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Alaska

This
article
state of Alaska. For other
uses, see
Alaskisa about
(disamthe
biguU.S.
ation).
Alaskan redirects here. For other uses, see Alaskan
(disambiguation).
Coordinates: 64N 150W / 64N 150W[1]
Alaska
( i /lofskthe
/) isNaorth
U.S. Asme
tatericsituated
west extremity
nin
tinethe
t. northBordering
the the
stateCatonathe
Yeukof
oan
n,Braco
dnoian
ritory,
and
dthe
ianeast
provisinc
iatci
iCa
shna
CO
lum
bterito
a,
the
A
r
c
t
i
c
O
ce
an
to
north,
and
the
P
c
ce
anot
the
west
and
south,
with
Rus
s
i
a
(specically,
C
h
u
k
ka
A
ut
o
n
o
m
o
us
Okr
u
g
and
Ka
m
c
h
a
t
k
a
Kr
a
i)
further
west
across
thetatBees rby
ingarea,
Straithe
t. Alaska
the
t state
U
4th50
leasis
opulalorSges
us
theinlethe
ast
d
ennited
sely Shalf
popuoflated
of the
Ut [3]
npited
tateand
s.liveApproximately
Alaskas
731,449
residents
within
the
A
n
c
ho
r
ag
e
m
e
t
r
o
p
o
l
i
tan
a
re
a.
Alaskas
economy
is
dominated
by the ohas
il, nin
aturabundance.
al gas, and Toshuring
resources
ism industries,
is also a
signicantwhich
part ofitthe
economy.
Although
it peoples,
had beenfrom
occupied
for thousands
of yearsEuby
indigenous
the
18th
century
onward,
ropean
powers
considered
the
territory
of
Alaska
ripe
for
exploitation.
The
United
States
p
u
r
c
h
ased
Ala
sk
a
from
Rus
sia onfor
March
30, 1867,
for $7.2 million
($121per
million
adjusted
ination)
at approximately
twoadministracents
acre
($4.74/km).
Thebecoming
area went
through several
tive
changes
before
organized
as
a
t
e
rr
i
t
o
ry
on
May
11,
1912.
It
was
[5]admitted as the 49th state of the U.S. on
January 3, 1959.
The
name inAlaska
()
had itbeen
introduced
thethe
Ruspseinan
iItal was
periderived
od, when
used
to
inscolo
ula. nrefers
from was
an
A
leut toidLitirefer
om,erally,
which
guratively
to the the
mainland
Alaska.
it
means
object
to
which
action
ooff
[6][7][8]
the
sea
is
directed
.
It
is
also
known
as
A
l
yes
k
a,
the
great land, an Aleut word derived from the same root.

Geography

The
statetoisthe
bordered
by Yulfkoonf and
British C
oluPambcic
ia in
Canada,
east, the
Ala
the
Ocean
to Sthe
south,
theGu
Band
eringthe
SeAsk
a,rcatBicand
ering
traito
t, and
C
hukchiAlaskas
ea to
the
west
OceSan
the
north.
territorial
waters
touch
Russias
territorial
waters
inand
the Alaskan
Bering Strait,
asiom
the
Russian
B
ig
D
i
om
e
d
e
I
s
la
n
d
L
i
t
t
l
e
D
e
d
e
I
s
la
n
d
are
only
3
miles
(4.8
km)
apart.
With
the
extension
of
the
A
l
e
ut
i
an
I
s
la
nd
s
into
the
e
a
s
t
e
rn
he
m
i
s
pher
e,
it
is
technically
theaswesternmost
and easternmost
state in the
Unitedboth
States,
well as also being
the northernmost.

Alaskas size compared with the 48 contiguous states.

Alaska
is square
the largest
state
in the United
States
in
landthe
area
at
586,412
miles
(1,518,800
km2 ),is
over
twice
size
of
Texas,
the next
largest
state.
Alaska
larger
than
all ters,
but
18
sovereign
countries.
Counting
territorial
waAlaska
is largerTexas,
than California,
the combined
largest
states:
andarea
Moof
ntanthe
a. next
It is three
also
larger
states. than the combined area of the 22 smallest U.S.

Main article: Geography of Alaska

Alaska
has a longer
thannon-co
all the
other
U.S.
[9] It coastline
states
is the
only
ntigu
ous U.S.
state
oncombined.
America;
about 500
miles
(800
km) of
Brcontinental
itish ColumNorth
bia (Canada)
separates
Alaska
from
1.1 Regions
W
ashingt
on. Alaska
is thusexclave
an excin
lavetheofworld.
the United
States,
possibly
the
largest
It
is
technically
part
of
the
c
o
n
t
i
n
e
n
t
a
l
U.S.,
but
is
often
not
included
in colloquial
use;
Alaska
isernot
part[10]ofThe
the capicontiguous
called
t
hethe
Low
48.
tal
city, U.S.,
June
aoften
u, is situated
on
mainland
ofroad
the North
no ocially
denbut
ed there
borders
American
continent,
but
is
not
connected
by
to
the There
variousare
regions
of Alaska,
aredemarcating
six widely the
acrest of the North American highway system.
cepted
regions:
1

1 GEOGRAPHY

2
1.1.1 South Central

1.1.4 Southwest

Main article: South Central Alaska

Main article: Southwest Alaska


Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretch-

The
most
populous
containing
A
e, Rural,
the
Mamostly
tanusregion
ka-Su
sitnofa VAlaska,
allareas
ey and
the of
Kethe
nai
PAla
enncskho
inasruag
la.
unpopulated
south
Ran
g
e
and
west
of
the
W
ran
g
e
ll
M
o
u
n
tainas
s also
fall
within
the
denition
of
Southcentral,
as
well
the
P
incoeva Wand
illiam
ound area and the communities of
Crord
ValdSez.
1.1.2 Southeast
Main article: Southeast Alaska
Also
referred
toAlaska
as the Panhandle
or
Passage,
this is
the
region
closest
to most
theInside
rest
of
the
United
States.
As of
such,
this was
where
of years
the
initial
nonindigenous
settlement
occurred
in
the
following
the
Ala
skear APu
rciphease.
The
region
is dominated
by
A
l
e
x
a
n
d
r
c
h
l
ag
o
as
well
as
the
T
o
n
g
ass
N
a
t
i
othe
naItl
Fcontains
orest, the
largest
nationalJune
forest
in former
the United
States.
the
state
capital
a
u,
the
capital
S
iThe
tka,
[11]
and
K
e
t
c
h
i
k
an,
at
one
time
Alaskas
largest
city.
Ala
ska Mar
ine throughout
Highway the
provides
a vital
surface
transportation
only direct
three
communities
ailink
ncontiguous
es, Hyder and
SkAmerican
agarea,
way)asenjoy
tions to(Hthe
North
road system.connec1.1.3 Interior
Main article: Alaska Interior
The largest region of Alaska, much of the interior is unin-

Grizzly bear shing for salmon at Brooks Falls, part of Katmai


National Park and Preserve.

some
500population
miles (800lives
km) along
inland the
from
the Bering
Sea.
M
McKinl
ey (Denali)
is the highest peak in both Alaska and in ing
Most
ofalso
the
coast.
Kod
Isallount
of North
Amer
ica.
la
nsdkoiskw
located
in Southwest.
Theriver
massive
Yiin
uakkothe
n
Ku
i
m
D
e
l
ta,
one
of
the
largest
deltas
world,
is
here.
Portions
of
the
Ala
sk
a
P
e
n
in
s
u
la
are
considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions
habited
wilderness.
Fand
airban
ks is the
onlyvillages
large city
the included with the Aleutian Islands (see below).
region.
Small
towns
Alaska
Native
areinscattered
throughout,
mostly
along
the
highway
and
river
systems.
D
e
na
li
N
a
t
i
o
na
l
P
a
r
k
a
n
d
Pre
s
e
r
v
e
is
located
here,
home
to Denali
Mount), McK
inley (also
known
by its local
name of
the highest
pointwidely
in North
America.
1.1.5 North Slope
Main article: Alaska North Slope
The lages.
North The
Slope
ndraitspeppered
with small
vilareais ismostly
knowntufor
of
crude
oil,Alaand
the
Nmassive
aBtaioy naO
l ireserves
eFtie
rolld.
eum
[12]
Resreorw,
ve
sk
a contains
and theboth
Prudin
hoe
lPStates,
Bar
the
northernmost
city
the
United
is
located
N
orthwest Athe
rctiKc obu
are
K
otzebregarded
uehere.
and The
also
containing
k a,Rivanchored
er However,
valley, by
is
often
as
being
part
of
this
region.
the
respective Inupiat of the North Slope and of the
Northwest
people. Arctic seldom consider themselves to be one

1.3 Land ownership


1.1.6 Aleutian Islands
Main article: Aleutian Islands
More
than
300 small,
volcanic
islands
make
thisthe
chain,
which
stretches
over
km)up
into
Pacic
Ocean.
The
Inwhole
ter1,200
natiostate,
namiles
l Dand
ate(1,900
Lthus
ine was
drawn
west
of
180
to
keep
the
the
entire
North
American
continent,
within
the
same
legal
day.
However,
because
some
of
these
islands
fall
in
the
Eastern
Hemisphere,
this makes
Alaska
the northernmost,
easternmoststate
and
westernmost
state
in
the
union,
with the
being
Hawaii.
Two
offorces
the
islands,
Attusouthernmost
and
occupied
by Japanese
during World
WarKII.iska, were

2
miles
(41,440
of land
and
1,200
square
miles
2
(3,110
kmsoutheastern
) ofkm
tidal) zone.
Thewith
BeriYukon
ng
Glaccovers
ier complex
near
the
border
2,250
2
square
miles
(5,827
km
)
alone.
With
over
100,000
glaciers, Alaska has half of all in the world.

1.3 Land ownership

1.2 Natural features

Alaska
more
land owned by the federal government
[15]
than anyhas
other
state.public

Augustine Volcano erupting on January 12, 2006.

With
its km)
myriad
islands,
Alaska hasThe
nearly
34,000
(54,720
ofwest
tidal
shoreline.
an Ala
Ismiles
land
chain
from
tipAleofutinithe
skas
P
eninand
suextends
la.inMany
active
vothe
lcaUnnsouthern
oiema
s are
found
the Aleutians
coastal
regions.
k
I
s
la
n
d,
for
example,
is
home
to
M
o
u
n
t
Sh
i
s
ha
l
d
i
n,
which
is
an
occasionally
smoldering
volcano
that rises
to 10,000
feet (3,048
m)
above
North
Pacic.
It is the
most
vol-Mcanic
cone
onthe
Earth,
even
more
symmetrical
thanperfect
Japans
opuurr,
nt
F
u
ji.
The
chain
of
volcanoes
extends
to
M
o
u
n
t
S
west
of Anchorage
on
the
mainland.
Geologists
have
identied
Alaska
as
part
of
W
ran
g
e
ll
i
a,
a
large
region
consisting
multiple
and Canadian
provinces
in the
P
c nt bNof
est, states
which
is actively
undergoing
coancitine
uoirtldhiw
ng.
One
of the worlds
largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm,
just
Anchorage
than south
35 feetof(10.7
m).[13] tidal dierences can be more
Main article: List of lakes in Alaska
Alaskawetland
has more
than
million
lakes.[14]
Marshla
nds
and
e(mostly
rm
afrosthree
t incover
188,320
square
miles
(487,747
km2 p)Glacier
northern,
southwest
atlands).
ice
covers
somewestern
16,000and
square

According
1998 nreport
by the Un65%
ited
SoftatAlaska
es Bureis
autoowned
oan
f LaOctober
nand
d Ma
nageme
t,the
approximately
managed
by
U.S. feofdenraa[16]
ltiogonav-l
efornrmen
t
as
public
lands,
including
a
multitude
ests, the
national
nanl ageme
wildlinfet remanages
fuges. Of
these,
Bu(35
reaparks,
umillion
of and
Lahectares),
nndatioMa
87
million
acres
ore 23.8%
of thebystate.
The
A
r
c
t
i
c
N
a
t
i
o
na
l
W
i
l
dl
i
f
e
R
e
f
u
g
is
managed
the
United wildlife
States Fisrefuge,
h and W
ildlife Serv16
ice.million
It is theacres
worlds
largest
comprising
(6.5
million hectares).
Of
the remaining
land area,
the stateitsofentitlement
Alaska owns
million
un-101
der
the
Alaskacres
a Sta(41
tehmillion
oodtoAcorganized
t.hectares),
A portion
of that under
acreage
is
occasionally
ceded
boroughs,
the
statutory
provisions
pertaining
to
newly
formed
boroughs.
Smaller
portions
are
set
aside
for
rural
subdivisions
and
other
homesteading-related
opportunities.
These arelocanot
very
popular
often
remote
tions.owns
The U
ndue
iversitoty the
oacreage
f Ala
ska,which
as a laitnand
d graroadless
nt un
iversity,
also
substantial
manages
independently.
Another
44 millionand
acres
(18 million
hectares)
arecorporaowned
by
12created
regional,
local,
Native
tions
under
thescores
AlaskRaeof
N
ana
tivle NCl
aivim
scoSrp
ettoleramtieonnt
A
c
t
(ANCSA)
of
1971.
g
i
o
a
t
e
D
oyon,
Limited often
promotes
itself as the largest
private
landowner
in Provisions
Alaska
in of
advertisements
and other
communications.
ANCSA
allowing
the
corporations
land
holdings
to
be
sold
on
the
open
market starting
in 1991the
were
repealed before
they
could take
eect.
Eectively,
corporations
hold title
(including

2 HISTORY

4
subsurface
title inbutmany
cases,
privilege
denied
vidual
cannot
sellasold
the
land.
ividuto
al indiNative allAlaskans)
otments can
be
and are
on theIndopen
market,
however.
Various
private
interests
remaining
ing
about
one
percent
the own
state.the
Alaska
is, byofland,
a private
largetotalmargin,
the
state
with
theof
smallest
percentage
land
ownership
when
Native
corporation
holdings
are
excluded.

1.4 Climate
Main article: Climate of Alaska
The climate in Southeast Alaska is a mid-latitude oceanic

D
illingham and
[18] Bethel average around 100 in (250 cm) of
precipitation.
The
climate
of
the lowest
interior temperatures
of Alaska is subarctic.
Some of
the
highest
and
in Alaska
around
the area
near into
Fairban
s. The
summers
mayoccur
have
temperatures
reaching
the k90s
F (the
low-to-mid
30s
C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below
60 F (51 C). Precipitation is sparse in the Interior,
often less than 10 in (25 cm) a year, but what
precipitation
falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter.
The
highest
andInterior.
lowest recorded
temperatures
in Alaska
are
the
highest
F (38
C) in
Fcircle)
ortboth
Yuon
koinnJune
(which
is1915,
justThe
8[19][20]
mi
ormaking
13 iskm100
inside
the
27,
Alaska
tiedarctic
with
Hawaii
as
the
state
with
the
lowest
high
temperature
intemthe
[21][22]
United
States.
The
lowest
ocial
Alaska
perature is
80
F
(62
C)
in
Pr
o
s
pe
c
t
C
r
e
e
k
on
January
[19][20] one degree above the lowest temperature
23,
1971,
recorded
in continental North America (in Snag, Yukon,
Canada).[23]
The
thelong,
extreme
northwinters
of Alaska
is Arcool
ctic
(K
ppclimate
en: EEven
T ) inwith
very average
cold
and
short,
summers.
in C).
July,
low
temperature
in
[24] the
Bar
r
o
w
is
34
F
(1
Precipitation
is
light
in
this
of
Alaska,
withmostly
many places
averaging
less than
10 ground
in part
(25
cm)
per
year,
as
snow
which
stays
on
the
almost the entire year.

History

Main articles: Prehistory of Alaska and History of Alaska

2.1 Alaska natives


Map depicting the climate zones of Alaska.

cern
limsections
ate (Kppand
en calimsubarctic
ate classioceanic
cation: Cclimate
fb) in the
south(Kppen
C
fc) isinboth
the the
northern
parts.
On an annual
basis,
east
wettest
andwinter
warmest
part
of precipitation
AlaskaSouthwith
milder
temperatures
in
the
and
high
throughout
the year.
Juneau
averages
over
50 inover
(130
cm)
of
precipitation
a
year,
and
K
e
t
c
h
i
k
an
averages
150
in
[17]
(380
cm).
This isdaytime
also thehigh
onlytemperature
region in Alaska
in
which
the
average
is
above
freezing during the winter months.
The
climate
of Astandards
nchorage due
andto south
central Alaska
is
mild
byseacoast.
Alaskan
theless
regions
proximity
to
While
the
areaand
gets
rainto than
southeastthe
Alaska,
it
gets
more
snow,
days
tend
be
clearer.
On
average,
A
n
c
ho
r
ag
e
receives
16
in
(41
cm)
of
precipitation
athere
year,arewith
around
in (190
cm)which
of snow, although
the75south
central
far
snow. cool
Itareas
issummers.
ainsubarctic
climate
(Kppen:receive
Dfc)
due more
to its brief,
The
climate
tern the
Alask
auis
large
part
by
the
Beringof climate
SW
eaesand
lf determined
of Alaand
ska. ainItcontinental
is a subarctic
oceanic
in north.
theGsouthwest
subarctic
climate
farther
The
temperature
is
somewhat moderate considering how far north the area is. This
re
gion An
has area
a tremendous
amount
of variety inside
precipitation.
stretching
fromk the
of the
Seward
Peninsula
to
theSoKuobu
Rtechnically
ivenorthern
r valley a(i.dee.,
the
region
around
K
otz
e
b
ue
n
d)
is
sert,
with
portions
receiving
less
than
10
in
(25
cm)
of
precipitation
annually. On the other extreme, some locations between

Main article: Alaska Natives


Numerous indigenous peoples occupied Alaska for thousands of years before the arrival of European peoples to
the area. Linguistic and DNA studies done here have provided evidence for the settlement of North America by
way of the Bering land bridge. The Tlingit people developed a society with a matrilineal kinship system of
property inheritance and descent in what is today Southeast Alaska, along with parts of British Columbia and
the Yukon. Also in Southeast were the Haida, now well
known for their unique arts. The Tsimshian people came
to Alaska from British Columbia in 1887, when President
Grover Cleveland, and later the U.S. Congress, granted
them permission to settle on Annette Island and found

2.2 Colonization

5
the
testimony
of Chukcin
hi geographer N
ikowho
lai Dhad
aurkrein,
who
had
and
ported
on visited
amen
villageAlaska
on pray
the K17641765
heuv
erenicoRiver,
populated
by
bearded
who
to
the
n
s".
Some
modern
[27]
researchers associate Kheuveren with Koyuk River.

The
of St. Pauls Harbor (present-day Kodiak
town),Russian
Kodiaksettlement
Island, 1814.

The
European
vessel
tothe
reach
Alaskaofisthe
generally
held
to
bevrst
Gabriel
undernavigator
authority
surveyor
M.
S. G
othe
zdeSt.
v and
assistant
Fyodorovcossak
on Au- gust
21,
an expedition
ofI. Siberian
F.
S(17291735).
hes1732
takov during
and[28]Belorussian
explorer
Dmitry PavlA.
utsky

A modern Alutiiq dancer in traditional festival garb.

the
town of
etlnaokus
atla.peoAll
three
well
as
other
indMige
of ofththese
e Pfrom
acipeoples,
the
c Nlate
ortash18th
w
e st
Coa
st, experienced
smacentury,
llppolxesoutbreaks
the
mid-19th
withand
the
most
devastating
ethrough
p
i
d
e
m
i
c
s
occurring
in
the
1830s
1860s,
resulting
in
[25]
high fatalities and social disruption.

The
Aleutian
Islands
arealthough
still home
to
thethe
Alerst
ut peoples
seafaringto
society,
they
were
Native
Alaskans
be exploited
by
Russians.
Western
and
Southwestern
Alaska
are
home
to
the
Y
u
p'
i
k,
while
their
cousins
the
A
l
ut
ii
q
~
S
u
g
p
i
a
q
lived
in
what
is
now
Southcentral
Alaska.
The
Gw
ic
h'
i
n
pe
o
p
l
e
of
the
northern
Interior
region
are Athaba
skthe
an and
primarily
known
today
for
their
dependence
on
caribou
within
the muchcontested
A
r
c
t
i
c
N
a
t
i
o
na
l
W
i
l
dl
i
f
e
R
e
f
u
g
e.
The
North
Slope and ILnuitptlieat Dpe
iom
de Island are occupied by the
widespread
opele.

2.2 Colonization
See also: Russian America
Some
researchers
believe
that
rst
Russian
in
[26] settlementing
Alaska
was
established
the the
17th
century.
to
this
hypothesis,
in in1648
several
kocAlaska
hes AccordofbySestorm
myon
D
e
zh
n
y
o
v's
expedition
came
ashore
in
and founded this settlement. This hypothesis is based on

Another
European
Alaska
occurred
in 1741,
when
Vithe
tus
BSt.eriPeter
ng contact
led
exwith
ped
ticrew
on forreturned
the Russian
Navy
aboard
. an
After
hisithe
to Russia
with
s
e
a
o
t
t
e
r
pelts
judged
to
be

nes
t
fur
in
the
world,
small
associations
of
fur
traders
began
to
sail
from
the
shores
of Siberia
the Aleutian
Islands.
The rst
permanent
Europeantoward
settlement
was founded
in 1784.
Between
1774
1800, its
Spaclaim
in sentover
several
expeditiNorthons to
Ala
skaInin1789
orderaand
to
assert
the
west.
Spanish
settlement
and
fonames
rtPacic
weretobuilt
in
Noot
k
a
S
o
u
n
d.
These
expeditions
gave
places
such
as Vamlde
z,can
BucCaorempa
li Snoyuncarried
d, and Cout
ordovana. expanded
Later, the
Rus
s
i
an-A
e
r
i
colonization
program during the early-to-mid-19th century.
SBara
itka,norenamed
New AA
rclhean
lanasdt in
xangdeler from
Archcapital
i1804
pelagotoof
in1867,
whatsion
is
now
of utIshe
Alathe
ska, the
became
the
Rus
an
AmeriSca.
Itto remained
capital
after
the colony
was
transferred
the
United
States.
The
Russians
never
fully
colonized
Alaska,
and
the
colony
was
never
very
profitable.
Evidence
of Russian
settlement
churches survive
throughout
southeast
Alaska.in names and
W
illiam H.the
SewAla
arsk
d,athe
iase
ted (also
Statesknown
Secretary
of State,
negotiated
Puin
rUcnh1867
as Sewards
Folly)
with the
Russians
for initially,
$7.2 million.
Alaska
was
loosely
governed
by
the
military
and
was
administered
as the
a dP
isrtreicsitdestarting
appointed by
nt of theinU1884,
nited Swith
tates.aAgovernor
federal

2 HISTORY

6
district court was headquartered in Sitka.

Miners and prospectors climb the Chilkoot Trail during the 1898
Klondike Gold Rush.

For
most
ofwas
Alaskas
rstcommunity
decade under
the United
States
ag,
Sitka
the organized
only
inhabited
bygovernAmerican
settlers.
They
arst
provisional
city
ment,
which
was
Alaskas
municipal
government,
[29]
but
not in a to
legal sense.
Legislation
allowing
Alaskan
communities
incorporate
cities
did not
come
about
1900,legally
and until
hom
estatehood
rule forastook
cities
was
extremely
limiteduntil
or unavailable
eect
in
1959.

U.S. troops navigate snow and ice during the Battle of Attu in
May 1943.

2.4 Statehood
See also: Alaska Statehood Act

Statehood
Alaska
wastenure
an important
cause of Jadelemes
W
ickerDecades
shamforearly
in the
his
as amovement
congressional
gate.
later,
statehood
gained its
rst
real
momentum
following
a
territorial
referendum
in
1946.
The Alaska
Statehood
Committee
and Statehood
Alaskas
Constitutional
Convention
would
soon
follow.
supporters
also
found
themselves
ghting
major
battles
against Alaska.
political Statehood
foes, mostlywas
in the
U.S. Congress
but also
See also: Territory of Alaska
within
approved
by Congress
on
July
7, 1958.
Alaska was ocially
proclaimed
a state on
January
3, 1959.
In
1960,
the
Census
Bureau reported Alaskas population
as
77.2%
White,
[31]3% Black, and 18.8% American Indian and
Starting
in thegol1890s
and
stretching
in some
placesYto
the
Alaska
Native.
early
1910s,
d
ru
s
he
s
in
Alaska
and
the
nearby
u
k
o
n
T
erritorywas
brought
thousands
of miners and
to Alaska.
Alaska
ocially
incorporated
as settlers
an had
organized
1964,
the and
massive
"Goodseveral
Friday villages
Earthterritory
in 1912.
Alaskas
capital,
which
in On
quakMarch
e" killed27,
133
people
destroyed
Sstruction
itka until
1906,
was
moved
northMa
tonsiJu
nebegan
au.been
Conportions
coastal
communities,
of
the
Ala
sk
a
G
o
v
e
r
no
rs
o
n
that and
resultant
tsrufunlof
ameart
ilarge
s hand
landslides.
It wasmainly
the seby
conthe
dsame
year.
European
immigrants
from
Norway
and
Swem
o
s
t-p
o
w
e
q
u
a
k
e
in
the
recorded
history
of
the
den
alsoand
settled
in southeast
with
a mome
nt powerful
magnitudethan
of the
9.2. 1989
It wasSan
overFranone
shing
logging
industries.Alaska, where they entered the world,
thousand
times
more
cyear
iscoand
eartlocation
hquake. ofThe
time
of
day
(5:36
pm),
time
of
the thousands
epicenter of
were
all particularly
cited as facDuring
World
War II, the Aleutian Islands Campaign fo- Anchorage.
in potentially sparing
lives,
in
cused
on
the
[30] three outer Aleutian Islands Attu, Agattu tors
and
K
i
s
k
a

that
were
invaded
by
Japanese
troops
and
occupied
between
June
1942
and
August
1943.
U
nalaArskma/Dut
Harsboand
r became
signicant
1968 discovery
at sk
Prud
hipoeelin
Baey led
and to
thean
1977
U.S.
y Air cFhorce
Navy suabm
ariners. base for the The
completion
of revenues
the Tof
ranoil
s-Ala
a Phave
oil
boom.
from
oil
large
state
budgetsRoyalty
from
1980
onward.
That
samefunded
year,
not
coinciThe
U.S.
L
en
d-L
e
ase
program
involved
the
ying
of
dentally,
Alaska
repealed
its
state
income
tax.
American
warplanes
through
Canada
to
Fairbanks
and
thence
Nome; Soviet
pilots
possession
of these
aircraft,
ferrying
them
ght took
the German
invasion
ofconthe In 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit a reef in the Prince
Soviet
The to
construction
military
tributedUnion.
to the population
growth of of
some
Alaskanbases
cities.

2.3 U.S. Territory

3.1 Race and ancestry

7
ulation of Alaska was 735,132 on July 1, 2013, a 3.5%
increase since the 2010 United States Census.[3]
In
2010,
Alaska
theVe47th
byWpopulation,
ahead
ofon,Noranked
rth D
akas
ota,
rmisonthe
t,state
and
yoming
[35]
(and
W
ashistate,
ngt
D.C.)
Alaska
leastpopulated
densely
populated
and
one
of
the
most
sparsely
areas
in
the
world,
at
1.2
inhabitants
per
square
mile
2
(0.46
/kmsquare
), with
the
next
state,
2 [36]Wyoming, at 5.8 inhabitants
per
mile
(2.2
/km
).
Alaska
is
the
largest
U.S.
state
by
a
re
a,
and
the
tenth
wealthiest
(per
capita
income).
[37] As of April 2014, the states unemployment rate was
6.4%.[38]

3.1 Race and ancestry


According
to
2010 UInnited
Stof
atesrace
Cenand
sus, ethnicity,
Alaska had a
population
of the
710,231.
terms
state was 66.7%
White (64.1%
Non-Hispanic
White), the
14.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 5.4% Asian,
3.3% Black or African American, 1.0% Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacic Islander, 1.6% from Some Other Race,
and 7.3% from Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos
of any race made up 5.5% of the population.[39]
As
of 2011,
50.7%
of Alaskas
population younger
than
one
of age
belonged
to minority
(i.e.,
[40] did not
haveyear
two parents
of
non-Hispanic
white groups
ancestry).

3.2 Languages
Further information: Alaska Native languages
According to the 2011 American Community Survey,
82.4% of people over the age of ve speak only English
at home. About 3.5% speak Spanish at home. About
2.2% speak another Indo-European language at home and
about 4.3% speak an Asian language at home. About
5.3% speak other languages at home.[44][45]
Kodiak, before and after the tsunami which followed the Good
Friday earthquake, destroying much of the townsite.

The
airban
Natisveclaims
Languthat
age at
Cenleast
ter at
AlaskAla
a Fsk
20the
AlaU
sknanivenrsa-itytio
vef
langu
age
sadialects.
exist kand
[46] there are also some languages with
dierent
Most
of Alaskas
native
languages
belong
to
either
the
E
s
k
im
oA
l
e
ut
or
Na-D
e
n
e
language
families
however
somehave
languages
are thought
to (e.g.
be
iTssoilm
atsehsian
(e.g.
Haida)
not yet
been
ic).[46]
Asorofclassied
2014
nearly
allclasof sied
Alaskas
native
languages
were
as
either
threatened,
shifting, moribund, nearly extinct, or dormant languages.
[47]
William
Sound,
spilling
over
11
million
U.S.
gallons
(42
m
egaliters)
of crude
oil
overbetween
1,100
miles
(1,800
km)
of
coastline.
Today,
the
battle
philosophies
of
development
and
conservation
seen
debate
oilproposed
drilling in
theise AM
rcitnice. inNathe
tionacontentious
l Wildlife A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the states
Refuge over
and the
Pebbl
20 indigenous languages, known locally as native languages. As the homeland of these two major language
families of North America, Alaska has been described as
2.5 Alaska Heritage Resources Survey
the crossroads of the continent.
The
Alaska
Heritage
Resources
Survey
(AHRS)
is
a
restricted
inventhe
torystate
of all
reportedand
histisorimaintained
c and prehby
istothe
ric In October 2014, the governor of Alaska signed a bill
sites
within
of Archaeology.
Alaska
Oce
of
History
and
The surveys
inventory
of
cultural
resources
includes
objects,
structures,
buildings,
sites,
districts,
travelold.
ways,
a general
provision that
they
are overand
50 years
As with
of[32]
January
31, 2012 over 35,000 sites have been reported.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Alaska


The United States Census Bureau estimates that the pop-

4 ECONOMY

declaring
the states 20 indigenous languages as ocial Alaskan Muslims range from 2,000[55][56] to 5,000.[57] In
languages.[48]
2010, the local Muslim community broke ground on the
rst mosque in the state.[58] Alaskan Hindus often share
3.3 Religion
venues and celebrations with members of other Asian religious communities, including Sikhs and Jains.[59][60][61]
Alaska
has been identied,
along
with Pacic
states
andterms
Oregon,
as being
the leastNorthwest
religious
[62][63]
states oWashington
f the USA, in
of church
membership.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Alaska


See also: Alaska locations by per capita income
The 2007 gross state product was $44.9 billion, 45th in

Aerial view of infrastructure at the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field.

St. Michaels Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Sitka.

According
to statistics
collected
by theabout
Association
of
Religion
Data
Archives
from 2010,
34% of
Alaska
residents
were members
of
religious
congregations.
100,960
people
identied
as
E
v
an
g
e
l
i
c
a
l
P
r
ot
e
sta
nts, 50,866[49]asRoughly
Roman 4%
Catholic,
and 32,550
as mainline
Protestants.
are Mormon,
0.5% are
Jew- ish,
1%
[50] are Muslim, 0.5% are Buddhist, and 0.5% are Hindu.
The
largest
in Alaska
as of 2010
were
the Creligious
atholEvangelical
ic Cdenominations
hurch with
50,866
adherents,
nondenominational
Protestants
with
38,070
herents,
T
h
e
C
h
u
r
c
h
o
f
J
e
s
us
Chr
is
t
o
f
L
a
t
t
e
r-d
aCy oSnavieadnnts
with
32,170
adherents,
and
the
S
o
ut
he
rn
B
a
pt
is
t
[51]
tion with 19,891 adherents.

In
1795, in
theKFirst
ian Orthodoxwith
ChuAlaskan
rch wasNaestablished
iak.RussIntermarriage
tives As
helped
theod[52]
Russian
immigrants
integrate
into society.
a
result,
an
increasing
number
of
Russian
Orthodox churches
gradually
became
within
Alaska.
Alaska
also
has[53]the
largest
Quaestablished
ker population
(by
percentage)
of any
state.
In 2009
there
were
6,000
Jews
in
Alaska
(for
whom
observance
of
ha
l
a
k
h
a
m
[54]
pose special problems). Estimates for the number of ay

the nation. Its per capita personal income for 2007 was
$40,042, ranking 15th in the nation. According to a 2013
study by Phoenix Marketing International, Alaska had
the fth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the
United States, with a ratio of 6.75 percent.[64] The oil and
gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy, with more
than 80% of the states revenues derived from petroleum
extraction. Alaskas main export product (excluding oil
and natural gas) is seafood, primarily salmon, cod, Pollock and crab.
Agriculture
represents
a very production
small fraction
of the
Alaskan
economy.
Agricultural
is primarily
for consumption
within
the state and
and livestock.
includes
nursery
stock,
dairyis products,
vegetables,
Manufacturing
limited,
with
most
foodstus
and
general
goods imported from elsewhere.
Employment
is resource
primarily extraction,
in government
and and
industries
such
as natural
shipping,
transportation.
Military
bases
are a signicant
component
of
the
economy
in
both
Fairbanks
and
Anchorage.
Federal
subsidies
are
also
an
important
part
of
the
economy,
allowing
the
state
to
keep
taxes
low.
Its
industrial
outputs
arezinc
crude
natural
gas, coal,
gold, precious
metals,
andpetroleum,
other mining,
seafood
processing,
timber
and
wood
products.
is also
a growing
service
and
tourism
sector.
TouristsThere
have contributed
to the economy

4.1 Energy

States.
Additionally,
substantial
coal deposits
are found
in
Alaskas
bituminous,
coal
basins.
The
U85.4
nited trillion
Stsub-bituminous,
ates Ge
ologifeet
cal and
Survelignite
y km
estimates
3
that
there
are
cubic
(2,420
)
of
undiscovered,
technically
recoverable
gas
natural
[68] from
gas
hydrates
onthe
thehighest
Alaskan
North Slope.
Alaska
also
oers
some of
hydroelectric
power
potential
in
the
country
from
its
numerous
rivers.
Large
swaths
of the
Alaskan
coastline
oer
wind
and
geothermal
energy
[69]
potential
as
well.
4.1 Energy
Alaskas
economy
heavily
on increasingly
expensive
diesel
fuel
fordepends
heating,
transportation,
electric
power
and
light. and
Though
wind and
hydroelectric
power
are
abundant
underdeveloped,
proposals
for
state-wide
See also: Natural gas in Alaska and Energy law Alaska law energy
systems
(e.g.
with
special
l
o
wc
o
s
t
e
l
e
c
tr
i
c
interertport,
ies) 2001)
were judged
uneconomical
(at
the
time
of
the
Alaska has vast energy resources, although its oil reduelow
to population.
low (less than
fuel
prices,
long
[70] 50/gal)
distances
and
The
cost
of
a
gallon
of
gas
urban average;
Alaska today
is in
usually
3060
higher
than
the in
national
prices
rural depending
areas are
generally
signicantly
higher
but
vary
widely
on
transportation
costs,
seasonal
usage
peaks,
nearby
petroleum
development
infrastructure
and many
other
factors.
Alaska
was 4th
in[71]
domestically produced United States oil
in February
2014.
by supporting local lodging.

4.1.1 Permanent Fund


The
Ala
ska Permane
ntoilFurevenues,
nd is a constitutionally
authorized
appropriation
by
ers
in
1976
to largely
manage in
aofsurplus
in stateestablished
petroleum
rev-votenues
from
oil,
anticipation
of
the
recently
constructed
T
ra
n
s-Ala
sk
a
P
i
p
e
l
in
e
S
ys
t
e
m.
The
fund
was
originally
proposed
byBay
Governor
Keithout
Mof
illefear
r on that
the eve
of
the 1969
Prudhoe
lease
sale,
the
legislature
would
spend
the
entire
proceeds
of
the later
sale
(which
amounted
to
$900
million)
at
once.
It
was
byHugh
Governor
JayItHam
mon
d and
Keattractive
nai state
rchampioned
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
a
t
i
v
e
Malone.
has
served
as
an
political
prospect
ever since,
revenues
would normally
be deposited
intodiverting
the general
fund. which
The
Alaska Cstate
onstitut
ion was
so as to
discour- The
age
dedicating
funds
for written
a the
particular
purpose.
Permanent
Fund
has
become
raredistrust
exception
to this,
mostly
due
to
the
political
climate
of
existing
during the time of its creation. From its initial principal of
$734,000,
theand
fund
has grown
to $50 programs.
billion as[72]a result
of
oil
royalties
capital
investment
Most
if
not
all the
principal
is frequent
invested calls
conservatively
outside
Alaska.
This
has
led
to
by
Alaskan
politicians
for
the
Fund
to
make
investments
within
Alaska,
though such a stance has never gained momentum.
Starting
in been
1982, dividends
the
fundsAlaskans,
annual
growth
have
out$1,000
eachfrom
year
to eligible
ranging
from anpaid
initial
in 1982
(equal to three
years
in
a payout, as the distribution of payments was held up

The
Trimportant
ans-Alaska export,
Pipeline
transports
oil,Slope
Alaskas
most nancially
rinom
thecolumn
North
to Valdez.
Pertinentupwards
are theand
heatprevent
pipesfmelting
the
heat
of permamounts,
frost. which disperse

serves
have
largely
depleted.
oilpe and
gas
reserves
werebeen
found
in but
the
Alaska NMajor
orth
Slo
and
basins,
according
to the
Ene
r(ANS)
gy Inffourth
ormCook
atiplace
on AInlet
dm
i
n
i
s
tr
a
t
i
o
n,
by
2014
Alaska
had
fallen
to
in
the nation
in crude [65]
oil Prudhoe
production
Texas,
North
Dakota,
and
California.
Bayafter
on
Alaskas
North
Slope
is
still
the
second
highest-yielding
oil eld in the United States, typically
producing about
400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m3 /d), although by early
2014 North Dakotas Bakken Formation was producing
over 900,000 barrels per day (140,000 m3 /d).[66] Prudhoe Bay was the largest conventional oil eld ever discovered in North America, but was much smaller than
Canadas enormous Athabasca oil sands eld, which by
2014 was producing about 1,500,000 barrels per day
(240,000 m3 /d) of unconventional oil, and had hundreds
of years of producible reserves at that rate.[67]
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline can transport and pump up to
2.1 million barrels (330,000 m3 ) of crude oil per day,
more than any other crude oil pipeline in the United

10
lawsuit
over the adistribution
scheme)
to $3,269Rebate).
in 2008
(which
included
one-time
$1,200
Resource
Every year,
legislature
out 8%
from
the
earnings,
putsthe
3%state
back
into5%theistakes
principal
for
ination
proong,
and
the
remaining
distributed
to
all qualifying
To qualify
Fund
idend, Alaskans.
one must have
lived in for
the the
statePermanent
for a minimum
ofDiv12
months,
maintain
residency
subject
to allow[73]
able
absences,
and constant
not
be subject
to court
judgments
or
criminal
convictions
which
fall under
various
disqualifying
classications
or
may
subject
the
payment
amount
to
civil garnishment.

4.2 Cost of living


The
cost of goods
Alaska
has long been higher
than in
the
contiguous
48 in
states.
employees,
particularly
United
Statemembers,
s Federal
Postal Sgovernment
ervice (USPS)
workers
and
active-duty
military
receive
a
Cost
of
Living
Allowance
usually
25%down,
of base
while
the cost
of
livingset
hasatgone
it ispay
stillbecause,
one of
the highest
in the
country.
Rural
Alaska suers
from
extremely
prices
food
and to
consumer
goodslimited
compared
to thehigh
restinfrastructure.
of the for
country,
due
the relatively
transportation

4.3 Agriculture and shing

H
alibut
is important
and
sport-caught
sh.to the states economy as both a commercial

Due to the northern climate and short growing season,

4 ECONOMY
relatively
little
occurs
in about
Alaska.40Most
farms
are
in
either of
the nMcfarming
atarnag
usk
lley,
miles
(64
km)
northeast
e, aorVaon
the
Kenai PeThe
ninsshort
ula,
about
60
miles
(97Aseason
km)hosouthwest
of crops
Anchorage.
100day
growing
limits
the
that
can
be
grown,
but
the
long sunny
summercrops
days make
for pro- ductive
seasons.
The primary
are potatoes,
carrots, growing
lettuce,
and cabbage.
The
TananatheVaDlleelyta isJuanother
notable
agricultural
especially
nctiowith
n area,
about
100 mileslocus,
(160
km)
southeast
ofagronomic
Fairbanks,
a sizable
concentration
of
farms
growing
crops;
these
farms
mostly set
lie
north
and
east
of
F
o
rt
G
r
e
e
l
y.
This
area
was
largely
aside and developed
under
a state
program
spearheaded
by
Hammond
during
his
second
term
as
governor.
Deltaarea
crops
consist
predominately
of barley and
of
Fairbanks
lies
anothertheconcentration
of hay.
smallWest
farms
catering
to
restaurants,
hotel
and
tourist
industry,
and
community-supported agriculture.
Alaskan
has experienced
m
arket years,
gagriculture
ardene
rs, the
small
farms
and faarsurge
mincrease
ersinmgrowth
a(46%)
rkets of
in
recent
with
highest
percentage
in
the
nation
in
growth
in
farmers
markets
in
2011,
com[74]
pared
to
17%
nationwide.
The
pe
o
n
y
industry
has
also
taken
o

,
as
the
growing
season
allows
farmers
to
harvest
during
gap in
in the
supply
lling aaniche
owerelsewhere
market.[75]in the world, thereby
Alaska,
with no counties,
lacks
county
small
ofr state
and
local
fairsfairs.
(with However,
the
Alalate
skaa
Ssummer.
tate Fassortment
air The
in Pafairs
lme
the mostly
largest),
are held
mostly
in the
are
located
in
communities
with
historic or
current produce
agricultural
activity, to
and
fea-highture
local
exhibiting
in addition
more
pro
lefarmers
commercial
activities
such
asused
carnival
rides,
concerts
and
food.
Alaska
Grown
is
as
an
agricultural slogan.
Alaska has
an Bering
abundance
of the
seafood,
with
the Seafood
primary
sheries
inthethe
and
North
Pacic.
is
one
few
foodit.Sea
items
that
is
often
cheaper
within
the
stateof
than
outside
Many
Alaskans
take
advantage
of
salmon
seasons
to
harvest
portions
of
their
household
diet
while
shing
for
subsistence,
as
well
[76]as sport. This
includes sh taken by hook, net or wheel.
Hunting
primarily
caribparticularly
ou, moose,inand
D
all sBu
hesefor
is subsistence,
still common
inexample
the state,
remote
hpiscommunities.
An
of
a traditional
native
food
Akut
a
q,
the
Eskimo
ice
cream,
which
can
consist
of
reindeer
fat,
seal
oil,
dried
sh
meat
and
local
berries.
Alaskas
reindeer
herdingcaribou
is concentrated
onprevented
Seward
P
eninsumingling
la,
where
from
and wild
migrating withcan
the bedomesticated
[77]
reindeer.
Most food in Alaska is transported into the state from
Outside, and shipping costs make food in the cities

5.2 Rail

11

relatively
expensive.
In rural activity
areas, subsistence
hunting
and
gathering
is an essential
because
imported
foodvillages
is prohibitively
expensive.
Though
most small
towns
and
in Alaska
lie along
the
coastline,
the
cost
of
importing
food
to
remote
villages
can
be
high,
because
of
the terrain due
and di
varying
cult road
conditions,
which change
dramatically,
to
climate
and
precipitation
changes. The cost of transport can reach as high as
50
per pound
($1.10/kg)
or more
in some
remotecan
areas,
during
dicult
times,
if these
locations
be
reachedthe
at most
all during
inclement
weather
and
conditions.
The
cost in
ofsuch
delivering
a 1 where
US
gallon
(3.8terrain
L) inof
milk
is
about
$3.50
many
villages
per
capita
come
can
be
$20,000
or
less.
Fuel
cost
per
gallon
is
routinely
2030
higher
than
the
continental
United
[78][79] States
average, with only Hawaii having higher prices.

Transportation

The Susitna River bridge on the Denali Highway is 1,036 feet


(316 m) long.

The
way. Sterling Highway, near its intersection with the Seward High-

Main article: Transportation in Alaska


Alaska Interstate Highways.

5.1 Roads
See also: List of Alaska Routes
Alaska has few road connections compared to the rest of
the U.S. The states road system covers a relatively small
area of the state, linking the central population centers
and the Alaska Highway, the principal route out of the
state through Canada. The state capital, Juneau, is not
accessible by road, only a car ferry, which has spurred
several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system, or building a road connection from Haines. The western part of Alaska has no
road system connecting the communities with the rest of
Alaska.

Railroad
tunnel
upgraded
to provide
aittipaved
roadway
withSrecently
er 50
on
P
rince(80
Wlink
ikm)
lliam
othe
undisolated
toofthe
Scommunity
eward HatigPhof
wrtaag
yWh
about
miles
southeast
Anchorage
o
e.
At 2.5
miles
(4.0
km),
the
tunnel
was
[80] the longest road tunnel in
North
America
tunnelAmerica.
is the longest
combination
roaduntil
and 2007.
rail tunnelThe
in North

5.2 Rail

One
ofrithe
Highway
system
Antonunique
Andersfeature
on Memo
al TAlaska
unnel, an
active Ala
ska is the

An Alaska Railroad locomotive and tanker cars crossing the


George Parks Highway in 1994.

Built around 1915, the Alaska Railroad (ARR) played a

5 TRANSPORTATION

12

5.3 Marine transport


Many
cities, towns
and the
villages
the state
do not
have
road
only in
modes
of access
involve
travelorbyhighway
air, river,access;
or the sea.

The
Passtheand
Yukon Rbo
oute
rugged terrain north of
SkagwWahite
y near
Canadian
rdertraverses
.

key
role Itinlinks
the development
of
Alaska through
throughproviding
the 20th
century.
north with
Pacic
shipping
tracks
that
run
Sewpassing
ard to
Icritical
nterior infrastructure
Ala
ska by way
ofna,
South
Centr
aal lfrom
Ala
sk
a,
through
Anchorage,
Ek
l
ut
Wasilla,
T
k
e
e
t
n
a,
DN
enoarth
li,
and
Fairbanks,
withtowns,
spurs villages,
to Whittieand
r, Pregion
almer and
P
ol
e.
The
cities,
served
by
ARR
tracks
are
known
statewide
as
The
Railbelt.
In
recent eclipse
years, thethe
ever-improving
paved highway
began
railroads importance
in system
Alaskas
econ-toomy.
The
railroad
played
aAlaska
vital role
in Alaskas
development,
moving
freight
into(i.e.,
while
transporting
natural
resources
coal
fromfrom
the the
Usibelli
coal mine
near
HAnchorage).
easouthward
ly to Seward
and
gravel
Matanuska
Valley
to
It
is
well
known
for
its
summertime
tour
passenger service.
The
Alaska
wasesone
of the last
railroads
in North
America
to Railroad
usegravel
caboos
in regular
service
uses
them
onasome
trains.
Itcountry.
continues
to and
oerstill
one
of
the
last
g
s
t
o
p
routes
in
the
A
stretch
of
about
60
miles
(100
km)
of
track
along
an
area
north
of
Talkeetna
remains
inaccessible
by
road;
the
railroad
provides
the Until
only transportation
rural
homes
and cabins
the area.
construction oftothe
Parks
Highway
in the in
1970s,
the along
railroad
the only land access to most of
the region
its provided
entire route.
In
northern
the the
Whistate
te Pass
and kYaugkwoany
R
oute
also Southeast
partlyCanada
runsAlaska,
through
from
northwards
into
(Britishat
Columbia
andSSummit.
Yukon
Territory),
crossing
the used
border
Whiteoften
Pass
This
line
is
now
mainly
by
tourists,
arriving by
cruise liner at Skagway. It was featured in the 1983
BBC television series Great Little Railways.
The Alaska Rail network is not connected to Outside. In
2000, the U.S. Congress authorized $6 million to study
the feasibility of a rail link between Alaska, Canada, and
the lower 48.[81][82][83]
Alaska Rail Marine provides car oat service between
Whittier and Seattle.

The
MV Tusmany
tumenfaerr(named
after Tustumena
Glacier) the
is one
of
states
ies,and
providing
service
Kenai
Pthe
eninsula,
Kodiak Island
the Aleutian
Chainbetween
.

Alaskas
ferry
system
(known
thewell-developed
Ala
skaCoast
Marinand
e Hstate-owned
ithe
ghwAlaska
ay) serves
the cities
of
sferries
outheatransport
sas
t, the
Gulf
Peninsula.
The
vehicles
as
well
as
passengers.
The
also
operates
a rincferry
service
from
Bleullminbsystem
giaham,
W
a
s
h
i
ngt
o
n
and
P
e
R
u
p
e
rt,
Br
i
t
i
s
h
C
o
in
Canada
Insriidtye also
Passag
e to as
Skaan
gwaimportant
y. The
Imarine
nter-Islalink
nthrough
d Fefor
rry the
Autho
serves
many
communities
in
the
P
r
inc
e
o
W
alethe
s IsAlaska
land region
Southeast and works in concertf
with
MarineofHighway.
In
recentmarket,
years,mainly
cruiseconnecting
lines havethe
created
summertime
tourism
Pacica Northwest
to
Southeast
Alaskacoast.
and,The
to population
a lesser degree,
towns
Alaskas
gulf
of
K
e
t
chithe
kanalong
may
rise by
over
10,000
people
on many
days
during
summer,
as
up
to
four
large
cruise
ships
at
a
time
can
dock,
debarking thousands of passengers.

5.4 Air transport


Cities
served
by road,orsea,
or river can
be reached
only
bynot
air,extremely
foot, dogsled,
snowmachine,
for
Alaskas
well developed
bauslesser
h airaccounting
servicesan
Alaskan
novelty.
Anchorage
and,
to
extent
Fairbanks,
is
served
by
m
a
n
y
m
a
j
o
r
a
i
r
l
i
n
e
s.
Because
of
limited
highway
access, airintravel
remains
most
ecient
form
of transportation
and out
of thethe
state.
Anchorage
recently
completed
extensive
remodeling
and
construction
at
T
ed
S
t
e
v
en
s
A
n
c
ho
r
ag
e
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
A
i
rp
ort to
help
the 2upsurge
tourism
[84](in 2012-2013,
Alaskaaccommodate
received almost
millionin
visitors).
Regular ights to most villages and towns within the state

5.6 Data transport


that
are
viable are
challenging
provide, so
they
arecommercially
heavily
federaltoAla
government
the
Essemajor
nsubsidized
tial Aairline
ir Seby
rvoering
icetheprogram.
ska with
Airlthrough
ineservice
s is the
only
in-state
travel
jet
(sometimes
in
combination
cargo
and
passenger
Boeing
737400s)
from
Anchorage
and
Fairbanks
to
regional
hubs
like
B
e
t
h
e
l,
N
om
e,
K
otz
e
b
ue,
D
i
ll
i
n
g
h
am,
K
odiak, and
communities
as well as to major
Southeast
andother
Alaskalarger
Peninsula
communities.

13
which
mushers
andtodogs
The
ogrioa-stricken
and Balto
took muchneeded
medicine
the
dlike
iphtof
community
of
Nome when
allallother
means
transportation
had failed.
Mushers
from
overfor
thecash,
worldprizes,
come and
to Anchorage
each
March
to
compete
prestige.
The
Serum
Run
is
another
sled
dog
race
that
more
accurately
follows
the route of the famous 1925 relay, leaving
from
[86]community of Nenana (southwest of Fairbanks) to
Nome.the
In
areas
not served
by
transportain
summer
is
all-troad
emachine,
rraior
n rail,
vehicprimary
las
e itand
in wintertion
by
sferred
now
mto
obin
ileAlaska.
or by
snow
is commonly
re-

5.6 Data transport


Alaskas
internetthrough
and other
transporttelecommunisystems are
provided
largely
the data
two
cations
companies:
GCIwhat
and
Ala
skmajor
a the
CoAlaska
mmunicUnited
ations.
GCI
owns
and
operates
it
calls
[87]
Fiber
Optic advertised
system
and
as
of late
2011
Alaska Communications
that
it
has
two
ber
[88] optic paths
to
the lower
and two more
Alaska. project
In January
2011,
it Asia
was48and
reported
aacross
$1
toaided
run
connect
rural that
Alaska
wasbillion
being
planned,
in
part
by
$350
million
in
stimulus
from
the
federal
[89]
government.

A Bombardier Dash 8, operated by Era Alaska, on approach to


Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport.

The bulk
of regional
remainingcommuter
commercial
ight oerings
from
airlines
as come
Raest
vn
Ala
ska,small
PenA
ir, andmust
Frontrely
ier Flon
yingscheduled
Service.such
The
smalltowns
and
villages
or chartered
bush
ying
services
using
general
aviation
aircraft
such
as
the
CeMuch
ssna Car
an, service
the most
popular
aircraft to
in the
useAlaska
in the
state.
ofavthis
can
be attributed
bypass
mail
program
which
subsidizes
bulk
mail
delivery
to
Alaskan
rural communities.
The program
re- quires
70%
of
that tosubsidy
to go to carriers
who oer
passenger
service
the communities.
Many communities
have
taxi services.
These
operations
fromsmall
the air
demand
for customized
transport
tooriginated
remote
areas.
Perhaps
the most
quintessentially
Alaskan
plane
isisthe
bush
seaplane.
The
worlds
busiest
seaplane
base
L
a
k
e
Hood,
located
next
to
Ted
Stevens
Anchorage
International
Airport,
where
bound
for
remote
villages
without
an airstrip
carryights
passengers,
cargo,
and
many
items
from
stores
and
warehouse
clubs.
In of
2006
had
[85]the highest number of
pilots per
capita
anyAlaska
U.S. state.

Law and government

6.1 State government

5.5 Other transport


Another
Alaskan
method
is the 1920s),
dogsled.dog
In
modern
(thattransportation
is,ofanyatime
after
the mid-late
m
ushingtimes
is more
sport
than
a around
true means
of
transportation.
Various
races
are
held
the
state,
but
the
best
known
is
the
Id
i
ta
r
od
T
r
a
i
l
S
l
ed
D
o
g
R
a
c
e,
a
1,150-mile
km) varies
trail from
from year
Anchorage
(although
the(1,850
distance
to km).
year,to
theNome
ocial
distance
is
set
at
1,049
miles
or
1,688
The
race
commemorates the famous 1925 serum run to Nome in
The
center of state
in right:
Juneau.
The
large buildings
in
the
background
are,government
from
ft to
the
Court
(known
colloquially
as
thecele"Spam
Can"),the
theJohn
StateH.OPlaza
ce B
Building
uilding
(behind),
the
Alaska
O

Building,
Dimond
State
Courthouse,
and the Alaska State Capitol. Many of the smaller
buildings
agencies. in the foreground are also occupied by state government

Main article: Government of Alaska

6 LAW AND GOVERNMENT

14
Like
allwith
other
U.S.bra
states,
governed
public,
three
chesGAlaska
oofvegronvoerisrnom
t: sk
anaeas
xand
ecautthe
ireve
branch independently
consisting
of nelected
the
fenAla
other
constitutional
ocers;
lReegpisrleasteivnetatbivraesncand
h consisting
of
the
Ala
sk
a
H
o
use
oaf
Ala
sk
a
S
e
n
a
te;
and
a
j
ud
i
c
i
a
l
b
ra
n
c
consisting of the Alaska Supreme Court and lower courts. h
The
state of [90]
Alaska employs approximately 16,000 people statewide.
The
laturea consists
of a 40-member
Housetors
of
Rserve
epreAla
sefour-year
nsktaativLeesgisand
20-member
Smembers
enate. Senaterms
and House
two. The
out
veernno
rt goofverAla
skruns
a serves
four-year
terms.
The
lG
i
e
a
n
no
r
separately
from
the
governor
in
the
pfor
rimgovernor
aries, butand
during
the general
election,
the nominee
nominee
for lieutenant
governor
run
together
on the same ticket.
Alaskas
the superior
Alaska
Scourts
upremand
e Cocourt
urt, district
thesystem
Alask
a has
Co[91]
urtfour
of Asuperior
plevels:
peals, the
the
courts.
The
and
district
courts
are
tr
i
a
l
co
urts.
Superior
courts
are
courts
of
general
jurisdiction,
while misdemeanor
district courts
only hear
certain
types
of
cases,
including
criminal
cases
and
civil
[91]
cases valued up to $100,000.
The
Supreme
Court
and
the
Court
of
Appeals
are
ap
pellappeals
ate courts.
Court
of Appeals
is required
to
hear
from The
certain
lower-court
decisions,
including
those
regarding
criminal
[91]prosecutions, juvenile delinquency,
and
h
a
b
e
as
co
r
p
us.
The
Supreme
Court
hears
civil
appeals
and may in its discretion hear criminal
[91]
appeals.

6.2 State politics


Main article: Politics of Alaska
Further information: Political party strength in Alaska,
Alaska political corruption probe
Although
its early
years
of [92]
statehood
Alaska
a
D
emocratias
cinstate,
the early
1970s
it has
been was
characterized
Repoften
usince
blican-leaning.
Local
political
communities
have
worked
on
issues
related
to
land
use
shing,
tourism,
andaround
individual
rights.
Ala
skdevelopment,
a Nathave
ives, while
organized
in and
munities,
active
within
theover
Natlarge
ivetheir
ctracts
orpcomoratland,
ions. which
These require
havebeen
been
given
ownership
of
stewardship.
Alaska
was or
formerly
the
only state
whichhome
possession of
one ounce
less
ofstate
marijuana
in in
ones
pletely
under
law, though
the federalwaslawcomre[93]
mains inlegal
force.
The
state has an independence
movement favoring a vote
on
depsecession
endence Pfrom
arty.[94]the United States, with the Alaskan In-

Six
Reof
puAlaska.
blicans In
andaddition,
four Dem
ocrats haveGovernor
served asWgovernor
Republican
ally
Hickeleaving
l was
elected
to the oce
for and
a second
term
in 1990
after
the Republican
party
brieyenough
joining
Alaskan
Independence
Party
ticket
just
long
to the
be
reelected.
He
subsequently
ocially
rejoined
the
Republican party in 1994.

6.3 Taxes
To nanceonstate
government
operations,
Alaska subsidies.
depends
primarily
revenues
and federal
This
allows States.
it petroleum
to have
[95] the lowest individual tax burden in
the
Itstates
is one
ofdove
states
with
no state
sinalceosUnited
tax,
one
of
seven
that
not
levy
an
individual
me tax, of
andRevenue
one of the
two
states [96]
thatreports
has neither.
The
Department
Tax
Division
regularly
on
the
states
revenue
sources.
The
Department
also
issues
an annual
summary
its tax
operations,
state laws
that directly
aectofthe
division.includ- ing new
While
Alaska
has notax,
state
sales
tax, 89typically
municipalities
collect
a local
from
1.07.5%,
35%.
Other
local
taxessales
levied include
sh staxes,
hotel,
tel, and
bed-and-breakfast
'bed' raw
taxes,
everanc
e tamoxtire
es,
liquor
and
tobacco
taxes,
gaming
(pull
tabs)
taxes,
taxes
and
fuel
transfer
taxes.
A
part
of
the
revenue
lected
fromaviation
certain motor
state taxes
and
licensecooperative)
fees (suchcolas
petroleum,
fuel,
telephone
is
shared with municipalities in Alaska.
F
airban
one orof income
the highest
taxes in
in the
state
askkssnoNhas
taxesproperty
areA assessed
the
F
airban
osales
rth Svoted
tar Boro
umany
gh (FNSB).
sales
tax
for
the
FNSB
has
been
on
times,
but
has
yet
todrabe
approved,
leading
law
makers
to
increase
taxes
matically on goods such as liquor and tobacco.
In
2014most
the business
Tax Foundation ranked
Alaska
havingonly
the
fourth
tax[97]
policy,asbehind
Wyoming,
South Dakota,friendly
and Nevada.

6.4 Federal politics


Main article: Politics of Alaska
See also: Arctic Policy of the United States
Alaska
regularly
supports
epublicans in presidential
elections
and
done
so R
since
Republicans
haveelection
won has
thethat
states
eparticipated
lectorastatehood.
l colleg
votes
inNo
all
but
one
it
has
ine (1964).
state
has
voted
for
a
Democratic
presidential
candidate
fewer
times.
Alaska
was
carried
by
D
em
o
c
r
a
t
i
c
nominee
Ly
ndontheB.1960
Johnsand
on during
his landslide
1964,
while
1968 elections
wereelection
close. in
Since
1972,
however, InRepublicans
have carried
the state
by
large
margins.
2008,
Republican
J
o
hn
McC
a
i
n
feated Democrat Barack Obama in Alaska, 59.49% to de-

15
37.83%.
McCains
running
was on
Saraahmajor
Palin,party
the
states
governor
theagain
rst mate
Alaskan
Anchorage, Alaskas largest city.
ticket. Obama
lost and
Alaska
in 2012, but
he captured
40%
of
the
states
vote
in
that
election,
making
him
the
rst Democrat to do so since 1968.
The
Alaska Bush,the
central
Juneau,
midtown U
and
Anchorage,
areas
surrounding
nhave
ivdowntown
ersitybeen
of
Ala
ska Faiand
rban
ks Democratic
campus
and the
Ester
strongholds
of
the
Party.
The MatanuskaSusitna
Borough,
the
majority
of
Fairbanks
(including
North
Pole
and
the
military
base),
and
South
Anchorage
typically
strongest
Republican
showing.
As of
2004,
wellhave
overthehalf
all registered
voters
have
chosen
Non-Partisan
or of
Undeclared
as their
aliation,
[98]
despite
recent
attempts
to
close
primaries
to
unaliated voters.
Because
of only
its population
relative
U.S. states,
Alaska
member
in Republican
the to
U.S.other
House
epre
senwas
tatihas
vere-elected
s. This one
seat
ishisheld
by
DoninoYf2012.
oRung,
who
to
21st
consecutive
term
Alaskas
At-large cconstituencies
ongressional dinistrthe
ictworld.
is one of the
largest
parliamentary
In
2008,
Governor
Sar
alin became
thewhen
rst she
Republican
toarun
onahaPnational
ticket
be-a
came
Jwoman
ohn national
McC
in'sgure
running
mate. She
continued
to be
prominent
even
[99] after resigning from the
governors job in July 2009.

Ala
skas
ited
StaDemocrat
tes SenatorsMabelong
2 anofd
Class
3. UInndefeated
2008,
rk Begtoich,Class
mayor
Anchorage,
long-time
Republican
senator
Ted
Scounts
tevens.of failing
Stevens tohad
been
convicted
on
seven
felony
report
giftsthe
onelection.
Senate nancial
discloser
forms
one week
before
Theofconviction
was
set
aside
in
April
2009
after
evidence
prosecutorial misconduct emerged.
Republican
FrankAfter
Murkbeing
owskielected
held the
statesinother
senatorial
position.
governor
2002,
he
resigned
from the
Senate
and
appointed
his daughter,
State
Representative
L
i
sa
Mu
r
k
o
w
s
ki
as
his
successor.
She
won
full six-year terms in 2004 and 2010.
Fgin
airthe
banks,
Alaskas
city
largest
city in Asecond-largest
laskas interior
. and by a signicant mar Alaskas current statewide elected ocials
Sean Parnell, Governor
Mead Treadwell, Lieutenant Governor
Lisa Murkowski, senior United States Senator
Mark Begich, junior United States Senator
Don Young, at-large United States Representative

Cities, towns and boroughs

ska Lbiyst poopu


latiuogh
n, sAla
lSee
ocatalso:
ions bLyipsterocfacpiittaieisncinomAla
e and
f boro
andska
census areas in Alaska
Juneau, Alaskas third-largest city and its capital.
Alaska is not divided into counties, as most of the
other
U.S. densely
states, but
it is divided
into
borstate
oughsare
. Many
of
the
more
populated
partsfunction
of the
part
of
Alaskas
16 boroughs,
which
somewhat
similarly
to
counties
in
other
states.
However,
unlike
countyequivalents
in
the
other
49
states,
the
boroughs
do
not
cover
the entire
land areatoof
areaBnot
any borough
is referred
as the
the state.
UnorgThe
anized
oroupart
gh. of

16

7 CITIES, TOWNS AND BOROUGHS

C
ordova, built
in
the early
century
to support the Kennecott
Mines
Copper
River20th
and
orthwestern
severedand
as a the
shing
community
sinceNtheir
closure.Railway, has per-

Bethel, the largest city in the Unorganized Borough and in rural


Alaska.

Main Street in Talkeetna.

divided
the
into
11 cen
suspresenareas
solely
theUnorganized
purposes
of Borough
analysis
tation.offor
Atherecor
district
isstatistical
a mechanism
for and
administration
pubding
lic rdistricts
ecord in
Alaska.
The
state
is adminisdivided
into
34
recording
which
are
centrally
tered
under a State Re
corder. fee
All recording districts
use the
same
criteria,
ceptingacceptance
documents into
the publicschedule,
record. etc., for acHomer, and
showing
(from
bottom to top) the edge of downtown, its Whereas many U.S. states use a three-tiered sys- tem
airport
the Spit
.
of
decentralizationstate/county/townshipmost
of
Alaska
uses onlydensity,
two tiersstate/borough.
Owing to
the
low
population
most
of the
landimplies,
is located
in the
U
no
r
g
an
i
zed
B
oro
u
g
h.
As
the
name
it
has
no
intermediate
borough
government but
is administered
directly byarea
the
In 2000,
57.71%
of
Alaskas
hasstate
this government.
status, with 13.05%
of the
population.
Anchorage
merged
the city
government
with the
Greater
Anchorage
Area
Borough
in 1975
to form
Municipality
of Anchorage,
containing
the city
propertheCreek,
and
the Girdcommunities
of
Eagle
River,
Chugiak,
Peters
wood,
Bird,
and
Indian.
Fairbanks
has
a municipality
separate borough
(the
F
a
i
r
ban
k
s
N
o
rth
S
tar
B
o
r
o
u
g
h)
and
(the
City of Fairbanks).

Bar
row shown),
(Browerville
Ebenyears
Hopson
Middle
School
knownneighborhood
colloquially fnear
or many
by the
nickname
States. Top of the World, is the northernmost city in the United

The
Unorganized
hascooperation
no government
of its
own,
but the
U.S. CensusBorough
Bureau in
with the
state

17
The states most populous city is Anchorage, home to
278,700 people in 2006, 225,744 of whom live in the urbanized area. The richest location in Alaska by per capita
income is Halibut Cove ($89,895). Yakutat City, Sitka,
Juneau, and Anchorage are the four largest cities in the
U.S. by area.

7.1 Cities and census-designated places


(by population)
As
reected
the 2010
United Stacities
tes Cenand
sus, cAlaska
has
anated
totalplain
of
incorporated
ensusd
esigunied
ces 355
(CDPs).
The tally the
of equivalent
cities includes
four
municipalities,
essentially
of a
cnities
onsolare
idated
c
i
ty
c
o
u
n
ty.
The
majority
of
these
commulocated
in unconnected
the rural expanse
ofcontiguous
Alaska known
as
"T
h
e
Bu
s
h"
and
are
to
the
North
American
road
network.
Thecities
table and
at the
bottom of this
section
lists
the
100
largest
census-designated
places in Alaska, in population order.
Of Alaskas 2010 Census population gure of 710,231,
20,429 people, or 2.88% of the population, did not live
in an incorporated city or census-designated place. Approximately three-quarters of that gure were people who
live in urban and suburban neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city limits of Ketchikan, Kodiak, Palmer and
Wasilla. CDPs have not been established for these areas
by the United States Census Bureau, except that seven
CDPs were established for the Ketchikan-area neighborhoods in the 1980 Census (Clover Pass, Herring Cove,
Ketchikan East, Mountain Point, North Tongass Highway, Pennock Island and Saxman East), but have not
been used since. The remaining population was scattered
throughout Alaska, both within organized boroughs and
in the Unorganized Borough, in largely remote areas.

Education

The
Kachemak
Bay Campus
of the University of Alaska Anchorage, located
in downtown
Homer.

The
Ala
a Departme
nt ofscEhdouoca
atsndinEaAlaska.
rly DeveIn
lopme
nt sk
administers
many
l dtiisontricschool,
Mt. Efunddgecaddition,
umfor
be other
Hithe
gh state
Schoooperates
l inschools,
Sitkaa,boarding
and
provides
partial
ing
boarding
including
N
e
n
a
n
a
S
tu
d
e
n
Ling
iving
CenterininGN
a and The Galena Interior Learn-t
Academy
aleennaa.n[100]
There
are more than universities
a dozen collin
egeAlaska
s and uninclude
iversitiesthe
in
Ala
U
nisk
irvban
ea.rsiktys,Accredited
o
fniAla
sk
a oAfncAla
horsk
agae, SoUut
nhe
ivearsst,ityand
of Ala
Alasskkaa
F
a
U
v
e
r
s
i
ty
[101]
P
acic Unithat
versiare
ty. part Alaska
is the only
no
institutions
of the NCAA
Divisstate
ion Ithat
pro-has
gram.
The Alaska[102]operates
Department
of Labor
and Institute
Workforce
Development
AVTEC,
Alaskas
of
Technology.
Campuses
in Seward
and in
Anchorage
offer
1 week
to 11-month
training
programs
areas as and
diverse
as
Information
Technology,
Welding,
Nursing,
Mechanics.
Alaska
has
had a including
problem with
rainhighest
drain".acaMany
of
its
young
people,
mostahigh
of"bthe
demic
achievers,
leave
theAsstate
after
school
graduation
and
do
not
return.
of
2013,
Alaska
did
not
have
a
l
a
w
[103]
sattempted
chool or medical
school.
Univerparsity otial
f Ala
ska has
to to
combat
this 10%
byThe
oering
four-year
scholarships
the
top
of
Alaska
[104] high school
graduates, via the Alaska Scholars Program.

Public health and public safety

See also: Dentistry in rural Alaska


The
AlaThey
ska Shave
tate Tr
opersand
arestoried
Alaskas
statewide
police
force.
a olong
history,
butforce
were
not
an
ocial
organization
untilenforcement
1941. Before
the
was
ocially
organized,
law
in
Alaska
was
handled
by
various
federal
agencies.
Larger
towns
usually
have Safety
their own
local police
andpolice
some villages
rely
on
Public
Ocers
who
have
trainingers
but
do
not
carry
repolice
arms.
In much
of the
state,
the troopserve
as the
only
force
available.
In addition
to enenforcing
trac
and
criminal
law,
wildlife
Troopers
force
hunting
and
shing
regulations.
Due
to
the
varied
terrain
and
of the
duties,
they em- ploy a
wide wide
varietyscope
of land,
air, Troopers
and water patrol
vehicles.
Many
rural
communities
in importation
Alaska areofconsidered
dry,
having
outlawed the
alcoholic
[105]
beverages.
than urban.[106] Suicide rates for rural residents are higher
D
omes
tic abuse and other violent crimes are also at
high
levels
[107] in the state; this is in part linked to alcohol
abuse.
hasintherural
highest
sexual age
assault in
the nation, Alaska
especially
areas.rate
Theofaverage

10 CULTURE

18

of
sexually
assaulted
victims iswere
16 years
old. In
four out
ocial sintate
songitofcelebrates
Alaska isthe
"Ala
Flasg",
of
ve cases,
the suspects
relatives,
friends
or The
was adopted
1955;
askg as
of Ala
ka. which
[108]
acquaintances.

10

Culture

See also: List of artists and writers from Alaska


Some of Alaskas popular annual events are the Iditarod

10.2 Alaska in lm and on television


See also: List of lms set in Alaska
Alaskas rst independent picture entirely made in

A
dogpopular
team in
theevent
IditarinodAlask
Traila. Sled Dog Race, arguably the
most
winter

Trail
Dog Ice
RaceArtthat
starts in Anchorage
and endsthe
in
Nome,Sled
World
Championships
in Fairbanks,
Blueberry
Alaska
Festival
in
K
etchikFest
an, Festival
the
Sitran
kand
a gW
ha
lThe
e FesHummingbird
t,tikand
the
Stikine
River
Garnet
in
W
e
ll.
S
in
e
R
i
v
e
r
attracts
the
largest
springtime concentration of American bald eagles in
the world.
The
Alask
Native H11
eritcultural
age Cengroups.
ter celebrates
the rich
heritage
ofa Alaskas
Their all
purpose
is
to
encourage
cross-cultural
exchanges
among
people
and
enhance
enhance
self-esteem
among
Native
people.
The
Ala
sk
a
N
a
t
i
v
e
Arts
F
o
u
n
d
a
t
i
o
n
promotes
and
markets
art from
[109] all regions and cultures in the State,
usingNative
the internet.

10.1 Music
Main article: Music of Alaska
Inuences
on music
in as
Alaska
the
traditional
music
ofimmigrants
Alaska
Natives
well include
as
folk
music
brought
by
later
from
Russia
and
Europe.
Prominent
musicians
from
Alaska
include
singer
J
e
w
e
l,
traditional
Aleut
autist
Mary
Y
o
un
g
b
l
ood,
folk
singer-songwriter
L
iib
Ro
Christian music band
singer/songwriter
L
ncbthe
oylngroups
Brede
wsric
tPeak,
r,mmetal/post
and
yua and Porthardcore
ugal. The Man.36 Crazysts
There
are many
established
music festivals
in Alaska,
including
a FAonlkcho
Fes
s Summer Arts Fthe
estivAla
al,skthe
ragtieval,Fothe
lk FFesaitrivban
al, kthe
A
t
h
a
bas
c
an
O
l
d-T
im
e
F
i
d
dl
i
ng
F
es
t
i
v
a
l,
the
Sitka
Jazz
Festival,
and
the
S
i
t
k
a
Sum
me
r
Mu
s
i
c
F
es
t
i
v
a
l.
The
prominent
orchestra
in Alaska
is
theks ASym
nchpohmost
roangey
Sym
pho
n
y
O
r
c
hes
tra,
though
the
F
a
i
r
ban
O
Juera
neauisSymcurrently
phony are also states
notable. only
The
A
nrcches
hortra
age andOp
professional
opera
company, thoughthethere
are several
volunteer
as
well. and semi-professional organizations in the state

Films
featur
Alaskan
wolf-dog
hybing
rids to
stand inwolves
for wildusually
wolves. employ domesticated

Alaska
was
, produced
Alaskan
nessman
AReleased
usThe
tin E.Chechahcos
Lath1924
rop and
lmed
inby
and
around busiAnchorage.
by the
Moving
Corporation,
it was in
the only lm
theAlaska
company
made. Picture
One
of the
mostMprominent
lmed
in Alaska
is
MGM's
Eskimo/
ala
The Mmovies
agnexpedition
icent
, starring
Alaska
Native
Rastudios
y Mala.in
In 1932
an
set out
from
MGM's
Hollywood
to
Alaska
to
lm
what
was
thenriving
billedin as
Thethey
Biggestup
Picture
Ever Made. Upon
arAlaska,
Camp
in
Northwest Alaska,
where set
they lived
duringHollywood
the duration of
the

19
lming.
Louis B.going
Mayersospared
expense
in
spite
of the
the
remote
location,
far astono
to
hire the
chef
from
Hotel Roos
evelt in Hollywood
prepare
meals.
When
Eskimo
premiered
at the Alargest
stor Tamount
heatre of
in feedNew
York
City,
the
studio
back
in
its
history
to received
that point.theEskimo
wasMala
critically
acclaimed
and
released
worldwide;
as
a
result,
became
an
international
movie
star.
EskimoAwards,
won the
rst
Oscar
for
B
es
t
F
i
lm
Ed
i
t
i
ng
at
the
Academy
and
showcased
and preserved aspects of Inupiat culture on lm.
The
1983 in
Disney
movie
ever Clm
ry W
lf was
at, least
parTheN
1991
Wohite
based
on
Jtially
acand
k Lshot
ondo
n'sAlaska.
novel
H1994
awFkang
e, On
was
lmed
in
around
HaM
inic
eand
s.haeSstarring
teC
veaninSe,Eetahwas
gan
al's
Dead
ly
G
r
ound
,
starring
l
lmed
in
part
at
the Worthington Glacier near Valdez.[110] The
1999
JoElhn
ylesMa
lm
, starring
id isSttr
atehrs
aiorn,
Mary
izainbSeaJuneau.
th
straLimbo
ntonio,
and KrDisavKr
o
n,
was lmed
The psychological thriller Insomnia, starring Al Pacino

The
orget-me-not
the states
blue fand
gold as theis state
ag. ocial ower and bears the same

and Robin Williams, was shot in Canada, but was set in


Alaska.
Thepartially
2007 lm
directed
by inSean
Penn, The
Into lm,
The
W
ild, was
lmed
and
set
Alaska.
which
is based
on the
novel
of the
same
name,
follows
the
adventures
of
Chr
is
t
ophe
r
McCa
n
d
le
ss,
who
died
in
remote
bus along the Stampede Trail west ofa
Healy inabandoned
1992.
Many
lms
and
television
setExposu
in Alaska
lmed
there;
for
example,
Nshows
orthernwas
re, in
setare
inslnot
the

cational
town
of 2007
Cicely,
Alaska,
lmed
Ro
yn,
W
s
h
i
ngt
o
n.
The
horror
feature
30
D
a
ys
o
f
Night
is
set in Barrow, but was lmed in New Zealand.
Many reality television shows are lmed in Alaska. In
2011 the Anchorage Daily News found ten set in the
state.[111]

11

State symbols

Main article: List of Alaska state symbols

State ower: wild/native forget-me-not, adopted by


the Territorial Legislature in 1917. [112] It is a perennial that is found throughout Alaska, from Hyder to
the Arctic Coast, and west to the Aleutians.
State fossil: woolly mammoth, adopted 1986.
State gem: jade, adopted 1968.
State insect: four-spot skimmer dragony, adopted
1995.
State land mammal: moose, adopted 1998.
State marine mammal: bowhead whale, adopted
1983.
State mineral: gold, adopted 1968.
State song: "Alaskas Flag"
State sport: dog mushing, adopted 1972.

State motto: North to the Future

State tree: Sitka spruce, adopted 1962.

Nicknames: The Last Frontier or Land of


the
Midnight Sun or Sewards
Icebox

State dog: Alaskan Malamute, adopted 2010.[113]

State
willowinptarm
igan,
the Territorial bird:
Legislature
1955.
It isadopted
a smallby
(1517
in or
380430
mm)
Arctictundra
grouse
that
lives among
willows
and
on
open
and
muskeg.
Plumage
is
brown
in
summer,
changing
to
white
in
winter.
willow ptarmigan is common in much of Alaska. The
State sh: king salmon, adopted 1962.

State soil: Tanana,[114] adopted unknown.

12

See also

Index of Alaska-related articles


Outline of Alaska organized list of topics about
Alaska
Sports in Alaska

13 REFERENCES

20

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14

External links

Alaska at DMOZ
Alaska Community Database System
Alaskas Digital Archives
vancy
Alaska, project area of the American Land Conser Alaska Inter-Tribal Council
download
The shortatlm
kat A(1967)
for free
the IAntlas
erne
rchive is
[moavailable
re]
Geographic
data related to Alaska
at
OpenStreetMap
US federal government
Alaska State Guide from the Library of Congress
Energy & Environmental Data for Alaska

l-timse,
sUoSGS
urces re
ofaAla
ka geographic, and other scientic reUS Census Bureau
Alaska State Facts

hAla
ject Guide from the Eisenowsk
eraPrSetsaidteehnood
tial LSiubbrary
hAla
cuments, Dwight D. Eisenowsk
eraPreSstiadteenhtood
ial Lidborary
Alaska state government
State of Alaska website
able
Alaskadatabases
State Datproduced
abases Annotated
of searchby Alaskalist Documents
state
agencies
and compiled
by the Government
Roundtable
of the American
Library Association.
Re
Alacorde
ska rs
DeOpart
Natural Resources,
cement of

15 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

24

15

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Peruvianllama,
Wwoods,
Everyking,
Bkonrad,
No
Guru,
Rwk,
Curps,
Rick
Block,
Guanaco,
Foryst,
Siroxo,
AlistairMcMillan,
Solipsist,
Kowh,
Bobblewik,
Golbez,
SonicAD,
Wmahan,
Fishal,
James Crippen,
Gadum,
Andycjp,
Knutux, Zeimusu,
Slowking
Man,
Quadell,
Christian.B,
Antandrus,GeoGreg,
Beland,
OverlordQ,
Evertype,
Daniel,levine,
Aulis Eskola,
Emax,
Vina, Mzajac,
JimWae,
Latitude0116,
Saopaulo1,
Hammersfan,
Scott
Burley,
Hocevar,
Aaron
Einstein,
Creidieki,
Neutrality,
Quota,
Kareeser,Gauss,
Andy
Christ,
Jh51681,
Adashiel, Grunt,
Thorwald,
Danh,
Mike
Rosoft,Sam
Kingal86,
Ouro,
Perey,
Dufekin,
ChrisRuvolo,
Heegoop,
Monkeyman,
Jiy,Florian
Bourquie,
Haruo,Aris
EugeneZelenko,
Lan56,
Moverton,
Discospinster,
Deirdre,
Rich
Farmbrough,
Guanabot,
Qutezuce,
Vsmith,AsdRupertslander,
Blaschke,
Katsaris,
EricYlee,
Shalov,
Xezbeth,
Mani1,
Paul
August,
SpookyMulder,
TriviaMan!,
Bender235,
ESkog,
fgh,
LemRobotry,
Mcpusc,
Petersam,
Evice,
CanisRufus,
MBisanz,
El
C,
Fenevad,
Pjrich,
Bletch,
Kwamikagami,
Mwanner,
Kross,
Laurascudder,
Richard
W.M.
Jones,
Aude,
Shanes,
Susvolans,
Niel
Orcutt,
Art Richi,
LaPella,
RoyBoy,
Triona,
Causa
sui, Bobo192,
Dralwik,
Jemedke
, Feitclub, MPerel,
Reinyday,
John
Vandenberg,
Clarkbhm,
AKGhetto,
Slicky,
Juzeris,
Tonei,Acanon,
La goutte
de pluie,
Rje, Shorne,
Saluyot,
DCEdwards1966,
Sam
Korn,
Krellis, Jonathunder,
SPUI,
Nsaa,
Jakew,
A2Kar,
BSveen,
HasharBot,
Martin
S Taylor,
Alansohn,
JadziaLover,
Gary, Atanamir,
Borisborf, ABCD,
Gt,
Omgee,
Polarscribe,
Buaidh,
Alyeska,
Mykej,
Jeltz,
Queson,
Penwhale,
Andrewpmk,
Ricky81682,
Raymond,
Andrew
Gray,
Riana,
AzaToth,
Luong,
Fritzpoll, Sligocki,
Gblaz,Proski,
Mysdaao,
Metron4,
Snowolf, Blobglob,
Shinjiman,
BanyanTree,
ClockworkSoul, Kusma,
Super-Magician,
Cburnett,
Vcelloho,
Evil Djsasso,
Monkey,
Harej,
RainbowOfLight,
Sciurin,
Sackadatfunk,
Tuggler,
Dave.Dunford,
Versageek,
Alai,
Mattbrundage,
YixilTesiphon,
Bookandcoee,
Kitch,
Markaci,
SmthManly,
Dennis
Bratland,
Dismas,
TShilo12,
Ron Ent,
Ritzman,
Stemonitis,
Angr,
Rorschach,
Woohookitty,
Mindmatrix, TigerShark,
Scriberius,
LOL, Venice,
A.K.A.47,
Sburke,
Can'tStandYa,
Thivierr,
Grillo,
Mrbigg9969,
Madchester,
Kosher
Fan, Qaddosh,
^demon, WadeSimMiser,
Chochopk, Matijap,
Ortcutt,
Azov, MONGO,
Skywayman,
Uris,Magister
Jhartmann,
Huhsunqu, Scm83x,
Skybum, SDC,
Zzyzx11,
Wayward, Karam.Anthony.K,
Dysepsion,
Thirty-seven,
Mandarax,
Graham87,
Mathematicae,
Revas,Seidenstud,
GoldRingChip,
BD2412,
Chun-hian,
Packers3789,
Kbdank71,
FreplySpang,
Jclemens,
Dpr, s,Xorkl000,
Canderson7,
Sjakkalle,
Rjwilmsi,
Koavf,
Mfwills,
George
Burgess,
Nkrosse,
Alaxsxa,
Bruce1ee,
Omnieiunium,
Mike
Tixity, Funnyhat,
Nneonneo,
Makaristos,
Kazrak,
IUnknown,
Muj0, The
wub,
DoubleBlue,
Fred
Bradstadt,
AySz88,Jak123,
Jbamb,
Sango123,
Watcharakorn,
Yamamoto
Ichiro,
FloK,
Qqqqqq,
Jakewater,
FlaBot,
SchuminWeb,
RobertG,
Ground
Zero,
Doc
glasgow,
Vclaw,
Snowboarder,
Ysangkok,
Jonathan
Kovaciny,
Harmil,
Cherubino,
Ttsalo,
MacRusgail,
Hottentot,
Mu
Cow,
Superchad,
RexNL,
Gurch,
Neofelis
Nebulosa,
Wars,
Quuxplusone,
KFP,
Drumguy8800,
Fisenko,
Deanshan,
Tedder,Random
Thecurran,
Ronebofh,
Acela Express, Psantora,
Irregulargalaxies,
King
of Hearts,
CStyle, CJLL
Wright,
Chobot,
userWavelength,
39849958,Gurubrahma,
Digitalme, EBradBeattie,
Pluribus
EamonnPKeane,
Roboto
deWester,
Ajvol,
The
Man,
Sus
scrofa,
Cjs56, YurikBot,
TexasAndroid,
CrotalusAnthony,
horridus,Algebraist,
Jcam,
Vuvar1,
NeitherSceptre,
HuwRambling
Powell,
Jimp,
Kafziel,
Alethiareg,
Jlittlet, Pigman,
MattWright,
Pip2andahalf,
RussBot,
Fabartus,
Redday,
Slash,
Jtkiefer,
Killervogel5,
The Storm
Surfer, Gman2337,
AVM,
Epolk,
IBookGaius
of theDaverocks,
Revolution,Rs09985,
ScottMainwaring,
DanMS,
Wikispork,
Kkkiii,
Christy747,
Stephenb,
Lord
Voldemort,
Mithridates,
Cate,
Polluxian,
C777,
Cornelius,
CambridgeBayWeather,
Alex
Bakharev,
Simon
Lieschke,
Member,
Wimt,
Bullzeye,
Gcapp1959,
Steelej10,
Marcus
Cyron,
Shanel, NawlinWiki,
Swollib,
Dysmorodrepanis,
Wiki
alf, BGManofID,
Astral,
Mistakenjam,
Spike Howcheng,
Wilbury,
Fivestrokes,
Grafen,
FritzG,
Petter
Ptcamn,
DarthVader,
Phoenix79,
GrumpyTroll,
Dugosz,
Bigkoiguy,
Chunky
Rice,
Joelr31,
Seegoon,
Slarson,
RetiredStrandmark,
username,
Ane- tode,
Ghostreveries,
CrazyC83,
Ravedave,
Ruhrsch,
Elliotreed,
Moe
Epsilon,
Mikeblas,
Philosofool,
KevinR,
Semperf,
Tony1,
Xompanthy,
Roche-Kerr,
Lockesdonkey,
BOT-Superzerocool,
DeadEyeArrow,
Bota47,
Supspirit,
Gamingexpert,
Martinwilke1980,
Woscafrench,
Alpha
Zero
Gravitas,
Wknight94,
Pr1268,
Richardcavell,
FF2010,
Manjithkaini,
American2,
Notscott,
21655,
Zzuuzz,
Chase me
ladies,4615,
I'm Nlu,
the Whobot,
Cavalry,
Theda,
Closedmouth,
Spawn
Man, Fang
Aili,
ColinMcMillen,
Dr.alf,
Black-Velvet,
JoanneB,
Chrishmt0423,
Scoutersig,
Thelb4,
Spliy,
ArielGold,
CapPixel,
Curpsbot-unicodify,
SorryGuy,
Garion96, Kungfuadam,
Jonathan.s.kt,
Kookykman,
Kuzain,
Paul
Erik, GrinBot,
Roke,
Elliskev,
Vanished
user
99034jfoiasjq2oirhsf3,
DVD
R W,TLSuda,
Bibliomaniac15,
Zewu,
SaulPerdomo,
DavidNeilN,
Wahler,
Gbalaji82,
Caponer,
Luk,
Kether83,
Hardscarf,
SmackBot,
FocalPoint,
Geckoman1011,
Bswee,
Saravask,
Py,
Zazaban,
Rkstaord,
GrandfatherJoe,
Prodego,
KnowledgeOfSelf,
Hydrogen
Iodide,
CTC, Unschool,
CRKingston,
Pgk,tetsubualo,
Rrius,
Feyer,Irnavash,
KocjoBot,
Davewild,
Big
Adamsky, ScaldingHotSoup,
Fractions,
Mscuthbert,
Zyxw,
EncycloPetey,
Peloneous,
Fishing,
KinAivazovsky,
Nethency,
GraemeMcRae,
HalfShadow,
Flux.books,
Zephyris, SmartGuy
Old, GaMetal,
, Cool3,
Pzavon,
Ohnoitsjamie,
Phizzy,Vedrfolnir,
Hmains, Betacommand,
JereyAllen1975,
Dark
jedi requiem,
A
Sunshade
Lust,MalafayaBot,
Rearden
Izehar,
ChrisGilliam,
the speller,
Madmedea,
Skookum1,
Persian
Poet Gal,
NCurse,
Cikoykip,
TheSpectator,
Timneu22,
BrendelSignature, Adun12,
Sadads, GoodDay,
Outlando,
Caputo737,
Impulsion,
Kungming2,
Cypher
z,
NicAgent,
DHN-bot,
Kabri,
Firetrap9254,
A.Reesh,
B., Gracenotes,
Verrai, Thief12,
John
Reaves,OrphanBot,
Springeragh,
Ahassan05,
Zsinj,
Can't
sleep,
clown
will
eat Shunpiker,
me,
EaglesFanInTampa,
JimIrwin,
Smallbones,
Eliyahu S, Brimba,
Jelinek121,
Nixeagle,
Snowmanradio,
MJCdetroit,
Zaian,
Xiner,
Jajhill,
Matchups,
Rrburke,
JohnJHenderson,
Wes!,
Andy120290,
Backspace,
Addshore,
BobJones,
Edivorce,
Celarnor,
Cribananda,
Grover
cleveland,
Samuel
69105,
CWesling,
BIL,
Krich,
Flyguy649,
Sirgregmac,
Nakon,
Oanabay04,
VegaDark,
Raichu, Shamir1,
Peaceduck,
Msp0, Weregerbil, Diocles, Soobrickay, Fogherty V. Tatin, DMacks, Kotjze, Jkaufman101, Kahuroa,
Rock
nj, Pilotguy,
Ohconfucius,
Will BeValfontis,
Kuru, Londonbats,
Scientizzle,
J back, Hmoul, SashatoBot, SoulMeetsBody, Nishkid64, Dmh, Radioshed, Krashlandon, J. Daily,
1982,
SilkTork,Lysior,
Wukkuan,
DivineIntervention,
Chiwara,
Edwy,
Basser g, Tim
Q. Wells,
Minna Coeeshivers,
Sora no Shita,Drumlineramos,
Stefan2, Reuvenk,
Senrable,
Llamadog903,
Ckatz,
The
Man
in
Question,
Chrisch,
JediScougale,
J Crow,
CylonCAG,
Slakr,
Yms, Grapetonix,
Timmeh,
TheHYPO,
George
The Dragon,
Wikster72,
Dicklyon,
Xiaphias,
Waggers,
orgia,,
MrD9,
Doczilla,
Geologyguy,
Dcyer,
Ryulong, Emil.B,
Condem,
Peter
Horn,
Jose77,Nickhuh,
Peyre,
KJS77,
NealJW,
Wild
Wolf,
Ginkgo100,
Lou-SandyGegire,
Levineps,
JMK,
Eyekendra,
Michaelbusch,
TwistOfCain,
Joseph
Solis
in
Australia,
Shoeofdeath,
Tkasmai,
J
Di,
Saebhiar,
EllenFoster,
Jaksmata,
Igoldste,
Cbrown1023,Blahstickman,
Tony Fox, Bunco
man, CapitalR,
Abdul Muhib,
NetBMC,
Civil Engineer
Courcelles,Rkavuru,
Anger22, Cham- berlian, Tawkerbot2,
Daniel5127,
CalebNoble,
ShakespeareFan00,
JForget,
Cg-realms,
Brainbark,III,Anthony22,

15.1 Text

25

CmdrObot,
Ale jrb,Gholton,
Moscownews,
Nparra, TimothyHorrigan,
Wafulz,
Megaboz,
SupaStarGirl,
ConstantinetheGreat,
Devin- nGuy,
Cook,
Lk9,
R9tgokunks,
Ennerk, Tex,
Whittsnake,
Dgw,Ericlaw02,
Jesse
Viviano,
Toropop,
Yarnalgo,
Lazulilasher,
RockyMtPerkyville,
JEdmundson,
Ken KnightLago,
Gallager,
Yopienso,
Engelmann15,
Whereizben,
Rivemont,
Pewwer42,
DOMICH,
farmofdoom,
Vectro,
Cydebot,
Wikien2009,
Yrodro, Marqueed,
Navamske27,
Reywas92,
Justinmcl,
Sart91,
Perfect
Proposal,
Mato,FunnyMichaelas10,
Gogo
Dodo, Crowish,
Bazzargh,
Chasingsol,
Icemanofbarcelona101,
Soetermans,
Studerby,
Tkynerd,
Odie5533,
Tawkerbot4, Shirulashem,
DumbBOT,
Chrislk02,
Phydend,
Inhumer,
FastLizard4,
Quadrius,
Optimist
on
the
run,
In
Defense
of
the
Artist,
Kozuch,
Tarkan1st,
MrMacMan,
Daven200520,
Gonzo fan2007,
Ebyabe,Bot-maru,
Geekosaurus,
A7x, HADC10,
Gimmetrow,
Emuchick,
JohnInDC,
BetacommandBot, Rjm656s,
Mattisse,Mrjinx,
Thijs!bot,
Epbr123, Alaska+yukon,
Wikid77,
Nhelm83,
Daniel,
Kablammo,
Vidor,Tellyaddict,
Sk8ski, Smee,
Eco84,
CRON,
Sting,
WilliamH,
Marek69,
Moulder,
SouthernMan,
Ufwuct,
James086,
Astynax,
Rahzel,
Keelm,
Dhtrible,
CharlotteWebb,
Dark
Serge,Turlo
DebateLord,
Escarbot,
Porqin,
Baville,
Tedrader,
AntiVandalBot, The
Musubi,
Yupik,Kbthompson,
Konman72,
Hgav,
Luna Santin,
Seaphoto,
Lomon,
Sion8,
Opelio,
GaryTmopkisn,
cumberland,
Mercer5089,
net,Obento
Quintote,
Dr.
Blofeld,
Theman1313,
Jayron32,
Cruz,
Jj137,
Pandamoania,
Joe
Schmedley,Overmaster
Vanjagenije,
Cjs2111,
LibLord,
Farosdaughter,
Josborne2382,
Barrel-rider,Juan
Mcnastybllr69,
Dybdal,
Esuzu,
Mikevegas40,
Woodstein52,
Arsenikk,
JAnDbot,
Deective,
Husond,
Daz 90,
Presidentluis,
Wiki0709,
Barbie
xDoll,
Wilee,
Barek,
MER-C,
The
Transhumanist,
Instinct,
Scythian1,
Jonemerson,
Conk
9,
Andonic,
Johnman239, Acroterion,
Somarinoa, Bullshark44,
Hut 8.5, Juantay,
Rick.Wicks,
DePortau, Ramurf,
Bmv 1978,
Heartinsanfrancisco,
Sa- vant13,
Kerotan,
RadioKAOS,
SteveSims,
Ny156uk,
Magioladitis,
OJH,
Celithemis,
Bongwarrior,
VoABotMaias,
II, Jonwillig,
AuburnPilot,
Scanlan,
Dekimasu,
Professor
marginalia,
Hullaballoo
Wolfowitz,
JNW,
JamesBWatson,
-Kerplunk-,
Manderiko,
Swpb,
Ling.Nut,
LanJack,
Rivertorch,
Gritironskillet,
Jeerythegreat,
CTF83!,
Nyttend,
Skew-t, Rich257,
Kevinmon, No-Allstarecho,
tACow, Scanadiense,
BrianGV,
Catgut, Heartlander,
Indon,
Animum,
Cyktsui,
Yankee
Rajput,JaGa,
Ali'i,
MetsBot,
Ultranotadork,
28421u2232nfenfcenc,
Csba, Pax:Vobiscum,
Elindros,
Just
James,
Glen,
Chris G,
DerHexer,
Philg88,
Seansinc,
GregU,
Lenticel,AkbeanElsecar,counter,
Pan Dan,
Angbrown,
TheRanger,
DancingPenguin,
Dposnow,
Hdt83,
MartinBot,
Zigzug,
Racepacket,
Paracel63,
N734LQ,Lilac
Rettetast,
Jay Litman, Tracer9999,
Glendoremus,
R'n'B,
CommonsDelinker,
AlexiusHoratius,
Deagro,
Triggg,
Dewelar, Revenant,
Tony Stevens,
Smokizzy,
Soul,
LedgendGamer,
Akxcskier,
EdBever,
J.delanoy,
Pharaoh
of
the
Wizards,
Gotyear,
Trusilver,
Grim
Ogno,
Bogey97,
Aleksandr
Grigoryev,
Steifer,
Uncle
Dick,
Clown57,
AnthonyNgo,
Pavelegorov,
Jreferee,
Chrisfow,
Milo03,
Professor
Davies,
Benscripps,
JDJintheAK,
Frank
Vest, Chico9955555,
Teknomunk,
M C L'Aquatique,
Y 1008, Poopdeck90210,
Rocketmaniac, Katalaveno,
LordAnubisBOT,
Thedjb,
AlaskaTrekker,
AlaskaCruising,
Athene
cunicularia,
Oakshade,
Lilpinoy
82, Flatterworld,
An- tiSpamBot,
GhostPirate,
Dyscti,Josephhartman07,
DetroitHockey,
Nwbeeson,
SmilesALot,
Carewser,
JossBuckle
Swami,Cmichael,
DextersexyWhite
the ripper,
ThinkBlue,
Student7,
Aarredondo6,
Sleddoggin,
Miskwito,
720, KCinDC,
Joshua
Is- sac,
Juliancolton,
Cometstyles,
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TheJJaReadings,
Handshake
compromise,
Ken g6,
Eknudson,
Smumdax,
Redrocket,
DMCer,
Natl1, Bonadea,
Isomage,
Premiercolleges,
Scott
Illini,
62,
Andy
Marchbanks,
Inwind,
Je

PG
ibson,
TheNewPhobia,
Farsnickle,
KGV,
Dkreisst,
Pmresch,
Sgeureka,
Xiahou,
Squids
and Chips,
CardinalDan,
TakisV,
Funandtrvl,
High- elds,
Romandial,
Clamjam22,
Mastrchf91,
Voskoboinikov,
Lrdwhyt,
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Ianchreis,
Communitypro
leIdioma-bot,
s, Hsfkwsf,
g, Akloki,
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Deor,
Extreme
outdoors,
Hammersoft,
VolkovBot,
CWii,
Thedjatclubrock,
ABF,
Hippymac,
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of Waltham,
Je G.,Trueman,
Nburden,Eric
Tesscass,
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Butwhatdoiknow,
Mr.crabby,
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RabinK007,
MuscleJawThe
SobSki,
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Philip
outdoors,
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sprit,
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beckham, GDonato,
Anonymous
Dissident, Spydrlink,
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Gerrish, Arnon
Chan, Corvus
Qxz, Monkey
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cornix,
Dbrown123,
Garravogue,
Martin451,
JhsBot,
12345llama,
Gregorytruman,ManMg- analiksik,
downey, MichaelSpeer,
Granola=D,
SGT141,CO,SebCalaf,
az86556,
Notbyworks,
Shatar,
Cremepu

222,
Bearian,
DesmondRavenstone,
Todd
on
a
Tractor,
SpecMode,
Madhero88,
Tidying
Up,
Commander Sergei
Bjarkhov,
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Not Phlarsen,
A Duck,
Brianga,
Monty845,
AlleborgoBot,
I OwnThe
U284,
Quantpole, Boone23howard,
HeidiCandi,
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Tvinh,
NHRHS2010,
Ziansh, Chandlerlink.04,
Ikariam3944,
cheeseburglar,
The Random
Editor,Tiddly
SaltyBoatr,
Gaelen EmxBot,
S.,
EJF, Hughey,
SieBot,
Alaskacatalog,
Coee,
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K.
Annoyomous,
Vamrat,
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Tom,
Graham
Beards,
Scarian,
Judeeclare,
Weeliljimmy,
Eoghan888,
Sophos II, DatVillain83,
Triwbe, Qwertasdfgh,
Vanished
User 8a9b4725f8376,
Gia1156, Hchrishicks, Ghimboueils, Ye Olde Luke, Pengyanan, Dawn Bard, Caltas,
5150pacer,
Alexagurl,
Keilana,
PookeyMaster,
Historychomper,
Quest for
Truth, Tiptoety,
Radon210,
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Ar- Lopez,
bor to
SJ, Fatty12345,
JetLover,
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Davidmartell,
Antonio
Faradayplank,
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Goustien,
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Lightmouse,
Poindexter Propellerhead,
Axel23,
Techman224,
KathrynLybarger,
Hobartimus,
Subtitledryhump,
Lasttooth,
Tiredthird,
Int21h,
Luckylettuce,
Taggard,
Jose5000,
Studmu

nsuprem
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SpartanJames,
StaticGull, Scottyoak2,
Sean.hoyland,
Mygerardromance,
Realm ofMiyokan,
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TaerkastUA,Velvetron,
Dust Filter,
Dabomb87,
Superbeecat,
Lowell33,
BobertLePirate,
Richard
Ramsey,
Escape Orbit, Bubbabags,
The
sunder king,
Dundana,
Fsboalaska,
WikipedianMarlith,
Mr. David
Granger,
Faithlessthewonderboy,
JCRB, The
Silington,
Sfan00
Beeblebrox,
Jonassweden,
Mesmes,
ClueBot, Deevrod,
Rumping,
Speakandspell,
GerojiYuga,
Fyyer,
Thing Martarius,
That Should
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Be,
Eric
Wester,
Rjd0060,
tikspork,
Witchwooder,
ImperfectlyInformed,
ZarexTimberframe,
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Mx3,
Nnemo,
Pglitsch,
Bubliiz,
Bluedogtn,
Arakunem,
Two-face
Jackie, PlasWDavis1911,
Grango242,
Elconejo,
SuperHamster,
Woolters,
247balla34,
CounterVandalismBot,
Thegreatglobetrotter,
Blanchardb,
LizardJr8,
Parkwells,
Piledhigheranddeeper,
Neverquick,
Pras,
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LukeHogg456,
Jeremiestrother,
Vpuliva,
Jemmy
Button,
MindstormsKid,
Brewcrewer,
DragonBot,
En.ianm1121,
Reconrmer,
Fjehoel,
Excirial,
Zerotran0,
Jusdafax, Sun
Doctorbrassstone,
Tomeasy,
Tanker58er,
Swimm21,
Soccerplayer5,
Monobi,
Beatlesfan27,
Ioij,
Abrech,
Rhatsa26X,
Gregsap,
Rhododendrites,
Creator,
NuclearWarfare,
Cenarium,
me88, Geekgoddess24,
CPacker,
Pmt7ar, Promethean,
Highy3442,Nukeless,
Antodav2007,
Kryptonian250, Razor
ame,
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Thegarland,
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Polly,cat1122,
ChrisHodgesUK,
LaZzyzx513,
Pianista,
Stepheng3,
Alpodog999,
CooperDB,
Karl6109,
Modelmany,
Thingg,
Aitias,
Zaledin,
Footballfan190,
BobVersus22,
MelonBot,
Sergeantkitty,
SoxBotXenghornt,
III, Egmontaz,
Crowsnest,
Cellin8r,
DumZiBoT,Infoporn,
Zakkuro, AncientToaster,
PollShark,
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Cakechild,
Blaylockjam10,
albert square,
Funkalunatic,
Tsange, Saywhatzannuuhh,
Tassedethe, Numbo3-bot, Peridon, Ondewelle, Jeremyhen,
Brynath, Tide
rolls, Jay Zaq, 5Lightbot,
Gail, First
Light, MuZemike,
Jarble, Arbitrarily0,

15 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

26

Gebstadter,
VVPushkin,
Cchow2,
Bmax10, Yobot,
Matt.T, 2D,
Ivangrozny69,
Elgreggo11,
Cmano13,
Lavalette1,
Legobot,
Realm
of II,the
crimson
viper,
Luckas-bot,
Bunnyhop11,
Daondo, ARUenergy,
Ptbotgourou,
Agentl, Narutolovehinata5,
Srinivas666,
NEICenergy,
MusLiM
HyBRiD
Non't
denyQueenCake,
my share.,
Davidpinieiro,
Abramspoint,
ArchonMagnus,
THEN WHO
PHONE?,
Random
moi,II Dniete97,
Cottonshirt,
Duck that
quacks
alot,
Bualo
Robert,Backslash
DonKofAK,
IW.HG,WAS
Noll123,
SouthHairyPerry,
Bay, Pack3406,
Vrinan,
Fossett&Elvis,Boolyme,
Aztom2,
Szajci,Twig732,
Burnordie4,
Synchronism,
ZapThunderstrike,
Forwardslash,
AnomieBOT,
Fusillijerry86,
732SOUTHPAW,
Rubinbot,
YeshuaDavid,
RiverFattieRCool,
Dankirschner81,
Newshound08,
Sonia,
Killiondude,
IRP,
Piano
non
troppo, K50Materialscientist,
Dude, Oddnessly,
AdjustShift, Receptacle,
Free2conform123,
Braden
Kingpin13,
Darolew,
Flewis,
Kavas,
Dr.nkelstein09,
Kirachinmoku,
The High
Fin curci,
SpermMrstraty32,
Whale, Citation
bot, UlFlea-ric1313,
man5000,
Ewikdjmco,
Thehistoryprofessor,
E2eamon,
Maxis
ftw,
ArthurBot,
B.
Fairbairn,
BrunoBa1rd,
Wkeith112003,
Andrewmc123,
Xqbot,
Sketchmoose,
Catlover1997,
Imyaabaian,
Brodens,
The
sock
that
should
not
be,
Capricorn42,
Hammersbach,
Processed
meat,
Sambrougher,
MikeJa2,
Kewldude246810,
MYHelper, O
the heezay,
Gilo1969,
Bigballdaddy,
Bobisbobbob,
Voksen,
Kevincuth08,
Almabot, Thundermist04167,
Montanas
Defender,
EricHappyharry345,
Blatant,
GrouchoBot,
Cecil722,Ched,
Abce2,
Bogie555,
Itscolt,
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DC,
Cyber
topac, Moxy,
ProtectionTaggingBot,
, Pmac5,
Frankie0607,
Jake Zhang,
Realestatewiki,
Rjjo,
Doulos Christos,
Dweens45,
In fact,
Shadowjams,
SHallathome,
Creation7689,
kei,Monkeymania302,
Laugh- Ackontheoor,
Qt ak, TwinCityIL,
Fredy.00,
Muzzy12345678987654321,
SD5,
Dougofborg,
DasallmchtigeJ,
Jrzyboy,
Fingerz,Ninja
FrescoBot,
Glubg,
ermanAttacker,
elementry,
Starcrew7,
Porchwhen,
Jct
alaska,
Paine
Ellsworth,
Broadcaster101,
Tobby72,
SpaceRocket,
Bkamoua,
Hapiee12,
Sky
Mikemike12,
Electricalaskan,
KokkaShinto,
JMS
Old
Al,
Jesikahilton,
Goumbaguy,
Lil
shaf,
Wi

321,
Ak
kali,
Weetoddid,
Hungrymama,
Dankarl,
Hibobjoe,
Austria156,
Chinook70,
Ciatochase,
Jamesooders,
Tre1914,Omdo,
Hatter87,
WirelessRapthorne,
Keyboard,Lzf,
Akbikerpoet, Blalalalalaluaisi,
Ntse,
FriscoKnight,
Galloramenu,
Pinethicket,
ChrisJBenson,
Sedna10387,
Mr.Sexman,
Onthegogo,
Skshow, Doodmaster,
Cool
Stu Meaghan,
Is Cool,
MJ94, Rushbugled13,
Bladegirl,
Nickgonzalez,
Giveostmoney,
Jaguar, Mak121, Pattond2,
Yutsi, Zabadinho,
Ottokarten,
BankiSun,
Robo Cop,
Pedroacosta345,
TobeBot, Trappist
theCodyBerryAKbadass,
monk, Donlammers, Sheogorath,
Raven097,
ItsZippy,KQW,
KillerForrestleo,
monkey Boy- wiz, White Shadows, Corinne68, FoxBot,
95,
Lotje,Abdulc,
Mrgagafoo,
Comboguard,
Scarab12,
Kielbasa1,
Reaper
Eternal,
Carl$Seemus,
Markjmeyer7,
Canuckian89,DARTH
Diannaa,SIDISuusion
Yellow,
Nascar1996,
Tbhotch,
Robindevoe,
Gispert4,
Jonndk,
Keptarkoto,
Fry1989,
Ahernlj, Rossdegenstein,
OUS of
2,
CordeliaNaismith,
RjwilmsiBot,
Bento00,
Alph
Bot,
EGroup,
WildBot,
DASHBot,
Steve03Mills,
The
Universe RA0808,
Is Cool, 1Martin33,
EmausBot,
WikitanvirBot,
Eekerz,
Dr Aaij, Alienbrett,
Immunize,
Gfoley4,
Dadaist6174,
Tsdek,
Happyfatman021,
GoingBatty,
Minimacs
Clone,
Yourbestfriendisblack,
Peli1414,
WaterMelon7,
Sp33dyphil,
Tommy2010,
Geomax,
Wikipelli,
K6ka, Kmoksy,
The
Blade
of
the
Northern
Lights,
Thejamie024,
Koolkidz123,
Werieth,
ZroBot,
Shawn
alexander,
Checkingfax,
T
efch,
Pisces116,
Tm0ney3,
Moneybag990,
Ibrahmin,
Myrtlecharlotte,
Fernirm,
H3llBot,
SporkBot,
Amish
01,
Monterey
Bay,
Wayne
Slam,
OnePt618,
Highvale,
Neddy1234,
L1A1 FAL,Devin
Rcsprinter123,
Selxxa, TyA, KarasuGamma,
, Sahimrobot,
Alfbar1,
Xiaoyu
Yuxi,
2tuntony,
Damirgrati,
Thesouthernhistorian45,
Pederson,
EdoBot, Palaeozoic99,
Jasonli42,
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Est.r,of
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NG,
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bot,
BaseballStevarino27,
Watcher,
A50123,
Atmospherica,
Klaustronaut,
Carstonjacobsen,
Wakavankhai,
Dpaperman,
Frietjes,
Hellnoha,
DruMovsesof Id,
Russianman12,
ScottSteiner,
Tbennert,
Ketchikanadian,
Jumba
lumba,
CopperSquare,
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Mercutio84110,
Wvelite20,
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KevinSun2000,
Ekneeley,
Droppedballz69,
IgnorantArmies,
Mightymights,
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Pixie
Bot,
Justinbieberizsmexi,
RobertGustafson,
Vancouverovka,
Jsto4life,
Amaysky,
Mynameisbobby2,
Captain
Thor,
BG19bot,
Mooshiga,
Flix11,Simondarren21,
Tolea93, AvocatoBot,
Soerenfm,
Amolbot,
Exercisephys,
Namtar, Gorthian,
Snow
Blizzard,
Qwekiop147,Prcc27,
Noobtube3,
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LinnySawrus,
Minsbot,
LieutenantCadiomals,
of Futurist110,
Melkor,D RudolfRed,
BattyBot,
PassaMethod,
Justincheng12345-bot,
Kou
Dou,
ChrisGualtieri,
Khazar2,
Wikiuser17,
Ekren,
Akdrummer75,
Indiasummer95,
Aditya
Mahar,
Datu
Dong, Cerabot,
XXzoonamiXX,
GTheory,
Hto9950,Mr.mcbeefy,
John F. Lewis,
Wywin, NightShadow23,
Xwoodsterchinx,
PinkAmpersand,
Arsenal987654321,
Katayasha,
Alaska Bluebasket,
Bus Bronx
Guy, Melonkelon,
Kap 7,
Midlothian09,
PraetorianFury,
NJRobbie,
Hardcoreromancatholic,
PavelFamAD123,
Stankov,
Bluepencil1234,
Discount Liquor,
Sam
Sailor, Limnalid,
Azertopius,
Zyas1,
Nyashinski, Monkbot,
Aaron Dsim64,
Blackwell
AntHerder,JexsterB312,
Thompsonshep,
WikiImprovment78
and Anonymous:
2507 34353, Clarkbar10, Scarlettail, Monopoly31121993, AwesomeSky,

15.2 Images
Alaska_Quake_Kodiak_Before_and_After.jpg
File:1964_Alaska_Quake_Kodiak_Before_and_After.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/1964_
License: Public Source:
domain Contr
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s: pagehttp://libraryphoto.cr.usgs.gov/cgi
- bin/show_
picture.cgi?ID=ID.%20Alaska%20Earthquake%20no.%20%20%20%2017ct&SIZE=large
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includes photo description Original
artist:
Unknown
File:2008-05- 04_at_18-26- 44-Forgetmenot- Flower.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/2008- 0504_
at_18- 26- 44- Forgetmenot- Flower.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Wilder Kaiser (talk)
CFile:Alaska-StateSeal.svg
Source:
- StateSeal.svg
Public domain
ontrURL
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s: ATSDR
the
CDC)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Alaska
series of state-specic fact sheets. Bitmap versions have been
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Direct
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File:Alaska_Crude_Oil_Production.PNG
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Alaska_Crude_Oil_
Production.PNG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: RockyMtnGuy
License:
File:Alaska_Crude_Oil_Reserves.PNG
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Alaska_Crude_Oil_Reserves.
PNG
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work
Original
artist: RockyMtnGuy
Closeup_Underneath.jpg
File:Alaska_Pipeline_Closeup_Underneath.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Alaska_Pipeline_
License: GFDL 1.2 Contributors:Source:
Own work Original
artist: Photo by and (c)2005 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man)
File:Alaska_Railroad.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Alaska_Railroad.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Leon Petrosyan
File:Alaska_area_compared_to_conterminous_US.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Alaska_area_
compared_to_conterminous_US.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work
Data:

15.2 Images

27

NGDC World Coast Line (public domain)


NGDC World Data Bank II (public domain)
Original artist: Eric Gaba (Sting - fr:Sting)
USGS.gif
File:Alaska_climate_regions_USGS.gif
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Alaska_climate_regions_
License: Public domain Contributors: Source:
http://esp.cr.usgs.gov/research/alaska/turnarm.html
Original artist: Thomas A. Ager and Paul E.
Carrara, USGS
File:Alaska_in_United_States_(US50).svg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Alaska_in_United_
States_
%28US50%29.svg
License: Public domain Contributors: The source code of this SVG is invalid due to 3 errors. Original artist:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email_Silk.
tributors:
File:AlutiiqDancer.jpg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/AlutiiqDancer.jpg
License: Public domain Conhttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/byways/photos/59191
Original artist: Christopher Mertl
artist:
File:Anchorage1.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Anchorage1.jpg
License:
? Contributors: ? Original
?
Downloaded
File:AttuSnow.jpg
Source:War
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Volcano_Jan_12_2006_edited
File:Augustine_Volcano_Jan_12_2006_edited-1.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Augustine_
- 1.jpg License: Public domain Source:
Contributors: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/image_full.php?id=5927
Original artist:
Game McGimsey
File:Barrow-Alaska- skyview.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Barrow- Alaska- skyview.jpg License:
CC-BY-3.0 Contributors: Photo by Dave Cohoe Original artist: Dave Cohoe
cense:
File:Bethel_Alaska_aerial_view.jpg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Bethel_Alaska_aerial_view.jpg LiPublic domain Contributors:
Image page Original artist: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, photographer not specied or unknown
File:Bow_bow.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Bow_bow.jpg License: GFDL Contributors: Own work
Original artist: Elbieta Wojtko Orinek7
artist:
File:Commons-logo.svg
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3.0
File:Compass_rose_pale.svg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Compass_rose_pale.svg
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made to look similar to Image:Reinel compass rose.svg. Original
artist:CC-BYFibonacci
File:CordovaHillside.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/CordovaHillside.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Original artist: St. Louis, Julie
domain
File:Denali_Mt_McKinley.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Denali_Mt_McKinley.jpg
License: Pub- lic
Contributors: [1] Original artist:
National
Park Service
commons/1/14/Downtown_Juneau_with_Mount_Juneau_rising_in_the_background.jpg
File:Downtown_Juneau_with_Mount_Juneau_rising_in_the_background.jpg License:
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
CC-BY-SA-2.0 Contributors:
Flickr:
Downtown Juneau with Mount Juneau rising in the background Original artist: Alan Wu
SA-2.0
File:Downtown_Talkeetna.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Downtown_Talkeetna.jpg
License:
CCBYContributors: Downtown Talkeetna Original artist: Justin Morgan from Richmond, Virginia, USA
ba/ERA_Aviation_prop_plane_landing_at_ANC_%286194226738%29.jpg
File:ERA_Aviation_prop_plane_landing_at_ANC_(6194226738).jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/
at ANC Original artist: Frank Kovalchek from Anchorage, Alaska, USA License: CC-BY-2.0 Contributors: ERA Aviation prop plane landing
File:East.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Boxed_East_arrow.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
DarkEvil. Original artist: DarkEvil
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File:Fairbanks05.jpg
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File:Flag_of_Alaska.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Flag_of_Alaska.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
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File:Flag_of_Hawaii.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Flag_of_Hawaii.svg License: Public domain
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?File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist:

28

15 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES


artist:
File:Flag_of_Russia.svg
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
?
File:Flag_of_Yukon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Flag_of_Yukon.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
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File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: ?
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
Brooks_Falls.jpg
File:Grizzly_Bear_Fishing_Brooks_Falls.jpg
License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Source:
Own work http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Grizzly_Bear_Fishing_
Original artist: Azov
File:Heavy-lift_melon.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Heavy- lift_melon.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0
Contributors: Flickr: Super veggies at the Alaska State Fair Original artist: Jay Galvin
File:Iditarod_Ceremonial_start_in_Anchorage,_Alaska.jpg
Source: Contributor
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/
Iditarod_Ceremonial_start_in_Anchorage%2C_Alaska.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0
s: The look of sheer determination - 2010
Iditarod Ceremonial start in Anchorage, Alaska Original artist: Frank Kovalchek from Anchorage, Alaska, USA
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