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Condition Based Maintenance

Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT

Definisi dan Tujuan CBM


Perawatan
Berbasis
Kondisi
(Condition
Based
Maintenance, CBM) adalah seperangkat tindakan
perawatan berdasarkan real-time atau penilaian waktu
terdekat-sebenarnya dari kondisi peralatan yang dapat
diperoleh melalui sensor tertanam dan / atau tes eksternal
& pengukuran yang dilakukan dengan alat portabel.
Tujuan dari strategi CBM adalah untuk menjalankan
perawatan hanya jika terdapat bukti obyektif dari
kebutuhan, sambil memastikan keamanan, keandalan
peralatan dan pengurangan biaya total kepemilikan.

What is CBM?
Proses condition based maintenance (CBM) memerlukan
teknologi,
keterampilan,
dan
komunikasi
untuk
mengintegrasikan semua kondisi data peralatan yang
tersedia, seperti: data diagnostik dan kinerja; sejarah
pemeliharaan; log operator, dan data desain, untuk
membuat keputusan yang tepat waktu tentang persyaratan
pemeliharaan utama/peralatan penting.
Metodologi baru ini telah dikembangkan bertahun-tahun,
yang sebenarnya, telah berkembang dari metode
pemeliharaan terdahulu selama tiga dekade terakhir.

CBM Phillosophies
CBM menganggap bahwa semua peralatan akan
menurun kondisinya dan bahwa akan terjadi hilangnya
sebagian atau seluruh fungsi
CBM monitors the condition or performance of plant
equipment through various technologies
The data is collected, analyzed, trended, and used to
project equipment failures
Once the timing of equipment failure is known, action
can be taken to prevent or delay failure
Condition based maintenance uses various process
parameters (e.g. pressure, temperature, vibration, flow)
and material samples (e.g. oil and air) to monitor
conditions

CBM Goals
Tujuan dari perawatan berbasis kondisi adalah untuk mengoptimalkan
keandalan dan ketersediaan dengan menentukan kebutuhan untuk
kegiatan pemeliharaan berdasarkan kondisi peralatan. Menggunakan
"teknik prediksi", teknologi, pemantauan kondisi, dan pengamatan
dapat digunakan untuk memproyeksikan ke depan dalam upaya untuk
menetapkan waktu yang paling mungkin dari kegagalan dan tindakan
ini untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pabrik untuk merencanakan dan
bertindak secara proaktif.
PDM / CBM mengasumsikan bahwa peralatan memiliki indikator yang
dapat dipantau dan dianalisis untuk menentukan kebutuhan kondisi
diarahkan kegiatan pemeliharaan. Pemeliharaan berbasis kondisi
memungkinkan biaya terendah dan program pemeliharaan yang paling
efektif dengan menentukan aktivitas yang benar pada waktu yang
tepat.

CBM Benefits
To reduce or eliminate unnecessary repairs, prevent
catastrophic machine failures and reduce the negative
impact of the maintenance operation on the profitability
of manufacturing and production plants
Condition based maintenance has the ability to reduce
the actual time required to repair or rebuild plant
equipment (MTTR)
A condition-based predictive maintenance program
prevents serious damage to machinery and other plant
systems (MTBF)
Provides the means to verify the purchased condition of
new equipment or offsite rebuilt before acceptance
Predictive data can provide the information required to
plan the specific repairs and other activities during the
outage

CBM Advantages
A principal advantage of CBM is the capability it
offers the user to perform inspections while the
equipment is operating.
Although the technical knowledge required for
CBM inspections is usually higher than those for
PM, the inspection time required per asset is much
less.
When comparing cost advantages of CBM over
PM, consider customer downtime costs,
maintenance labor costs, maintenance materials
costs, and the cost of holding spare parts in
inventory.

CBM Objectives
Improve availability
i. Reduced forced outages
ii. Improve reliability
Enhance Equipment Life
i. Reduce wear from frequent rebuilding
ii. Minimize potential for problems in disassembly and
reassembly
iii. Detect problems as they occur
Save Maintenance Costs
i. Reduced repair costs
ii. Reduced overtime
iii. Reduced parts inventory requirements

CBM Targets
Kondisi Berbasis Perawatan bukanlah pengganti metode manajemen
pemeliharaan yang lebih tradisional. bagaimanapun, Hal ini, jadi
tambahan yang berharga untuk keseluruhan program pemeliharaan
pabrik yang komprehensif.
Dimana program manajemen pemeliharaan tradisional mengandalkan
servis rutin semua mesin dan respon yang cepat terhadap kegagalan
tak terduga, kondisi berdasarkan jadwal program tugas pemeliharaan
khusus yang benar-benar dibutuhkan oleh peralatan pabrik.
CBM tidak bisa menghilangkan keseluruhan kebutuhan program
pemeliharaan tradisional, yaitu mendekati-kegagalan dan preventif,
pemeliharaan prediktif dapat mengurangi jumlah kegagalan tak terduga
dan menyediakan alat penjadwalan yang lebih dapat diandalkan untuk
tugas-tugas pemeliharaan preventif rutin.

Maintenance Strategies

TDM versus CDM


Time-directed maintenance (TDM)
Attempts to avoid failures by retiring, replacing or
overhauling components at a specific age (TBO)
Condition-directed maintenance (CDM)
Attempts to avoid failures by monitoring
component condition to detect potential failures
before they become functional failures
CDM is always more efficient than TDM
TDM should be used only when CDM is infeasible

When to Use CBM


Consider the variety of problems (defects) that develop in
your equipment.
Use the predictive method if a predictive tool is adequate
for detecting the variety of maintenance problems you
normally experience. One or a combination of several
CBM methods may be required.
Use PM if it is apparent that CBM tools do not adequately
apply. Inspection tasks must be developed that reveal the
defects not adequately covered by preventive
maintenance.
After you have decided the combination of inspection
methods, determine the frequency at which the particular
inspection tasks must be applied.

Decisions Tree

CBM Demands
Real-time application
High reliability
At early stage, alert when fault is impending, so that
maintenance can be planned when asset is not being
used
Identification of the fault and tell where the fault is
located
Classify faults in different categories, when a fatal fault
occurs automated shut down should be a possibility
The alerts should be easy to understand
The system should be connected to a superior computer

The CM data collected is used in one of the following ways to


determine the condition of the equipment and to identify the
precursors of failure:
Trend Analysis. Reviewing data to see if a machine is on an
obvious and immediate downward slide toward failure. For
trending purposes, a minimum of three monitoring points before
failure may reasonably be expected are recommended. Three data
points allow one to determine whether equipment condition
depreciates linearly.
Pattern Recognition. Looking at the data and realizing the causal
relationship between certain events and machine failure. For
example, noticing that after machine x is used in a certain
production run, component ax fails due to stresses unique to that
run.
Tests against Limits and Ranges. Setting alarm limits (based on
professional intuition) and seeing if they are exceeded.
Statistical Process Analysis. If published failure data on a certain
machine/component exists, comparing failure data collected on site
with the published data to verify/disprove ,use that published data.

CBM Implementation Process


Conditions necessary for a successful implementation process are typically
ones of culture change and change management. They require substantial
efforts by all site personnel and management.
Commitment - The staff must have commitment to the process and its
new technologies as well as their use. Staff has to trust the training and the
technology. Management must have the commitment to procure adequate
equipment and training for the Staff.
Participation - All groups must participate in the program. The
organizations support for condition based maintenance must be 100% to
achieve success. Management has to reinforce this expectation.
Holistic approach - It applies to all systems throughout the plant. No
exceptions.
Sustainability - The program, its staff, its equipment has to be maintained
through time to ensure the long term benefits of the process. As people
move into and out of organizations, the needed resources must be
available. This includes the management support and attitude to trust and
maintain it.

CBM Implementation Process

CBM Implementation Process

CBM Implementation Process

CBM Implementation Process

CBM Technologies

Condition Monitoring Technologies

Vibration Analysis
Today, electronic instrumentation is available that goes far
beyond the human limitations with which the old time
craftsperson had to contend when trying to interpret
vibration signals with a screwdriver-handle-to-the-ear
method. Todays instruments can detect with accuracy and
repeatability, extremely low amplitude vibration signals.
They can assign a numerical dimension to the amplitude of
vibration and can isolate the frequency at which the
vibration is occurring. When measurements of both
amplitude and frequency are available, diagnostic methods
can be used to determine the magnitude of a problem and
its probable cause.

Vibration Analysis

Early detection of
mechanical fatigue and
breakdown

Vibration Analysis

Vibration Analysis
issues that can be
found EARLY!

Vibration Analysis

Sample Platforms

Vibration Analysis
Vibration Analysis will
find defects

Avoiding disassembly and


averting unplanned
downtime

Vibration Analysis

Vibration Analysis
When you use electronic instruments in organized and
methodical programs of vibration analysis you are able to:
Detect asset problems long before the onslaught of
failure
Isolate conditions causing accelerated wear
Make conclusions concerning the nature of defects
causing asset problems
Execute advance planning and scheduling of corrective
repair so that catastrophic failure may be avoided
Execute repair at a time which has minimum impact on
operations

Thermography
Infrared thermography has grown by leaps and bounds in
the past 10 years. Equipment is easier than ever to use
and more effective. The real power of thermography is that
it allows quick location and monitoring of problems. It
presents critical decision-making information in visual form
making it easy for management to understand. Infrared
imaging systems, as they are generally called, produce a
picture, either black or white or color, of the invisible
thermal patterns of a component or process. These thermal
patterns, when understood, can be used to monitor actual
operating conditions of equipment or processes.

Thermography
A widely used tool in all facets of industry to measure anywhere a fault can be
predicted by a temperature differential.

Non-destructive tool in the analysis and evaluation of electrical distribution


equipment.

Reference point of equipment temperature under normal operating conditions.

Thermography
Using infrared thermography. Thermography can be
used to quickly locate equipment and process problems
and in preventing the recurrence of the following problems:
Catastrophic electrical failures
Unscheduled electrical outages or shutdowns
Chronic electrical problems in a piece of equipment or
process
Excessive steam usage
Frozen or plugged product transport lines
An inability to predict failures accurately
Inefficient use of downtime maintenance opportunities

Thermography
Friction failures in rotating equipment

Poor product quality due to uneven hearing or cooling or


moisture content
A fire in a wall or enclosed space
Inability to locate or verify a level in a tank
Replacement of refractory in a boiler, furnace, or kiln
A leaking flat roof

Uneven room temperatures affecting product quality or


employee productivity
Trouble locating underground water, steam, or sewer
lines

Thermography
What can Thermography find?

What you see

What thermography sees

Overheating electrical connection indicates a serious fire hazard.

Thermography

Indication of bearing overheating, will eventually cause failure

Thermography
Can you afford not to have a
Thermography Survey?

Fire damaged electrical system

Cruise Ship Fire Damage

Oil Analysis
The spectrometric oil analysis process is a laboratory technique which
uses various instruments to analyze a used oil sample from a machine.
A spectrometer is used to show when a significant wear mode is
underway. Some varieties of these instruments can isolate up to
perhaps 80 different types of metals in a sample. The spectrometric
result is compared to a baseline level of metal found to be typically
suspended in the oil under normal operating conditions. An important
feature of the spectroscopic method is that it not only determines the
amount of metal in the sample but also the type. The analysis not only
permits the discovery of severe wear, but also analysis of the possible
location of severe wear in a machine. With this information you can
take timely action to prevent further deterioration, either by oil
purification, oil replacement, or some other means appropriate to the
problem.

Oil Analysis
Oil Analysis is a non-destructive test used to assess the condition of lubricants and
determine the type and amount of contamination present.

Criticality of lubrication to most industrial equipment, oil analysis trending over time is
one of the most powerful predictive tools for identifying potential failures.

3 basic categories of elements affecting the lubrication effectiveness: wear metals,


contaminants, and additives.

Oil Analysis
In addition to the spectrometric analysis, the oil laboratories
also check the oil using common oil analysis techniques.
For example, the oil is usually checked for viscosity. If the
viscosity of the oil has changed 5 percent from new oil of
the same type, it is probably time for an oil change due to
contamination. Typical of these types of analysis are total
acid number, percent moisture, particle count (for hydraulic
systems), total solids, and percent silicon (representing dirt
from the atmosphere in the form of silicon dioxide or
perhaps just from an additive). With prior agreement,
special tests are performed at additional cost.

Oil Analysis
Benefits

Improve oil sampling methods


with emerging technologies
Improve machine condition and
reliability with oil analysis
Increase the remaining useful life
of your lubricant
Reduce maintenance costs
associated with unplanned
downtime

Oil Analysis
Consequences

Oil Analysis
Early detection with oil analysis can allow
for corrective action such as repairing an
air intake leak before major damage
occurs.

One of the major advantages of an oil analysis


program is being able to anticipate problems and
schedule repair work to avoid downtime during a
critical time of use.

Oil Analysis
The relatively low costs of spectrometric oil analysis make it a
very valuable and commonly used CBM method. It is practical
for asset systems and subsystems that have a reasonable
inventory of oil and are provided with reuse methods of oil
application such as circulating, bath, splash, flood, and ringoiling designs. In addition to providing advance warning when
severe wear occurs, spectrometric oil analysis can give
important assistance in machine lubrication programs.
Conventional oil change frequencies are arrived at according to
the traditional PM approach based upon time, hours, or miles
operated. A best estimate (or guess) is made of the time or
calendar period over which the oil in the system will degenerate
and require changing under current operating conditions.
Spectrometric oil analysis enables you to change oil only when
the actual condition of the oil requires.

Condition Monitoring Standard

Challenges in Implementing CBM

Accurate and Full Utilization of Data


Variable Operating Patterns
Complexities of Real-life Systems
Documentation
Customer Specific User Profiles

Opportunities in Implementing CBM


Establish Root Causes of Failures and the
Consequences
Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Systems in the
Field

CBM Reporting
Action Report Containing:
- Asset ID, Date, Current Alarm Status, Fault, Action,
Priority
Missed Measurement Report listing:
- Asset ID, Date and reason measurements missed
Typical Action/Advisory Priorities:-

Typical Action Report

CBM Assessment

CBM Design

Framework for CBM Design


Condition Based
Maintenance
Design

Selection of a Unit
to monitor

Selection of the
Condition
Indicator(s)

Selecting a
Prognostic
Modeling approach

Determination of
the Maintenance
Policy

Selection of a Unit to monitor - this selection process should be based on the potential
benefits of a CBM program for a specific unit, and the impact of the failure modes of this
unit on the overall condition of a system.
Selection of the Condition Indicator(s) - to obtain insights into the relation between the
failure mode(s) of a specific unit and the related deterioration parameter(s).
Selecting a Prognostic Modeling approach - these models are divided into Knowledge
based models, life expectancy models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, and
physical models.
Determination of the Maintenance Policy - determination of the maintenance policy, the
overall CBM program for the specific unit can be evaluated on profitability.

Framework for CBM Design


Condition Based
Maintenance
Design

Selection of a Unit
to monitor

Selection of the
Condition
Indicator(s)

Selecting a
Prognostic
Modeling approach

Determination of
the Maintenance
Policy

As the asset base of a company can be large and systems


complex, criteria need to be formulated such that precious
resources, time and money are spent on the most important
assets of a company. Over different assets, the impact of a CBM
program on the operational and technical costs can depend on
numerous factors.

Selection of a Unit to monitor


System Decomposition
Decomposition of the system into lower level units (i.e.
components, items) for which the failure modes and interactions
are comprehensible is key at the start of a CBM program. By gaining
insights into these failure modes of the specific units, gradually, an
overall condition parameter for the system can be developed.
Depending on the level of knowledge of these failure modes,
analysis on the item, component, or system level is possible. For
example, the wheels of a car can be considered as a unit, but also
the entire steering mechanism (i.e. all components enabling the
function of steering) can be considered to be the unit for analysis.
Depending on the way of defining the unit, different failure modes
will have different effects on the unit and will have different causes
depending on the level of decomposition.

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Criteria Analysis
As the field of maintenance
management is concerned with
production, finance and quality
within
organizations,
multiple
criteria can be involved in
maintenance
decision
making.
Maintenance personnel can consider
the unit with the highest frequency
of failures to be the most critical unit
while employees of the production
department can consider the unit
with the longest downtime to be the
most critical one.
Also, from a financial point of view, the spare parts consumption
can be considered to be a criteria for defining the criticality of a
unit.

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Support Tools
Different MCDA methods exist depending on the decision
making situation, and the information available. This also
includes different techniques for determining the criteria
weights. The overall structural elements of a MCDA are
criteria to compare different alternatives with, alternatives to
decide upon, stakeholders and decision makers involved in the
process, uncertainty in the decision making process which can
be caused by external factors or a lack of knowledge on
parameter influences, and the environment (i.e. time and
place) at which the decision is made

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Determining the Critical Failure Modes
Some commonly used tools in the field of Root Cause
Analysis (RCA) are:i. FMEA - supports the process of selecting the most
critical failure modes of a specific unit by evaluating
the consequential damage related to it.
ii. Pareto Analysis - aims at selecting the actions that
have the biggest impact on the overall result.
iii. Ishikawa Diagram - by providing the relationships
between variables of influence on a specific event,
these diagrams can give insights into specific process
behavior.

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Determining the Critical Failure Modes
FMEA

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Determining the Critical Failure Modes
Pareto Analysis

Bearing Failures Study

Selection of a Unit to monitor


Determining the Critical Failure Modes
Ishikawa Diagram

Framework for CBM Design


Condition Based
Maintenance
Design

Selection of a Unit
to monitor

Selection of the
Condition
Indicator(s)

Selecting a
Prognostic
Modeling approach

Determination of
the Maintenance
Policy

After discussing the selection of a unit to monitor, it is important


to obtain insights into (1) the failure modes of the specific unit
and relating these failure modes to a single or multiple
deterioration parameters, (2) gather data on the deterioration
parameters, (3) gain insights into the deterioration process of a
specific parameter, and (4) define a failure threshold level to
specify at what condition level the unit is considered to be unable
to perform according to functional specifications (i.e. the unit is
considered to be in the failed condition).

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Relation Between Monitored Parameter and Deterioration
In order to make an accurate prediction of the deterioration condition
of a system, selection of correlated quantitative variables to the
deterioration is key. Insights into the failure modes and possible effects
of the system is crucial in this parameter selection process. Also, the
failure dependencies can play an important role in the parameter
selection process. While some deterioration parameters correlate to a
single failure mode, some failure modes will need multiple
deterioration measures to provide an accurate indication of the
deterioration condition. It should be noted that a situation might arise
in which a deterioration parameter cannot be determined, the
deterioration parameter cannot be measured, or where it is too costly
to measure the deterioration parameter. Hence, an imminent mode of
failure cannot be predicted. In these cases, implementation of a CBM
program might not be efficient, depending on how critical this
parameter is with respect to predicting a system failure.

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Data Acquisition
The necessary data collected can be categorized in two types; event data
and condition monitoring data. The event data consists of information
extracted from information systems (e.g. CMMS, MIS). The collection of
event data done by manual data entry into the information system could
result in the erroneous entry of data in the system because of the
involvement of human input. The condition monitoring data can fall into
three types of different data categories
- Value type data is collected data that is registered as a single value
variable. Examples can be oil particles analysis data, temperature,
pressure and humidity data.
- Waveform type data is data collected as a time series, which is referred
to as a waveform. Examples of these type of data are vibration data and
acoustic data.
- Multidimensional type data is data that is of a multidimensional
character. Most of the time this is some sort of image data like infrared
thermographs, X-ray images or visual images.

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Trend Evaluation
For the purpose of predictability, the trend
characteristics of the deterioration signal are key.
Knowledge on the deterioration behavior over time
should be obtained. Depending on this behavior, it
is determined what the best model fit for the
specific unit is. This can for example be a linear or
exponential model. Most important is to observe a
specific pattern over time. Often, a phase of normal
operation can be defined in the early lifetime of the
unit.

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Trend Evaluation
The Potential Failure Failure (P-F) Interval

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Trend Evaluation
Lifetime Characteristics

Selection of the Condition Indicator(s)


Determining a Threshold Level
Depicts the condition level of the item at which a
functional failure is likely to occur. This can happen
because of actual failure of the unit, or because the unit
fails to meet a functional requirement as specified by the
customer or company. Relevant information can be
acquired from (1) historical data, (2) from expert opinion,
or in case no data is available for determining the
threshold level, (3) a tentative threshold level can be
selected in order to gain more insights and obtain more
experience with the deterioration of the unit.

Framework for CBM Design


Condition Based
Maintenance
Design

Selection of a Unit
to monitor

Selection of the
Condition
Indicator(s)

Selecting a
Prognostic
Modeling approach

Determination of
the Maintenance
Policy

As the condition parameters defined and deterioration data are gathered,


the selection of the prognostic model is considered to be not
straightforward within companies as this requires both knowledge on how
the model should be used and understanding of the mathematical
background of the model. This chapter provides an overview into the
different models available for the purpose of prognostic modeling and the
relevant selection criteria. As depicted in figure 13, the area of prognostic
models can be generally divided into; (1) knowledge based models, (2) life
expectancy models, (3) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, and (4)
physical models.

Selecting a Prognostic Modeling approach


Knowledge Based Models
Within the knowledge-based models, the RUL is determined
using historical data. These events are compared to a database
of failure events based on historical data and expert knowledge.
The knowledge-based models can be divided into a class of:Fixed Rule Systems
The knowledge from experts is gathered and used to define rules
within a software program. This can be done by formulating ifthen statements for specific problem situations.
Fuzzy Systems
Use simple if-then rules based on empirical data to solve
problems. However, the rules are defined based on specific
conditions. (e.g. if(friction is high) and (temperature builds
quickly) then (cool down))

Selecting a Prognostic Modeling approach


Life Expectancy Models
The life expectancy models determine the
Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of a unit by
assessing the risk of degradation under known
operating conditions. The life expectancy
models can be classified into the group of:(1) stochastic models, and
(2) statistical models.

Selecting a Prognostic Modeling approach


Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
ANNs predict the RUL of a unit by using a
mathematical representation of the unit which is
built from historical observations. Therefore, this
approach lacks understanding of the underlying
physical failure processes. It is typically used for
modeling complex non-linear units by using input
data such as process variables, condition
monitoring data, unit characteristics and
maintenance history data to give the desired
maintenance action or the RUL as output of the
network model

Selecting a Prognostic Modeling approach


Physical Models
Physical models assumes that physical laws can be
used to quantitatively model the behavior of a unit.
This is done by using scientific or empirical
knowledge and transforming this into a
deterministic equation to estimate the RUL. To
enable this, unit specific parameters need to be
identified to build this equation. Sensory
measurements are used to compare the model with
the real-life unit behavior. A drawback of this
method is that the failure behavior of a unit is
influenced by a lot of different variables.

Framework for CBM Design


Condition Based
Maintenance
Design

Selection of a Unit
to monitor

Selection of the
Condition
Indicator(s)

Selecting a
Prognostic
Modeling approach

Determination of
the Maintenance
Policy

The goal of CBM prognostics is to gain insights and support into


making appropriate maintenance decisions. To enable this, a
maintenance policy should be incorporated into the prognostic
implementation process. Less mathematical models are
applicable to the situation of CBM compared to conventional
maintenance policies.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Based on a minimizing cost, maximizing availability, or
maximizing profit objective function, a maintenance policy can
be determined. The decision structure to come to an appropriate
maintenance policy is illustrated in below figure.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


RUL (Remaining Useful Life)
The output of the selected prognostic model is the
RUL. This RUL is considered as the input for
operations research decision making. The RUL is the
time interval between the actual point in time
between obtaining the last data point and the point
in time where a failure occurs. This failure time
differs for a particular unit. Therefore, it is a random
variable following a probability distribution.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Condition Monitoring Interval
The information on the monitoring interval can be
used to update (fixed) intervals which are
established in the design phase of a unit, or to use
the prognostic information for determining the time
until the next maintenance action. Condition
monitoring can be done on continuous and on
periodic basis. In continuous monitoring, unit data
is collected on continuous basis and an alarm signal
is triggered when a unit is operating outside of the
normal operating specifications.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Delay Time
Within delay time modeling (DTM) it is assumed
that failures occur according to a multi-phase
deterioration process. These phases can be
classified as representing the state in which the unit
is operating according to specifications (i.e. good
state), the state in which a deterioration can be
observed (i.e. the degraded state), and the unit
condition at which the unit is considered to be no
more functional (i.e. the failed state).

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Number of Renewals
Renewal theory is used to determine the
average cost of a maintenance policy where
components are assumed to be restored into an
as good as new state. Within maintenance
modeling, replacing an item by a preventive
action and repairing an item by a corrective
action are assumed to do so

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Expected Total Relevant Maintenance Cost
The goal of an economic objective function is to
minimize the expected total relevant
maintenance costs (E[TRMC]) per unit time.
Under a CBM policy costs are built up from the
following cost factors (1) Costs for PM, (2) Costs
for CM (i.e. emergency costs), (3) Downtime
costs, (4) inspection costs.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Maintenance Objective
In order for companies to cope with a variety of
risk factors, it is necessary to assign resources,
time and money in an optimal way. This means
optimization of the maintenance policies.
Quantitative
maintenance
modeling
is
concerned with mathematical optimization of
processes with respect to cost or reliability
criterion.

Determination of the Maintenance Policy


Determine Policy
Based on the insights in the long term cost per unit time
for replacing an item with respect to a certain
maintenance objective, the time of maintenance can be
determined for the unit. Based on the long term cost per
unit time, the CBM policy can be compared to a
conventional maintenance policy using fixed replacement
intervals. Application of a CBM program can result in
savings due to extending the maintenance intervals and
by preventing unexpected failures from ever occurring
due to the unit condition information. An appropriate
way of determining the savings of implementing a CBM
program would be determining the remaining service life
of the component at the moment of replacement.

CBM Key Step


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Cost/Benefit analysis
Carry out equipment audit
Reliability & criticality audit
Select monitoring method
Select monitoring method
Data acquisition and analysis
Determine maintenance action
Review & measure effectiveness

Key Step to
Implement
Condition
Based
Maintenance

Cost Benefit Analysis

This will highlight where Condition Based


Maintenance will reduce costs
Do we have life cycle cost info?
What is cost of failures?
What is cost benefit of avoiding failure?

Carry out equipment audit

Make sure we have accurate databases with


assets clearly identified and labeled
The importance of this step is often overlooked
Without clear identification of assets most activities
are compromised

Reliability & criticality audit

Carrying out this means we can target the most important


What Availability & Reliability does the business need?
MTTR Mean Time to Repair
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
FMEA Failure Modes and Effect Analysis

Select Appropriate Maintenance


Strategy

Selecting the appropriate combination of


maintenance tasks depends on the failure history
Initially the results from Step 3,
Later on from feedback and analysis from Steps 6 8

Select monitoring method

We need to identify the best parameters to be measured to


detect faults
Fault and failure characteristics linked to measurable parameters
and symptoms allow us to do this (Output from FMEA in step 3)
We can then select the best measurement technique and then
select the appropriate transducers and condition monitoring
system

Data acquisition and analysis

Quality of Measurements OK?


Possible errors come from
- poor readings, transducer faults or adjacent machines.
If confidence in readings low:
- take more readings or apply other types of CM
Review symptoms, rules etc

Determine maintenance action

The key output of a CM program is recommended


maintenance actions
Poor feedback allows valuable information to leak away

Measuring Effectiveness

Managing CBM is a continuous process


Technology & Techniques change
Periodic reviewing the process is an important step

Thank You