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UNIVERSITI

KUALA LUMPUR

British Malaysian Institute

Where Knowledge Is Applied

ELECTROMAGNETISM THEORY

S1 2014

UNIVERSITI
KUALA LUMPUR

Topic Contents

British Malaysian Institute

 Magnetism and Electricity


 Magnetic Field
 Magnetic Intensity, H
 Flux Density, B
 Permeability,
 Magnetic Flux,
 Magnetic Circuit
 Faradays Law, Voltage Induced, Lorentz Force
 Core Losses

S1 2014

Magnetism and Electricity







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Magnetism plays an integral part in almost every devices. Generators,


motors, transformers, circuit breakers, television, tape recorders and
telephones all employ magnetic effect to perform a variety of important
tasks.
Both are interrelated to each other  Electromagnetism.
Electromagnetism : Magnetic effects induced by the flow of charge or
current.
Electromagnetic Phenomena
a) when current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is produced
around the conductor.
b) when a time-changing magnetic field passes through a coil of conductor
material, voltage is induced in the coil.
c) when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the
conductor experiences a mechanical force.
d) when a conductor moves in a magnetic field, voltage is induced in the
conductor.

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Production of Magnetic Field

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Magnetic fields are the fundamental mechanism by which energy is


converted from one form to another in electrical machines.

Magnetic Field : The field in which a magnetic pole experiences a force

How magnetic field are used in EM?


1.
2.
3.
4.

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A current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field in the area around it.


A time-changing magnetic field induced a voltage in a coil of wire if it
passes through that coil. -basis of transformer actionA current-carrying wire in the presence of a magnetic field has a force
induced on it. -basis of motor actionA moving wire in the presence of a magnetic field has a voltage induced
in it. -basis of generator action-

Magnetic Field Concept

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 Magnetic field around a bar magnet is represented by imaginary lines


called magnetic lines of force.
 Two poles dictated by direction of the field. By convention, magnetic lines
of force would emerge from N pole of the magnet pass through the
surrounding medium and re-enter the S pole.

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Magnetic Field Concept

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Magnetic Flux/ Flux Line Characteristic


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

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Outside - Leaves the north pole (N)


and enters the south pole (S) of a
magnet. Inside - Leaves the south
pole (S) and enters the north pole (N)
of a magnet.
Like (NN, SS) magnetic poles repel
each other.
Unlike (NS) magnetic poles attracts
each other.
Magnetic lines of force (flux) are
always continuous (closed) loops, and
try to make as shortest distance loop.
Flux line never cross each others.

Magnetic Field Concept

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Presence of magnetic field can be produced by use of :a)

Permanent Magnet

Materials where the magnetic field is generated by the internal


structure of the material itself. Inside atom, they have both electron
and nucleus.

They act like a little magnet like little spinning chunks of electric
charge and they have magnetic field inherent in the particles
themselves.

They also magnetic field thus generated by the orbit of the electrons
as they move about the nucleus. Magnetic fields of PM nucleus
spins, electron spins and the orbit of the electron themselves.

b)

Electromagnets

Magnet that works by using electricity to create a magnetic field in a


piece of iron.

The magnetic field (or flux) is produced by passing an electrical


current trough coils wound on ferromagnetic materials.

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Amperes Law

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Amperes law: The line integral of magnetic field intensity around a


closed path is equal to the sum of the currents flowing through the
surface bounded by the path.

H dl = i

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Magnetic Intensity

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 If the magnetic intensity has constant magnitude and points in the

same direction as the incremental length dl everywhere along the path,


Amperes law reduces to

Hl = Ni
Magnetomotive force (mmf), U

Cross
sectional
area, A

Ni
H =
l
Unit : A-turns/m
Magnetic field intensity, H
Effort by current to
establish a magnetic field

mean path length, l


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Flux Density

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 Number of lines of magnetic force (flux) passing through unit area

or Wb/m2

 Relationship between flux density and magnetic field intensity is

given by
Permeability: how easy it is to
establish a magnetic field for a
certain material

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Permeability

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 Permeability is a measure of the ease by which a magnetic flux

can pass through a material (Wb/Am). The higher the better flux can
flow in the magnetic materials.
 Permeability of free space : o = 4 x 10-7 (Wb/Am)
 Relative permeability, r :

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Magnetic Materials
Classifications

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 Diamagnetic

Materials that have permeabilities slightly less than that of free


space.
 Paramagnetic

Materials with permeabilities slightly greater that of free space.


 Ferromagnetic

Materials with permeabilities hundreds or thousands of times that of


free space.

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List of Magnetic Materials

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Material

Classification

Permeabilities

Silver

Diamagnetic

0.99998

Lead

Diamagnetic

0.99998

Copper

Diamagnetic

0.99999

Water

Diamagnetic

0.99999

Vacuum

Non-Magnetic

1.0000

Air

Paramagnetic

1.0000

Aluminium

Paramagnetic

1.0002

Palladium

Paramagnetic

1.0008

Cobalt

Ferromagnetic

250

Nickel

Ferromagnetic

600

Iron

Ferromagnetic

5000

Silicon iron

Ferromagnetic

7000

Purified iron

Ferromagnetic

200000

Supermalloy

Ferromagnetic

1000000

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13

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Magnetization Curve

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 Behavior of flux density compared with magnetic field strength, if

magnetic intensity H increases by increase of current I, the flux


density B in the core changes as shown.
Flux ()
Near
saturation

B = 0 r H

linear
Current (I)

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Relationship : Permeabilities,
Flux Density and Total Flux

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 Flux density

 Total flux

= B dA
A

where A = differential unit of area

Cross
sectional
area, A

If flux density is constant and to area,

= BA = NiA/l Weber (Wb)


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Magnetic Circuit

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Magnetic Equivalent Circuit

Cross
sectional
area, A

mean path length, l

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Magnetic Circuit vs
Electric Circuit

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E = V/d

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Magnetic Circuit

Electric Circuit

Magnetomotive force (mmf), U

Electromotive force (emf), E

Flux,
= U/S

Current,
I = E/R

Reluctance,
S = U/
= l / A

Resistance,
R = E/I
= l / A
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Magnetomotive force (mmf)

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 Magnetomotive force (mmf) is the strength of a magnetic field in

a coil of wire.
 This is dependent on how much current flows in the turns of coil : the more current, the stronger the magnetic field;
 the more turns of wire, the more concentrated the lines of

force.

U = Ni

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similarly

U = S

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Reluctance

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 Reluctance is the opposition to the establishment of a magnetic field,

i.e :" resistance to flow of magnetic flux.

 Depends on length of magnetic path , cross-section area A and

permeability of material .

l
S =
A

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(At/Wb)

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Reluctance

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 The inverse of reluctance is

known as permeance, P where


it represents the degree at which
the material permits the flow of
magnetic flux.

S
UP

S
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Example 1

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Refer to figure below, calculate the following:i.


Flux
ii. Flux density
iii. Magnetic intensity
Given r = 1,000; number of turns, N = 500; current, i = 0.1 A; cross sectional
area, A = 0.0001m2 , and means length core , l = 0.36 m.

i
N

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Example 2

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An iron ring has a cross-sectional area of 3.0 cm2 and a mean


diameter of 20 cm as shown in figure below. It is wound with 500
turns of wire and carries a current of 2.09 A to produce the
magnetic flux of 0.5mWb. Determine the permeability of the
material.

2.09A

3.0 cm2
20 cm

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Leakage Flux

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 Part of the flux generated by a current-carrying coil wrapped around a

leg of a magnetic core stays outside the core. This flux is called
leakage flux.

Useful
flux

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Fringing Effect

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 The effective area provided for the flow of lines of magnetic force (flux)

in an air gap is larger than the cross-sectional area of the core. This is
due to a phenomenon known as fringing effect.

Air gap
to avoid flux
saturation when
too much current
flows
- To increase
reluctance

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Example 2

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Figure shows a ferromagnetic core whose mean path length is 40cm. There is
a small gap of 0.05cm in the structure of the otherwise whole core. The crosssectional area of the core is 12cm2, the relative permeability of the core is
4000, and the coil of wire on the core has 400 turns. Assume that fringing in
the air gap increases the effective cross-sectional area of the gap by 5%.
Given this information, find
i. the total reluctance of the flux path (iron plus air gap)
ii. the current required to produce a flux density of 0.5T in the air gap.

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Faradays Law of
Electromagnetic Induction

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 Fundamental relationship between voltage and flux in a circuit :1. If the flux linking a loop (or turn) varies as a function of time, a
2.

voltage is induced between its terminal.


The value of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of
change of flux.

Eind

=N
t

 Basic law of electromagnetism relating to the operating principles of

transformers, inductors and many types of electrical motors and


generators.

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26

Faradays Law of
Electromagnetic Induction

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 Fundamental relationship between voltage and flux in a circuit :1. If the flux linking a loop (or turn) varies as a function of time, a
2.

voltage is induced between its terminal.


The value of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of
change of flux.

Eind

=N
t

 Basic law of electromagnetism relating to the operating principles of

transformers, inductors and many types of electrical motors and


generators.

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Voltage Induced in a
Conductor

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 When a wire moves through a magnetic field, voltage / emf is induced

in it. This phenomenon forms the basis of generators action.

Eind = Blv
where

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Eind = induced voltage


B = Flux density
l = active length of the conductor in the magnetic field
v = relative speed of the conductor
28

Lorentz Force on a
Conductor

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 A magnetic field induces force on a current-carrying wire within the

field. This phenomenon forms the basis of motor action.

F = BlI
where

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F = force acting on the conductor


B = flux density
l = active length of the conductor in the magnetic field
I = current in the conductor
29

Core Losses

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Hysteresis Loss
 Magnetic Hysteresis results in the
dissipation of wasted energy in the form of
heat with the energy wasted being in
proportion to the area of the magnetic
hysteresis loop.
 Hysteresis losses will always be a problem
in AC transformers where the current is
constantly changing direction and thus the
magnetic poles in the core will cause
losses because they constantly reverse
direction.
 It is important that the B-H hysteresis loop
is as small as possible

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Core Losses

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Eddy Current Loss


 A time-changing flux induces voltage within a ferromagnetic core. These
voltages cause swirls of current to flow within the core  Eddy Currents.
 Energy is dissipated (in the form of heat) because these eddy currents are
flowing in a resistive material (iron). The amount of energy lost to eddy
currents is proportional to the size of the paths they follow within the core.
 To reduce energy loss, ferromagnetic core should be broken up into small
strips, or laminations, and build the core up out of these strips. An insulating
oxide or resin is used between the strips, so that the current paths for eddy
currents are limited to small areas.

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