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Ch.

3 The Mole: Relating the


Microscopic World of Atoms to
Laboratory Measurements
Mata Kuliah
KIMIA DASAR
Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri
Universitas Tarumanegara
Pengajar : Gadang Priyotomo,2014

Sumber : Brady & Senese, 5th Ed.

Index
3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or
molecules
3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a
compound
3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental
mass measurements
3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a
reaction
3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of
product that can form
3.6 The predicted amount of product is not always obtained
experimentally
2

Particles Have Characteristics Masses


The same mass may
not represent the same
number of molecules
Suppose one rabbit has
a mass of 250 g. What
mass in kg would a
case of 24 rabbits
have?

250 g kg

24 rabbits

rabbit 1000g
6.0 kg

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Counting Atoms By Their Mass


The mass of an atom is called its atomic mass
Atomic mass provides a means to count atoms by
measuring the mass of a sample
The periodic table gives atomic masses of the
elements in u per atom
to reduce rounding errors, use the most precise
values possible

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Learning Check
How many atoms of C are there in 3.5 108 u?
1 atom C
3.5 10 u

12.0107 u
8

2.9 107

What is the mass (in u) of 2.33 1016 atoms of


H?
16 u
2.35
10
16
1 .00794 u
2.33 10 atoms

1 atom H
atomic masses: C=12.0107 u; H=1.00794 u
3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Your Turn!
Given that the atomic mass of Ba is 137.327u, what
is the mass of 23 atoms of Ba?
A. 3.2103 u
B. 3.210-4 u
C. 1.37102 u
D. none of these

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Your Turn!
A new element is discovered that has a mass of
3.2 102 u for15 atoms. What is the atomic mass?
A. 3.2 102
B. 0.047
C. 21
D. not enough information
E. None of these answers

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Relationships
1.6610-27 kg = 1 u (from the inside back cover
of the book) may also be written as:
6.02231023 u = 1 g ( a form you will often
use)
We can use this as a conversion factor to convert
between mass quantities
in u, and those in g
1g

23
6.0223 10 u

grams (g)

atomic mass units (u)

6.0223 1023 u

1g

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Relationships
Atomic Mass (AM) u = 1 particle
We can use this as a conversion factor to convert
between these quantities.
1 particle

AM u

mass (u)

particles
AM u

particle

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

Learning Check
How many u of Na are there in 55.2 kg Na?

10 g 6.0223 1023u
55.2kg
3.321028 u

g
kg

How many g Na are there in 3.2 x 1015 u of


Na?
-9 g
15
1g

5.310
3.2 10 u
23
6.0223 10 u

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

10

Your Turn!
Which of the following are not equivalent to a
sample of 10.5107 u of Cu?
A. 1.7410-16 g
B. 1.65106 atoms
C. 63.54 u
D. None of these

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

11

What Is The Formula Mass Of?


Ba3(PO4)2 :

601.9261 u/fu

(NH4)2CO3:

96.08603 u/fu

atomic masses: Ba: 137.327(7)u; P:30.973761(2)u;


O: 15.9994(3)u; H:1.00794u; N:14.00672u; C 12.0107(8)u
3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

12

Relationships
Formula mass (FM) u = 1 particle
We can use this as a conversion factor to convert
between these quantities.
1 particle

FM
u

mass (u)

particles
FM u

particle

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

13

Counting Molecules By Their Masses


The molecular mass allows counting of molecules
by mass
The molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses
of the atoms in the compounds formula
Strictly speaking, ionic compounds do not have a
molecular mass, we describe an analogous
quantity- the formula mass - to cover all
possibilities

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

14

Learning Check:
How many molecules of CO2 are there in 3.5
108 u? 1 molecule CO
6

3.5 10 u

44.0095 6 u

8.0 10 u

What is the mass (in u) of 2.33 1016 molecules


of H2 ?

2 .01588 u

16 u
4.70
10
2.33 10 atoms

1 molecule H2
16

atomic masses: C=12.0107 u; H=1.00794 u; O=15.99943 u


3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

15

What Is a Mole?
One mole of any substance contains the same
number of units, called Avogadros number, N
1 mole formula units = 6.0223 x 1023 formula
units
It is a large quantity of particles because the
particles described are so small.

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

16

Why is Molar Mass the Same as Formula Mass?


suppose we start with 12.0107g of C. How many
atoms of C are there?
given that the atomic mass of C is 12.0107 u
12.0107gC

6.0223 10 23 u

1 atom

12.0107
u

12.0107 g C = 6.0223 x 1023 atoms


thus for any substance, the formula mass (in g)
corresponds to the same number of atoms, N

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

17

Molar Mass
One mole contains the same number of particles as
the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
The molar mass of a substance has the same
numeric value as the formula mass
The value is different because the units are
different
Thus if the formula mass of Ba3(PO4)2 is 610.332 u/fu,
the molar mass of Ba3(PO4)2 is 610.332 g/mol

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

18

Relationships
MM g = 1 mole
Use this as a conversion factor to convert between
these quantities
1 mole

MMg
Mass (g)

mole

MMg

1mole
3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

19

Learning Check: Converting Between Mass


And Moles
Given that the molar mass of CO2 is 44.0098 g/mol
What mass of CO2 is found in 1.55 moles?

44.0098 g 68.2 g

1.55 mol

mol
How many moles of CO2 are there in 10 g?

mol

10 g
44.0098 g

0.2 mol

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

20

Your Turn!
What is the molar mass of Ca3(PO4)2 in g/mol?
Ca: 40.078 ; P: 30.973761 ; O:15.9994
A. 279.203
B. 215.205
C. 310.177
D. none of these

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

21

Your Turn!
What mass in g, of Ca3(PO4)2 (MM=310.1767)
would a 3.2 mole sample have?
A. 1.010-3 g
B. 9.9102 g
C. 6.01026 g
D. 1.610-21 g
E. None of these

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

22

Using Avogadros Number, N


Counting formula units by moles is no different
than counting eggs by the dozen (12 eggs) or pens
by the gross (144 pens)
Since the individual particle is very small, the
mole is a more practical quantity
It is a group, in which 6.02231023 individuals
comprise 1 mole
The quantity, N, is Avogadro's number and is
measured as 6.02231023

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

23

Relationships
N particles = 1 mole
We can use this as a conversion factor to convert
between these quantities
1 mole

N particles

particle

Moles

N particles

mole

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

24

Learning Check: Mole Conversions


Calculate the formula units of Na2CO3 in 1.29
moles of Na2CO3

23
6.0223

10
fu 7.771023

1.29 mol

mol

fu

How many moles of Na2CO3 are there in 1.15 x


105 formula units of Na2CO3?

mol

1.15 10 fu

23
6.0223 10 fu
5

1.9110-19
mol

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

25

Relationships Between Quantities


N

moles

# particles

MM

FM

mass (g)

mass (u)
N

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

26

Your Turn!
Which of the following is not a relationship, but is a
sample size?
A. molar mass
B. Avogadros number
C. formula mass
D. Mass in u
E. None of these

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

27

Your Turn!
Na: 22.989770 ; C: 12.011; O:15.9994

Given that you have a


sample of 5.5 g
Na2CO3 how many
formula units are
# particles
present?
A. 6.01023
FM
B. 5.210-2
mass (u)
C. 3.210-23
D. 3.31024
E. None of these
3.11022

moles

MM

mass (g)
N

3.1 The mole conveniently links mass to number of atoms or molecules

28

Using The Chemical Formula


To relate components of a compound to the
compound quantity we look at the chemical
formula
In Na2CO3 there are 3 relationships:
2 mol Na: 1 mol Na2CO3
1 mol C: 1 mol Na2CO3
3 mol O: 1 mol Na2CO3

We can also use these on the atomic scale ,e.g.:


1 atom C:1 fu Na2CO3

3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a compound

29

Learning Check:
Calculate the number of moles of sodium in 2.53
moles of sodium carbonate
2 mol Na

2.53 mol

1 mol Na2CO3

5.06 mol Na

Calculate the number of atoms of sodium in 2.53


moles of sodium carbonate
23

2 mol Na 6.0223 10 atoms Na


2.53 mol

1 mol Na
1mol Na2 CO3

3.051024 atoms Na
3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a compound

30

Your Turn!
How many atoms of iron are in a 15.0 g sample of
iron(III) oxide (MM 159.68859 g/mol)?
A. 1.131023
B. 9.3910-2
C. 5.661022
D. 1.8810-1
E. None of these

3.2 Chemical formulas relate amounts of substances in a compound

31

Percent Composition
Percent composition is a list of the mass percent of
each element in a compound
Na2CO3 is
43.38% Na
11.33% C
45.29% O

What is the sum of the percent composition of a


compound?

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

32

Percent Composition: How Is It Calculated?


What is the % C in CO2?
Determine the molar mass of the compound
MM=44.00956 g/mol

Multiply the ratio of the mass of the element to the


molar mass of the compound by 100
(12.0107/44.009656)100= 27.2911 %C

MM g/mol C:12.0107; O:15.99943


3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

33

Learning Check
A sample was analyzed and found to contain 0.1417
g nitrogen and 0.4045 g oxygen. What is the
percentage composition of this compound?

0.1417 g N

100
0.1417g + 0.4045 g total

25.94% N

74.06% O

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

34

Your Turn!
A 35.5 g sample is analyzed and found to contain
23.5% Si. What mass of Si is present in the
sample?
A. 6.6210-1 g
B. 8.88101 g
C. 1.51102 g
D. 8.34 g
E. None of these

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

35

Empirical vs. Molecular Formulas


The empirical formula is
the lowest whole number
ratio of atoms in a
compound
Note that the molecular
formula is a whole number
multiple of the empirical
formula.

glucose
C6H12O6

CH2O
C1x6H2x6 O1x6

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

36

Strategy
Convert starting quantities to moles
Divide all quantities by the smallest number of
moles to get the smallest ratio of moles
Convert any non-integers into integers
If any number ends in a common decimal equivalent of
a fraction, multiply by the least common denominator
Otherwise, round the numbers to the nearest integers

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

37

Common Ratios And Their Decimal


Equivalents
decimal
.25
or
.75
.3333
or
.6667
.50

Fraction multiplier
For example:
equivalent
or

1/3 or 2/3

1 . 25 x 4 = 5

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

38

Learning Check:
A 2.012 g
N
sample of a mass(g) 0.522
compound
contains
MM
14.00674
0.522 g of
0.037268
nitrogen and mol
1.490 g of
lowest 1
oxygen.
Calculate its ratio
empirical
integer 2
formula
ratio

O
1.490

15.99943
0.0931283
2.50
5

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

39

Determining The Multiplier, n


Ratio of the molecular mass to the mass predicted by
the empirical formula and round to an integer

molecular formula mass


n=
empirical formula mass
The actual molecule is larger by this amount
If the empirical formula is AxBy , the molecular formula
will be AnxBny

glucose

180.1572 g C6H12O6
n=
= 6
30.0262 g CH2O

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

40

Example:
The empirical formula of hydrazine is NH2, and its
molecular mass is 32.0. What is its molecular
formula? n=(32.0/16.02)=2
N2H4
A substance is known to be 35.00% N, 5.05% H
and 59.96% O. What is its EF? Determine the
Molecular Formula if the MM of the compound is
80.06 g/mol

EF: N2H4O3

n=(80.06/80.043)=1

N2 H4 O3
MM: N:14.00674; H:1.00794; O:15.99943
3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

41

Your Turn!
Given the composition analysis of lindane (a
controversial pesticide ) what is its empirical
formula?
C
H
Cl
A. C24H2Cl73
24.77928%
2.07943%
73.14129%
B. C2H2Cl2
C. C142 HCl126
D. CHCl
E. None of these

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

42

Your Turn!
We found that the empirical formula was CHCl.
Given that the MM is 290.8316 g/mol, what is
the molecular formula?
A. C6H6Cl6
B. C8H17Cl5
C. C3H5Cl7
D. C5H18Cl7
E. none of these

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

43

Combustion Analysis:
Empirical formulas may also be calculated
indirectly
When a compound made only from carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen burns completely in pure
oxygen, only carbon dioxide and water are
produced

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

44

Combustion Analysis:
Empirical formulas may be calculated from the
analysis of combustion information
grams of C can be derived from amount of CO2
grams of H can be derived from amount of H2O
the mass of oxygen is obtained by difference:
g O = g sample ( g C + g H )

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

45

Learning Check:
The combustion of a 5.217 g sample of a compound of
C, H, and O gave 7.406 g CO2 and 4.512 g of H2O.
Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.
12.0107 g C
7.406 g CO2
2.02118 g C
44.00956 g CO2
2.01588 g H
.5048 g H
4.512 g H2O
84
18.01531 g H2O

5.217g- 2.02118 g C-.504884 g H= 2.69094 g O

H: 1.00794; C:12.0107; O: 15.99943


3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

46

Learning Check (con.):


Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.
H: 1.00794; C:12.0107; O: 15.99943

mass

C
H
O
2.02118 0.504884 2.69094

MM

12.0107 1.00794

mol

.16828

low
ratio
integer
ratio

.500907

15.99943

.16819

2.97

CH3O

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

47

Your Turn!
Combustion analysis of 3.88 g of a compound
containing C, H, and S reveals the following data.
What is the empirical formula of the compound?
A. C6H5S
CO2
H2O
B. C9H2S
9.377 g 1.59 g
C. C5H5S
D. C3H9S2
E. None of these

3.3 Chemical formulas can be determined from experimental mass measurements

48

What Does The Balanced Equation Mean?


2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g)
For every 2 CO reacted, 1 O2 is also reacted and 2
CO2 are also reacted

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

49

Using The Balanced Equation:


The balanced equation gives the relationship
between amounts of reactants used and amounts of
products likely to be formed
The numeric coefficient tells:
how many individual particles are needed in the
reaction on the microscopic level
how many moles are necessary on the macroscopic
level
The stoichiometric coefficient

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

50

Stoichiometric Ratios
Consider the reaction N2 + 3H2 2NH3
What is the ratio between
N2 and H2 ?
1 mole N2: 3 mole H2

N2 and NH3?
1mole N2: 2 mole NH3

H2 and NH3?
3 mole H2 : 2 mole NH3

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

51

Learning Check:
For the reaction N2 + 3 H2 2NH3, How many
moles of N2 are used when 2.3 moles of NH3 are
produced?

1 mol N 2

2.3 mol NH 3

2 mol NH 3

1.2 mol N2

If 0.575 mole of CO2 is produced by the


combustion of propane, C3H8, how many moles
of oxygen are consumed? The balanced equation
is C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O
5 mol O 2
0.958 mol O2
0.575 mol CO 2

3 mol CO 2
3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

52

Learning Check
How many grams of Al2O3 are produced when 41.5
g Al react? 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) Al2O3(s) + 2 Fe(l)
1 mol Al 1 mol Al2O3 101.9613 gAl2O3

41.5 g Al

26.9815 g Al 2 mol Al 1 molAl2O3

78.4 g Al2O3

MM (g/mol): Al: 26.9815; Al2O3:101.9613


3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

53

Your Turn!
Given the reaction:
H2SO4 + 2KOH2H2O + K2SO4,
How many moles of KOH are required to make 3.0
moles of K2SO4?
A. 3.0 moles
B. 6.0 moles
C. 1.5 moles
D. None of these

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

54

Your Turn!
Given the reaction:
H2SO4 + 2KOH2H2O + K2SO4,
How many g of H2O (18.0153) would result from
the complete reaction of 1.2 g H2SO4 (98.08)?
A. 2.4 g
B. 1.2 g
C. 0.60 g
D. 0.44 g
E. none of these
3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

55

Balancing By Inspection
Balance the most complex substance in the
equation first
Balance elements, H and O last
Use coefficients to adjust quantities, not subscripts
Some equations may be balanced using fractions,
but the most common approach allows only for
integer coefficients
If polyatomic ions remain intact in a reaction
balance them as a group
If you have an even/odd problem dilemma,
multiply all previously balanced moieties by 2
3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

56

Learning Check: Balance The Following:


1
____Ba(OH)
1 Na2SO4(aq) ___BaSO
2
2(aq) +____
1
4(s) + ____NaOH
(aq)
2
2
3 O2(g)
___KClO
3(S) ___KCl
(s) +___
2 3PO4(aq) +___
3 Ba(OH)2(aq) ___Ba
1
6
___H
3(PO4)2(s) + ___H2O(l)

3.4 Chemical equations link amounts of substances in a reaction

57

Your Turn!
Given the following reaction:
KCl + Hg2(NO3)2KNO3 + Hg2Cl2 , when it is
balanced, what is the coefficient for KCl?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. none of these

Limiting Reagent
Consider the reaction of N2 with H2 to form NH3:
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
The stoichiometry suggests that for every mole of
N2 we will need 3 moles of H2 to form 2 moles of
NH3.
So what happens if these proportions are not met?
The reaction proceeds, to use up one of the
reactants (the limiting reagent) and will not use all
of the other reactant (it is in excess)

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

59

Limiting Reagents
Note that in this reaction, some of the O2 is not
consumed. This is because there is not enough
CO to continue consuming the O2.
Thus, CO is the limiting reagent.

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

60

Determining The Limiting Reagent (LR)


There are several approaches to this. One method
is to compare the quantities available to the
quantities required.
Any substance present in excess of the
requirement cannot be limiting.

3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

61

Learning Check:
Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq)2 H2O(l) + CaCl2(s)
when 1.00 g of each reactant is combined:
What is the theoretical yield of H2O?
The limiting reagent?
H2O
Ca(OH)2 HCl
1.00
1.00 0.486277
mass (g)
74.09468

36.46094

18.01528 MM (g/mol)

0.013496 0.027427 0.026992


0.013496 mol Ca(OH)2
2 mol H2O

= 0.026992 mol H2O


1
1 mol Ca(OH)2
0.027427 mol HCl 2 mol H2O

= 0.027427 mol H2O


1
2 mol HCl

mol
TY H2O (mol)

Ca(OH)2: 74.09468; HCl: 36.46094; H2O: 18.01528


3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

62

Learning Check:
How many grams of NO can form when 30.0 g NH3
and 40.0 g O2 react according to:
4 NH3 + 5 O2 4 NO + 6 H2O
NH3

O2

30.0
17.03052

NO
40.0
31.9988

30.0

mass (g)
30.0061 MM (g/mol)
1.7615
mol
1.2500
1.0000
TY NO (mol)
1.7615 mol NH3 4 mol NO

= 1.7615 mol NO
1
4 mol NH3
1.2500 mol O2 4 mol NO

= 1.0000 mol NO
1
5 mol O2

NH3: 17.03052; O2=31.9988; NO: 30.0061


3.5 The reactant in shortest supply limits the amount of product that can form

63

Your Turn!
Given 1.0 g each of KCl and Hg2(NO3)2, what is the
expected mass of Hg2Cl2 ?
A. 1.0 g
B. 2.0 g
C. 0.90 g
D. 3.2 g
E. none of these
KCl
Hg2(NO3)2
Hg2Cl2
74.5513
525.1899 472.086 MM (g/mol)

Actual Yield
Often we do not obtain the quantity expected
This may be due to errors, mistakes, side reactions,
contamination or a host of other events
Thus we describe the actual yield, the amount
obtained experimentally

3.6 The predicted amount of product is not always obtained experimentally

65

Percent Yield
The amount of product, predicted by the limiting
reagent is termed the theoretical yield
Percent yield relates the actual yield to the
theoretical yield
actual yield
x100
It is calculated as: % =
theoretica l yield

If a cookie recipe predicts a yield of 36 cookies


and yet only 24 are obtained, what is the % yield?
24
% =
x 100
36
3.6 The predicted amount of product is not always obtained experimentally

66