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SYNTAX - FINAL EXAM

1. Discuss some morphological and syntactic characteristics of adverbs (e.g. what they mean, what
forms they take, what functions they can perform)
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
2. List 2 tests to establish that in the evening in We met him in the evening is a phrasal constituent.
a. ______________________________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________________________
3. The sentence We decided on a train is ambiguous a) they decided to go by train; b) they decided to do
something while they were on a train. Explain the difference between the two interpretations in terms
of syntactic relations (the function of on a train)
4. Identify the category of the following phrases. First underline the head
my sister who lives in the States straight across the square
often met him with Lucy Pats boyfriend from the South
extremely cold and wet may want to come with us
5. List two functions that adjective phrases can have in the sentence and exemplify.
a ) subject complement
b) object complement
6. Give an example of a PP, a) with a NP complement; b) with a clausal (-ing) complement:
7. Establish the sub-type of the verb, underline the complements and state their function, e.g. Tom is a
proud man. Intensive copula verb; Subject predicative/complement
- He is growing a beard.
- She is growing old.
- You shouldnt rely on his help.
- I find him very interesting.
- He donated the books to the school.
8. a) Which are the optional constituents in VP? b) Why are they optional?

c) What categories can they be represented by? d) Give an example.


9. Live two examples of coordinate phrases:
10. Analyze the following sentences into basic phrasal constituents, putting them in square brackets:
e.g. [Mary] [cleans] [her room] [every week].
function: (subject) (predicate) (direct object) (adjunct adverbial)
category: NP [N] [Verb trans] NP NP
a) Last month the board nominated her the athlete of the year.
Function: __________________________________________________________________
Category: __________________________________________________________________
b) My neighbor has been feeding the cat smoked salmon since January.
Function: __________________________________________________________________
Catogory: __________________________________________________________________
11. Way is the sentence *I am having a car wrong? Explain:
12. In which sentences does wh-movement occur? From which position to which? (Give an example with
indicated movement)
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13. Analyze this NP in its constituent parts [put in brackets, and then write below each constituent both
his incredibly interesting interviews of celebrities he has met
a) function ______________________________________________________________
b) category ______________________________________________________________
c) What is he has met? ______ ______________________________________________
14. Analyze the VPs: a) should have been writing b) should be written _______ ______ ______ ______
_____ ______ ______
15. What is the difference between modal and lexical verbs?
16. Provide the argument structure, semantic roles of its arguments and the complementation patters
of:
declare _________________________________________________________________

borrow _________________________________________________________________
weep ___________________________________________________________________
insist ___________________________________________________________________
repair __________________________________________________________________
17. What is the difference between subordination and coordination? Exemplify.
18. The sentence: It was this book that you stole from me is an example of ______________
Explain why _____________________________________________________________
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19. How can a to-clause be used in a sentence? Give examples.
20. What is extraposition? Give examples.
21. Explain a) the type and b) the function of the underlined embedded clauses. As shown
e.g. They didnt know what to do. a) Infinitive clause. b) Complement of the verb in VP The idea to travel
on foot was hers.
It was certain that the flight was cancelled.
Having informed me about the accident, she left.
Alan asked me whether I would join him.
22. What is the function of a disjunct? Give an example.
23. Analyze the following sentences: type of sentence, underline the main clause, put brackets [] to
indicate the subordinate clause(s) and determine their form and function
a) Raising his voice, the chairman proposed a new plan and everybody agreed.
Form: _____________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: ______________________________________________________________________
b) For Alice, who was not present at the meeting, to get the blame would be unfair.
Form: _____________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: _____________________________________________________________________

c) Evidently, that she broke up with her boyfriend is common knowledge.


Form: _____________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: ______________________________________________________________________
d) I would advise John to go if I see him.
Form: _____________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: ______________________________________________________________________
e) Martha inquired if I had seen the exhibition before it closed
Form: _____________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: ______________________________________________________________________
f) The man who was sitting in the armchair got up when I entered the room.
Form:______________________________________________________________________
Function: ___________________________________________________________________
Type: ______________________________________________________________________
24. OPTIONAL
Draw a tree diagram of the last sentence indicating the subordinate clauses with triangles.