from October 2013
* Use dmy dates from July 2014
* All articles with unsourced statements
* Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013
* Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013
* Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014
* Articles needing additional references from February 2013
* All articles needing additional references
* Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013
* Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014
* Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014
* All articles containing potentially dated statements
* Articles with unsourced statements from June 2010
* Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014
* Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2013
* All Wikipedia articles in need of updating
* Articles with topics of unclear notability from November 2013
* All articles with topics of unclear notability
* Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014
* All accuracy disputes </wiki/Category:All_accuracy_disputes>
* Articles with disputed statements from October 2014
* Commons category with local link same as on Wikidata
Navigation menu

Personal tools
* Create account
* Log in
* Article </wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle>
* Talk </wiki/Talk:Unmanned_aerial_vehicle>
* Read </wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle>
* Edit </w/index.php?title=Unmanned_aerial_vehicle&action=edit>
* View history </w/index.php?title=Unmanned_aerial_vehicle&action=history>

Main page </wiki/Main_Page>

Contents </wiki/Portal:Contents>
Featured content </wiki/Portal:Featured_content>
Current events </wiki/Portal:Current_events>
Random article </wiki/Special:Random>
Donate to Wikipedia
* Wikimedia Shop <//>

Help </wiki/Help:Contents>
About Wikipedia </wiki/Wikipedia:About>
Community portal </wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal>
Recent changes </wiki/Special:RecentChanges>
Contact page <//>

* What links here </wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle>

* Related changes
* Upload file </wiki/Wikipedia:File_Upload_Wizard>
* Special pages </wiki/Special:SpecialPages>
* Permanent link
* Page information
* Wikidata item <//>
* Cite this page
* Create a book
* Download as PDF
* Printable version
* Azrbaycanca
* ()
* Catal <//>
* etina <//>
* Dansk <//>
* Deutsch <//>
* Eesti <//>
* spao <//>
* sperato <//>
* Fraas <//>
* Frys <//>
* Gaege <//>

* Hrvats <//>
* Baasa Idoesa <//>
* sesa <//>
* Itaao <//>
* Basa Jawa <//>
* Latveu <//>
* Letuv <//>
* Lmburgs <//>
* Magyar
* Baasa Meayu <//>
* Nederads <//>
* Nors bom <//>
* Ozbeca <//>
* Pos <//>
* Portugus
* Rom <//>
* Scots <//>
* Simple English <//>

* Slovenina <//>
* / srpski
* Srpskohrvatski /
* Suomi <//>
* Svenska <//>
* Trke <//>
* Ting Vit
Edit links <//>
* This page was last modified on 10 November 2014 at 00:11.
* Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the
Terms of Use <//> and
Privacy Policy <//>.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation,
Inc. <//>, a non-profit organization.

Privacy policy <//>

About Wikipedia </wiki/Wikipedia:About>
Disclaimers </wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer>
Contact Wikipedia <//>
* Mobile view
* Wikimedia Foundation <//>
* Powered by MediaWiki <//>