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PROGRAMME COMPONENTS: AUTO-MECHANICS

Course
Course name
Aims / objectives / expected outcomes
Teaching
code
method
Foundation courses
Worker / staff
Acquire and apply good:
Management
team building techniques
customer relations techniques
Work,
Interpret relevant safety codes and Theory
and
housekeeping and standards
practical
safety practices
Understand the need to adhere to stated
precautions
while
handling
tools,
equipment and vehicles
Practice good house-keeping
Acquire basic first aid and fire-fighting
skills
Basic metrology
Identify ISO and other standards of
Practical
measurement
Accurate measurement of selected
components
Calibrate selected measuring instruments
Estimate cost of designed / fabricated
Costing and
components and assemblies
estimation
Accurately estimate cost of workmanship

Entrepreneurship

Core courses
Materials and
corrosion

Automotive
technology

Automotive
technology 1

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Become acquainted with [possibly prepare]


basic business plans / proposals

-Know and understand materials used for


Theory and
manufacture of automotive bodies
practical
-Understand corrosion
-Learn and apply corrosion reduction
methods [for appropriate referral to automaintenance]
-Identify engine operating systems and
Practical
components [refresher course]
-Identify, isolate and solve problems
associated with the engine lubrication
system
-Use appropriate manuals (standards), tools
and equipment to solve problems
-Read, interpret assembly drawings on
steering systems, running gears and repair
them
-Identify , isolate and solve problems

Automotive
technology 2

Automotive
technology 3

Vehicle
performance and
evaluation
Internal
Combustion
Engines

Automotive
Hydraulics
Troubleshooting

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associated with fuel and induction system


of spark ignition
-Diagnose and rectify defects on the
exhaust emission control system.
-Identify , isolate and solve problems
associated with compression ignition
systems
-Diagnose and rectify defects on the
braking systems
-Use diagnostic tools and equipment
Identify , isolate and solve problems
associated with clutches and transmission
systems
Diagnose and rectify defects on hydraulic
and pneumatic circuits and systems

Practical

Practical

-Use vehicle performance criteria,


Theory and
manuals, charts and practical experience to practical
evaluate vehicle performance after service /
maintenance works
Understand the operating principles of
internal combustion engines including
reciprocating pistons
Understand the constructional features of
the main components of a reciprocating
piston engine.
Understand the lubrication system of a
reciprocating piston engine.

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
General Objectives:
At the end of the module, students should be able to
1.0
2.0
3.0

Understand the operating principles of internal combustion engines including


reciprocating pistons
Understand the constructional features of the main components of a reciprocating piston
engine.
Understand the lubrication system of a reciprocating piston engine.

Performance Objectives
Operating Principles
1.1

Explain the meaning of the terms:i.


ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Stroke
Bore
Swept volume
Engine cylinder capacity
Clearance volume
Combustion chamber
Radial & thrust forces

Explain meaning of the term compression ratio


Describe the operating principles of the four stroke spark ignition engine (reciprocating
piston)
Describe the operating principle of the four stroke compression ignition engine
(reciprocating piston)
Describe the operation of the two stroke (three port) spark ignition engine
Describe the operation of the two stroke compression ignition engine (valved type)
Describe the operation of the two stroke compression ignition engine (ported type
horizontally opposed piston)

Engine components (Reciprocating piston engines)


2.1
List the main parts of an engine
2.2

State and explain the functions of the Parts listed in 2.1

2.3

Explain the various engine cylinder arrangements including the following:


i.
ii.

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In-line cylinder
V-banked engine

iii.

Horizontally opposed (flat engine)

2.4

Describe cylinder block construction for in-line cylinders, V-banked cylinders,


and horizontally opposed cylinders

2.5

List the materials for cylinder blocks and state reasons for their use.

2.6

Describe integral and detachable cylinder block-crankcase construction

2.7

State and explain the purpose of a cylinder liner.

2.8

Describe the construction of wet and dry cylinder liners and how they are fitted into
cylinder blocks.

2.9

Describe accurate / correct and current methods of locating and sealing liners into
cylinder blocks

2.11

List the materials used for cylinder head manufacture and state reasons for their
selection.
Describe the salient / critical constructional features of a cylinder head assembly using a
disassembled engine: mating faces, valve ports, valve seats, water jackets, thermostat
housing, valve guides and combustion chamber.

2.14

State the purpose and name the main types of cylinder head gaskets.

2.15

Explain the reasons for tightening down a cylinder head in a given sequence.

2.16

State and explain the symptoms and causes of cylinder head gasket failure.

2.17

Describe the constructional features of pistons for spark-ignition and


compression-ignition engines. Piston designs and sizes. Bore reboring and sizes- standard
and oversize.

2.18

Describe the provisions relating to thermal expansion of a piston and piston rings

2.19

Sketch a piston in section and label the features:- land, crown, skirt, gudgeon pin
axis, piston bosses and piston ring groves.

2.20

Explain why there is greater clearance when cold for aluminum alloy pistons
compared with a cast iron piston

2.21

List and explain the reasons for the selection of materials for pistons

2.22

Describe common types of compression, oil control and special purpose piston
rings.

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2.23

Describe the method of fitting piston rings and state /explain the causes of
piston ring failure.

2.24

Describe the method of locating gudgeon pins.

2.25

Describe the procedures for removing and fitting gudgeon pins

2.26

Describe the construction of connecting rods for compression ignition and spark
ignition engines.

2.27

Describe the small-end and big-end bearing arrangements and state the procedure
for fitting new bearings.

2.28

Explain the purpose of nip in shell bearings and describe the method used to
measure the nip.

2.29

Explain the classification of plain journal bearing materials

2.30

State cylinder numbering systems and firing orders for engines in common use.

2.31

State the function of valves

2.32

Describe the layout of the following valve arrangements:


Single-row side-valves (L-head)
Double-row side-valves (T-head)
Single-row overhead valves
Overhead inlet and side exhaust valves
Double-row overhead valves

2.33

Describe the different crankshaft to camshaft drive arrangements including gear


drive. Toothed belt drive and chain drive

2.34

Describe the layout of the following valve operating mechanisms.


i. overhead valve with side camshaft, push rod and rocker arm actuated valves
ii overhead valve with high-mounted camshaft bucket follower, and rocker actuated
valves.
iii side-mounted camshaft with push-rod and rocker actuated OHV inlet and sidevalve exhaust with direct-acting rocker-arms.

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iv overhead valve and side camshaft with push rods, rocker arms, and offset twin
rocker-shafts.
v double row valves and side camshaft with twin rocker shafts and opposite facing
rocker arms, push-rod actuated.
2.35

Describe the layout of the following overhead camshaft valve operating


mechanism:
i

overhead camshaft with direct-acting inverted bucket followers

ii

overhead camshaft with direct-acting end pivoted rocker arms

iii

double-row valves OHC with bell-cranked direct-acting rocker-arms.

iv

double-row valves OHC with twin rocker shafts and direct-acting rocker arms

double-row valves OHC with inverted-bucket inlet follower and rocker


Actuated exhaust valves.

vi

twin OHC with direct-acting end pivoted rocker arms

vii

twin OHC with direct acting inverted bucket followers.

2.36

Describe the current and common forms of cam followers (tappets) e.g. mushroom
follower, roller follower, bucket or barrel follower. Briefly discuss advanced forms where
available- practically.

2.37

Explain the methods of valve spring retention

2.38

List the types of valve guides; explain the need for valve guides and their
construction.

2.39

Explain the need for valve seat inserts

2.40

Describe various forms of valve rotators

2.41

List the materials used in the valve assembly and state the reasons for their
selection.

2.42

Explain valve bouncing and surging. Describe how these are checked.

2.43

Explain the need for valve clearance.

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2.44

Describe the methods of adjustment of valve clearances on both O.H.V and


O.H.C types

2.45

Describe the various types of valve spring and state the advantage of each type

2.46

Describe the principles underlying the need for valve lead, lag and overlap.

2.47

Explain the meaning of volumetric efficiency and state and discuss the factors
which influence the value,

2.48

Describe how valve timing, valve position and valve operation affect volumetric
efficiency.

2.49

Explain the principle of Variable Valve Timing (VVTI) and the need for it in modern
engines.

2.50

Describe the construction and main features of a crankshaft

2.51

Show the crank arrangements of 3, 4, 5, and 6 in line and V6 and V8 engines.

2.52

Describe crankshaft main journal bearings and thrust bearings

2.53

Describe the fan belt pulley to crankshaft attachment

2.54

Describe the cause and effect of crankshaft torsional vibration.

2.55

Describe the construction and operation of torsional vibration dampers.

2.56

Describe methods of checking an engine crankshaft for wear

2.57

Describe the methods of balancing rotating and reciprocating masses.

2.58

Explain the meaning of primary and secondary balance

2.59

Describe the primary and secondary balance of single, twin, 4 and 6 cylinder in
line and, 6 and 8 cylinder vee formation engines

2.60

Describe the principles of Silent shafts and how they are used for engine balancing

2.61

Describe the construction and operation of secondary harmonic balancers.

2.62

Describe methods of engine mounting for old and new vehicles.

2.63

Explain the functions of a flywheel.

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Lubrication system
3.1

State and explain the functions of engine lubrication system.

3.2

Describe the layout and operation of a wet sump system for both full flow and
bypass filtration systems.

3.3

Describe how oil is distributed by splash, mist, pressure and oil spray jets.

3.4

Describe the construction of full-flow and bypass filters

3.5

Describe the layout of a dry-sump lubrication system

3.6

Discuss the relative merits of dry- sump and wet-sump lubrication systems.

3.7

Describe the construction and operation of oil pumps such as

3.8

i.
Gear type
ii.
Vane type
iii. Eccentric bi-rotor
iv.
Internal-gear crescent pump
Describe oil-pump drive arrangements

3.9

Describe the construction and operation of relief valves such as


i.
ii.
iii.

Disc type
Ball type
Plunger type

3.10

Describe engine oil leakage prevention

3.11

Describe crankshaft pulley-end oil seals

3.12

Describe crankshaft flywheel-end oil seals

3.13

Describe types of gaskets and seals for oil retention

3.14

Explain the need for crankcase ventilation

3.15

Describe positive crankcase ventilation systems

3.16

Describe the construction and operation of oil pressure gauges and pressure
indicators including electrical types.

3.17

Describe correct maintenance of oil level and the effects of too much and too little
oil

3.18

Natural and synthetic oils.

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3.19

Discuss oil contamination and replacement intervals.

3.20

Define and explain viscosity of oil

3.21

Describe the methods of measuring the viscosity of oil

3.22

Explain the properties and selection of engine lubricants.

3.23

Explain the meaning of viscosity index

3.24

Explain the classification of oils according to their SAE rating

3.25

Explain means of improving viscosity index of oils

3.26

List and explain engine oil additives

3.27

Differentiate between straight grade and multi grade oils

3.28

List and explain the characteristics and application of greases such as:-

3.29

i.
Lithium based greases
ii.
Calcium based greases
iii. Molybdenum disulfide
State and explain common faults together with causes, symptoms and remedies
associated with lubrication systems for engines.

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AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOP PRACTICE 1


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module, students should be able to acquire skills in:
1.0

decarbonising of a four- stoke engine

2.0

overhauling the four and two -stoke cycle engines

3.0

repairing vehicle chassis, suspension systems and body.

Performance Objectives
1.0

Decarbonising of a four stroke engine

1.1

Remove cylinder head from engine

1.2

inspect head for flatness

inspect head for cracks

inspect valve seat for wear

Remove and inspect valves for


-

Straightness

Correct seat angle

burning

1.3

Remove and refit valve guides

1.4

Test valve springs for correct tension and height

1.5

Remove and refit valve seat inserts

1.6

Lap valves to seat

1.7

Fit cylinder head to engine using torque wrench and the correct sequence of tightening
cylinder head bolts.

1.8

Adjust valve clearances

1.9

Report on the work done

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2.0

Engine Overhaul

2.1

Dismantle, inspect and assemble four- stroke SI and CI engines

2.2

Dismantle, inspect and assemble two- stroke engines

2.3

Remove and refit cylinders liners

2.4

Remove and refit gudgeon pins from and to pistons

2.5

Remove and refit piston rings from and to pistons

2.6

Measure pistons and crankshaft journals for taper and ovality

2.7

Take measurements of cylinder bores

2.8

Report on work done

3.0

Vehicle Chassis and Suspension

3.1

Check chassis frame for bow and twist

3.2

Examine suspension systems such as independent front and rear suspension for wear and
correct functioning.

3.3

Removal and refitting of suspension spring units

3.4

Removal, testing and refitting of suspension dampers

3.5

Diagnose frame and underbody damage.

3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20

Operate frame straightening equipment.


Repair unibody frame structure.
Repair mashed frame.
Repair sagged frame
Repair side sway.
Operate power hydraulic equipment.
Jack and align metal.
Pull sheet metal.
Remove and install window regulator.
Remove and install door latches, locks and cylinders.
Remove and install door glass.
Remove and install door shell.
Remove and install stationary glass.
Repair minor rust damage.
Finish metal with body filler.

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3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
3.27
3.28
3.29
3.30
3.31
3.32

Repair using body solder.


Perform minor fiber glass repair.
Prepare a panel to be painted.
Prepare a panel for spot paint.
Mix paint.
Apply enamel paint.
Prepare a vehicle for a complete paint job.
Paint a car complete.
Paint fiber glass panel.
Paint plastic materials.
Prepare a car for delivery.
Report on work done

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VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY II
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module, students should:
1.0

understand and explain the steering systems of the motor vehicle

2.0

understand and explain the construction of wheels and tyres

Performance Objectives:
1.0

Steering system

1.1

State and explain the functions of a steering system

1.2

State and explain the requirements of a good steering system.

1.3

Name the main parts of a steering system.

1.4

Explain True Rolling motion.

1.5

State and explain the conditions necessary to obtain True rolling motion for both single
and twin axle steering Linkage arrangements.

1.6

Describe the Ackerman principle.

1.7

Describe the steering linkage for vehicles with:i. beam axle suspension arrangement
ii. independent front wheel suspension system
iii. twin steering axle arrangement

1.8

State the meaning and purpose of the following steering geometry terms:
i. camber angle
ii. Castor angle
iii. Kingpin inclination/swivel axis inclination
iv. Toe in and toe out / wheel alignment
v. toe out on turns

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vi. Center point steering


vii. negative and positive offsets
1.9

1.10

Describe the effects of incorrect


i.

camber angle

ii.

Caster angle

iii.

Kingpin inclination / swivel axis inclination

iv.

Wheel alignment, toe in / toe out

Describe the provision and methods of checking and adjusting:i. camber angle
ii. Castor angle
iii. Kingpin inclination / swivel axis inclination
iv. Wheel alignment, toe-in / toe-out
v. toe-out-on-turns

1.8
1.9
1.10

State and explain the purpose of a steering gearbox


State and explain the desirable characteristics of steering gearboxes
Describe the construction and the operation of the following steering gearboxes:
i. rack and pinion
ii. Worm and roller
iii. Cam and peg
iv. Recirculation balls and cam
v. worm and wheel

1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18

State and explain the meaning of slip angle, under steer and over steer.
State the effect on slip angle of changes in tyre pressures, size and construction, load on
wheel and tilting of wheel.
State how slip angles will affect the path taken by the wheels
Explain the need for power assistance in the steering system
Describe the layout and operation of a hydraulic power assisted steering system (external
and integral types).
State the system characteristics of any power assisted steering
State and explain the advantages and disadvantages of power assisted steering systems
Describe power assisted steering lock limiters such as:

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i. power assisted steering long stem conical valve lock limiter


ii power assisted steering double valve lock limiter
122

Identify the symptoms and causes of the main steering faults in:
i. Steering geometry
ii. Steering gearboxes
iii. Power assisted steering

1.23

Indicate the grades of lubricants suitable for the steering gearboxes including powerassisted types.

1.24

Identify the types of steering ball and socket joints

1.25

Discuss the constructional features of various forms of ball joints

1.26

Indicate the appropriate greasing or lubrication required by ball joints.

1.27

Describe the layout of front stub axle assembly.

1.28

Indicate the types and position of bearings used on front wheel assemblies.

1.29

Describe the constructional features and operation of electromechanical steering system

2.0

Wheel and tyres

2.1

List different kinds of wheel construction

2.2

Describe the wheel structure of the following wheels


i. Pressed steel disc wheels
ii. Car well base rims
iii. Detachable rim wheels

2.3

Describe the design and construction of the following vehicle wheel rims and state their
applications
i. car double hump well base rim
ii. van 5 seat angle well base rim
iii. u type drop-center 15 taper rim

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iv. semi drop center two piece rim


v. wide base two piece rim
vi. wide base three piece rim
vii. Divided flat base rim.
2.4

List and describe wheel stud and nut fixtures such as:
i.

car conical nut mounting

ii.

spigot mounting with conical set bolts

iii.

car shouldered nut mounting

iv.

car sleeved integral nut mounting vehicle British standard AU50

v.

commercial vehicle British standard AU 50 wheel mounting

vi. commercial vehicle continental (DIN) standard wheel mounting


vii. commercial vehicle spigot mounting
2.5

State and explain the functions of pneumatic tyres.

2.6

Describe tubed and tubeless tyres

2.7

List and discuss the merits of tubeless over tubed tyres

2.8

Describe the major components / parts of a tyre cover such as carcass, beads, side walls
and tread

2.9

Explain the terms cross-ply and redial ply

2.10 Describe the tyre construction of cross-ply tyres


2.11 Describe the construction of radial ply tyres
2.12 State materials used for tyres and give reasons of the choice of such materials
2.13 State the meaning of aspect ratio and explain its significance.
2.14 Describe tread patterns and state their importance in relation to the various climatic and
operational conditions.
2.15 Compare the characteristics of cross-ply and radial ply tyres.

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2.16 Describe the concept and construction of run-flat car tyre.


2.17 Explain legal and technical requirements when using cross-and radial-ply tyres.
2.18 Describe the construction and operation of tyre valves and their applications
2.19 Discuss the importance of tyre inflation pressures in relation to load, tyre life and vehicle
handling
2.20 Discuss the importance of tyre balancing
2.21 Describe static and dynamic balancing procedures
2.22 State the effects of wheel imbalance on vehicle handling
2.23 State the safety requirements with respect to tyre wear and condition
2.24 Describe tyre size designation
2.25 Explain load index and speed symbol.
2.26 Discuss tyre maintenance and tread wear indicator
2.27 Describe ways to rotate tyres and reasons for tyre rotation.
2.28 Describe tyres and rims selection, performances and life span.

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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES II (SPARK IGNITION ENGINES)


General Objectives:
At the end of the module, student should be able to
1.0

understand and explain the construction and operation of engine cooling system

2.0

understand and explain the combustion process of a spark ignition engine including
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)

3.0

understand and explain the fuel system of a carburetor engine

4.0

understand and explain the fuel system of petrol injection system on a spark ignition
engine

5.0

understand the principle of pressure charging

6.0

understand and explain exhaust emissions from spark ignition engines.

Performance Objectives
1.0

Engines cooling system.

1.1

List and explain the functions of a cooling system.

1.2

State and discuss types of cooling system.

1.3

Describe with the aid of sketches typical engine air cooled systems.

1.4

Describe the construction and operation of fan blowers used in air cooled engines.

1.5

Describe the methods of fan discharge control mechanisms.

1.6

Discuss the thermo siphon liquid cooling system.

1.7

Explain reasons why the basic thermo syphon system is not used on modern
vehicles.

1.8

Describe the construction an operation of thermostat controlled and impeller assisted


liquid cooling system.

1.9

Described the construction and operation of water pumps (impeller)

1.10

Describe the importance / purpose of a thermostat in an engine cooling system.

1.11

Describe the construction and operation of wax pellet type thermostat.

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1.12

Describe the construction and operation of a bellows type thermostat.

1.13

Explain the reasons for using pressurized cooling systems

1.14

Describe the construction and operation of a pressure cap which incorporates a pressure
valve and vacuum valve

1.15

Explain the safety precautions related to the removal of pressure caps

1.16

Describe cooling system incorporating an expansion tank. (Sealed cooling system)

1.17

Describe the operation of vented and pressurized expansion tanks.

1.18

Describe the types of cooling element used in radiator construction

1.19

Describe the action of vertical and cross flow radiators

1.20

List and explain reasons for using cross flow systems with remote header tanks.

1.21

State and explain the function of a fan in a cooling system.

1.22

State and explain the reasons for using temperature controlled fans

1.23

Describe the operation of an electrically driven temperature controlled fan

1.24

Describe the operation of a mechanically driven temperature controlled fan

1.25

Describe the operation of an engine speed sensitive (viscous coupling) type fan.

1.26

Discuss the need for the use of antifreeze coolant solutions in certain climates.

1.27

Discuss the use of corrosion inhibitors in the cooling system of an engine

1.28

Describe types of impeller shaft (water pump shaft) water seals

1.29

Explain the reasons for the use of engine core plugs.

1.30

List and explain causes of engine overheating

1.31

State and explain the main cooling system faults together with the causes, symptoms and
remedies.

2.0

Combustion process (Spark Ignition)

2.1

Explain the composition of petrol

2.2

Explain the term octane number of petrol and describe how it is measured.

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2.3

Describe the combustion process of the S I engine.

2.4

List and explain normal and abnormal combustion

2.5

Define and explain detonation, pre-ignition and post ignition

2.6

Explain the factors that affect the tendency of an engine to detonate.

2.7

Solve equations related to combustion of petrol.

2.8

Describe combustion chamber design of SI engines such as Hemispherical, Lozenge,


Wedge, Bowl in piston and Split level.

2.9

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of four valve combustion chamber (pentroof
type)

2.10

Explain the principle of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine

2.11

Describe the shape of the piston crown of Gasoline Direct Injection engines

2.12

Explain the significance of upright straight in-take port of GDI

2.13

Explain the two combustion modes of Gasoline Direct Injection engines


i.

ultra lean combustion mode

ii.
2.14

high output mode

List and explain the advantages of Gasoline Direct Injection engine over conventional S I
engines.

2.15

Describe the construction and principle of operation of High pressure swirl injector in
GDI

3.0

Fuel and Induction System of Carburetor Engine

3.1

Describe the layout of common fuel supply system.

3.2

Describe the construction and operation of mechanically an electrically operated fuel feed
pumps.

3.3

Describe the construction of various petrol fuel supply filter

3.4

Describe the construction and operation of fixed choke carburetors, including mixture
control, cold starting, slow running, acceleration, economy and enrichment systems.

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3.5

Describe the construction and operation of twin choke and progressive choke carburetors.

3.6

Describe the construction and operation of constant depression (variable choke)


carburetors.

3.7

Describe the provisions for cold stating, slow running and mixture adjustment in constant
depression carburetors.

3.8

Describe the tuning procedures for single and multiple carburetor installations.

3.9

Describe the construction and operation of the types of air cleaner in common use.

3.10

Describe the layout and design of engine manifolds

3.11

Explain the influence of manifold design on engine performance

3.12

Sketch common types of induction manifold and state the advantages and disadvantages
of each type.

3.13

Sketch common exhaust system arrangements and describe the principal features.

3.14

Describe the effect of the exhaust system on engine breathing.

3.15

Explain the usefulness of hot spots in the spark ignition engine manifold system.

3.16

Describe the construction and operation of various forms of exhaust silencers.

4.0

Fuel and Induction System of Petrol Injection engines

4.1

Describe the relative merits of petrol injection and carburetor systems.

4.2

Describe the layout of the fuel system of petrol injection system

4.3

Describe the construction and operation of hydro mechanical multi point injection system
(MPI) such as K Jetronic Mechanical, continues injection

4.4

Describe the construction and operation of warm up regulator of hydro mechanical


MPI

4.5

Describe the operation of air flow sensor in relation to fuel distributor of K Jetronic fuel
injection.

4.6

Describe the construction and operation of K Jetronic petrol injection system.


(Mechanical, continuous injection) and others

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5.0

Pressure Charging (super charging)

5.1

State and explain the reasons for pressure (super) charging a spark ignition engine

5.2

Describe the construction and operation of centrifugal, vane and rotor types of super
chargers.

5.3

Describe the construction and operation of turbocharger installations.

5.4

Explain the need for the use of intercoolers in turbocharger installations.

5.5

Describe the construction of various forms of intercoolers in common use

5.6

Explain the need for the use of waste gates on turbocharger installations.

5.7

Describe the construction and operation of waste gates.

5.8

List and explain main fuel system faults, causes, and symptoms and describe how they
are remedied.

6.0

Exhaust Emissions

6.1

Discuss exhaust emission from spark ignition engines

6.2
i.
ii.
6.3

a. combustion products
i.
complete combustion
ii. incomplete combustion
b. combustion by products
c. oxidants
Explain the properties of exhaust gas components
major components
incomplete combustion
Describe emission control of SI engines

i.

ii.

engine design measures


a. setting the air fuel ratio
b. mixture formation
c. uniform distribution
d. E G R
e. valve timing
f. compression Ratio
g. combustion chamber design
h. ignition system
Exhaust gas treatment
Thermal after burning
Catalytic after burning

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AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOP PRACTICE II


General Objectives
At the end of the module, the students should be able to demonstrate the skills of repairs in
1.0

The fuel, cooling and lubrication systems of an engine

2.0

Steering systems and wheels

Performance Objectives
1.0

Fuel, Cooling and lubrication systems

1.1

Inspect the layout of spark ignition engine fuel system

1.2

Examine the layout of electronic fuel injection system

1.3

Identify the positions of various sensors of the electronic fuel injection system.

1.4

Dismantle, inspect, test and assemble fuel lift pumps

1.5

Dismantle, inspect and assemble various types of carburetor

1.6

Tune up spark ignition engines

1.7

Examine and clean air cleaners

1.8

Diagnose faults in the fuel system of SI engine

1.9

Test radiators and pressure caps

1.10

Test thermostats

1.11

Dismantle, inspect and assemble water pumps

1.12

Examine the layout of engine lubrication system

1.13

Dismantle, inspect and assemble oil pumps and relief valves

1.14

Report on work done

2.0

Steering system and wheels

2.1

Inspect various types of steering linkage arrangements

2.2

Dismantle, inspect, assemble and adjust various types of steering gearboxes

23 | P a g e

2.3

Inspection of a steering system and front wheel alignment

2.4

Checking a vehicle for wheel alignment, Caster, Camber, Kingpin Inclination and
turning angles.

2.5

Examination and adjustment of a rack and pinion steering gear

2.6 Examination of wheels and tyres for wear, wheel run-out to determine abnormalities.
2.7 Static and dynamic wheel balancing
2.8 Dismantling, examination and refitting of a front wheel-hub assembly
2.9 Study of the layout and functions of the components of a power-assisted steering system.
2.10 Report on work done

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VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, students should be able to understand the motor vehicle braking
systems
Performance Objectives
1.0

Braking system

1.1

Describe the functions of a braking system


-

reduce vehicle speed

stop vehicle

1.2

Identify the main parts of a braking system and state their functions

1.3

Describe a drum and shoe brake

1.4

Differentiate between the leading and trailing shoes

1.5

Describe the action of the leading and trailing shoes

1.6

Explain the operation of the two leading shoes assembly and the leading and trailing shoe
assembly

1.7

Describe the constructional features and operation of the disc brake system

1.8

Compare the disc brake with the drum brake

1.9

List brake lining pad material and state reasons for the choice of such materials

1.10

Describe the layout and operations for handbrake system

1.11

Identify types of brake adjusters

1.12

Describe the location, constructional features and operation of automatic brake adjusters
for drum and disc brake assemblies

1.13

Describe the layout of the hydraulic braking system

1.14

Describe the constructional features and operation of a brake master cylinder both
single and tandem cylinders

1.15

Describe the constructional features and operation of a wheel cylinder

1.16

Explain the function of pressure limiting valves

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1.17

Describe the layout of single, dual or split hydraulic systems

1.18

State types of brake fluids, their appropriate applications and the requirements of brake
fluid

1.19

Explain the need for servo assistance in the braking system

1.20

Describe the constructional features and operation of a brake servo unit operating on the
principle of
the direct or non-suspended vacuum
suspended vacuum

1.21

1.22
1.23

Describe the method of producing vacuum on


a. spark ignition engines
b. compression ignition engines
Describe the constructional features and explain the operation of an Air operated power
brake system for tractor and trailer including dual or split systems
Explain the operation and state the location and functions of all main components of the
air operated power brake system such as
- Compressor, unloader valve, governor valve, safety valve, foot brake valves (single
and dual) pressure regulating valve single and double check valves, inverse relay
quick release valve, and load sensing valves

1.24

Identify the connecting hoses for coupling tractor units to trailers for service, secondary
and emergency brakes by their colour codes.

1.25

Identify types of trailer airline connectors

1.26

State the purpose and location of the relay emergency valve

1.27

Describe the layout and basic operation of a compressed air/hydraulic braking system

1.28

State the purpose of vehicle retarders (ENDURANCE BRAKES)

1.29

List types of vehicle retarders

1.30

Describe the construction and principle of operation of the following retarders


-

Exhaust compression Retarders

Engine compressed air type Retarders

Multi-plate friction type

Eddy current Retarders

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Hydraulic Retarders

1.31

Discuss brake faults sponginess, hardness, vibration (pedal and body)

1.32

Testing of brake booster and master cylinder.

1.33

Describe pedal free play its adjustment and advantages.

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INTERNAL COMBUSITON ENGINES III (COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES)


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end f the module, student should be able to
1.0

understand and explain the combustion process of a compression ignition engine

2.0

understand and explain the fuel system of in line injection pump and its operating
principle

3.0

understand and explain the fuel system of distributor type fuel injection pumps and their
operating principles.

4.0

understand and explain the principle of pressure charging system of C.I engines

5.0

understand and explain exhaust emissions form diesel engines

Performance Objectives
1.0

Combustion Process (Compression Ignition)

1.1

Explain typical compositions of fuel for compression ignition engines

1.2

Explain the properties of C.I fuels

1.3

Explain cetane number of C.I fuel and its significance

1.4

Describe how the cetane number is measured.

1.5

Describe and explain the use of additives for C.I engines fuels

1.6

Describe the combustion process of the C.I engine (3 phases of Combustion)

1.7

Explain the factors, which affect the delay period and intensity of diesel knock.

1.8

Describe the essential features of combustion chambers for compression ignition engine

1.9

Describe the construction and main features of direct and indirect types of combustion
chamber for C.I engines.

1.10

Describe the methods of inducing induction and compression swirl

1.11

Explain the similarity and the differences between engine components of S.I and C.I
engines.

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2.0

Fuel System In line Injection System

2.1

Sketch and describe the layout of an in line type of fuel injection pump system and
indicate the bleed points.

2.2

Explain the importance of fuel filtration in C.I engines.

2.3

Describe the construction and operation of fuel filters including the SEDIMENTOR and
AGGLOMERATOR types.

2.4

Describe the piping of fuel lines (low pressure fuel lines / unions.)

2.5

Describe the construction and operation of fuel lift pumps (i.e fuel supply pumps) such
as:
i. plunger type
ii. diaphragm and piston type

2.6

Describe the operating principles of an in line jerk type fuel injection pump.

2.7

Describe the operation of the delivery valve

2.8

Describe the process of phasing and calibration of an in line fuel injection pump.

2.9

Explain the effects of an incorrectly phased and / or incorrectly calibrated pump on


engine performance.

2.10

Describe the methods of timing in line type injection pumps to the engine

2.11

State and explain the functions of injection pump governor.

2.12

Describe the construction and operation of mechanical and pneumatic governors fitted to
in line fuel injection pumps

2.13

Describe the construction and operation of electronic governors.

3.0

Fuel System Distributor Type Injection Pumps

3.1

Sketch and describe the layout of distributor type of fuel injection pump and indicate the
bleed points.

3.2

Describe the construction and operation of distributor type fuel injection pumps including
i.
ii.

29 | P a g e

D.P.A. Pump
V.E type injection pump.

3.3

Describe the construction and operation of governors on the distributor type fuel injection
pumps such as:
i. Mechanical
ii. Hydraulic
iii. Electronic

3.4

Explain the relative merits of the in-line and distributor type fuel injection pumps.

3.5

Describe and explain the procedure of timing distributor type fuel injection pumps to the
engine

3.6

Explain the functions of diesel fuel injectors.

3.7

Describe the construction and operation of fuel injectors in common use including
i.

multi / single hole injectors

ii.

pintle / pintaux nozzle injectors

3.8

Describe the principle of operation of common rail unit injector system

3.9

Describe the construction and operation of a pressure / time fuel injection system

3.10

State and explain the type of injector used for direct and indirect injection engines.

3.11

Describe and explain the procedure used for cleaning, adjusting and testing fuel
injectors.

3.12

Describe the systems used to aid cold starting of C.I engines, including heater plugs,
excess fuel and spray systems.

4.0

Super charging

4.1

Describe the principles associated with pressure charging of C.I engines

4.2

Describe the construction and operation of turbo charger installations.

4.3

Explain the precautions relating to the operating and maintaining turbochargers and
intercoolers

4.4

Explain and discuss common faults of a fuel injection system together with the cause,
symptoms and remedies.

30 | P a g e

5.0

Diesel Exhaust Emission

5.1

Discuss exhaust emissions from diesel engines

5.2

Describe the emission control measures at the C.I engine

5.3

combustion chamber
fuel injection
intake-air temperature
exhaust gas recirculation (E G R)
Describe the operation of catalytic converters

5.4

Discuss the use of noble metal catalytic converter for exhaust gas treatment

WORKSHOP ORGANISATON AND ADMINISTRATION I


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module students should
1.0

have knowledge about the layout of service complex

2.0

know how to organize activities in motor vehicle workshop

3.0

have knowledge about service reception procedures

31 | P a g e

4.0

be familiar with the part sales and issues in a workshop

Performance Objectives
1.0

Layout of service complex

1.1

Identify the choices and constraint which affect the location and layout of the repair /
construction area in relation to other areas appropriate to fleet maintenance, vehicle body
building and repair, motor vehicle retail and repair, agricultural machinery, construction
plant retail and repair, such as parts, administration, forecourt, reception, sales.

1.2

Construct simple workshop plan, given peak loading, overall dimensions and functional
activities.

1.3

Draw a simple layout of the following specialized shops and show on the plan how
equipments are mounted in their appropriate relative positions:
i.

Automotive Electrical shop

ii.

Diagnostic Centre.

iii.

Car Body and Painting shop.

iv. Diesel Fuel Injection Pump and Injector Service Shop.

2.0

Organization

2.1

Identify the main departments and the level of authority and responsibility into which the
repair business can be divided.

2.2

Staff job description and organizational chart for leadership (i.e Organizational structure
and chart)

2.3

Describe the duties, levels of responsibility and authority attached to each position in the
main areas associated with and allied to the workshop.

2.4

Outline a procedure for recruiting and training staff including apprentices, trainees,
skilled workmen, supervisors and service managers.

2.5

Describe the main methods of labour remuneration in workshops

2.6

Describe a typical bonus and or incentive scheme, financial and non-financial

32 | P a g e

3.0

Service Reception

3.1

Outline the factors involved in reception and indicate how they are applied in the
provision of reception facilities and office records.

3.2

Analyze the importance of accurate fault diagnosis in workshop loading and production
control

3. 3

Describe a system of registering workshop appointments and controlling workshop


loading.(PLANNING)

3.4

Analyse customers repair instructions and reported faults and issue repair orders for
their rectification

3.5

Explain Quality Control methods used in job evaluation before delivery (repair auditing).

3.6

Prepare appropriate communications including customers repair orders,


accident damage reports and estimates, for vehicle repair work, vehicle valuation and
assessments.

3.7

Describe the design of flow charts for all activities and movement e.g vehicle movement,
human document movement.

3.8

Describe a procedure which enables details of work in progress or which has just been
completed to be readily obtained

3.9

Describe the procedure to be followed when dealing with a claim under warranty
agreement.

3.10

Explain how customers complaints may be prevented or minimized through


communication between workshops, parts department and reception.

3.11

Describe appropriate means of handling customers complaints.

3.12

Describe the methods of promoting and marketing workshop service.

3.13

Describe methods of monitoring and control of outsourced jobs.

3.14

Describe how to use Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in the Reception- number of
vehicles received, serviced or repaired per day

3.15

Describe how to use Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in the Workshop

33 | P a g e

Labour utilization
Efficiency
Number of vehicles received, serviced/ repaired per day

4.0

Parts Sales and Issues

4.1

Describe the importance of planning the location of stock in the functioning of the service
complex.

4.2

Describe the layout and the equipment of the main sections of a parts department

4.3

Outline basic parts department procedures and documentation relating to the receipt,
inspection and issue of parts.

4.4

Outline the basic principles of stock control.

4.5

Describe methods of stock checking and reconciling physical stock with records.

4.6

Explain the main considerations for establishing sales forecasts and targets

4.7

Outline the means which may be used to influence the impact the forecourt can have on
the marketing of parts and workshop services.

4.8

Identify possible health and fire hazards associated with stock and outline methods of
dealing with these.

4.9

Describe ware house management systems appropriate for the garage.

4.10

Describe parts backorder management.

4.11

Describe how to use Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in the Parts department etc.

34 | P a g e

Parts supply rates


Lost sales report
Promotional and discount sales
Sales per day.

AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOP PRACTICES III


GENERAL OBJECTIVE
At the end of the module students should be able to demonstrate the skills of repairs and
inspection of:
1.0

automotive Electrical system

2.0

braking systems

3.0

compression Ignition Engines

Performance objectives
1.0

Automotive Electrical systems

1.1

Diagnose electrical system faults using test lamps, multimeters etc.

1.2

Check headlamp alignment

1.3

Dismantle, examine, assemble and test alternators .Check output of alternators.

1.4

Dismantle, examine, various starter motors and their drives

1.5

Check ignition systems for correct operation:


Coil ignition
Electronic ignition

1.6

The use of stroboscopic lamp to test ignition timing

1.7

Check vehicle wiring system for open and short circuits

1.8

Check vehicle auxiliary electrical systems for correct operation

1.9

Report on work done

2.0

Braking system

2.1

Examination of a simple brake system

2.2

Overhaul complete hydraulic braking system

35 | P a g e

2.3

Dismantle, inspect and assemble disc and drum brake assemblies

2.4

Dismantling, examination and reassembly of a disc brake caliper unit

2.5

Servicing a master cylinder and wheel cylinder for a hydraulic brake system

2.6

Bleed braking system

2.7

Adjust drum brakes

2.8

Adjust hand brakes

2.9

Examine different types of brake servo units

2.10 Study a complete Air Brake system to determine relative positions and functions of
components.
2.11

Functional checks and adjustment of Air-Brake system components

2.12

Examine disc and drum distortions and their effects on the brakes.

2.13 Report on work done

3.0

Compression Ignition Engines

3.1

Examine the layout of Compression Ignition Engine fuel system

3.2

Examine In-line and distributor fuel injection pumps

3.3

Dismantle, examine and test injectors for correct operation

3.4

Phasing and calibration of In-line injection pumps

3.5

Report on work done.

36 | P a g e

AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS II
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
General Objectives:
At the end of module students should,
1.0

understand micro computer applications in vehicle motion control such as ABS, Traction
Control and Automatic gearbox control.

2.0

understand electronic display for automotive instrumentation and vehicle condition


monitoring systems (Driver information system)

3.0

understand micro computer application in wiring and electronic control of auxiliary


electrical systems

4.0

understand electronic control system diagnostics (O.B.D.I. and OBD II)

Performance Objectives
1.0

Vehicle motion control

1.1

Describe the layout and operation of cruise control systems

1.2

Describe the layout and operation of anti skid brake system (ABS), Electronic brake
Distribution, Load sensing and bypass valve.

1.3

Describe the layout an operation of traction control system

1.4

Describe the lay out and operation of electronic control of automatic transmission, control
of gear shift and torque lock - up

2.0

Electronic display for automotive instrumentation and vehicle condition monitoring

2.1

Explain the primary function of visual display

2.2

Explain active and passive display systems

2.3

Explain the principle of operation of the following electronic display systems:


i.

37 | P a g e

Light emitting diode (LED)

ii. Vacuum fluorescent display (VFD)


iii. Light crystal display (LCD)
iv. D. D. Electroluminescence (DCEL)
v. Cathode ray tube (CRT)
2.4
2.5

Describe various forms of driving display system (multiplexed)


Explain the principle of vehicle condition monitoring using sensors in monitoring
i. bulb failure module
ii. brake lining war
iii. fluid levels brake, coolant and engine oil

2.6
2.7
2.8

Describe graphic display units


Explain the principle of trip computer to compute average speed, fuel used, estimated time
arrival etc.
Describe the construction and operation of electronic speedometers.

3.0

Wiring and electronic control of auxiliary system

3.1

Discuss the limits of the conventional wiring system

3.2

Explain the principle of multiplex wiring system

3.3

Explain the use of multiplex data bus

3.4

Describe the layout and operation of a multiplex control system e.g. rear window heating
system.

3.5

Describe the electronic control of windscreen wipers

3.6

Describe the functional requirements of central locking system

3.7

Describe the operation of door lock actuators.

3.8

Describe door locking circuit and remote operation

3.9

Describe the operation of electric window

3.10 Describe the operation of electrical movement of seats, mirrors and sun roof operation
3.11 Explain the operation of air bag system for driver and passenger safety.
3.12 Describe the layout and operation of electronic climate control
38 | P a g e

4.0

Electronic control system diagnostics

4.1

Explain and discuss maintenance and fault diagnosis of engine and vehicle management.
system connector problems

4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Self diagnosing systems


Self diagnosis by light signal
Discuss how to carry out trouble shooting on electronic systems
Explain the concept of on board diagnostic systems (self diagnosis)
Demonstrate the use of scanners and multimeters in maintenance of electronic equipment
Explain the concept of computer trouble codes
Explain the function and location of diagnostic connectors.
Describe and explain the process of checking and clearing diagnostic codes.
Explain the method of symptom simulation.
Demonstrate the use of intelligent testers, Consult II, MUT II etc.

5.0

Chassis Electrical Systems

5.1

Describe the principle, layout and operation of Active Suspension system- load sensor,
displacement and vertical acceleration sensor. Driver mode selection.

5.2

Describe the principle, layout and operation of electric power steering.

5.3

Describe the principle. Layout and operation of Electronic clutch.

5.4

Describe the principle, layout and operation of Active Roll Reduction.

5.5

Describe the principle, layout and operation of Electronic Limited Slip differential.

5.6

Explain the concept of Total Vehicle Dynamics.

5.7

Describe the principle, layout and operation of In Car Entertainment and


Communications.

5.8

Explain sources and methods of radio and television suppression.

5.9

Explain the concept of vehicle security systems,- descriptions of basic and top of the range
systems.

5.10 Describe the principle, layout and operation of Security Coded Control units.
5.11

Explain the concept of Adaptive Noise Control

39 | P a g e

5.12

Explain the concept of Obstacle Avoidance Radar.

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VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY IV
GENERAL OBJECTIVE
At the end of the module, students should be able to understand the transmission system of the
motor vehicle.

Performance Objectives
1.0

Clutch

1.1

Explain the functions of a clutch in the transmission system

1.2

Classify clutches according to,

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

the number of plates used


types of spring used
method of operation (hydraulic and mechanical)
Describe the constructional features and operation of each of the classification
of clutches in 1.2

1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15

Indicate the power flow through the clutch


State the purpose of a clutch driven plate and describe its constructional features
Identify clutch withdrawal mechanisms and state the purpose of each such as
clutch release bearing
clutch fork
release levers
clutch cable
Describe the provision for free pedal play adjustment
Explain free pedal play and state reasons for the free play
State the purpose of a fluid flywheel
Describe the constructional features and operation of a fluid flywheel
Explain the applications of a fluid flywheel
Explain Hydro-kinetic torque converter
Differentiate between a fluid flywheel and a hydro-kinetic torque converter
Explain how torque multiplication is achieved in a hydro-kinetic torque converter
Interpret torque converter efficiency and torque ratio graphs

2.0

Gearbox

2.1

State the purpose of a gearbox


-

meeting the prevailing road and load conditions such as:


a) acceleration form rest

41 | P a g e

2.2

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

2.8
2.9
2.10

2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15

b) hill climbing
c) low speeds
d) reverse and neutral
Classify gearboxes according to
type of mesh
number of speeds
List relative advantages of each classification
Describe the layout and operation of each classification in 2.2
Describe the constructional features of a twin lay shaft gearbox and state its advantage
over the single layout type
Describe gear selector mechanism and interlocking arrangement within the gearbox
Explain the terms:
range change
splitter change as applied in gearboxes
Describe the construction and explain the operation of range change and splitter change
gearboxes
Describe a simple epicyclic gear train
Explain the principle of operation of a simple epicyclic gear train:
Principle 1 - Neutral
Principle 2 - Low gear
Principle 3 - High gear
Principle 4 - Intermediate gears
Principle 5 - Reverse
Principle 6 - Overdrive
Explain overdrive and state the purpose of overdrive in the gearbox
Describe an overdrive unit and its operation
Describe the layout and operation of an automatic transmission system
Compare the automatic transmission with the stepped transmission system
Interpret graphs of tractive effort against road speeds representing
i. an ideal tractive effort
ii. a stepped transmission system
iii. an automatic transmission system

2.16

Explain the construction and principle of operation of Continuously variable automatic


gearbox (CVT).

3.0

Propeller Shafts and Drive Arrangements

3.1

State the purpose of the propeller shaft and drive shafts

3.2

Distinguish between the Hotchkiss open-type drive and the torque tube drive

42 | P a g e

3.3

Describe the following drive arrangements


i. Hotchkiss drive
ii. Torque tube drive
iii. De-dion drive

3.4

Explain how the following forces are controlled in the Hotchkiss and torque tube drive
systems:
i. driving thrust
ii. braking thrust
iii. torque reaction
iv. brake reaction

3.5

Describe the alternative engine and drive layout arrangements

3.6

Compare the alternative engine and drive layout arrangementi. front engine front wheel drive
ii. front engine rear wheel drive
iii. rear engine rear wheel drive
iv. part time and full time 4 X 4 drives

3.7

Identify the various types of universal joints including constant velocity joints

3.8

Describe the construction and operation of each type

3.9

Explain the need for the use of universal joints in the transmission system

3.10 Sate the limitations of a hookes joint


3.11

Explain the conditions required to obtain constant velocity using two hookes joints

3.12

Describe the two piece propeller shaft and state the purpose of the center bearing

3.13. Operation of transfer gearboxes

43 | P a g e

4.0

Final Drive, Differential and Axle Shafts

4.1

Explain the reasons for the use of a final drive

4.2

Describe the constructional features of the following final drive gear assemblies
i. straight bevel
ii. spiral bevel
iii. hypoid bevel

4.3

Describe the lubrication arrangements for the final drive

4.4

Show the final drive tooth marking to denote:


i. correct meshing of gears
ii. incorrect meshing of gears

4.5

Describe the methods of adjustment to obtain correct meshing

4.6

Explain the purpose and method of final drive bearing pre-load

4.7

State the purpose of the differential unit.

4.8

Describe the construction and operation of a bevel type differential gear assembly

4.9

Explain the effects of using four planet gears instead of two gears in a differential
assembly

4.10 Explain the effect of locking any two elements of differential gear system together
4.11 Describe the action of a differential lock system.
4.11 Explain limited slip differential
4.12 Describe the construction and operation of a limited slip differential system
4.13 Identify personal safety measures related to a limited slip differential
4.14 Describe the construction and operation of a double reduction final drive gear
arrangement
4.15 Describe the construction and operation of a two-speed final drive.
4.16 State the purpose of an axle shaft and describe the main constructional features of hub
44 | P a g e

arrangement for
i. semi floating axle
ii. three quarter floating axle
iii.fully floating axle
4.17

Identify form diagrams the oil sealing arrangements used in axles

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AUTOMOTIVE HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module students should:
1.0

understand and explain the working principles of automotive hydraulics and its
applications on motor vehicles and industrial machines

2.0

understand and explain the working principles and applications of automotive


pneumatics.

Performance Objectives
1.0

Automotive Hydraulics

1.1

Describe the basic working principles of automotive hydraulics

1.2

With the aid of a sketch explain the layout of a hydraulic circuit

1.3

List and explain the functions of the main units in a hydraulic circuit pumps, valves,
cylinders, hydraulic accumulators, auxiliary drives, motors etc.

1.4

Describe the construction and operation of i. gear pumps


ii. gear motors
iii. vane pumps
iv. piston pumps and motors
v. electro hydraulic pumps and small units

1.5

Classify and explain gear, vane and piston pump efficiency

1.6

List and explain pump failures and remedies

1.7

Describe the construction and operation of hydraulic valves such as:


i. Directional control valves open center valves (OC)
load sensing valves (LS)
ii. Flow control valves-

46 | P a g e

throttle valves
flow pressure-compensated control valves
iii. Pressure control valves

pressure relief valve (directly controlled, pilot-operated pressure)


iv. Electric proportional directional control valves
direct solenoid actuation
electro hydraulic actuation
electronic control circuitry
1.8 List and explain valve failures and remedies
1.9

Describe the construction and operation of hydraulic cylinders.

single acting type


double acting type
1.10 Describe the variations on open and closed center systems
1.11 Describe the hydraulic systems for tractors

constant flow system / open center system


constant pressure system / closed center system
load compensating system with constant displacement pump / open
center load sensing

load compensating system with variable displacement pump / closed


center load sensing system
1.12 Compare the open and closed loop center systems
1.13 Describe rear hoisting control system

mechanical hoisting gear control

electronic hoisting gear control

hoisting gear control with hydraulic signal transmission

1.14 Describe the operation of directional - control valves for tractors


1.15 State the types and uses of hydraulic accumulators

weight loaded

pneumatic spring loaded

1.16 Describe the construction and operation of hydraulic accumulators


1.17 State and explain the need for filtration in the hydraulic system
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1.18 Describe the construction of the following:

1.19

reservoirs
oil coolers
hoses / pipes
tubes and couplers
filters
State and explain the properties of hydraulic fluid.

1.20

State and explain types of seals

1.21

Describe electro hydraulic devices employed as drive units, auxiliary drives in


numerous automotive applications.

1.22

hydrostatic fan drives


combined hydrostatic fan drive and power steering
electro hydraulic fan drive
Describe the layout and operation of hydrostatic drives and auxiliary drives
- Main drives
Open circuit hydrostatic drive system
Basic layout for closed circuit
- Auxiliary drives

2.0

Automotive pneumatics

2.1

Describe the operation of BUS doors

systems in urban buses


systems in touring coaches
door and hatch locking
2.2
Explain the general maintenance schedules of hydraulic system
State and explain the seven basic steps to diagnose and test the hydraulic system

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WORKSHOP ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION II


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module, students should
1.0

understand and explain workshop control procedures

2.0

appreciate costing in the motor vehicle repair shop

3.0

understand insurance and accident repair procedure

4.0

explain how to evaluate service equipment

Performance Objectives
1.0

Workshop Control

1.1

Describe a workshop progress and control system for a vehicle, from the time of its
arrival for repair at the reception to the point at which it is collected

1.2

Describe the role of the foreman / first line supervisor in a repair workshop

1.3

List the major problems which affect the achievement of production targets and describe
how these may be overcome.

1.4

Describe the scope, limitations and validity of a typical manufacturers warranty

1.5

Describe the procedures involved in dealing with a warranty claim

1.5.1

Identify the possible causes and the effects of failure to co-ordinate activities within and
between reception, servicing and parts department

1.6

Describe methods of dealing with customer service activities, complaints, delays and
countermeasures.

1.7

Outline the hazards associated with vehicle repair workshops and the precautions that
should be observed to avoid injury and ill health

1.8

Explain the appropriate methods of disposal of workshop waste.

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2.0

Costing

2.1

Identify the main elements in calculating retail labour rates

2.2

State the meaning of fixed and variable direct and indirect costs

2.3

Analyse a typical break-even chart for a service workshop

2.4

Outline the use and assess the limitations of manufacturers time schedules in
establishing labour cost

2.5

Describe the basic principles involved in accident and insurance costing

2.6

Describe how a customers invoice is produced for a specified repair job

2.7

Describe how vehicles must be valuated.

2.8

Describe Management of Credit Control for Credit customers and assessment of credit
worthiness of customers and calculation of credit limits.

3.0

Insurance and Accident Repair Procedure

3.1

Identify main areas of risk which in the course of business should be insured against

3.2

Define and explain the terms,

3.3
3.4

assurance and insurance


utmost good faith
policy excess, policy endorsement, policy restriction
satisfaction note (i.e. clearance note / completion note / collection note)
Describe the procedure to be followed prior to commencing insurance repair work
Prepare an estimate for a specified accident repair job

4.0

Service Equipment

4.1

Describe the principles involved in budgeting for the purchase of equipment

4.2

Explain the procedure for evaluating the relative merits of specialist equipment

4.3

Explain the procedure involved in the inspection and maintenance of equipment/tools.

4.4

Evaluate the merits of planned maintenance of specialized equipment

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4.5

Outline the procedures for periodically checking the condition of service tools used in the
workshop

4.6

Outline the equipment necessary to maintain an accident recovery and repair service

4.7

Describe Environmental Impact Assessment on Garage operations:

4.8

Waste disposal
Speed limits
Safety wear, etc.

Discuss the issuance of FTR to manufacturers of vehicles.

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MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE


General Objective
At the end of the module, students should
1.0

have knowledge in business economics

2.0

work out company finance and accounts.

3.0

have knowledge of budgeting and profit planning

4.0

have knowledge of sources of finance

5.0

have knowledge of business management

Performance Objectives
1.0

Business Economics

1.1

Describe the structure and capital requirement of sole traders, partnerships and limited
companies

1.2

Describe the financial flow cycle in terms of funds generation, capital and revenue
expenditure and profit maximization.

1.3

Explain the meanings of fixed costs, variable cost, revenue, contribution, marginal costs
and break-even point

1.4

Explain the purpose of company documents such as Memorandum of Association,


Articles of Association, and Company Prospectus.

2.0

Company Finance and Accounting

2.1

Explain the terms revenue expenditure, capital expenditure, capital employed, working
capital, fixed assets, current assets, debtors and creditors, capital / revenue reserve.

2.2

Describe the sources of company finance which should include banking facilities;
merchant banks finance corporations and private funds (Overdraft, loans, trade credit
short term/medium term etc)

2.3

Describe the various electronic systems of banking- ATM, Debit Card, E-banking etc.

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2.4

State the functions of Standing order payment, transfers, cheque guarantee cards, credit
and bankers draft.

2.5

Describe the functions of the Stock Exchange, discount and finance houses.

2.6

Explain the meaning of floating of shares and a dividend.

2. 7

List the main systems used in accounting

2.8

Describe double entry book-keeping system.

2.9

Compare and contrast the financial status of two companies from given data, for example
profit and loss accounts and balance sheets.

2.10

Calculate depreciation charges using straight line and reducing balance methods

3.0

Budgeting and Profit Planning

3.1

Explain budgetary control, forward planning and the establishment of revenue budgets,
together with capital investments planning and control, at all appropriate levels in an
organization

3.2

Explain the use of cash forecasts, both long and short-term and production of cash flow
statements

3.3

Describe how budgetary control is used to control expenditure

4.0

Costing and Finance

4.1

Describe cost compilation, cost methods and their application to transport organization
and commercial undertaking

4.2

Explain the theory of standard and marginal costing and knowledge on the basis for
integrating costs and financial accounts.

4.3

Describe and explain the use of costing in price fixing and in decision making, with
special reference to opportunity costs

4.4

Explain current practices in the various modes of transport and physical distribution

4.5

Explain sources of finance capital structure, financial institutions, the role of the new
issue market and government financing.

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4.6

Describe and explain alternative corporate fiancining methods including leasing, hiring
and other special arrangements.

4.7

Explain the principles of Corporate Tax together with investment incentives as well as
V.A.T

5.0

Business Management

5.1

List the main divisions of an office and explain the role and function of each division.

5.2

State the basic equipment required in a modern office (Computer, Fax, etc) and state the
benefits derived from their use.

5.3

Differentiate between wholesale and retail outlets.

5.4

Describe the price structure used in distribution.

5.5

Define cash and credit sale transactions, and installment trading.

5.6

Calculate discounts.

5.7

Assess the relative advantages of acquiring an item of capital equipment under the
following arrangements:
i.

hire purchase

ii.

Credit sale.

iii.

Leasing.

5.8
5.9

Describe a credit control system.


State the purpose and use of quotations, estimates, order form, advice note, invoice, debit
note, credit note, consignment note, delivery note.
5.10 Prepare a statement from a given data.
5.11 Define net pay and gross pay.
5.12 List and explain the possible items which may be included in the calculation of gross
pay.

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AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOP PRACTICE IV


GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of the module, students should be able
1.0

to demonstrate the skills of inspection, maintenance and repair of transmission systems.

2.0

to demonstrate the skills in handling diagnostic tools on the motor vehicle

Performance Objectives
1.0

Transmission system

1.1

Dismantle inspect and assemble clutch units, such as single plate multi coil spring and
diaphragm spring clutch.

1.2

Adjust clutch pedal free play

1.3

Dismantling and assembling of a double stage gearbox

1.4

Dismantling and assembling of a single stage gearbox (trans-axle)

1.5

Examine synchromesh units of a gearbox

1.6

Dismantling, assembling and testing an Automatic gearbox unit

1.7

Dismantling, assembling and testing continuously variable transmission

1.8

Dismantling, examination and assembly of a complete propeller shaft with universal and
sliding joints

1.9

Dismantling, examination and assembly of a conventional rear axle

1.10

Examine final drive and check pinion preload and meshing (tooth contact)

1.11

Dismantling, examining and re-assembly of a two speed axle.

1.12

Report on work done.

3.0

Diagnostic Tools

3.1

Demonstrate the use of scanners such as CONSULT 11, MUT 11, Intelligent Tester in
assessing Engine and vehicle systems

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3.2

Demonstrate the extraction of fault codes using diagnostic connectors

3.3

Report on work done.

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PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the of the module, students should
1.0

know about organizational structure, responsibilities and roles

2.0

describe the purpose and main functions of personnel management

3.0

realize the need for effective communication in industry

Performance Objectives:
1.0

Organization Structure

1.1

State the main objectives of a business organization

1.2

Describe how organizations seek to achieve their objectives by the processes of division
of labour, delegation and the allocation of tasks

1.3

Show organizational structures and relationships in various diagrammatic forms and


assess the uses and limitations of such forms

1.4

State the advantages and disadvantages of organization charts.

1.5

State the objectives of the main functional areas

1.6

Analyse the relationships between principal functional areas in terms of authority,


responsibility, delegation, and communications.

1.7

Identify the problems that arise from conflict between objectives of functional areas .

1.8

Identify the conflicts that arise in interpersonal relationships when roles and
responsibilities are inadequately defined

1.9

Describe possible results of failure to co-ordinate activities within and between


departments.

1.10

State how the management of the organization is affected by internal changes, including
changes in technology and marketing policy

1.11

Describe the term centralization and decentralization in terms of the control and decision
making in an organization.

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1.12

Outline management techniques, which aid,


i. decision making
ii. Problem solving

2.0

Personnel Control

2.1

Describe the purpose and main functions of personnel management

2.2

Establish the relationship between the organizations manpower strategy and its
organizational objectives

2.3

Analyze a typical current manpower position by reference to such factors as the


distribution of skills and experience. Establish the effectiveness of manpower utilization.

2.4

Describe the techniques of forecasting manpower demand and supply based on


projections of labour wastage, organizational plans, labour supply and sources of
recruitment.

2.5

Establish major costs of recruitment and assess the cost effectiveness of methods and
media used.

2.6

Outline the selection process including job analysis, the use of application forms and
selection testing.

2.7

Explain the principles of the selection interview, its place in the complete selection
process and its shortcomings.

2.8

Identify the methods of validating selection by follow-up, labour turnover statistics, and
exit interviews.

2.9

Explain the term labour turnover.

2.10

Explain the main principles, purposes and methods of performance appraisal and training

2.11

Explain the terms training and development.

2.12

Outline the relevance of training in an organization.

2.13

List and describe various motivational theories: Maslows Hierarchy of needs, Elton
Mayos and Theory X and Theory Y.

2.14

Explain job satisfaction and its relevance in the achievement of organizational goals.

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2.15

Explain the relationship between job satisfaction and labour turnover.

2.16

Describe the principles on which a pay structure is based

2.17

Describe the effects on employee performance of working conditions, with particular


reference to fatigue and accidents.

2.18

Identify the effect of perception, motivation and individual differences on employee


behavior

2.19

Describe the effects of work groups and different styles of leadership

2.20

Describe how employee conflicts can be resolved by appropriate grievance and


disciplinary procedures.

3.0

Communication

3.1

State the need for effective communications within an organization

3.2

State and explain the basic elements involved in communication.

3.3

Compare and contrast oral and written methods of communication

3.4

Identify the various interviewing skills required by a manager

3.5

Display facility in correspondence and report writing to show the ability to adapt to
various circumstances

3.6

Explain the rules and procedure for conducting a meeting.

3.7

Show the effects of change on organizational structure, management functions and


employee behavior

3.8

Describe how managers may handle change in order to minimize its possible ill effects

3.9

Explain how employee participation may improve morale and increase the efficiency of
an organization.

3.10

Explain the relevance of health and safety in the work environment.

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