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Allabout Roundabouts

for Planners
Ken Sides, P.E., PTOE
Sam Schwartz Engineering
ksides@samschwartz.com
813-289-7771

November 18, 2014

Whos asking YOU

allabout roundabouts?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Developers
Traffic engineers
Politicians and city officials
Pedestrians, bicyclists, skaters
Environmentalists
Special populations &
vulnerable users
Citizen groups
Do you have
the
Schools
answers?
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Natural Allies
1. New Urbanists
2. Smart Growth advocates
3. Active Living advocates
4. Active Transportation practitioners
5. Complete Street advocates
6. Green Street advocates
7. Road Diet practitioners
8. Pedestrians, bicyclists, skaters
9. Older population advocates (AARP)
10. Emergency evacuation officials
11. Environmentalists
Weve got
great
12. Public health officials
answers!
13. Visionaries
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Roundabout
Basics
Examples

Planning Perspective
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Sam Schwartz Engineering

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Australia

Deaths per 100,000 population


USA

Sam Schwartz Engineering

In 2009 there were


2,210,000 crashes at
conventional intersections
at which 7,043 persons
lost their lives
at a cost to society
exceeding $42 billion.

$42,000,000,000

The Federal Highway


Administration says:

" Roundabouts reduce fatalities


by more than 90% "
and injuries by 76%

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Obsolete rotary being replaced


with modern roundabout

Kingston, New York

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Cattolica, Italy

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Cattolica, Italy

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Cattolica, Italy

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Cattolica, Italy

Cattolica, Italy

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The Ybor Ring Roundabout, Tampa

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Roundabout on Tampa Bay Blvd

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Streets are crowned.

2% slope

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Superelevation

Negative Superelevation

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Roundabout
secrets of low speed
Horizontal deflection x 3
Negative superelevation
Vertical feature in central island
Soft elements
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Moderate Speeds Kill Pedestrians


NHSTA DOT HS 809 021

Pedestrian Fatalities by Speed


100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

Only
survive
Only
5%20%
survive
8x more fatalities
10x
80%
95%

5% fatal

50%
40%

fatal

fatal

20 mph

30 mph

40 mph

Speed of vehicle striking pedestrian


Sam Schwartz Engineering

The Transportation Network

Sam Schwartz Engineering

The Transportation Network

THE TRANSPORTATION
NETWORK

Perception can influence actions and priorities


people naturally overlook what they dont see.
Sam Schwartz Engineering

The Transportation Network

Sam Schwartz Engineering

A Transportation Network

Complete Streets

Complete Intersections

= Complete Networks
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= compatible

= supports

Some Complete Streets Policies


Includes a vision for how and why the community wants to complete its
streets.
Specifies that the term all users includes pedestrians, bicyclists, and
transit passengers of all ages and abilities.
Encourages street connectivity and aims to create a comprehensive,
integrated, connected network for all modes;.

Is adoptable by all agencies to cover all roads.


Applies to both new and retrofit projects, including design, planning,
maintenance, and operations, for the entire right-of-way.
Directs the use of the latest and best design criteria and guidelines while
recognizing the need for flexibility in balancing user needs
Directs that complete streets solutions will complement the context of
the community.
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Roundabout
secrets of low speed

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Conflict Points

What if we designed an
intersection starting with
the notion of having
no Kill Zone ??
( What a concept! )

8 conflict points

32 conflict points
High-speed
High-angle

High-energy
Credit: Michael Wallwork, PE

3
4

Low-speed
Low-angle

Low-energy
Kill Zone by Ken Sides, PE

Conflict Points: Pedestrian/Vehicle

24 pedestrian/vehicle
conflict points

2
3

8 pedestrian/vehicle
conflict points
Credit: Michael Wallwork, PE

The Acacia
Roundabout

Sam Schwartz Engineering

opened in
December,
2001

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Speed: What AASHTO Says

Drivers often commit errors when they have to perform


several highly complex tasks at the same time under
extreme time pressure.
Speed reduces the visual field, restricts the peripheral
vision, and limits the time available to receive and process
information.
AASHTO Green Book

Converse: Low speeds => Time

- Complexity
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Complexity

Complexity

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Sam Schwartz Engineering

Are Roundabouts Right


for Children?

Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Operating Characteristics
of Children
Compared to adults, children have:
A narrower visual field
Less ability to isolate sounds and determine the direction of
approaching traffic by auditory cues
Less ability to judge closing speed.
Children cannot understand complex situations or focus on multiple
thoughts at once.
Children have a desire for constant motion and once in motion, have a
compulsion to complete the motion.
Children are more prone to fearlessness and less able to perceive risk.
Children assume adults will assure their safety; they live in a self-centered
world where fantasy is mixed with reality.

Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Are Roundabouts Right for Children?


Suitability Checklist

Much slower vehicle speeds


Much less exposure:
1/3 as many ped/vehicle conflicts
Pedestrian refuge on splitter island

Shorter distance; shorter time


Cross only one lane at time, only one direction at a time

Much less complexity

All these benefits apply to elder peds, too


Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

On opening day,
Clearwater Beach
residents threw a
street party

to celebrate
their new
intersection.

They
brought
bikes

and beverages.

Are Roundabouts Right


for Older Users?

USA Population
12.5%

65 and older

16 %

Younger than 16

3-5 %

Cant, wont, choose not to

- 1/3

of US population not in driving prime


Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

I. Demographic Trends

Older users are becoming more numerous


The segment of the population aged 65 and older grew
nearly twice as fast as the total population between 1990
and 2000.
The size of the older generation is projected to double over
the next 30 years.
Americans aged 85 and older are the fastest growing part of
the population.
By 2020 one in five people will be aged 65 or older.

By 2020, the 85%ile design driver will be someone aged 65.

12

Fatal Crashes per


100 Million Miles

10
8

1990 FARS data

6
4
2

75+

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

16-19

Involvement Rate per 100 M Miles

Older roadway users are at risk

Age Group

And older roadway users are at increasing risk


Between 1991 and 2001 crashes involving at least one older driver
increased 20 percent.
And the number of Americans aged 70 and older killed in traffic
crashes increased by 27 percent.

Performance Profile of Older Users


AASHTO Green Book : An appreciation of driver performance
is essential to proper highway design and operation.

Performance profile of older roadway users


Compared to their younger selves:
Diminished visual acuity, the ability to discriminate highcontrast features
Yellowing of our eyes lenses and increased density,
which makes it harder to see in low light conditions
Diminished contrast sensitivity, which makes it harder to
distinguish an object from its background. Also, persons
over 60 have an increasing risk for developing cataracts
and other conditions that reduce contrast sensitivity.
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Performance Profile of Older Users

Increased sensitivity to glare, which makes it harder to see in


the presence of oncoming headlights, at night, or in the
presence of sun glare in the daytime. Glare introduces stray
light into the yes; it reduces the contrast of important safety
targets.
Slower dark adaptation, which makes it harder to see targets
when moving from areas of light to dark.
Loss of limb strength, flexibility, sensitivity and range of
motion, needed for tasks such as rapidly shifting the right
foot from the accelerator pedal to the brake pedal or arm
movements to steer around obstacles

Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Performance Profile of Older Users


Especially Relevant to Intersections
Narrowing of the visual field, which diminishes the ability
to see objects in the periphery, such as signs, signals,
vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists
Restricting of the area of visual attention, which
diminishes the ability to see potential conflicts in the
periphery and to discriminate relevant from irrelevant
information.
Both abilities are necessary for responding quickly and
appropriately to a changing traffic scene. Restrictions in
the area of visual attention can lead to looked but didnt
see crashes, where a stimuli can be detected, but cannot
be recognized and understood sufficiently to permit a
timely response.
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Performance Profile of Older Users


Especially Relevant to Intersections
Decreased motion sensitivity, which diminishes the ability to
accurately estimate closing speeds and distances and is
needed for judging gaps to safely perform left turns at
conventional cross intersections with oncoming traffic or to
cross an intersecting traffic stream
Decline in selective attention, the ability to filter out less
critical information and continuously re-focus on the most
critical information, such as detecting a lane-use restricted
message on an approach to a busy intersection or detecting
a pedestrian crossing while watching oncoming traffic to
locate a safe gap
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Performance Profile of Older Users


Especially relevant to intersections
Decline in divided attention, the ability to perform multiple tasks
simultaneously and process information from multiple sources
Decline in PRT (perception-reaction time), the time required to
perceive a situation, evaluate it, decide what response is
appropriate and make a vehicle control action such as steering
or braking. PRT increases disproportionately for older motorists
with increase in complexity of the driving situation.
Decline in working memory, the ability to store, manipulate and
retrieve information for later use while driving
Loss of head, neck and trunk flexibility, needed to rapidly
glance in each direction from which a vehicle conflict might be
expected when approaching an intersection
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

What Older Users Need

An older-friendly intersection provides


More time to perceive and evaluate situations, more time
to make decisions, and more time to take action
Reduced demands to accurately judge gaps in fast
oncoming traffic
Less complicated situations to interpret
Reduced demands to quickly perform wide visual scans of
rapidly changing situations

Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Are Roundabouts Right


for Traffic Engineers?

Safety
Operations
20-30% peak hour improvement
LOS A & B off-peak daylight
Free-flow late night
Cost
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Benefit Cost Analysis

Benefit Cost Analysis


Life cycle costs over 20 years
N

PV = At [1/(1+j)t]
t=1

Benefit/Cost Ratio = Present Value of benefits


Present Value of costs

= 34.5

Few injuries, no fatalities = huge savings


Average Comprehensive Crash Cost per Injured Person
(National Safety Council)
Death

Incapacitating
Injury

Non-incapacitating
Injury

Possible
Injury

No Injury
(PDO)

$3,470,000

$172,000

$44,200

$21,000

$2,000

The Federal Highway


Administration says:

" Roundabouts reduce fatalities


by more than 90% "
and injuries by 76%
How can you justify an
intersection design that kills at
10x the rate of modern
roundabouts?

For the holidays,


beach residents planted poinsettias and placed
bows on their roundabout.

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Coral Gables, Florida


Upscale projects.

Add a classy entrance or center

Sam Schwartz Engineering

6,500 pedestrians

=> 8,000 pedestrians


Sam Schwartz Engineering

Downtown Asheville, NC
Turn lanes steal time...and land.

As do through lanes

Downtown Ashville, NC
A roundabout corridor concept...
Landscaped
median

Angle parking
OR: Lots of asphalt

...makes many good things possible.


Sam Schwartz Engineering

Downtown Asheville, NC

Six lanes to cross

Downtown Asheville, NC
More green, more beauty downtown, ped friendly
More parking, more access, more biz-friendly

One lane
to cross

Pedestrian
refuge

More
bikefriendly,
too

Downtown Asheville, NC

Are Roundabouts Right


for Planners?

Creating people-centric spaces


Demarcate transitions
Redevelopment
Branding
Noise & emissions reductions
Property values
Ken Sides, PE, PTOE

Avon, CO

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Avon, CO

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Avon, CO
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Equestrian community near Ft.


Lauderdale, FL

Photo by Ken Sides

Equestrian community near Ft.


Lauderdale, FL

Photo by Ken Sides

Ft Lauderdale Beach,

Photos by Ken
Sides

"Musica" at the Music Row Roundabout


Nashville, TN Corridor

"Musica" at the Music Row Roundabout


Nashville, TN

Draper, Utah

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Intersection Queue Blues

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Intersection Queue Blues

$
Volume

Queues

Access

Customers

Investment

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Downtown Sarasota

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Roundabout Corridors

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Golden, CO
Big box retail corridor
> access management <

Crashes
Injuries

- 60 %
- 96 %

FHWA
Fatalities

- 90 %

Still some left turn conflicts


Left-turners cross two opposing
lanes, disrupt traffic flow
The classic crash scenario for
older drivers
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Golden, CO
Big box retail corridor
> access management <

Crashes
Injuries

- 60 %
- 96 %

FHWA
Fatalities

- 90 %

Still some left turn conflicts


Left-turners cross two opposing
lanes, disrupt traffic flow
The classic crash scenario for
older drivers
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Golden, CO
Big box retail corridor
Add green for aesthetics,
to attract customers
and investment
Eliminate median gaps
Eliminates left-turns
Eliminates left-turn
conflicts
Retail $ales revenue
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Bird Rock

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Sam Schwartz Engineering

Bird Rock

68 feet wide
18 seconds to cross the street

Bird Rock

TYPICAL INTERSECTION
Camino de La Costa/La Jolla Blvd, Bird Rock/La Jolla Blvd, & Forward/La Jolla Blvd
Additional Opportunity for Landscaping

Additional Landscaping

State Roundabout Policy

Alek L. Pochowski
Georgia Tech
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Policy requires
the analysis of a
roundabout at
an intersection
project receiving
DOT funding

Florida
Roundabout Potential
Roundabouts in France/Australia 30,000 / 10,000
Extrapolation to US
145,000
337 roundabouts per million people
18,251,243 people in Florida
Extrapolating to Florida
6,151 Roundabouts
- 200 Existing

5,951 To be constructed
or 298/yr for 20 years
Sam Schwartz Engineering

Tampa pop = 332,888

Carmel, Indiana

Carmel, Indiana

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Carmel, Indiana

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Kansas City

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Mt. Pleasant, SC

Johnnie Dodds Boulevard master plan

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Johnnie Dodds Boulevard


Action Plan

Dover, Kohl & Partners


Hall Planning & Engineering
ZHA Inc.
February 2006

The plan supports managed speeds increasing pedestrian and vehicular safety

Ken Sides
KSides@SamSchwartz.com

Charrettes BCA CSS


Road Diets
Complete Intersections
Livable Intersections
Green Intersections

Photo by Michael Moule

Sam Schwartz Engineering

NSPE & ASCE: The Engineering Code of Ethics


Fundamental Principles
Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of the engineering profession by:
1. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;

Fundamental Canons
1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public
in the performance of their professional duties.

= cost =

THE American Chemical Engineering Code of Ethics


Members of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers shall:
Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public
and protect the environment in performance of their professional duties.

= cost =
I know!