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Castillo,Mark Bryan T.

, BSEE 4-3
Research 1: Technical Definition
Antenna
Antenna is a device or a specialized transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic
waves and converts electromagnetic radiation in space into electrical currents in conductors. The
first antenna was built in 1888 by German Physicist Heinrich Hertz to prove the existence of
electromagnetic waves by the theory of James Clerk Maxwell but the origin of the word antenna
relative to wireless apparatus is attributed to Guglielmo Marconi.
Antenna has five basic parameters to determine how it will perform: frequency, gain, bandwidth,
impedance and polarization. Frequency is the cycles per second. An antennas efficiency/gain is a
measure of how much power is radiated relative to its input power. Bandwidth of an antenna is the
frequency range over which the antenna radiates. Antenna Impedance is the ratio of voltage to
current at its terminals. The fundamentals of antenna theory requires that the antenna be
impedance matched to the transmission line or the antenna will not radiate.
There are seven types of antenna: Whip (rod) antennas, dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda array, parabola
antenna, loop antenna, dielectric antenna. Whip(rod) antenna Is used for mobile phones and it is a
non-directional antenna with equal sensitivity in any direction. Dipole antenna is commonly used for
amateur radio. Yagi-Uda array is used for television antennas and it has strong directivity and must
be aligned in the direction of the transmitting station. Parabola antenna is commonly used for
receiving satellite broadcasts and had a very strong directivity and require fine directional
adjustment. Loop antenna captures the changes in the magnetic field of the radio waves. And,
dielectric antenna use high frequency dielectric ceramics to achieve high performance/efficiency.
Antennas are used in systems such as radio broadcasting, broadcast television, two-way radio,
communications receivers, radars, cellphones and satellite communications. Each antenna
configuration has a radiation pattern and design parameters.

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References:
Antenna Fundamentals. Retrieved from http://www.antenna-theory.com/basics/main.html
Cruz-Pol, S. Introduction to Antenna Principles [PDF document]. Retrieved from
http://ece.uprm.edu/~pol/pdf/AntennaIntroExtend.pdf
Leopedrini (2011). What is Antenna? Retrieved from
http://www.telecomhall.com/what-is-antenna.aspx
Rouse, M. (2005). Antenna. Retrieved from
http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/antenna
What is an antenna? Retrieved from http://www.cdt21.com/resources/guide3.asp
What is an Antenna? Retrieved from http://www.futureelectronics.com/en/wireless-rf-radiofrequency/antennas.aspx

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