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An introduction to EMTP-RV

August 2012

The simulation of
power systems has
never been so easy!

Power system simulation tools


Short circuit calculation :
CYME 5.0 (CYMFAULT), ETAP
Calculations based on sequence data
Suitable for high scale networks
Frequency range : 50/60 Hz

DC

Load-flow calculation :
CYME 5.0 (CYMFLOW), ETAP, PSLF,
Calculation on 3-phase networks
Mainly on balanced networks
Frequency range : 50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz
Transient Stability programs :
Eurostag, PSS/E, DigSilent
Suitable for high scale networks
Simplified modeling of HVDC and
FACTS components
Frequency range : 0.1Hz 1kHz

kHz, MHz
EMTP type programs :
EMTP-RV, ATP, PSCAD, SimPowerSystems
Not suitable for high scale networks
Detailed modeling of equipments
Frequency range : 0.1 Hz MHz
All software can handle transient study related to
electromechanical time constants but EMTP-RV can
handle electromagnetics time constant which are
significantly smaller (faster transients).

EMTP-RV, the Restructured Version


Written from scratch using mostly Fortran-95 in Microsoft Visual Studio
environment.
Include all the EMTP96 functionalities and much more:
3-phase unbalanced load-flow
Scriptable user interface
New models : machines, nonlinear elements
No topological restrictions
New numerical analysis methods :
Newton-raphson solution method for nonlinear models
New three-phase load-flow
Simultaneous switching options for power electronics applications
Open architecture coding that allows users customization (ex : connection
with user defined DLL)

EMTP-RV benefits:
Robust simulation engine
Easy-to-use, drag and drop
interface
Unmatched ease of use
Superior modeling flexibility
Customizable to your needs
Competitive pricing

Customizable to your needs


Superior modeling flexibility
Cant find exactly what youre looking for in the device library? Simply
add your own user-defined device.
Scripting techniques provide the ability to externally program device
data forms and generate the required Netlists. A symbol editor is used
to modify and customize device drawings. Scripting techniques are also
used for parametric studies.
EMTPWorks also lets the user define any number of subcircuits to create
hierarchical designs.a

The software package


EMTP-RV Package includes:
EMTP-RV : computational engine
With EMTP-RV, complex problems become simple to work out.

A powerful and super-fast computational engine that provides significantly improved solution methods for
nonlinear models, control systems, and user-defined models. The engine features a plug-in model interface,
allowing users to add their own models.

EMTPWorks : Graphical User Interface


EMTPWorks, the user-friendly and intuitive Graphical User Interface, provides top-level access to EMTP-RV
simulation methods and models.
EMTPWorks sends design data into EMTP-RV, starts EMTP-RV and retrieves simulation results.
An advanced, yet easy-to-use graphical user interface that maximizes the capabilities of the underlying EMTPRV engine. EMTPWorks offers drag-and-drop convenience that lets users quickly design, modify and simulate
electric power systems. A drawing canvas and the ability to externally program device data allows users to
fully customize simulations to their needs. EMTPWorks can be used for small systems or very large-scale
systems.

ScopeView: the Output Processor for Data display and analysis


ScopeView displays simulation waveforms in a variety of formats.
With EMTPWorks, users can dramatically reduce the time required to setup a study in EMTP-RV.

Key features
EMTP-RV Key features
- The reference in transients simulation
- Solution for large networks
- Provide detailed modeling of the network component including control, linear and non-linear
elements
- Open architecture coding that allows users customization and implementation of sophisticated model
- New steady-state solution with harmonics
- New three-phase load-flow
- Automatic initialization from steady-state solution
- New capability for solving detailed semiconductor models
- Simultaneous switching options for power electronics applications

The GUI key features


EMTPWorks Key features

Object-oriented design fully compatible with Microsoft Windows

Powerful and intuitive interface for creating sophisticated Electrical networks

Drag and drop device selection approach with simple connectivity methods

Both devices and signals are objects with attributes. A drawing canvas is given the ability to create objects
and customized attributes

Single-phase/three-phase or mixed diagrams are supported

Advanced features for creating and maintaining very large to extremely large networks

Large number of subnetwork creation options including automatic subnetwork creation and pin positioning.
Unlimited subnetwork nesting level

Options for creating advanced subnetwork masks

Multipage design methods

Library maintenance and device updating methods

EMTPWorks: EMTP-RV user interface

EMTPWorks: EMTP-RV user interface


Object-oriented design fully compatible with Microsoft Windows
Single-phase/three-phase or mixed diagrams are supported
Large collection of scripts for modifying and/or updating almost anything appearing on the GUI

PLOT

x 10

Substation_A/m1a@vn@1

Substation_A/m1b@vn@1
Substation_A/m1c@vn@1

-1

-2

-3

-4
6

6.01

6.02

6.03

6.04

6.05
time (s)

6.06

6.07

6.08

6.09

6.1

ScopeView
ScopeView is a data acquisition and signal processing software adapted very well for
visualisation and analysis of EMTP-RV results.
It may be used to simultaneously load, view and process data from applications such
as EMTP-RV, MATLAB and Comtrade format files.

Multi-source data importation

Cursor region information

ScopeView

Function editor of ScopeView

Typical mathematical post-processing

A versatile program
EMTP-RV is suited to a wide variety
of power system studies, whether
they relate to project design and
engineering, or to solving problems
and unexplained failures.
EMTP-RV offers a wide variety of
modeling capabilities encompassing
electromagnetic and
electromechanical oscillations
ranging in duration from
microseconds to seconds.

A powerful power system simulation software


EMTP-RVs benefits are:
Unmatched ease of use
Superior modeling flexibility
Customizable to your needs
Dynamic development road-map
Prompt and effective technical support
Reactive sales teams

A powerful power system simulation software


EMTP-RVs strengths:

EMTP-RV version 2.4 new features:

New and advanced HVDC models, including MMC-HVDC

New wind generator models, including average-value model

New control system diagram DLL capability

New Simulink/Real-time Workshop interface DLL

EMTP-RV version 2.4 improvements:


Workshop interface DLL
Improvements in synchronous machine model including a new black start option
Improvements in the asynchronous machine model
Capability to solve multiple frequency load-flow
Improved documentation and various other improvements
New application examples

Power system studies


EMTP-RV is suited to a wide variety of power system
studies including and not limited to:
Power system design

Complete network analysis

Power system stability & load modeling

Ferroresonance

Control system design

Steady-sate analysis of unbalanced system

Motor starting

Distribution networks and distributed generation

Power electronics and FACTS

Power system dynamic and load modeling

HVDC networks

Subsynchronous resonance and shaft stresses

Lighting surges

Power system protection issues

Switching surges

General control system design

Temporary overvoltages

Power quality issues

Insulation coordination

Capacitor bank switching


And much more!

A versatile program
Complete system studies:
Load-flow solution and initialization of synchronous machines
Temporary overvoltages to network islanding
Ferroresonance and harmonic resonance
Selection and usage of arresters
Fault transients
Statistical analysis of overvoltages
Electromechanical transients

Applications
Power system design
Power systems protection issues
Network analysis: network separation, power quality, geomagnetic
storms, interaction between compensation and control components, wind
generation
Detailed simulation and analysis of large scale (unlimited size)
electrical systems
Simulation and analysis of power system transients: lightning,
switching, temporary conditions
General purpose circuit analysis: wideband, from load-flow to steadystate to time-domain (Steady-state analysis of unbalanced systems)
Synchronous machines: SSR, auto-excitation, control
Transmission line systems: insulation coordination, switching, design,
wideband line and cable models

Applications
Power Electronics and FACTS (HVDC, SVC, VSC, TCSC, etc.)
Multiterminal HVDC systems
Series compensation: MOV energy absorption, short-circuit conditions,
network interaction
Transmission line systems: insulation coordination, switching,
design, wideband line and cable models
Switchgear: TRV, shunt compensation, current chopping, delayedcurrent zero conditions, arc interaction
Protection: power oscillations, saturation problems, surge arrester
influences
Temporary overvoltages
Capacitor bank switching
Series and shunt resonances
Detailed transient stability analysis
Unbalanced distribution networks

Simulation options
Load-flow
Steady-state
Time-domain
Frequency scan

Simulation options
Load-Flow solution
The electrical network equations are solved using complex phasors.
The active (source) devices are only the Load-Flow devices (LF-devices).
A load device is used to enter PQ load constraint equations.
Only single (fundamental) frequency solutions are achievable in this
version. The solution frequency is specified by Default Power Frequency
and used in passive network lumped model calculations.
The same network used for transient simulations can be used in loadflow analysis. The EMTP Load-Flow solution can work with multiphase
and unbalanced networks.
The control system devices are disconnected and not solved.
This simulation option stops and creates a solution file (Load-Flow
solution data file). The solution file can be loaded for automatically
initializing anyone of the following solution methods.

Simulation options
Steady-state solution
The electrical network equations are solved using complex numbers. This
option can be used in the stand-alone mode or for initializing the timedomain solution.
A harmonic steady-state solution can be achieved.
The control system devices are disconnected and not solved.
Some nonlinear devices are linearized or disconnected. All devices have a
specific steady-state model.
The steady-state solution is performed if at least one power source
device has a start time (activation time) lower than 0.

Simulation options
Time-domain solution
The electrical network and control system equations are solved using a
numerical integration technique.
All nonlinear devices are solved simultaneously with network equations.
A Newton method is used when nonlinear devices exist.
The solution can optionally start from the steady-state solution for
initializing the network variables and achieving quick steady-state
conditions in time-domain waveforms.
The steady-state conditions provide the solution for the time-point t=0.
The user can also optionally manually initialize state-variables.

Simulation options
Frequency scan solution
This option is separate from the two previous options. All source
frequencies are varied using the given frequency range and the
network steady-state solution is found at each frequency.

Build-in libraries and


Standard models

available in EMTP-RV

Built-in librairies
EQUIPMENT

FEATURES

advanced.clf

Provides a set of advanced power electronic devices

Pseudo Devices.clf

Provides special devices, such as page connectors. The port devices are normally created using the menu
Option>Subcircuit>New Port Connector, they are available in this library for advanced users.

RLC branches.clf

Provides a set of RLC type power devices. .

Work.clf

This is an empty library accessible to users

control.clf

The list of primitive control devices.

control devices of
TACS.clf

This control library is provided for transition from EMTP-V3. It imitates EMTP-V3 TACS functions.

control functions.clf

Various control system functions.

control of machies.clf

Exciter devices for power system machines.

flip flops.clf

A set of flip-flop functions for control systems.

hvdc.clf

Collection of dc bridge control functions. Documentation is available in the subcircuit.

lines.clf

Transmission lines and cables.

machines.clf

Rotating machines.

meters.clf

Various measurement functions, including sensors for interfacing control device signals with power device
signals.

meters periodic.clf

Meters for periodic functions.

nonlinear.clf

Various nonlinear electrical devices.

options.clf

EMTP Simulation options, plot functions and other data management functions.

phasors.clf

Control functions for manipulating phasors.

sources.clf

Power sources.

switches.clf

Switching devices.

symbols.clf

These are only useful drawing symbols, no pins.

transformations.clf

Mathematical transformations used in control systems.

transformers.clf

Power system transformers.

Standard models
Library

RLC branches

Control

Control of Machines
Flip flops
Lines

Models
R, L, C branches
PI circuits
Loads
State space block
Gain, constant
Integral, derivative
Limiter,
Sum
Selector
Delay
State-space block
PLL
IEEE excitation systems
Governor / turbine
Flip-flop D, J-K, S-R,T
CP (distributed parameters)
FD (=CP + frequency dependence)
FDQ (=FD for cables)
WB (phase domain)
Corona

Standard models
Library

Machines

Meters
Meters periodic

Nonlinear

Sources

3
1

08/06/2014

Models
Induction Machine (single cage, double cage, wound rotor)
Synchronous Machine
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
DC machine
2-phase machine
Current, voltage, power meters
RMS meters and sequence meters
Non linear resistance
Non linear inductance
Hysteresis reactor
ZnO arrester
SiC arrester
AC, DC voltage sources
AC, DC current sources
Lightning inpulse current source
Current and voltage controlled sources
Load-flow bus

Standard models

Library

Switches

Transformations

Transformateurs

Advanced

Models
Ideal switch
Diode
Thyristor
Air gap
3-phase <-> sequence
3-phase <-> dq0
Based on single phase units : DD, YY, DY, YD, YYD
Topological models : TOPMAG
Impedance based : BCTRAN, TRELEG
Frequency dependent admittance matrix : FDBFIT
Variable load
SVC
STATCOM

Built-in librairy of examples

Easily find what youre looking for by browsing or using a simple index.

Typical designs
Modeling Electrical
Systems with EMTP-RV

Insulation Coordination of a 765 kV GIS


1

- Backflashover Case
- Impulse Footing Resistance of the stricken
Tower may be represented by Ri = f(I)
- Usage of ZnO model based on IEEE SPD WG
- Frequency-Dependant Line modeling

200 kA 3/100 us
Lightning Stroke

I/O FILES

MPLOT

foudre_30km_ex2.lin

foudre_300m_ex1.lin

2
LINE DATA
LIGHTNING_STROKE

Network

LINE DATA

model in: foudre_30km_ex2_rv.pun

765 kV Line
Tower_top
+ VM ?v

Air-Insulated Substation

Gas-Insulated Substation

model in: foudre_300m_ex1_rv.pun

Air-Insulated Substation

?v
+ VM
Trans_c
?v

SOURCE_NETWORK
BUS_NET

735kV /_0

a
b

+
+

300 m

bushing

?v

300 m

b
+

?v
a

CB_a
+
?v
CB_b
VM +
?v
CB_c
VM +

VM

+ VM
Trans_a

+
+
+

30 km

VM

1M

cond_c
VM +
?v

a
b

+ VM
Trans_b

Open Circuit-Breaker

?v/?v/?v

Simulation
options

1M

1M

+
?i

C3

48

+
L12

4nF

52

+
+

+
+

?i

52 m

L3

48 m

C2

?i +
L11

+
?i

+
C1

L10

?i +

25 m

?i

L1

TOWER3
Part=TOWER_model1ohm

TOWER2
Part=TOWER_model15_f

To eliminate
undesirable reflexions

TOWER1
Part=TOWER_model15_1

L2

0.1nF

Gas-filled
CVT 588 kV Zno Bushing

4nF

4nF

0.1nF

0.1nF

Inductive VT

Gas-filled
Bushing
J

Power
588 kV Zno
Transformer
K

Field Recording
(10-08-1986)

Validation of the Secondary Arc


M odel with IREQ Laboratory Tests

EMTP-RV Simulation
(05-22-2005)

2
R2
+
?i

SW1
+
100ms /200ms /0

C2

0.7,13Ohm

C3

1.60uF

Secondary arc

300
RL1
+

3
1.05uF

0.2

AC1

66.4k VRMS /_0

0.2

R3

DEV1

Sec _ARC_a
R1

Primary Arc: 5 kA eff


Secondary Arc: 40 A
Wind Speed: 9.7 km/h
Secondary Arc Duration: 1.04 sec.
315 kV insulator string, l=2.3 m

I/O FILES

Switching of A 420 kV Three-Phase Shunt-Reactor

I/O FILES

State of the art simulation introducing:


- A realistic model of a three-phase shunt reactor taking into account
the asymetrical couplings of the magnetic circuit;
- A realistic circuit-breaker model based on the well-known
Cassie - Mayr modified arc equations.

4
+

+
0. 5

1. 6nF

0. 5

1uH

1uH

in

in

ou t

0. 05nF

CB_ARC_a

CB_ARC_a

C9

1. 15nF

20 m

DEV4

Simplifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r' s & Cas s ies e qua tions

ou t

0. 375nF

DEV3

Sim plifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r's & Ca s s ies e qua tions

25uH

10

m+1V M
?v

1. 6nF

0. 5

1uH

1uH

DEV5

in

4nF

DEV6

Sim plifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r's & Ca s s ies e qua tions
c

1. 6nF

+
C11

Simplifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r' s & Cas s ies e qua tions

ou t

in

ou t

1. 15nF

CB_ARC_a

CB_ARC_a

Line CVT

C13

4nF

405kVRM SLL / _- 30

0. 5

200nF

AC1

0. 75nF

+
30m H

1uH

200k

65 m

+
0. 8

1uH

0. 75nF

0. 5

3000

+
1. 6nF

CB_ARC_a
C8

0. 5

0. 75nF

Line

1. 6nF

R12

0. 75nF

0. 05nF
+

350

R10

ou t

CB_ARC_a

in

0. 375nF

Simplifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r' s & Cas s ies e qua tions

ou t

BUS24

DEV2

Sim plifie d Arc M ode l


ba s e d on
M a y r's & Ca s s ies e qua tions
in

200k

DEV1

BUS23

1. 6nF

0. 05nF

C10

Network

Substation

420 kV Busbar

CT

Double-break 420 kV SF6 C.-B.

420 kV Busbar

CVT

Three-phase 420 kV Shunt-Reactor

Three-Phase 420 kV 100 MVARS Shunt Reactor


F= 0.548 Wb, N=1409 turns, L1=5.617 H
For mu (50 Hz) = 0.06 H/m:
Xac=Xca= 9 Ohms
Xba=Xbc=7 Ohms
Xab=14 Ohms
Xaa= 1741 Ohms
Xbb= 1750 Ohms
Xcc=1741 Ohms

9
g = 12 mm

2900 mm

x
x= 710 mm

1
0

For mu (700 Hz) = 0.01 H/m:

2x

1
0

Xac=Xca= 54 Ohms
Xba=Xbc=42 Ohms
Xab=84 Ohms
Xaa= 1741 Ohms
Xbb= 1750 Ohms
Xcc=1741 Ohms

M W,M X,PF

SM
?m
+

AVR&Gov
(pu)

1 3 .8 k V
2 0 0 M VA

CP

80

IN

80
CP2

R3

SM

?i

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

?m

Ou t

DEV4

SM 9

1 3 .8 /2 3 0

AVR_ Go v _ 9

5 /5 .1 /0
5 /5 .1 /0
1 E1 5 /1 e 1 5 /0

BUS1

162 M W

CP2

290

50
+

CP

60 Hz only

v
193.1

m _ Su b s _ B_ 2 3 0 k V
+ VM

SVC_1
CP2

1
P

40%

3
5 0 0 /2 3 0 /5 0

R1
?i

Q
P
+

P_ L o a d

2000uF
p3

pF=88%

s c ope
Q_ L o a d
s c ope

0 .0 5 u F

1600 M W
240 M X

96uF

+/- 400 M vars


STATCOM
i n Substation B

SM 4

2 3 0 /2 6 .4
0 .0 1 3
0 .2 2 Oh m

Se r_ C_ 2

SM

200 M W

2
1
+

1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0
1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0
1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0

220 km

s c ope

P_ Ex c h

96uF

Ou t2

In 2

140 km

Ou t1

Q_ Ex c h
s c ope

p2

?v
15uF

?m

0 .3 u F

VM

Su b s ta ti o n _ C

Su b s ta ti o n _ B

Ou t2

140 km

2
SM 3

In 1

Ou t1

Su b s ta ti o n _ A

In 2

?m

IN
AVR&Gov
(pu)

Se r_ C_ 1
In 1

SM 2

AVR_ Go v _ 4

-1 /1 E1 5 /0

SM

Ou t

5 0 0 /2 3 0 /5 0
2

220 km

40%

SM
IN
AVR&Gov
(pu)

280 km

?m

AVR&Gov
(pu)

m _Load_230k V

Ou t

2 x 240 M W
s c ope Pt

5 0 0 /1 3 .8 /1 3 .8

SM 1

IN

Ou t

1 3 .8 /2 3 0

p1

?m

AVR_ Go v _ 2
AVR_ Go v _ 3

3
?m

s c ope Qt

SM
IN
AVR&Gov
(pu)

5 0 0 /2 3 0 /5 0

5 0 0 /2 3 0 /5 0

1 3 .8 k V
4 0 0 M VA

Ou t

76 M W

1300 M W
AVR_ Go v _ 1

110

48uF

SM 8

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

60 Hz only

+/- 150 M X
SVC

SM
Ou t

900 M W

? v /? v /? v

48uF

AVR_ Go v _ 8

1
Z Ds
it

Va ,Vb ,Vc

1 3 .8 k V
1 2 5 M VA
1

Z Ds
it

DEV5

MW,MX,PF

Kp, Kq

Np, Nq

60 Hz only

Va,Vb,Vc

SW6
+
-1/1E15/0

M W,M X,PF

CP

6 9 /2 2 5

DEV2

AVR&Gov
(pu)
IN

R5
?i

180 M W

230k V
1 2 0 0 0 M VA

Np, Nq

SM 1 0

8250 M W

1 4 4 .8
+

240 M W

Kp, Kq

60

9000 M W

Z Ds
it

M W,M X,PF

60 Hz only

MW,MX,PF
CP

Out

AVR&Gov
(pu)

?m
2
+

45 M W

DEV3

9 6 .5

Va ,Vb ,Vc

Yg Yg _ n p 5

1
2

CP

1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0
1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0
1 E1 5 /1 E1 5 /0

Z Ds
it

BUS5

Q
p7

s c ope
P_ Va r_ s p e e d

DEV1

Va,Vb,Vc

2 3 0 /2 6 .4

C1 2
2

0 .2 5 u F

IN

Out

AVR_Gov _5

av r_gov ernor_pu

AVR&Gov
(pu)
IN

?m

60 Hz only

Va ,Vb ,Vc

BUS7

+
C8

Q_ Va r_ s p e e d
s c ope

3
69/0.69

132 M W

BUS9

0.13
2.2Ohm

0 .1 ,0 .5 Oh m

AVR_ Go v _ 1 0

Sq Ca g e _ 4

3 x 1M W Doubly-fed
with PWM controller
(Variable speed)

Out

AVR&Gov
(pu)

IN

?m
1
2

2 3 0 /7 1
0 .2 5 u F

6 9 /3 .3

Z Ds
it

p6

+
2
ASM S

1 3 .8 /2 3 0

Yg Yg _ n p 4
P

RL 1

0 .2 ,1 Oh m

6 9 /3 .3

Large Gen.-Load Center

1 3 .8 k V
2 0 0 M VA

1 3 .8 /2 3 0

Qt_ Wi n d Ge n
s c ope

R4
+

0 .0 4 ,0 .2 Oh m

ASM S

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

1 3 .8 /2 3 0

Pt_ wi n d Ge n
s c ope

50
2

SM 5

VM

6 9 /3 .3

SM 6

? v /? v /? v

0 .1 ,0 .5 Oh m

1 3 .8 k V
5 5 0 M VA

+
-1/1E15/0

520 M W

SM 7

CP2

ASM S

77 M W WIND
IM GENERATION
(Constant speed)

m _ 6 9 k V_ wi n d

6 9 /3 .3

1 3 .8 k V
5 0 M VA

2
ASM S

4 x (10 X 2 MW)
induc. machine
pf 0.85

Q_ Sta t_ 3 0
s c ope

SM

P
Q

p4

40 M W

Sq Ca g e _ 1

H
AVR_Gov _6

+/- 30 MVARS
STATCOM

SM

Out

DEV6

AVR_Gov _7

AVR&Gov
(pu)

IN

SM

8
1

8
2 5 .5 /1 2

Va ,Vb ,Vc

L a rg e _ i n d

15%

Va ,Vb ,Vc

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

M W,M X,PF

60 Hz only

Sm a l l _ i n d

30%

Fl u o _ l i g h t

20%

Va ,Vb ,Vc

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

ASM

ASM

6 .6 k V
7 7 0 .M VA
?m

3700uF

?m

M W,M X,PF

2
12k V
3 8 5 .M VA

Si m u l a ti o n
o p ti o n s
1 4 1 0 .u F

M W,M X,PF

2 5 .5 /6 .6

60 Hz only
In c a n _ l i g h t

10%

Np, Nq
Kp, Kq

2 .2 6 3
+

I/O FIL ES

60 Hz only
Co l o r_ Tv

5%

R2

20%

1560 M W Res.-Com.-Ind. Load


A

Windmill Power Generation


In a weak Power System

12 x 2 M VA Doubly-fed
with PWM controller
(Variable Speed)

Realistic
Realistic
Realistic
Realistic
Dynamic

Wind Data;
DFIG Modeling;
Network & Load Models
Harmonic Distorsions &
Performances

20 MW

WIND2
P_Gr2

scope
Q_Gr_2
scope

Delay
!h

11 MW

Np,Nq
Kp,Kq

LL-g 6 cycles fault

Va,Vb,Vc

VLOADg1

SW1

P_netw

scope
Q_netw
scope

MW,MX,PF

Q_Gr1

p2

69/13.8

Weak Local 69 kV
Network (150 MVA)

40nF
m1

Y gD_2

+ VM

2
69/6.6

5nF

scope

DFIG_1

5nF
C4

C3

MPLOT

?v

Y gD_1

?m

8 MW

SM

MW,MX,PF

in

ASM1

ASM

out

SM1

AVR

AVR_SM1

0.1
1Ohm

13.8kV
10MVA

170uF

6.6kV
5000hp

?m

6.5 MW

Va,Vb,Vc
VLOAD2

Np,Nq
Kp,Kq

50/60 Hz

Small Industrial load


I/O FILES

Y gD_3

40nF

1uF

WIND1

scope

P_Gr1

69/0.69

+
30

p1

8 MW

Y gD_4

?i

32Ohm

69kV /_0

69/0.69

100
Q

+
4

5/5.1/0
5/5.1/0
1E15/1E15/0

+
P

5 x 2 M VA Doubly-fed
with PWM controller
(Variable Speed)

p3

DFIG_2

Z Dist

0.4k

50/60 Hz

15 MW

Insulation Coordination of a 150 kV GIS


1

0.1nF

T25
+

0.1nF

T15

BB1
+

CP

CP

1.1

CP

1.1

1.1

CP

CP

1.1

CP

1.1

1.1

BB2

Q1

Q2

CB

Q1

Q2

m6
+VM
?v

CP

2.3

+
+

CP

CB

1.75

CP

1.75

CP

1.75

CB

CB

L1

1.6

1.6

CP

1.6

CP

1.6

CP

CP

17.4

CP

m3
+VM
?v

3000

CP

10.6

CP

ZnO +

?i

MCOV=112 kV

+
+

T5

3850

CP

3850

30

T5

2nF

TRANS2

2nF

TRANS3
4

m5
+VM
?v

CABLE1

CABLE3

CABLE2

GW

CP

R1
+
150
+

5
170kVRMSLL /_180

m4
+VM
?v

+
ZnO1

AC1

L3

300

CP

3uH

300

reference
ZnO +

g1

MCOV=112 kV

m
1
.
1

2.9335cm

m
1
.
1

m
1
.
1

2.6225cm

?i

R4
+
450

?vi>S

R3
+
450

280000

GW

280000

ZnO +

?i
+

+
CP

ZnO3

TRANS1

2nF

T1

0.1nF

m2
+VM
?v

MCOV=112 kV

Tower
4

L2
3uH

+
CP

ZnO2

m1
+VM
?v

T1

3uH

11.1

R2

T1

0.1nF
+

T5

DEV6

T1

20

1.6

T1

CP

1.6

0.1nF

T1

T1

CP

Backflashover at 300 m from the substation


on the 4th connected 150 kV line

1.6

CP

CP

CP

1.75

CP

Q2

CP

1.1

Q2

CB

1.75

+
CP

1.75

+
CP

1.75

CB

CB

Q1

CP

1.1

Q1

Q2

CP

1.1
+

Q1

Q2

CP

1.1

CP

1.1

Q1

Q2

CP

1.1

Q1

1.254cm

three 150 kV lines

0.25m
0.50m

6
A

6
F

TRV STUDY AT A 345 kV SUBSTATION

1
P=-491.5MW
Q=37.4MVAR
Vsine_z:VwZ3

LF
LF3
Phase:0
0.99/_-1.0

UNIT 1
806.5 MVA

P=676MW
V=23.712kVRMSLL
s184a
Vsine_z:VwZ6

LV

0.02975Ohm

HV

25nF

450'

DEV3

25nF

+
30

CCPD

R5-7

(3)

Phase:0

50nF

CCPD

0.1nF

f=8.77 kHz

25nF

+
+

7.5nF

R6-7

+
R24

0.02975Ohm

25nF

55'

7.5nF

150'
+
+

33'

110'

33'
CB_2DISC

33'
CB_2DISC

150'

(4)
R1-5

0.02975Ohm

61

55'

1.00/_3.5

1.00/_3.5

150'

0.02975Ohm

LF
LF6

22.8 kV Delta
345/1.732 kV Yn
s184

VwZ3

279171.940927 /_-5
279171.940927 /_-125
279171.940927 /_115
PQbus:LF3

0.1nF

150'

29.75
+

+
0.00119

29.75
+

+
VwZ6

2500

29.75
+

900

29.75
+

R8
+

FD

788

20136 /_-12
20136 /_-132
20136 /_108
PVbus:LF6

View Steady -State

R1-11

R6-11

33'

33'

CB_2DISC

33'

33'

33'

CB_2DISC

CB_2DISC

110'
+

R2A-12

R2A-5

R6-12

0.1nF

113
5

C15

75'

450'

+
2nF

150'

300'
+

Start & Standby Xformers

90'

33'

75'

0.1nF
+

33'

33'

33'

33'

33'
+

33'

CB_2DISC

Start & Standby Xformers

90'

1
+

23.9 kV Delta
346.4/1.732 kV Yn

0.1nF

0.3nF
+

33'
CB_2DISC

VM

CB_2DISC

R2G-5

?v
m1

?v
m2

VM

33'

R2G-6
1.03/_0.8

CP

FD

(2)
+

+
+
345/161/15

Slack: 343.27kVRMSLL/_0
Vsine_z:VwZ5

+
VwZ4
R10
+

0.1uF
450
+
R6

345/161 kV
Autotransformer

VwZ5

1.3e+5 /_-12
1.3e+5 /_-132
1.3e+5 /_108
PQbus:LF4

30

2.5nF

LF5
Phase:0
+

+
R5

LF4
Phase:0
27.39MW
11.01MVAR

+
LF

2.8e+5 /_-7
2.8e+5 /_-127
2.8e+5 /_113
Slack:LF5

50nF

30

LF

1.01/_0.3

R9
+
1020

P=-204.9MW
Q=-29MVAR
Vsine_z:VwZ4

2
1

0.99/_0.0

Three-Phase-to Ground
Fault Location

1.nF

1.nF

0.1uF
1.nF

33'

(1)

150'
+

17.85

25nF

CP

25nF

2.5nF

25nF

345/161 kV
Autotransformer

327.5/161/13.8

7.5nF

Inductiv e VT
110'

25nF

55'

LF

VM

?v
m3

19707 /_-12
19707 /_-132
19707 /_108
PVbus:LF2

450'

HV

1.nF

300'
LV

s155

0.0281Ohm

0.0281Ohm

0.0281Ohm

0.0281Ohm

0.001124

CCPD

15.81

DEV19

+
VwZ2

R17

90'

0.1nF

LF2
Phase:0

2500

55'

110'

450'
C13

2nF

28.1

220'

LF

28.1

CB_2DISC

28.1

CB_2DISC

220'

28.1

UNIT 2
1110 M VA

P=850MW
V=23.712kVRMSLL
s155a
Vsine_z:VwZ2

50nF

1
0

1
0

Wind

200 MW Wind Farm Integration Study

1
DYg_10
2
1
0.69/34.5

+
RL

PI9

DEV2
Wind

DYg_7
2
1

PI8

Wind

RL

+/- 80 MVars SVC

0.69/34.5

DYg_8
2
1
SVC_1
Unique top

50/60 Hz

0.69/34.5

Np,Nq
Kp,Kq

1x
PI7

2
1

138 kV Network

Wind

VLOAD1
+

Va,Vb,Vc

3x

RL

DYg_1
2
1

MW,MX,PF

0.69/34.5

50.00

CP

m1
+VM
?v

1
SW1
+
-1|1.1|0

3
138/34.5/13.8
?

SW2
+
1.6|1.7|0

SW4
+
1.6|1.7|0

Wind

CP

PI1

SW3
+
-1|1.1|0

50.00

PI4

C2

DYg_2
2
1

+
RL

DEV1
v

Wind
RL

0.69/34.5

PI2

Wind

DYg_4
1
2

RL

SW5
+
1|1E15|0
1|1E15|0
1e15|1E15|0

PI10

+
140kVRMSLL /_0

RL1

RL

2
AC1

DYg_3
2
1

0.69/34.5
DEV3

PI3

Wind
RL

DYg_5
1
2

DYg_9
2
1

RL

0.69/34.5

PI5

0.69/34.5

Wind

0.69/34.5

PI6

RL

Wind

6
DYg_6
1
2

0.69/34.5

Ferroresonance Study

P
scope

RL2
+
0.0001,0.0001Ohm

LV

HV
1.15nF

V1

Tr0

Y
I

66

303.11kVRMS /_0

1.227nF

132.79
+

+
0.054,2.68Ohm

I ?i

Hyst2
?vipf

m2
?v

0.1uF

Tr0_2
303.12kV +

VM +

+
AC1

p1

-1|50ms|5

RL1
+
0.721,54.06Ohm

m1
+A
?i

+
0.5,10Ohm

jacobson_siemens_170mva_3.dat
model in: jacobson_siemens_170mva_2.hys
P

200

3.4nF
+

hfit1

Ydyn

Q
scope

5nF

4.025nF

Tertiary

V2
4.025nF

Dynamic Resistance Controller


Modeling Eddy losses

scope

V1

p2
v(t)

loss1
1

+
-

V2

scope
scp9
Gain1

scp3

sum1

Int1

Fm2
1

Ftb1

ABS

297.2

p3
v(t)

Ydyn

scope

scp10

Fm1
1

RECIP

110000

Modeled Hysteresis Characteristic


at 1.0 &1.4 pu

Obtained HV Hysteresis
Characteristic at 1.0 & 1.4pu
(including Cap & Eddy losses)
5

Simulated Saturation Characteristic


(Air reactance of 45.8%)

Xm@1.0 pu = 300 kOhms


Air reactance=44.3%@ 170 M VA

Vm2 rms in pu of 303.11 kV


1.2
1.3
1.4

Im1 (rms) in pu of 170 MVA


0.021
0.180
0.406

7
A

Switching of A 420 kV Three-Phase Shunt-Reactor

I/O FILES

State of the art simulation introducing:


- A realistic model of a three-phase shunt reactor taking into account
the asymetrical couplings of the magnetic circuit;
- A realistic circuit-breaker model based on the well-known
Cassie - Mayr modified arc equations;

4
+

+
0 .5

1 .6 n F

0 .5

1u H

1 uH

DEV3

10

0 .3 75n F

20 m

DEV4

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations

25 uH

30 m H

1 uH

in

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations
out

in

out

C9

1 .1 5 n F

0 .0 5 n F

?v

CB_ ARC_ a

CB_ ARC_ a

m1
+ VM

0 .3 75 nF

65 m

+
0 .8

+
1u H

1u H

1 uH

DEV5

4nF

DEV6

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations
c

a
b
c

Line CVT

in

C1 1

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations
out

in

0 .0 5 n F

1 .1 5 n F

out

CB_ ARC_ a

CB_ ARC_ a

+
+

C1 3

0 .5

1 .6 n F

0 .5

4 nF

4 0 5 k VRM SL L /_ -3 0

+
1 .6 n F

2 00n F

AC1

0 .7 5n F

+
0 .5

0.75 nF

+
1 .6 n F

20 0k

Line

3 00 0

CB_ ARC_ a
C8

0 .5

1 .6 n F

R1 2

0 .0 5 n F
+

35 0

R1 0
+

out

CB_ ARC_ a

BUS2 4

in

2 00 k

out

0 .75n F

in

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations

DEV2

Sim plified Ar c Model


based on
Mayr 's & Cassies equations

0.7 5nF

DEV1
BUS2 3

1 .6 n F

C1 0

Network

Substation

420 kV Busbar

CT

Double-break 420 kV SF6 C.-B.

420 kV Busbar

CVT

Three-phase 420 kV Shunt-Reactor

Three-Phase 420 kV 100 MVARS Shunt Reactor


F= 0.548 Wb, N=1409 turns, L1=5.617 H
For mu (50 Hz) = 0.06 H/m:
Xac=Xc a= 9 Ohms
Xba=Xbc =7 Ohms
Xab=14 Ohms
Xaa= 1741 Ohms
Xbb= 1750 Ohms
Xc c=1741 Ohms

9
g = 12 mm

2900 mm

For mu (700 Hz) = 0.01 H/m:

1
0

x
x= 710 mm

1
0

2x

Xac =Xca= 54 Ohms


Xba=Xbc =42 Ohms
Xab=84 Ohms
Xaa= 1741 Ohms
Xbb= 1750 Ohms
Xc c =1741 Ohms

x 10

Validation of the Air gap leader


Model with CIGRE equation

PLOT
Vleader_3MV@vn@1
breakdown time

-0.5

The applied surge varies


between -3 and -5M V

-1

m2
-1.5

VM +

?v

4
t (ms)

R
+
AG

7
x 10

Leader

The leader length


varies between 3 and 6m

-2.5

100

-2

-3

Vsurge
?v
-3060kV/-14000/-4166666

breakdown time definition


3

3
0

x 10

PLOT
Vleader@vn@1
Vsurge2@vb@1

Length (m)

-0.5

Voltage(MV)

-1

3
4
5

-1.5

-2

Model
1.69
0.95
0.69

4
Equation
2.568
1.2516
0.7867

Model
2.9
1.58
1.1

5
Equation
5.4155
2.1491
1.2516

6
Model Equation Model
4.8
2.15
3.6902
3.1
1.3
1.9316
1.8

breakdown time comparison in us

-2.5

3
Equation
1.2516
0.6944
0.4622

-3

-3.5

-4

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05
t (ms)

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

A typical leader breakdown voltage


compared to the applied surge voltage

Ref:
1- Shindo, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Toshio (CRIEPI) " New Calculation Method
of Breakdown Voltage-Time Characteristics of Long Air Gaps",
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 6,
June 1985, pp 1556-1563.

2- DARVENIZA(M.); POPOLANSKY (F.); WHITEHEAD (E.R.) "Lightning protection of


UHV transmission lines", CIGRE report 1975-41.

I/O FILES

f max=f o+df

sum2
+
-

C2

Io_lim

fo

1
-0.15

Current Controller w ith VDCL

PI Controller

0.35

Kp=0.35
Ki=0.35

f req limits
set here

C3

c
1
id_rec_pu

Scaling of Id

DEV6

freq_order

PLL osc 1

vdcl_input

freq_order

Fault/Test Sequence Generator:


Enter: amplitude and timing sequence

pulse_train

AC Filters

v_pri_rec_b
v_pri_rec_c

C6

4.573uF
RLC8

L3
82.6

f(s)

MAX

Fm1

fs1

R4

3.846mH

This is necessary f or f ast initialisation

vd_rec

pulse_train
deblock

vd_rec_pu

FR

DEV1

Frequency Measurement Circuit

RLC +

vac_rec

vac_rec

deblock

vd_out
vd_out

Vdetector

AC-DC Voltage Measurement Circuit


V.K.Sood

Fm8
RL1

rec_bus

R3
+

s158

+
1

3 Ph f ault

230/205.45

vd_rec

cSW1

R6
+
1
1

cSW2
+
cSW3

gates
m1

id_rec

?v

YgD_2
1
2

RLC

1k,0,0.1uF

RLC4

Rectifier

+
1

ACFault1

sg4

L4

Recov ery f rom a dc f ault will require FR to be coordinated

rec_delta_bus

6-pulse bridge
3-phase

R1
+

DC Fault

RLC2

DCf ilter

s123

+ VM

To Bipolar DC system

ACFault3
sg1

i(t)p2
1,0.2814,1uF

Inv erter
1,0.2814,1uF

gates

250mH

220kV

GND

230/205.45

cSW5

1 Ph f ault

350mH

RLC5
220kV

R8
+

+
2.5

DCFault

RLC3

v (t)

RLC +

2.5

DC1

DC2

RLC6

350mH

D1
1000,0,0.1uF

R5
+

NOR

R7
+

RLC

Fm3

sg7

1
2
3
4
5
6

D2
1000,0,0.1uF

1
2
3
4
5
6

RLC1

0.1

3-phase
rec_star_bus
2

VDCL

6-pulse bridge

0.050
1

1
2
3
4
5
6

F1

YY2
1

Delay

sg3

2
3
4
5
6

AC2
?vi

dly1

F1
2
3
4
5
6

0.25,45mH

230kV /_60

BLOCK

rec_bus2

sg2

scp2
scope
rec_delta_pulses

Fm9

RLC

Startup

rec_star_firing

1
2
3
4
5
6

RLC +

RLC +

0.63,27.83mH,3.009uF
0.63,19.52mH,3.009uF
RLC7

Forced Retard Rectif ier

scp1
scope

rec_star_pulses

Bridge_star
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F12
Bridge_delta

f_out
V.K.Sood

sg6

T ests possible:
1. Step change in Io
2. Voltage Dependent Current Limit (VDCL)
3. Block/Deblock of firing pulses
4. DC Line fault with protection & recovery sequence
5. Three phase ac bus fault, with recovery sequence
6. Single phase ac bus fault, high impedance, no protection
7. Forced retard of rectifier firing pulses
8. Step change in oscillator frequency

1000,0,0.1uF

Step_Io

fa_in
fb_in
fc_in

v (t)
v_pri_rec_a

p1

Purpose: Teaching/Training of personnel on HVDC systems

Firing_Generator

f_m easure

Prepared by: V.K.Sood, sood.vijay@ireq.ca


Date: May 2003

DEV5

vd_rec_pu

DEV4

Step changes in Io

sg8

-0.2 pu
300-500 ms
1.0 pu
300-500 ms
1.0 pu
300-500 ms
1.0 pu
300-350 ms
0.75 pu 325-375ms
0.75 pu 300-400ms
1.0 pu
300-400ms
1.0 pu
300-400ms
25 Hz
300-400ms

Step Io
VDCL
BLOCK
DCFault
Apply FR
ACFault3
ACFault1
FR
Step Frequency

V.K.Sood

sg5

1.
2.
3.
4.

pulse_train

freq_meas

freq_meas

Timing

+ RLC

Amplitude

5.
6.
7.
8.

0.35

1600

Model of HVDC Rectifier operating with weak ac system


and bipolar 6-p dc system

Description
lim1

f min=f o-df

PI

V.K.Sood
id_rec

Suggested Test Sequences

0.15

DEV2
u
out
Kp
Ki

error

Vd_static
Vd_dynamic

Iref

1.0

s40

Imin

Imax

VDCL

Iref

DOUBLE CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

DEV3

1.2

Io_limit

cSW4

Imax

c
C1

C
sum3

0.3

Imin
C5

+
R2

C4

Field Recording
(10-08-1986)

Validation of the Secondary Arc


Model with IREQ Laboratory Tests

EM TP-RV Simulation
(05-22-2005)

2
R2
+
300
?i
RL1
+
0.7,13Ohm

C3

1.60uF

AC1

0.2

DEV1

Sec_ARC_a
+

66.4kVRMS /_0

1.05uF

Secondary arc

C2

SW1
+
100ms/200ms/0

R3

0.2

R1

Primary Arc: 5 kA eff


Secondary Arc: 40 A
Wind Speed: 9.7 km/h
Secondary Arc Duration: 1.04 sec.
315 kV insulator string, l=2.3 m

Ref.: Kizilcay M ., Bn G., Prikler L., Handl P.: "Interaction


of the Secondary Arc with the Transmission System during
Single-Phase Autoreclosure" IEEE Bologna PowerTech
Conference, June 23-26, 2003
Bologna, Italy, Paper 471

I/O FILES

Example of Synchronous/Asynchronous Machine Modeling


- Starting an 11000 hp motor at 1s with 5 induction machines
already in steady-state
- LL-g fault on the 120 kV bus with system islanding at 9 s
- System recovery by the governor system of the large SM until 30 s
- Case showing the good numerical stability of large number of machines in EMTP-RV
- Ref. (Motor): G. J. Rogers, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC2, No 4
Dec. 1987, pp. 622-628.
- Using variable output rate after 15 s of simulation.

?v
13.8kV
500MVA

Tm

ASM1
YgYg_np2
2
1

?i

+
120kV /_17

9/9.15/0
9/9.15/0
1E15/1E15/0

0.2uF

Equivalent 120 kV Network

0.1
1Ohm

25.5/6.6
1

+
40uF
C4

25.5/12

YgYg_np1

6.6kV
11000hp

SW_ASM1
1/1E15/0

?m

ASM

1
C3

YgD_1
Q

0.2uF

Network
+

+
1
120/26.4

1uF

Q_net

+
1

13.8/122

SM2

scope

Speed

AVR&Gov
(pu)

?i

ASM1_control

SM
IN

P_ASM1

scope

Q_ASM1

SW_Network
+

AVR_Gov_SM2

Starting motor at 1 s

P_net
-1/9.15/0

DYg_SM2
1
2

?m

SW_Fault

Out

Simulation
options

I/O FILES

MPLOT

scope

Vnet
VM

scope

Fault & System Islanding


at 9 s

380uF
C7

Induction motors in steady-state

?m

SM

SM_load

Load1

420 MW Load

Pm

f(u)

SM_load_control
6.6kV
11000hp

Omega_1

6.6kV
11000hp

ASM2

?m

ASM3

ASM

ASM4

6.6kV
11000hp

?m

6.6kV
11000hp

ASM

ASM
?m

ASM5

ASM

ASM6

6.6kV
11000hp

?m

?m

ASM

240uF

12kV
40MVA

32 MW Synchronous Motor Load


A

Operation of Tap Changers During a Voltage Dip

loss1
1

loss2
1

V_230_pu
scope

V_26kV_pu
scope

21555
187771

+/- 10% of 230 kV


in 6 taps of 1.667%
Initial Tap at -2
Td0=10 s, Td inverse
Deadband of 1%

+/- 15% of 26.4 kV


in 8 taps of 1.875%
Initial Tap at -2
Td0=15 s, Td inverse
Deadband of 1.5%

OLTC_Control2

OLT C_Control1

Vmeas

Tap

Slack: 500kVRMSLL/_0
Vsine_z:VwZ1

Tap

Vmeas

rad mag V1

LF

LF1

YD_1

YgYgD_np1
2
VwZ1

1.02/_-3.4

1.01/_-44.9

PI

+
508kVRMSLL /_2
508kVRMSLL /_-118
508kVRMSLL /_122
Slack:LF1

230/26.4
?

Transmission Line

0.013
0.22Ohm

500/230/50

C1

MW,MX,PF

MW,MX,PF

SW1

0.1uF
5/50/0

PI1

rad mag V1

Z Dist

I/O FILES

Z Dist

+
50

VLOADg2

Creating a 5% Voltage Dip


Duration of 45 sec.
A

VLOADg1

Va,Vb,Vc

R1

Va,Vb,Vc

Np,Nq
Kp,Kq

Np,Nq
Kp,Kq

50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz
MPLOT

ZnO Arrester model based on IEEE Surge Protective


Device Working Group

1
Simulation
options

- L1 (uH) = 15 d/n; R1 (Ohm) = 65 d/n


- L0 (uH) = 0.2 d/n; R0 (Ohm) = 100 d/n
- C0 (pF) = 100 n/d

I/O FILES

d is the Height of the arrester and n is the number of parallel columns


2

Example of Modeling of an Ohio-Brass Zno Arrester for a 330 kV Network


MCOV= 209 kV
d=1.8 m, n=1

A0 & A1 Characteristics adjusted to get 516 kV for a 2 kA 45 us Switching Surge


then L1 adjusted to get 604 kV for a 10 kA 8/20 us Lightning surge
then checking for 10 kA 0.5 us front of wave 664.5 kV vs 665 kV from Ohio-Brass
FANTASTIC!!

m1
+ VM
?v
L0

42uH

?i
0.0555nF

516000
C1

516000
ZnO2

10.7kA/-70000/-4755000

ZnO +

+
117
R1

180
R0

?i

Isurge1

L1

+
0.36uH

ZnO +

Isurge2

Isurge3

?i

0.5 us

8 us
+

45 us

4
ZnO1

24.9kA/-55000/-175000
2.95kA/-5000/-46500
model in: A0_1_Char.pun

ZnO
Data function

model in: A1_1_Char.pun

ZnO
Data function
A1_1_Char.dat

New example

New example

New example

New example

New example

Contacts
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Sales Team: sales@emtp.com

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