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- Chemistry winter 2a exam key
- Chapter 3 Silberberg Teacher's Manual
- Exercise 13-Percent Composition and Molecular Formula
- Rcm Solution 2
- Ap07 Chemistry Frq
- SYLLABY
- Example 11 3 Adiabatic Liquid Phase Isomerization of Normal Butane Essentias FOGLER
- chemistry calculations notes
- Document
- Civil Services Mains Syllabus
- EXP 7 Simultaneous determination of caffeine and acetylsalicylic acid in an Analgesic by ultraviolet spectroscopy
- Exercise No. 1 Mole to Gram
- Molecules in Physics, Chemistry, And Biology
- CBSE Guess Papers Question Papers Class XII 2004 CHEMISTRY (Set I—Delhi)
- 136913864 IGCSE Chemistry Calculations
- 245590291-Limiting-Reactant.pdf
- 1-1-The-Mole
- B003-ARIHANT.pdf
- Assignmnet 2 Solutions 2011
- c5amolesandempiricalformulae-100110155829-phpapp02

Anda di halaman 1dari 66

Microscopic World of Atoms to

Laboratory Measurements

Mata Kuliah

KIMIA DASAR

Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri

Universitas Tarumanegara

Pengajar : Gadang Priyotomo,2014

Index

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or

molecules

3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a

compound

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental

mass measurements

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a

reaction

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of

product that can form

3.6 The predicted amount of product is not always obtained

experimentally

2

The same mass may

not represent the same

number of molecules

Suppose one rabbit has

a mass of 250 g. What

mass in kg would a

case of 24 rabbits

have?

250 g kg

24 rabbits

rabbit 1000g

6.0 kg

The mass of an atom is called its atomic mass

Atomic mass provides a means to count atoms by

measuring the mass of a sample

The periodic table gives atomic masses of the

elements in u per atom

to reduce rounding errors, use the most precise

values possible

Learning Check

How many atoms of C are there in 3.5 108 u?

1 atom C

3.5 10 u

12.0107 u

8

2.9 107

H?

16 u

2.35

10

16

1 .00794 u

2.33 10 atoms

1 atom H

atomic masses: C=12.0107 u; H=1.00794 u

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Your Turn!

Given that the atomic mass of Ba is 137.327u, what

is the mass of 23 atoms of Ba?

A. 3.2103 u

B. 3.210-4 u

C. 1.37102 u

D. none of these

Your Turn!

A new element is discovered that has a mass of

3.2 102 u for15 atoms. What is the atomic mass?

A. 3.2 102

B. 0.047

C. 21

D. not enough information

E. None of these answers

Relationships

1.6610-27 kg = 1 u (from the inside back cover

of the book) may also be written as:

6.02231023 u = 1 g ( a form you will often

use)

We can use this as a conversion factor to convert

between mass quantities

in u, and those in g

1g

23

6.0223 10 u

grams (g)

6.0223 1023 u

1g

Relationships

Atomic Mass (AM) u = 1 particle

We can use this as a conversion factor to convert

between these quantities.

1 particle

AM u

mass (u)

particles

AM u

particle

Learning Check

How many u of Na are there in 55.2 kg Na?

10 g 6.0223 1023u

55.2kg

3.321028 u

g

kg

Na?

-9 g

15

1g

5.310

3.2 10 u

23

6.0223 10 u

10

Your Turn!

Which of the following are not equivalent to a

sample of 10.5107 u of Cu?

A. 1.7410-16 g

B. 1.65106 atoms

C. 63.54 u

D. None of these

11

Ba3(PO4)2 :

601.9261 u/fu

(NH4)2CO3:

96.08603 u/fu

O: 15.9994(3)u; H:1.00794u; N:14.00672u; C 12.0107(8)u

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

12

Relationships

Formula mass (FM) u = 1 particle

We can use this as a conversion factor to convert

between these quantities.

1 particle

FM

u

mass (u)

particles

FM u

particle

13

The molecular mass allows counting of molecules

by mass

The molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses

of the atoms in the compounds formula

Strictly speaking, ionic compounds do not have a

molecular mass, we describe an analogous

quantity- the formula mass - to cover all

possibilities

14

Learning Check:

How many molecules of CO2 are there in 3.5

108 u? 1 molecule CO

6

3.5 10 u

44.0095 6 u

8.0 10 u

of H2 ?

2 .01588 u

16 u

4.70

10

2.33 10 atoms

1 molecule H2

16

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

15

What Is a Mole?

One mole of any substance contains the same

number of units, called Avogadros number, N

1 mole formula units = 6.0223 x 1023 formula

units

It is a large quantity of particles because the

particles described are so small.

16

suppose we start with 12.0107g of C. How many

atoms of C are there?

given that the atomic mass of C is 12.0107 u

12.0107gC

6.0223 10 23 u

1 atom

12.0107

u

thus for any substance, the formula mass (in g)

corresponds to the same number of atoms, N

17

Molar Mass

One mole contains the same number of particles as

the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

The molar mass of a substance has the same

numeric value as the formula mass

The value is different because the units are

different

Thus if the formula mass of Ba3(PO4)2 is 610.332 u/fu,

the molar mass of Ba3(PO4)2 is 610.332 g/mol

18

Relationships

MM g = 1 mole

Use this as a conversion factor to convert between

these quantities

1 mole

MMg

Mass (g)

mole

MMg

1mole

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

19

And Moles

Given that the molar mass of CO2 is 44.0098 g/mol

What mass of CO2 is found in 1.55 moles?

44.0098 g 68.2 g

1.55 mol

mol

How many moles of CO2 are there in 10 g?

mol

10 g

44.0098 g

0.2 mol

20

Your Turn!

What is the molar mass of Ca3(PO4)2 in g/mol?

Ca: 40.078 ; P: 30.973761 ; O:15.9994

A. 279.203

B. 215.205

C. 310.177

D. none of these

21

Your Turn!

What mass in g, of Ca3(PO4)2 (MM=310.1767)

would a 3.2 mole sample have?

A. 1.010-3 g

B. 9.9102 g

C. 6.01026 g

D. 1.610-21 g

E. None of these

22

Counting formula units by moles is no different

than counting eggs by the dozen (12 eggs) or pens

by the gross (144 pens)

Since the individual particle is very small, the

mole is a more practical quantity

It is a group, in which 6.02231023 individuals

comprise 1 mole

The quantity, N, is Avogadro's number and is

measured as 6.02231023

23

Relationships

N particles = 1 mole

We can use this as a conversion factor to convert

between these quantities

1 mole

N particles

particle

Moles

N particles

mole

24

Calculate the formula units of Na2CO3 in 1.29

moles of Na2CO3

23

6.0223

10

fu 7.771023

1.29 mol

mol

fu

105 formula units of Na2CO3?

mol

1.15 10 fu

23

6.0223 10 fu

5

1.9110-19

mol

25

N

moles

# particles

MM

FM

mass (g)

mass (u)

N

26

Your Turn!

Which of the following is not a relationship, but is a

sample size?

A. molar mass

B. Avogadros number

C. formula mass

D. Mass in u

E. None of these

27

Your Turn!

Na: 22.989770 ; C: 12.011; O:15.9994

sample of 5.5 g

Na2CO3 how many

formula units are

# particles

present?

A. 6.01023

FM

B. 5.210-2

mass (u)

C. 3.210-23

D. 3.31024

E. None of these

3.11022

moles

MM

mass (g)

N

28

To relate components of a compound to the

compound quantity we look at the chemical

formula

In Na2CO3 there are 3 relationships:

2 mol Na: 1 mol Na2CO3

1 mol C: 1 mol Na2CO3

3 mol O: 1 mol Na2CO3

1 atom C:1 fu Na2CO3

29

Learning Check:

Calculate the number of moles of sodium in 2.53

moles of sodium carbonate

2 mol Na

2.53 mol

1 mol Na2CO3

5.06 mol Na

moles of sodium carbonate

23

2.53 mol

1 mol Na

1mol Na2 CO3

3.051024 atoms Na

3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a compound

30

Your Turn!

How many atoms of iron are in a 15.0 g sample of

iron(III) oxide (MM 159.68859 g/mol)?

A. 1.131023

B. 9.3910-2

C. 5.661022

D. 1.8810-1

E. None of these

31

Percent Composition

Percent composition is a list of the mass percent of

each element in a compound

Na2CO3 is

43.38% Na

11.33% C

45.29% O

compound?

32

What is the % C in CO2?

Determine the molar mass of the compound

MM=44.00956 g/mol

molar mass of the compound by 100

(12.0107/44.009656)100= 27.2911 %C

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

33

Learning Check

A sample was analyzed and found to contain 0.1417

g nitrogen and 0.4045 g oxygen. What is the

percentage composition of this compound?

0.1417 g N

100

0.1417g + 0.4045 g total

25.94% N

74.06% O

34

Your Turn!

A 35.5 g sample is analyzed and found to contain

23.5% Si. What mass of Si is present in the

sample?

A. 6.6210-1 g

B. 8.88101 g

C. 1.51102 g

D. 8.34 g

E. None of these

35

The empirical formula is

the lowest whole number

ratio of atoms in a

compound

Note that the molecular

formula is a whole number

multiple of the empirical

formula.

glucose

C6H12O6

CH2O

C1x6H2x6 O1x6

36

Strategy

Convert starting quantities to moles

Divide all quantities by the smallest number of

moles to get the smallest ratio of moles

Convert any non-integers into integers

If any number ends in a common decimal equivalent of

a fraction, multiply by the least common denominator

Otherwise, round the numbers to the nearest integers

37

Equivalents

decimal

.25

or

.75

.3333

or

.6667

.50

Fraction multiplier

For example:

equivalent

or

1/3 or 2/3

1 . 25 x 4 = 5

38

Learning Check:

A 2.012 g

N

sample of a mass(g) 0.522

compound

contains

MM

14.00674

0.522 g of

0.037268

nitrogen and mol

1.490 g of

lowest 1

oxygen.

Calculate its ratio

empirical

integer 2

formula

ratio

O

1.490

15.99943

0.0931283

2.50

5

39

Ratio of the molecular mass to the mass predicted by

the empirical formula and round to an integer

n=

empirical formula mass

The actual molecule is larger by this amount

If the empirical formula is AxBy , the molecular formula

will be AnxBny

glucose

180.1572 g C6H12O6

n=

= 6

30.0262 g CH2O

40

Example:

The empirical formula of hydrazine is NH2, and its

molecular mass is 32.0. What is its molecular

formula? n=(32.0/16.02)=2

N2H4

A substance is known to be 35.00% N, 5.05% H

and 59.96% O. What is its EF? Determine the

Molecular Formula if the MM of the compound is

80.06 g/mol

EF: N2H4O3

n=(80.06/80.043)=1

N2 H4 O3

MM: N:14.00674; H:1.00794; O:15.99943

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

41

Your Turn!

Given the composition analysis of lindane (a

controversial pesticide ) what is its empirical

formula?

C

H

Cl

A. C24H2Cl73

24.77928%

2.07943%

73.14129%

B. C2H2Cl2

C. C142 HCl126

D. CHCl

E. None of these

42

Your Turn!

We found that the empirical formula was CHCl.

Given that the MM is 290.8316 g/mol, what is

the molecular formula?

A. C6H6Cl6

B. C8H17Cl5

C. C3H5Cl7

D. C5H18Cl7

E. none of these

43

Combustion Analysis:

Empirical formulas may also be calculated

indirectly

When a compound made only from carbon,

hydrogen, and oxygen burns completely in pure

oxygen, only carbon dioxide and water are

produced

44

Combustion Analysis:

Empirical formulas may be calculated from the

analysis of combustion information

grams of C can be derived from amount of CO2

grams of H can be derived from amount of H2O

the mass of oxygen is obtained by difference:

g O = g sample ( g C + g H )

45

Learning Check:

The combustion of a 5.217 g sample of a compound of

C, H, and O gave 7.406 g CO2 and 4.512 g of H2O.

Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.

12.0107 g C

7.406 g CO2

2.02118 g C

44.00956 g CO2

2.01588 g H

.5048 g H

4.512 g H2O

84

18.01531 g H2O

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

46

Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.

H: 1.00794; C:12.0107; O: 15.99943

mass

C

H

O

2.02118 0.504884 2.69094

MM

12.0107 1.00794

mol

.16828

low

ratio

integer

ratio

.500907

15.99943

.16819

2.97

CH3O

47

Your Turn!

Combustion analysis of 3.88 g of a compound

containing C, H, and S reveals the following data.

What is the empirical formula of the compound?

A. C6H5S

CO2

H2O

B. C9H2S

9.377 g 1.59 g

C. C5H5S

D. C3H9S2

E. None of these

48

2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g)

For every 2 CO reacted, 1 O2 is also reacted and 2

CO2 are also reacted

49

The balanced equation gives the relationship

between amounts of reactants used and amounts of

products likely to be formed

The numeric coefficient tells:

how many individual particles are needed in the

reaction on the microscopic level

how many moles are necessary on the macroscopic

level

The stoichiometric coefficient

50

Stoichiometric Ratios

Consider the reaction N2 + 3H2 2NH3

What is the ratio between

N2 and H2 ?

1 mole N2: 3 mole H2

N2 and NH3?

1mole N2: 2 mole NH3

H2 and NH3?

3 mole H2 : 2 mole NH3

51

Learning Check:

For the reaction N2 + 3 H2 2NH3, How many

moles of N2 are used when 2.3 moles of NH3 are

produced?

1 mol N 2

2.3 mol NH 3

2 mol NH 3

1.2 mol N2

combustion of propane, C3H8, how many moles

of oxygen are consumed? The balanced equation

is C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

5 mol O 2

0.958 mol O2

0.575 mol CO 2

3 mol CO 2

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

52

Learning Check

How many grams of Al2O3 are produced when 41.5

g Al react? 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) Al2O3(s) + 2 Fe(l)

1 mol Al 1 mol Al2O3 101.9613 gAl2O3

41.5 g Al

78.4 g Al2O3

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

53

Your Turn!

Given the reaction:

H2SO4 + 2KOH2H2O + K2SO4,

How many moles of KOH are required to make 3.0

moles of K2SO4?

A. 3.0 moles

B. 6.0 moles

C. 1.5 moles

D. None of these

54

Your Turn!

Given the reaction:

H2SO4 + 2KOH2H2O + K2SO4,

How many g of H2O (18.0153) would result from

the complete reaction of 1.2 g H2SO4 (98.08)?

A. 2.4 g

B. 1.2 g

C. 0.60 g

D. 0.44 g

E. none of these

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

55

Balancing By Inspection

Balance the most complex substance in the

equation first

Balance elements, H and O last

Use coefficients to adjust quantities, not subscripts

Some equations may be balanced using fractions,

but the most common approach allows only for

integer coefficients

If polyatomic ions remain intact in a reaction

balance them as a group

If you have an even/odd problem dilemma,

multiply all previously balanced moieties by 2

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

56

1

____Ba(OH)

1 Na2SO4(aq) ___BaSO

2

2(aq) +____

1

4(s) + ____NaOH

(aq)

2

2

3 O2(g)

___KClO

3(S) ___KCl

(s) +___

2 3PO4(aq) +___

3 Ba(OH)2(aq) ___Ba

1

6

___H

3(PO4)2(s) + ___H2O(l)

57

Your Turn!

Given the following reaction:

KCl + Hg2(NO3)2KNO3 + Hg2Cl2 , when it is

balanced, what is the coefficient for KCl?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. none of these

Limiting Reagent

Consider the reaction of N2 with H2 to form NH3:

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

The stoichiometry suggests that for every mole of

N2 we will need 3 moles of H2 to form 2 moles of

NH3.

So what happens if these proportions are not met?

The reaction proceeds, to use up one of the

reactants (the limiting reagent) and will not use all

of the other reactant (it is in excess)

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

59

Limiting Reagents

Note that in this reaction, some of the O2 is not

consumed. This is because there is not enough

CO to continue consuming the O2.

Thus, CO is the limiting reagent.

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

60

There are several approaches to this. One method

is to compare the quantities available to the

quantities required.

Any substance present in excess of the

requirement cannot be limiting.

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

61

Learning Check:

Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq)2 H2O(l) + CaCl2(s)

when 1.00 g of each reactant is combined:

What is the theoretical yield of H2O?

The limiting reagent?

H2O

Ca(OH)2 HCl

1.00

1.00 0.486277

mass (g)

74.09468

36.46094

18.01528 MM (g/mol)

0.013496 mol Ca(OH)2

2 mol H2O

1

1 mol Ca(OH)2

0.027427 mol HCl 2 mol H2O

1

2 mol HCl

mol

TY H2O (mol)

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

62

Learning Check:

How many grams of NO can form when 30.0 g NH3

and 40.0 g O2 react according to:

4 NH3 + 5 O2 4 NO + 6 H2O

NH3

O2

30.0

17.03052

NO

40.0

31.9988

30.0

mass (g)

30.0061 MM (g/mol)

1.7615

mol

1.2500

1.0000

TY NO (mol)

1.7615 mol NH3 4 mol NO

= 1.7615 mol NO

1

4 mol NH3

1.2500 mol O2 4 mol NO

= 1.0000 mol NO

1

5 mol O2

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

63

Your Turn!

Given 1.0 g each of KCl and Hg2(NO3)2, what is the

expected mass of Hg2Cl2 ?

A. 1.0 g

B. 2.0 g

C. 0.90 g

D. 3.2 g

E. none of these

KCl

Hg2(NO3)2

Hg2Cl2

74.5513

525.1899 472.086 MM (g/mol)

Actual Yield

Often we do not obtain the quantity expected

This may be due to errors, mistakes, side reactions,

contamination or a host of other events

Thus we describe the actual yield, the amount

obtained experimentally

65

Percent Yield

The amount of product, predicted by the limiting

reagent is termed the theoretical yield

Percent yield relates the actual yield to the

theoretical yield

actual yield

x100

It is calculated as: % =

theoretica l yield

and yet only 24 are obtained, what is the % yield?

24

% =

x 100

36

3.6 The predicted amount of product is not always obtained experimentally

66

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