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Insulation of Piping and Equipment

ES-14-102-14

This is a Controlled Document that complies with


Wesfarmers Chemicals, Energy & Fertilisers formatting and Quality Control standards.
Please check that this is the latest available version before use.
Title:

INSULATION OF PIPING AND EQUIPMENT

Number:

ES-14-102-14

Version Number:

7.0

Date Revised:

22 November 2013

Owner:

Manoj Thakur

Authoriser:

Manoj Thakur

Reasons for Creating


or Amending
Document

New Owner
New Authoriser
Full Review of Document

Actual Change Details:

Australian and British Standards updated.


The word Superintendent replaced with Responsible Officer

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

SCOPE ....................................................................................................................................... 4

2.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS ..................................................................................................... 4

3.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS .................................................................................................. 4

4.

INSULATION LIMITS ............................................................................................................ 7

5.

INSULATION MATERIAL..................................................................................................... 8
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

TYPE AND PURPOSE OF INSULATION .......................................................................... 8


INSULATION IDENTIFICATION CODES ........................................................................ 8
INSULATION PROPERTIES .............................................................................................. 9
INSULATION THICKNESSES ......................................................................................... 10
CONSTRUCTION .............................................................................................................. 10

6.

CLADDING MATERIAL ...................................................................................................... 11

7.

INSULATION ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................ 12


7.1
7.2

8.

MATERIALS ...................................................................................................................... 12
SUPPORT RINGS, LUGS AND STUDS ........................................................................... 13
PREPARATION AND PROTECTION ................................................................................ 13

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9.

APPLICATION ....................................................................................................................... 13
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

10.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................... 13


INSULATED PIPEWORK ................................................................................................. 16
INSULATED EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................... 16
STORAGE TANKS ............................................................................................................ 17
INSPECTION AND TESTING.............................................................................................. 18

10.1
10.2
11.

QUALITY CONTROL ....................................................................................................... 18


INSPECTION ...................................................................................................................... 18

REPAIRS ................................................................................................................................. 18

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APPENDIX 1 - HOT SERVICE - INSULATION TYPES A AND B THICKNESS IN mm 19


APPENDIX 2 - HOT SERVICE - INSULATION TYPE D THICKNESS IN mm ................. 20
APPENDIX 3 - COLD SERVICE - INSULATION TYPE G THICKNESS IN mm .............. 21
APPENDIX 4 - PERSONNEL PROTECTION - INSULATION TYPE P THICKNESS IN mm
22
APPENDIX 5 - INSULATION CLIPS - HORIZONTAL VESSELS ............................................ 23
APPENDIX 6 - INSULATION CLIPS - VERTICAL VESSELS .................................................. 24
APPENDIX 7 - INSULATION ON PIPING DN400 .................................................................... 25
APPENDIX 8 - RIGID INSULATION ON VERTICAL TANKS, VESSELS & PIPING OVER 400mm
NOMINAL SIZE ................................................................................................................................ 26
APPENDIX 9 - EXPANSION JOINT IN RIGID INSULATION ON PIPING ............................ 27
APPENDIX 10 - REMOVABLE FLANGE BOX ............................................................................ 28
APPENDIX 11 - INSULATION OF INSPECTION COVERS USING REMOVABLE COVER BOXES
29
APPENDIX 12 - INSULATION DETAILS ON EXTERNALLY TRACED PIPES .................... 30
APPENDIX 13 - TYPICAL HANGER FOR COLD INSULATED PIPES................................... 31
APPENDIX 14 - TYPICAL VALVE BOX COLD INSULATED PIPES ...................................... 32

TABLES
Table 1

Insulation Limits ............................................................................................................... 7

Table 2

Insulating Material Heat Transmission Coefficients ........................................................ 9

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1.

SCOPE

This Standard covers the minimum technical requirements for design, selection of materials and
methods of application of Hot and Cold Insulation applied to process pipework and equipment at
CSBPs facilities.

2.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Contractor/Vendor
The Company that provides the equipment and services needed.
Sub-Contractor
A third party to be employed by the Contractor/Vendor who has been approved by the Responsible
Officer.
Manufacturer
The Company that manufacturers Insulating Material.
Responsible Officer
Wesfarmers CSBP Limited, or authorised representative.
CSBP
Wesfarmers CSBP Limited.

3.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS

The Contractor shall perform the Works in accordance with the most recent issue of the following
Standards.
Where conflict arises between the requirements of this Standard, referenced documents and codes,
such conflict shall be brought immediately to the attention of the Responsible Officer in writing.
The Responsible Officers decision regarding resolution of conflict shall be final.
Australian Standards
AS1530.1

Methods for Fire Tests on Building Materials, Components and Structures Combustibility Test for Materials

AS/NZ1594

Hot-Rolled Steel Flat Products

AS/NZ4859

Materials for the thermal Insulation of Buildings General Criteria and


Technical Provisions

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British Standards
BS476

Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures


Part 4: Non-Combustibility Test for Material
Part 7: Method for Classification of the Surface Spread of Flame of Product

BS EN12664

Thermal performance of building materials and products. Determination of


thermal resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods.
Dry and moist products of medium and low thermal resistance

BS EN12667

Thermal performance of building materials and products. Determination of


thermal resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods.
Products of high and medium thermal resistance

BS EN12939

Thermal performance of building materials and products. Determination of


thermal resistance by means of guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods.
Thick products of high and medium thermal resistance

BS EN ISO8990

Thermal insulation. Determination of steady-state thermal transmission


properties . Calibrated and guarded hot box

BS1449

Steel Plate, Sheet and Strip

BS EN 10029

Part 1: Carbon and Carbon-Manganese Plate and Strip


Hot-rolled steel plates 3 mm thick or above. Tolerances on dimensions and
shape

BS EN 10048

Hot rolled narrow steel strip. Tolerances on dimensions and shape

BS EN 10051

Continuously hot-rolled strip and plate/sheet cut from wide strip of non-alloy
and alloy steels. Tolerances on dimensions and shape

BS EN 10095

Heat resisting steels and nickel alloys

BS EN ISO9445

Continuously cold-rolled stainless steel narrow strip, wide strip, plate/sheet and
cut lengths. Tolerances on dimensions and form

BS2972

Methods of Test for Inorganic Thermal Insulating Materials

BS3958

Thermal Insulating Materials


Part 3:
Part 4:
Part 5:

Metal Mesh Faced Man Made Mineral Fibre


Bonded Performance Man Made Mineral Fibre Pipe Sections
Specification for Bonded Man Made Mineral Fibre Slabs

BS5422

Method for Specifying Thermal Insulating Materials on Pipes, Ductwork and


Equipment (In the temperature range -40 C to +700C)

BS5970

Code of Practice for Thermal Insulation of Pipework & Equipment (In the
temperature range -100C to +870C)

American Standards
ASTM C533

Calcium Silicate, Preformed Pipe, Fittings Covers and Block Insulation

ASTM B209

Aluminium Alloy Sheet and Plate

NACE RP0198-98

The Control of Corrosion under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing

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Materials - A Systems Approach


EEMUA Pub. 142

Acoustic Insulation of Pipework and Flanges

CSBP Engineering Standards


ES-14-102-12

Protective Coatings

ES-14-603-14

Steam Tracing

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4.

INSULATION LIMITS

EQUIPMENT INSULATED PARTS


Vessels
Columns
Boilers

Cylindrical section and


Heads

Reactors

Cylindrical section and


Heads

Exchangers

Shell
Heads - Bonnets or
Channels
Flanges and Valves
(steam service)

Pipes

Semi removable for


flanges, removable for
valves.
Flanges and Valves of
traced pipes as steam
service.

NON INSULATED
PARTS
Nozzle necks and flanges
Man-hole, hand-hole
Name Plate
Skirt and supports
Internally Insulated
equipment
Flanges
Skirts and supports
Flanges, Bellows

REMARKS
Except for Steam Service,
or other specified
applications

Unless otherwise noted on


drawings
Unless otherwise noted on
drawings

Flanges and Valves


(product service)

On nitric acid, process gas


lines and ammonium
nitrate lines, all dead legs
and instrument connections
Expansion bellows
shall be fully insulated
(Unless otherwise noted on with a removable box and
drawings)
all nozzles also insulated
including instrument
nozzles.
Steam Traps and Unions
Pipe supports

Purge and Vent


connections including
first block valve.
Jacketed lines
Centrifugal
Pumps
Control
Instruments
Note:

Body, Flange

Unless otherwise noted on


drawings
According to instrument
list

All temperatures referenced in this Standard are piping and equipment skin temperatures
within the range -50C and +500C.
Table 1

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5.

INSULATION MATERIAL

5.1

TYPE AND PURPOSE OF INSULATION

5.1.1

Heat Conservation

Insulation is to be provided to limit the loss of heat for process reasons and steam traced lines
where the temperature is to be kept either constant or higher than ambient.
5.1.2

Personnel protection

Personnel protection insulation to be provided on uninsulated piping operating in excess of 50C or


less than 0C, at locations of possible contact, where insulation is not required for process reasons.
As an alternative to insulation for personal protection, perforated stainless steel sheet may be
installed in lieu of insulation if approved by the Responsible Officer. It has to be sufficiently clear
of the pipe or equipment, such that the temperature of the perforated sheet remains in the range 0C
to 50C, when the pipe or equipment is in service and has reached maximum or minimum
operating temperature.
5.1.3

Cold Conservation

Insulation to be provided for minimisation of heat gain and cold conservation, for protection from
condensation and in case of icing on the surface.
5.1.4

Heat Tracing (Electric or Steam Tracing/Steam Jacketing)

Insulation to be provided primarily for stabilisation of process temperatures, or in certain cases for
protection of equipment and piping not normally used in continuous operation and at times, in case
of adverse atmospheric conditions.

5.2

INSULATION IDENTIFICATION CODES

A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
N
P
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Heat Insulation, Glass Fibre


Heat Insulation, Mineral Wool
Heat Insulation, Calcium Silicate
Heat Insulation, Foam Glass
Cold Insulation, Polyurethane or Polystyrene formed in place
Cold Insulation, preformed Polyurethane or Polystyrene
Cold Insulation, Foam Glass
Acoustic Insulation - Light
Acoustic Insulation Medium
Anti Condensing Insulation
Acoustic Insulation Heavy
Personnel Protection at Locations of Possible Contact
Steam Tracing
Electric Tracing
Steam Jacket
Water Jacket
Wrapping, Underground Lines
Acoustic Insulation with Impedance Layer
Thermal and Acoustic Insulation

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Note:

5.3

Insulation in areas where ammonium nitrate solution or dust plus an organic agent could
infiltrate hot insulation, shall be closed cell insulation type (Type D) and substantially
free from organic bonding agents and substances which may catalyse ammonium nitrate
decomposition. An example of such an area is the amine mixing and storage area of the
Prilling Plant.

INSULATION PROPERTIES

All insulation applied for heat conservation shall be mineral wool, glass fibre, foam glass or
calcium silicate or any approved equivalent material, which meets the requirements specified.
Insulation applied for personnel protection (P) shall be polystyrene for temperatures <0C and glass
fibre or mineral wool for temperatures >50C, or any approved equivalent material, which meets
the requirements specified. Refer also to Section 5.1.2.
For Stainless Steels, thermal insulation materials and ancillary products with a low total leachable
halide concentration shall be used. These shall be less than 10ppm chlorides, and less than 10ppm
fluorides individually, with the combined total being less than 15ppm, when tested in accordance
with BS2972.
All fixing, banding, wire mesh, etc. shall be Type 316 Stainless Steel.
Any materials liable to be in contact with the surfaces concerned shall not cause corrosion or
support corrosion. Insulation materials shall have a pH value between 7 and 8.
The insulating material physical properties shall remain within the tolerances allowed in BS3958,
Parts 3, 4 and 5.
The insulating materials, including fixing and finishing materials shall be non-combustible to the
requirements of BS476 Part 4.
The material used for any applications shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS5422 and
BS3958.
Heat transmission coefficient of the insulating material shall be as low as possible, and less than the
maximum values specified in Table 2.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY W/mK
Insulation Code
A, B, C, F,G, P

Temperature t C
-50

0.0308 0.0355

D
Note:

50

100

0.0401
0.0577

150

200

300

400

500

0.0448

0.0546

0.0639

0.0756

0.0872

0.0613 0.0663

0.0692

t C is the insulated equipment skin temperature.


Table 2

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Insulating Material Heat Transmission Coefficients

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For normal operating temperature, the insulation maximum outside surface temperature shall be
50C.
Ammonium nitrate piping could be jacketed with the maximum outer pipe (carbon steel)
temperature of 200C and this temperature shall be used to determine insulation thickness.

5.4

INSULATION THICKNESSES

5.4.1

Heat Insulation

Insulation thickness for types A and B (including use with Steam/Electrical Tracer / Jacketed lines)
shall be in accordance with APPENDIX 1.
Insulation thickness for type C, Calcium Silicate, shall be in accordance with manufacturers
recommendations, based on thermal conductivity.
Insulation thickness for type D shall be in accordance with APPENDIX 2 .
5.4.2

Cold Insulation

Insulation thickness for type G shall be in accordance with APPENDIX 3


5.4.3

Personnel Protection

Insulation thickness for type P shall be in accordance with APPENDIX 4.


Personnel protection insulation shall not extend more than 2,100mm above grade, floors or
platforms, nor more than 600mm outside platforms. Refer also to Section 5.1.2.
5.4.4

Acoustic Insulation

Requirements to be determined on a case by case basis that is based on the properties of the
insulating material.

5.5

CONSTRUCTION

5.5.1

Heat Insulation

Cylindrical shells and heads

- Semi-rigid boards/mattresses or blankets

Piping up to 400mm nominal size

- Preformed shells to suit nominal size

Piping 450mm nominal size and larger - Mitred blocks or semi-rigid board
Valves
5.5.2

- Pieces cut in semi-rigid board, blankets for small valves.


Cold Insulation

Shaped blocks, or foamed in place if approved by the Responsible Officer.


Insulating material shall be chemically neutral (contain no soluble sulphur compounds or free ions
of chlorine) to avoid corrosion of the insulated surfaces.
Insulating material shall be suitable for the service temperature, rot proof, odourless and fire proof.

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5.5.3

Mattresses

Mattresses shall be faced on one side with 1.0mm gauge 25mm hexagonal Type 316 stainless steel
wire mesh with 0.4mm Type 316 stainless steel stitching.
5.5.4

Loose Packing

Loose mineral wool used for packing voids shall have a density of approximately 60kg/m3.

6.

CLADDING MATERIAL

Insulation shall be protected from the weather, oil spillage, mechanical wear or other damage by
marine grade aluminium sheet cladding and installed such that all seams are weather repellent.
Thickness of aluminium sheet cladding shall be as follows:
0.8mm Flat

- Pipes & Horizontal Vessels up to and including 150mm nominal pipe size

1.0mm Flat

- Pipes & Horizontal Vessels 200mm nominal pipe size and above

1.0mm Corrugated - Vertical Vessels and Tanks


1.0mm Flat
Note:

- Removable Covers

In areas where cladding is exposed to caustic attack, stainless steel cladding of thickness
as follows shall be used in lieu of aluminium:

0.55mm Flat

- Pipes & Horizontal Vessels up to and including 150mm nominal pipe size

0.7mm Flat

- Pipes & Horizontal Vessels 200mm nominal pipe size and above

0.7mm Corrugated - Vertical Vessels and Tanks


0.7mm Flat

- Removable Covers

Overlapping shall be 60mm minimum for vertical seams and 50mm minimum for horizontal seams.
Sections of aluminium sheet shall be beaded on two sides. The beaded side of the horizontal seam
shall cover the non-beaded side of the following section. Seams on horizontal piping cladding shall
be watertight.
Up to 250mm nominal size piping, the circumference of the cladding shall be made of only one
piece. Above 250mm and for equipment, circumference of the cladding shall be made up of
several pieces. Adjoining sections of cladding shall be held together by self-tapping screws.
Maximum screw spacing shall be as follows:
a.

Piping and equipment up to 1200mm diameter:

150mm

b.

Piping and equipment above 1200mm diameter:

300mm

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7.

INSULATION ACCESSORIES

7.1

MATERIALS

7.1.1

Binding Wire

Binding wire shall be 1.5mm minimum diameter stainless steel wire.


7.1.2

Banding Strap

Banding strap materials shall be stainless steel, Grade 316 S33 sized as follows:
7.1.2.1

Banding Over Insulation Sections

a.

0.6mm x 13mm

- For piping and equipment up to 1200mm diameter.

b.

0.8mm x 20mm

- For piping and equipment above 1200mm diameter.

7.1.2.2

Banding Over Cladding

a.

0.6mm x 13mm

- For piping up to DN 150

b.

0.6mm x 20mm

- For piping DN 200 and above

c.

0.6mm x 50mm

- For vessels and tanks

7.1.3

Fasteners

Self-tapping screws, rivets, nuts, bolts and other fastenings shall be stainless steel. S clips shall
be fabricated from stainless steel.
7.1.4

Adhesives

Adhesives used for bonding insulation sections together or to metal surfaces, shall not contain
ketones of methylated hydrocarbon solvents and be as recommended by the Insulation
Manufacturer. Adhesives shall be fire resistant.
7.1.5

Anti-Abrasion Compound

Where a non-flammable anti-abrasion compound that is suitable for temperatures down to -100C
is required it shall be used as recommended by the Insulation Manufacturer.
7.1.6

Sealant

A metal sealant, suitable for gun extrusion to a minimum diameter of 6mm shall be used for sealing
joints overlaps and screw holes in the protective cladding.
It shall comprise of polymeric vapour sealant of butyl rubber and hydrocarbon resin dissolved in
white spirit/xylol blend and pigmented with neutral fillers and aluminium paste. The material shall
have the following properties:
a.

Coverage:

35.4 metres per litre at 6mm bead

b.

Solids content:

Average 55% by volume

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c.

Drying time:

Touch - hour, thorough - 3 days

d.

Service temperature limits:

- 40 to 200 Celsius

e.

Solvent:

White Spirit

f.

Flammability (dry):

Low flame spread

7.2

SUPPORT RINGS, LUGS AND STUDS

The vessel fabricator will provide support rings on horizontal vessels. They will comply as a
minimum with Appendix 5.
The vessel fabricator will provide lugs or loops on the bottom heads of vertical columns and
vessels. They will comply as a minimum with
Similarly, the vessel fabricator will provide support rings on vertical vessels and columns generally
in accordance with APPENDIX 6 and APPENDIX 8.
On vertical or inclined lines at more than 45 from horizontal, an insulation support shall be
provided at the bottom and every 3m thereafter, where straight runs exceed three metres.
If any additional holding rings are required, sizing and fastening them shall be the responsibility of
the contractor.

8.

PREPARATION AND PROTECTION

Insulation must be protected against damage and kept dry both in storage, during and after
application.
Insulation is only to be applied to clean dry surfaces in dry weather conditions and when the metal
surface temperature is at least 3C above the ambient dew point. Any runs of insulation which are
not completed by the end of the working day are to have all exposed surfaces sealed with vapoursealing tape and polythene sheet.
After completion of application of insulation, if the insulation can be exposed to rain, dripping
water or any other cause that may result in damage of the insulation material, it shall be protected
with weatherproof sheeting. The Responsible Officer shall approve the duration and extent of
protection. Permanent terminations shall be fully vapour-sealed, waterproofed and metal clad.

9.

APPLICATION

9.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

9.1.1

Scope

The extent of work shall be as detailed on the Data Sheets/Line Designation Lists/ Insulation
Schedule and other documents.

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In no case shall insulation be applied before successful completion of hydrotesting of all piping and
equipment.
The working locations shall be kept in a tidy condition and all waste and surplus material shall be
removed from the site at the completion of the job. All insulation materials and accessories shall
be delivered to the job site in the original, marked, unopened containers as supplied by the
manufacturers.
All statutory health and safety requirements shall be complied with for all operations. In particular,
all materials used shall be of a low-toxicity type and non-flammable. Asbestos-based insulation
shall not be permitted.
9.1.2

Surface Preparation

All surfaces to be insulated shall be cleaned and dried, and must be free from mud, rust, loose
scale, oil, and grease.
Surface protection shall be in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard Protective Coatings
(ES-14-102-12) as follows:
a.

No primer coating required for insulated pipework and equipment which have an operating
temperature of over 100C, except where specified.

b.

Insulated piping and equipment surfaces, which have an operating temperature of less than
100C shall be primer coated only to System B.

9.1.3

Layering

For mineral wool insulation single layers shall be used for temperatures up to and including 350C
and for thicknesses up to 100mm. If the temperatures exceed 350C or the required thickness
exceeds 100mm, multiple layers shall be used.
If the total thickness of Cold Insulation is more than 60mm, insulation shall be applied in several
layers, except for protection against freezing for which maximum layer thickness shall be 30mm.
All joints between successive layers and also between adjacent sections of insulation shall be
staggered.
9.1.4

Installation Requirements

Field welding of any insulation supports on piping and/or equipment is strictly prohibited after
hydrotesting has been completed. Where post-weld heat treatment is needed for equipment or
piping, then insulation supports shall also be heat-treated. Adequate insulation supports shall be
supplied and welded by the fabricator of the piping and/or equipment in accordance with the
drawings and standards.
Removable insulating hoods for flanges, valves and instrument when required shall be made in
sections and attached with quick fastening, cadmium plated or stainless steel clips. This also
applies to removable parts of vessel insulation and process piping where inspection is required
(such as removable bundle tubular heat exchanger).
Piping and/or Equipment supports (skirt, lugs, legs, saddle, etc) shall not be insulated.

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Expansion contraction joints shall be provided in the insulation as required.


Insulation shall be bevelled at the neck of all flanges leaving adequate free space for mounting and
dismounting of bolting.
Elbows shall be insulated with mitred sections of same insulating material as the straight runs.
The application of the insulation shall be carried out in accordance with BS5422 and as required by
this Standard.
Finished surface of the insulation shall allow nameplates and code inspection plate mounting
brackets to remain visible outside the insulation. The insulation shall be finished and properly
sealed against bad weather.
9.1.5
9.1.5.1

Fastening Insulation
Piping and Equipment

DESCRIPTION

PIPING
<DN150

Adjoining sections of
Binding wire
insulation material shall maximum
be firmly butted
centres 150 mm
together and secured.

PIPING & EQUIPMENT

DN200 - 600

650 - 1200 DIA

>1200 DIA

0.6 x 13mm
banding strap
c/w flat buckle
max. centres
450 mm

0.6 x 13mm
banding strap c/w
flat buckle max.
centres 300 mm

0.8 x 20mm
banding strap c/w
flat buckle max.
centres 300 mm

Ends of binding wire


loops shall be twisted
together and embedded
into insulation

N/A

N/A

N/A

Joints shall be staggered

9.1.5.2

Heads

The wire shall be attached to the insulation support lugs and arranged in a diamond pattern so as to
hold firmly the insulation material against the surface of the head.
9.1.6

Sealing

Voids between the insulated surfaces and the insulating material shall be minimised.
Sections of insulation shall fit closely to the surface to be insulated and to adjacent sections. Any
gaps shall be filled with loose insulation material to give a continuous uniform surface.
All insulation shall be weatherproofed and shall be capable of withstanding firewater impingement.
All cracks and voids at the joints of the insulation material shall be filled with insulating cement.
All interruptions in continuity of the cladding shall be made watertight by caulking/sealant.

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9.2

INSULATED PIPEWORK

9.2.1

Hot Insulation

Insulation of pipework shall be carried out with rigid preformed sectional materials or semi rigid
boards. Where the pipe diameter is too large for moulded pipe sections, bevelled blocks shall be
used. All bends, tees and elbows shall be insulated with mitred sections of the same material and
thickness as that for the straight piping.
Insulation assembled to pipework shall be to manufacturers standard lengths as far as possible, but
shall not exceed one metre in length.
Each insulation layer shall be secured with binding wire.
Longitudinal expansion joints where necessary shall consist of 50mm spun mineral wool
compressed to 25mm thickness.
Stainless Steel bands shall be provided as Flange Guards in AN Service clamped at the 6 oclock
position.
Details of insulation assembled to pipework are shown in APPENDIX 7 and APPENDIX 9.
9.2.2

Cold Insulation

Insulation of pipework shall be carried out using pre-formed material. In-situ foam /sprayed foam
may be used for larger sizes. A Vapour seal shall be an integral part of the Insulation.
Where normal operating temperature is less than 0C and where more than one layer is applied,
each layer shall be sealed.
Pipe supports shall not be attached to the Pipe to avoid difficulties of sealing the support shoe,
instead, load bearing insulation shall be provided at the support at a hanger (see APPENDIX 13) or
a clamped-on type of shoe or directly supported if on a structural beam/pipe sleeper.
Valves and Flanges shall be insulated with moulded or pre-fabricated flange/valve boxes. Refer to
APPENDIX 14 .

9.3

INSULATED EQUIPMENT

9.3.1

Hot Insulation

Equipment shall be insulated with rigid slabs/boards, or flexible mattresses (rigid slabs only on tops
of equipment). Standard preformed pipe sections and mitred blocks shall be used where diameter
permits. Flat slabs shall only be used for flat surfaces or diameters greater than five metres. Pumps
shall not be insulated.
Flexible mattresses shall only be used when it is not possible to apply standard preformed pipe
sections or rigid slabs.
Rigid slab insulation shall be laid with staggered joints and secured with banding at 300mm
centres. When the bands are in position there shall be no cracks, open joints or bruises. Expansion
joints shall be used as required for expansion. Refer to APPENDIX 8.

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Flexible mattress insulation shall be wrapped around the surface and laced to the support rings with
binding wire. Adjacent mattresses shall be laced together with binding wire. The whole insulation
shall then be secured with banding at 300mm centres and tensioned so that the insulation is
compressed about 3mm.
Rigid slab insulation for heads of vessels/heat exchangers shall be segmental in shape. They shall
be held together with binding wire and finally secured by radial bands attached at their inner ends,
to a floating ring of 10mm diameter type 316 stainless steel bar, and at their outer ends to the
support ring on the vessel shell.
Suitably tensioned type 316 stainless steel spring buckles which allow for expansion shall be used
on equipment where required.
For the purpose of taking shell or pipe thickness measurements a removable self-sealing section of
insulation shall be provided.
Skirts, saddles, and supports of insulated equipment shall be insulated externally to a minimum
distance of 600 mm below their point of contact with the shell, or to within 150mm of the
horizontal support, as applicable.
9.3.2

Cold Insulation

Equipment shall be insulated with pre-formed slabs to ensure an accurate fit. A Vapour Seal shall
be an integral part of the insulation. Expansion/Contraction joints shall be used as required to cover
for differential movement between the vessel and the insulating material.
If normal operating temperature is less than 0C, if applied in more than one layer, each layer shall
be sealed.

9.4

STORAGE TANKS

9.4.1

Hot Insulation

Insulation on Storage Tanks shall terminate 150mm from the top of the floor plate to keep the
insulation clear of standing liquids. A weather shield flashing shall be installed such that it supports
the insulation and directs the run off from the cladding away from the tank floor/ring beam. A
weatherproof flashing shall also be provided around the perimeter of the tank roof. Where the
storage tank roof is not to be insulated, a suitable flashing shall be fitted over the corrugated sheets
and sealed watertight against the underside of the top curb angle of the tank.
9.4.2

Cold Insulation

The tank base, side walls, roof and appurtenances shall be insulated such that there is a continuous
vapour barrier over the outer surface of the insulation. The vapour seal over the manholes and
nozzles shall be integrated with the shell and roof.
Floor insulation shall be load bearing type and shall be as foam glass, with a vapour barrier.

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10.

INSPECTION AND TESTING

10.1

QUALITY CONTROL

Quality control and testing procedures for all manufactured materials/components shall be
submitted to the Responsible Officer for approval.
Tests to be undertaken shall include physical properties of materials, uniformity and thickness of
Aluminium sheets, etc.
The quality control procedure shall be in the form of an inspection and test plan that references all
test procedures, witness points, acceptance and rejection criteria, frequency of testing and how
control of quality is measured and maintained.
Manufacturers of all materials shall supply certificates indicating all results of the applicable tests
required by this Standard.
Proposed quality control and testing procedures shall be submitted to Responsible Officer for
approval.

10.2

INSPECTION

Inspection will be carried out by the Responsible Officer to ensure that the insulation, installation
and equipment comply with the design requirements of this Standard.
Inspection shall include but not be limited to the following:
a.

Visual inspection of surface to be insulated and insulation materials being used.

b.

Recording of temperatures and humidity during application.

c.

Visual inspection of the insulation prior to the application of cladding.

d.

Visual inspection after the application of cladding.

e.

Visual inspection prior to, and after repairs.

f.

Final inspection of the completed works.

Note:

11.

The Contractor shall replace any materials that has been improperly installed or damaged.

REPAIRS

Before any repair work is commenced, a repair procedure shall be submitted to the Responsible
Officer for approval, giving details of location, cause of damage and type of repair proposed.
Where paint work and insulation is damaged or removed due to temporary bracing/supports,
temporary attachments, lifting attachments, tie-down operations, etc, the damaged insulation shall
be removed, the paintwork made good and the insulation re-applied in accordance with this
Standard.
Each plant area shall keep a log specifying where all repairs are made and when and how the
repairs were affected.

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APPENDIX 1 - HOT SERVICE - INSULATION TYPES A AND B


THICKNESS IN mm

NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE

TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS

(mm)

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

15

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

40

50

20

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

40

50

25

30

30

40

40

40

50

50

50

60

40

30

30

40

40

40

50

50

50

60

50

30

40

40

50

50

60

60

60

80

80

30

40

50

60

60

80

80

80

100

100

40

50

60

60

60

100

100

100

100

150

50

60

70

70

70

100

100

100

100

200

50

60

70

70

70

100

100

100

100

250

50

60

70

80

80

100

100

100

110

300

60

70

80

80

80

120

120

120

120

350

60

70

80

100

100

120

120

120

120

400

60

70

80

100

100

120

120

120

120

450

60

70

80

100

100

120

120

120

150

500

70

70

80

120

120

150

150

150

150

> 500

70

70

80

120

150

150

150

150

150

& shells

Note:

Type A insulation is Glass Fibre, Type B is Mineral Wool.

Note:

Piping which is traced may be covered with oversize insulation to include the tracing
line(s). Refer to APPENDIX 12 for details.

Note:

Insulation for Jacketed piping shall be in accordance with the Jacket Size and the
respective temperature.

Note:

Insulation thickness for equipment and piping operating above 500C shall be as
indicated in the respective piping and instrumentation diagrams/equipment drawings.

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APPENDIX 2 - HOT SERVICE - INSULATION TYPE D


THICKNESS IN mm

NOMINAL PIPE
SIZE

Note:

TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS

(mm)

100

150

200

40

30

40

40

50

30

40

50

80

30

40

50

100

30

40

50

150

30

40

65

200

40

50

65

Type D insulation is Foam Glass.

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APPENDIX 3 - COLD SERVICE - INSULATION TYPE G


THICKNESS IN mm

NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE

TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS

(mm)

+5

-5

-15

-25

-40

-55

-75

-100

-130

-160

-185

15

25

40

40

40

50

50

65

65

75

75

90

20

25

40

40

50

50

50

65

65

75

90

90

25

25

40

40

50

50

50

65

75

90

90

90

40

40

40

50

50

50

65

65

90

90

90

100

50

40

40

50

50

50

65

75

90

90

100

115

80

40

50

50

65

65

75

90

90

100

115

115

100

40

50

50

65

65

75

90

100

115

115

125

150

40

50

65

65

75

75

90

115

115

125

150

200

40

50

65

65

75

75

90

115

125

140

150

250

40

50

65

75

75

90

100

115

125

140

150

300

40

50

65

75

90

90

100

115

125

140

150

350

40

50

65

75

90

100

115

125

140

150

165

400

40

50

65

75

90

100

115

125

140

150

165

450

40

50

65

75

90

100

115

125

140

150

165

500

50

65

75

75

90

100

115

125

150

150

165

> 500

50

65

75

75

90

100

115

140

150

165

180

and shells

Note:

Type G insulation is preformed Polyurethane or Polystyrene.

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APPENDIX 4 - PERSONNEL PROTECTION - INSULATION TYPE


P THICKNESS IN mm
(FOR SURFACES OF POSSIBLE CONTACT WITH TEMPERATURE > 500C OR < 00C)

NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE

TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CELSIUS

(mm)

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

15

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

50

50

20

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

50

50

25

30

30

30

30

30

40

40

50

60

40

30

30

30

30

30

40

50

50

60

50

30

30

30

30

30

40

50

60

60

80

30

30

30

30

40

40

50

60

60

100

30

30

30

40

40

40

50

60

70

150

30

30

30

40

40

40

60

60

70

200

30

30

40

40

40

50

60

60

80

250

30

40

40

40

40

50

60

70

80

300

40

40

40

40

50

50

60

70

80

350

40

40

40

50

50

60

60

70

80

400

40

40

40

50

50

60

70

80

80

450

40

40

40

50

50

60

70

80

90

500

40

40

40

50

50

60

70

80

90

500 and
shells

40

40

40

50

50

60

70

80

90

Note:

For > 50C use Glass Fibre type A or Mineral Wool type B insulation.

Note:

For < 0C use Polystyrene with thickness based on APPENDIX 3 .

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APPENDIX 5 - INSULATION CLIPS - HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Note: 1.

Clip to be provided at approximately 500mm Circumferential pitch.

2.

Clip material to be compatible with part to which it is attached.

3.

Horizontal vessels to have insulation rings at each tan line.

4.

Insulation supports provided by vessel fabricator.

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APPENDIX 6 - INSULATION CLIPS - VERTICAL VESSELS

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APPENDIX 7 - INSULATION ON PIPING DN400

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APPENDIX 8 - RIGID INSULATION ON VERTICAL TANKS,


VESSELS & PIPING OVER 400mm NOMINAL SIZE

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APPENDIX 9 - EXPANSION JOINT IN RIGID INSULATION ON


PIPING

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APPENDIX 10 - REMOVABLE FLANGE BOX

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APPENDIX 11 - INSULATION OF INSPECTION COVERS USING


REMOVABLE COVER BOXES

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APPENDIX 12 - INSULATION DETAILS ON EXTERNALLY


TRACED PIPES

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APPENDIX 13 - TYPICAL HANGER FOR COLD INSULATED PIPES

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APPENDIX 14 - TYPICAL VALVE BOX COLD INSULATED PIPES

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