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Cell Division

a process where new cells originate from other living cells


a way cells reproduce
why do cells divide
1. growth (result of mitosis)
- make more cells therefore high specialization
2. repair (result of mitosis)
- repair broken/damaged cells/tissues
3. reproduction (result of mitosis & meisosis)
in eukaryotic cells, 2 types:
o MITOSIS
- Producing cells that are genetically identical to their parent
- Produce stomatic cells (Asexual reproduction)
- Amount of daughter cells 2 in the form of 2n (diploid cell that has complete
sets of chromosome)
o MEISOSIS
- producing cells that is not genetically identical to their parent due to genetic
recombination
- produce gamete cells (Sexual reproduction)
- amount of daughter cells 4 in the form of n (haploid cell that has
chromosome with of diploid)
cell cycle

o Duration can range in length from 30 min until months


o cell stop dividing or in arrested state
- indicate time when DNA synthesis is initiate
- a growth promoting is signal is needed for cell to reenter the cycle
o M-phase
- Process of MITOSIS duplicated chromosomes are separated into 2 nuclei
- Process of CYTOKINESIS entire cell (cytoplasm) divides into 2 daugther cells
- Short period of time
o INTERPHASE
- Preparation of upcoming mitosis & replication of DNA
- Time when cell grows & engage in metabolic process (i.e. gene expression &
metabolism) which later stops during m-phase & cytokinesis
- Longer period of time
- Occupy 90% of cell cycle
3 Categories of Cell

Highly
specialized cell

lack ability to
divide
EX: nerve,
muslce, red
blood cell
divide when
apporpiate condition
is present

Categories of
Cell

normally did
not divide

high level of
mitotic activity

M-PHASE
o 2 stages
- Meiosis or Mitosis
- Cytokinesis
o MITOSIS

EX: liver cell

induced to poliferate
by surgical (removal of
part of liver)

EX:
lymphocytes

induced to poliferate by
appropiate antigen

EX: stem cell, developing cell,


embryonal

Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase

Stages of Mitosis

Anaphase
Telophase
1. Prophase
- Formation of spindle fibre
- Fragmentation of golgi body,
endoplasmic reticulum,
cytoskeleton, nuclear envelope
- Chromosomal material condense
into compact mitotic chromosome
and move to opposite sites while
organizing spindle

2. Prometaphase
- Chromosomal microtubules attach
to kinetochores of chromosome
- Chromosome moved to spindle
equator and assemble there

3. Metaphase
- Chromosome align at the
metaphase plate ready to be
segregated

4. Anaphase
- Centromere split
- Chromatid separate
- Chromosome move to opposite
spindle poles
- Spindle poles move farther apart

5. Telophase
- Chromosome cluster at opposite
spindle poles
- Chromosome become dispersed
- Nuclear envelope assembles around
chromosome cluster
- Golgi complex and endoplasmic
reticulum reforms

o CYTOKINESIS
Cell separate into 2 daughter cells
Animal cell
Form cleavage furrow (made up contractile ring of microfilament)
that pinch the cell until it divides into 2
Plant cell
Making partition (cell plate) between 2 daughter cell

o MEIOSIS (2 STAGES)

Interphase
synapsis (homologous chromosome pairing) forming
tetrad/bivalent
Prophase 1

Meiosis
1

Metaphase

crossing over in chiasma (pl. chiasmata)


tetrad line up at metaphase plate
separation of homologous pair of chromosome

Anaphase 1
disolution of chiasmata that hold bivalent together
Telophase 1
Cytokinesis

chromosome enclosed by nuclear envelope


create 2n cells (diploid)containing 1 member of each
homologous
nuclear envelope is broken down again

Prophase 2
chromosome is recompacted
Meiosis
2

Metaphase 2

Anaphase 2
Telophase 2

Cytokinesis

chromosome align at metaphase plate


chromosome separate
chromosome enclosed by nuclear envelope

create n cells (haploid)containing 1 chromosome of each


homolgous pair

o Why genetic recombination


Meiosis need to reduce chromosome number as it is required by sezual
reproduction
Introduce variability by independent assortment
Allow mixing of paternal and maternal allele

Control of Cell Cycle


o Why it is important
- Shows important information in cell biology & practical implication in
combating cancer

- Cancer cell no checkpoint or malfunction checkpoint as a result the DNA


that are replicated too much, cell contain wrong content with wrong
function, unregulated cell division
Kinase

Protein Kinase

Control of the
cell cycle

Checkpoints

Cyclin as regulatory
protein
brakes & accelerator

1. ROLE OF PROTEIN KINASE


Entry of a cell to M-phase is initiated by protein called Maturation
Promoting Factor (MPF) which is an enzyme
2 Subunit
1) Kinase
Transfer phosphate group from ATP to specific serine &
threonine residues of specific protein substrate
2) Regulatory Subunit Cyclin
Concentration rise & fall in predictable pattern in each cycle
Concentration of cyclin decrease kinase inactive
Concentration of cyciln increase kinase active mitosis

MPF-like enzyme cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk)


Cdk are key agent that orchestrate activities
throughout cell cycle
Progression through the cell cycle is regulated at
distinct states

Brakes & accelerator


They are engine that regulated the Cdks (cyclin dependent kinase)
through its various stages
5 kinds:
1) Cyclin Binding
- Allow CdK to phosphorylate is protein substrate
2) Cdk Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation
- Step 1: Cak (cyclin activating kinase) phosphorylate a critical
residue, Thr161
- Step 2: Wee 1 which keep Cdk inactive until G2 end,
phosphorylate key residue, Tyr 15 in the ATP binding pocket
of the enzyme
- Step 3: cdc 25, remove inhibitory phosphate at Tyr 15
therefore activated cyclin-cdk complex which allow it to
phosphorylate key substrate to drive the cell into mitosis

3) Cdk inhibitor
- The blocking of Cdk activity
4) Controlled proteolysis
- Regulation of cell cycle b controlling concentration of cyclin
& other key cell cycle protein
- Regulation of cell cycle by adjusting rate of synthesis &
destruction of Cak (cyclin activating kinase) on different
point at cell cycle
- Require classes of multi-subunit complex ligand called
ubiquitin
Ubiquitin recognize and bind the protein that want
to be degraded to polyubiquitin chain thereby
ensuring their destruction by proteasome
5) Subcellular localization
- Dynamic process where cell cycle regulator moved into
different compartment where regulatory molecules can be
united or separated from the protein they interact with at
different stages
Activation of Cyclin-Cdk complex which led to the phosphorylation of other
key substrate is needed through the cell cycle
Mammalian cell produce different Cyclin-Cdk complex at different pints to
inhibit inappropriate event that may happen
Cyclin-Cdk complex pairing is specific
In the cell cycle the absence of one cyclin from a certain stage of the cell
cycle may cause cell abnormality

2. CHECKPOINT
Are surveillance mechanism that halt the progress of cell cycle if any
chromosomal DNA is damaged or when processes (EX: DNA replication,
chromosome alignment) have not been properly completed
Functions:

Ensure each event that make up cell cycle occurs accurately and in
proper order
Act when abnormality in cell appears
Activated throughout the cell cycle by system sensor hat recognize DNA
damage/cellular abnormalities
If the damage is beyond repair cell will send 2 signal
1. Death of the cell
2. Conversion into a permanent cell arrest state (senescence)
HOW SENSOR WORKS
1. Sensor detect the presence of defect
2. Trigger response that arrest further cell cycle to progress
temporary
3. Use the delay during the arrest to repair the damage/correct
defect rather than continuing as if the cell still run its cycle
with damage it has risk to be a cancer cell