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Department of Commerce

Water Supply Air Gap CREW


Based on ASME A112.1.2-2004

Maximum Pipe Inlet Sizing, GPM Inflow With No Velocity Restrictions


1. Determine gallons per minute flow at the inlet pipe:
a. Provide inside diameter of the largest inlet piping:
.
(3/4" = .75, etc.)
b. Provide flow pressure at the inlet point of discharge:
psig
(Do not use well pressure gauge)
Inlet flow:
..
gpm
If required, provide size and flow pressure data for additional inlets in the following boxes:
c. Provide the inside diameter of the second inlet pipe..
0
d. Provide the water flow pressure of the second inlet pipe.
0
Inlet flow:

0.00 gpm
e. Provide the inside diameter of the third inlet pipe
0
f. Provide the water flow pressure of the third inlet pipe
0
Inlet flow:
..
0.00 gpm
Total GPM From All Inlet Pipes Is:
Minimum air gap with surcharge above outlet required (1 1/2 "Y").
No Near Walls
(Note the tank sketch below)
When affected by near walls:
Maximum GPM Per Pipe Outlet Size, No Near Walls
Pipe I.D.
1"
1.25" 1.50"
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
2.4
3.8
5.5
9.8
15.3
22
39
61
88
156
GPM

inches
inches
10"
245

12"
352

Example of Air Gap In Open Tank


With Overflow
A = minimum required air gap

ddh.

Notes:
1. The 1/2 "Y" represents the maximum height of water (surcharge) that is above the outlet pipe.
This establishes the "spill level" in the tank.
2. To size the Overflow outlet pipe, gallons per minute flowing through the outlet must equal the
the gallons per minute entering the tank without exceeding the spill level height.
3. Tanks with multiple potable water inlets shall have the overflow outlet sizing in gpm's equal to
the total gpm's provided from all inlets. If one inlet provides 90 gpm and a second inlet provides
110 gpm's, then the outlet is required to be sized for 200 gpm or greater. The Air Gap would be
sized by the largest diameter inlet pipe.
Example: A 2" outlet will have a flow rate of 19.5 gpm's when the maximum water level is
2" above the outlet pipe (1/2 "Y"). To Size from the Outlet Sizing Table A, click on the Tab below.
Information on Near Walls is referenced under the Definitions Tab and Table C located below.
Warning! The Air Gap CREW Calculator and Tables are only general guidelines for proper internal
air gap sizing. The inlet flow rates and tank outlet flow rates are subject to many variables that can not
be addressed in a simple quick reference tool. Always test and verify for final inspection.

Table D, Quick Table Guide


(Use for Most Wisconsin Designed Water Distribution Systems)

Maximum Pipe Inlet Sizing, GPM Inflow at 10 ft. per Second Velocity
Pipe

Diameter

1/4"
3/8"
1/2"
3/4"
1"
1 1/4"
1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"

.25"
0.375"
0.545"
0.785"
1.025"
1.265"
1.505"
1.985"
2.465"
2.945"
3.905"
4.875"
5.845"
7.725"

GPM
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.65
3.5
7.4
16
27
40
60
100
150
220
400
600
850
1500

Refer to Table A (blue tab on bottom of


worksheet), for tank outlet pipe sizing.
Example: 3/4" inlet pipe discharging a
maximum of 16 gallons per minute into
the tank will require a 2 1/2" pipe outlet.

Velocity formula: V = gpm flow divided by


2.448dia.2

Table E, Quick Table Guide


(Use for process piping systems when pipe velocities exceed 10 ft. per second.)

Maximum Pipe Inlet Sizing, GPM Inflow at 20 ft. per Second Velocity
Pipe

Diameter

1/4"
3/8"
1/2"
3/4"
1"
1 1/4"
1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"

.25"
.375"
0.545"
0.785"
1.025"
1.265"
1.505"
1.985"
2.465"
2.945"
3.905"
4.875"
5.845"
7.725"

GPM
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4
7
15
31
54
80
115
193
300
440
780
1180
1760
3000

Refer to Table A (blue tab on bottom of


worksheet), for tank outlet pipe sizing.
Example: 3/4" inlet pipe discharging a
maximum of 31 gallons per minute into
the tank will require a 4" pipe outlet.

Tank Pipe Outlet Sizing, GPM Outflow, Table A


Surchage

1/2 "Y"
1/2"
3/4"
1"
1 1/4"
1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
18"
24"
30"
36"
42"
48"

Outlet Pipe size, Inside Diameter


1"
1 /14" 1 1/2" 2"
2 1/2" 3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
Gallons Per Minute
2.4
3.8
5.5
9.8
15.3
22.0
39.0
61.0
88.0 156.0 245.0 352.0
3.0
4.7
6.7
12.0
18.7
27.0
48.0
75.0 108.0 191.5 300.0 431.0
3.5
5.4
7.8
13.8
21.6
31.0
55.0
86.5 124.5 221.5 346.0 498.0
3.9
6.0
8.7
15.5
24.0
34.8
62.0
96.5 139.0 247.5 387.0 557.0
4.2
6.6
9.5
17.0
26.5
38.0
68.0 106.0 152.5 271.0 423.0 610.0
4.9
7.6
11.0
19.5
30.5
44.0
78.0 122.0 176.0 313.0 489.0 704.0
5.5
8.5
12.3
22.0
34.2
49.0
87.5 136.5 197.0 350.0 547.0 787.0
6.0
9.4
13.5
24.0
37.4
54.0
96.0 150.0 215.5 383.5 599.0 863.0
6.9
10.8
15.5
27.5
43.2
62.0 110.5 173.0 249.0 443.0 692.0 996.0
7.7
12.0
17.4
31.0
48.3
69.5 123.5 193.0 278.5 495.0 773.0 1114.0
8.5
13.2
19.0
34.0
53.0
76.0 135.5 212.0 305.0 542.0 847.0 1220.0
9.8
15.3
22.0
39.0
61.0
88.0 156.5 245.0 352.0 626.0 978.0 1409.0
11.0
17.0
24.6
43.5
68.3
98.5 175.0 273.5 394.0 700.0 1094.0 1575.0
12.0
18.7
27.0
47.5
75.0 108.0 191.5 300.0 431.0 767.0 1198.0 1726.0
14.6
22.9
33.0
58.7
91.7 132.0 234.0 367.0 528.0 939.0 1467.0 2113.0
17.0
26.5
38.0
67.8 105.9 152.0 271.0 423.0 610.0 1084.0 1695.0 2440.0
19.0
29.6
42.6
75.8 118.0 170.0 303.0 473.0 682.0 1212.0 1895.0 2728.0
20.8
32.4
46.7
83.0 130.0 186.0 332.0 519.0 747.0 1328.0 2075.0 2989.0
22.4
35.0
50.5
89.7 140.0 202.0 358.0 560.0 807.0 1435.0 2242.0 3228.0
24.0
37.5
54.0
96.0 150.0 215.0 383.0 599.0 862.0 1534.0 2397.0 3451.0

Caution: The use of this table is dependent upon several preassumptions.


1. The tank shall be of sufficient size to establish laminar flow, not turbulent.
2. The pipe outlet shall discharge to atmosphere via air gap as close as possible to the outlet opening.

Minimum Air Gap Sizing, Table B:


When not affected by near wall(s).

Minimum Air Gap Sizing, Table C:


When affected by near wall(s)

Air Gap Sizing, Table B


Not affected by near wall(s)

Air Gap Sizing, Table C


When affected by near wall(s)

Inlet Pipe I.D. 2 x E.O.

1 1/2 "Y" 1/2 "Y"

Inlet Pipe I.D.

1 1/2"
2.25"
3"
3 3/4"
4 1/2"
6"
7 1/2"
9"
12"
15"
18"
24"
30"

1/4,3/8,1/2"

"Y"
1/4,3/8,1/2" 1"

3/4"
1"
1 1/4"
1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"

1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"
12"
16"
20"

.5"
.75"
1"
1.25"
1.5"
2"
2.5"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"

3/4"
1"
1 1/4"
1 1/2"
2"
2 1/2"
3"
4"
5"
6"
8"
10"

3 x E.O.

1 1/2 "Y" 1/2 "Y"

"Y"
1.5"
2.25"
3"
3.75"
4.5"
6"
7.5"
9"
12"
15"
18"
24"
30"

2.25"
3.375"
4.5"
5.625"
6.75"
9"
11.25"
13.5"
18"
22.5"
27"
36"
45"

0.75"
1.125"
1.5"
1.875"
2.25"
3"
3.75"
4.5"
6"
7.5"
9"
12"
15"

Example:
Using the Air Gap Calculator, a 3/4" I.D. inlet pipe with a flow pressure of 5 psi (that is 5 psi under flow
conditions), will provide 25.16 or rounded off, 26 gallons per minute.
The Calculator also provides the minimum air gap distance and surcharge from the lowest portion of the inlet
pipe to the top of the outlet pipe, also defined as 1 1/2 "Y". If near walls are not a factor, 2.25 inches is
calculated for this distance. If near walls are a factor, 3.375 inches is calculated.
For this example we will assume there are no near walls. Using Table B we find the maximum surcharge
1/2 "Y" allowed above the overflow outlet for 3/4" inlet piping is 3/4" or .75. We now have the necessary
information to use Table A to properly size the outlet pipe. Using .75" as our 1/2 "Y" dimension on the
left column of Table A, we will find the corresponding gallons per minute flow rates per outlet pipe size in
the same row. Proceed to the right until the gallons per minute equals or exceeds the gallons per minute
entering the tank through the inlet piping, in this case, 26 gpm. The outlet pipe size is indicated on
the top of the column ( 3" @ 27 gpm outflow).
The example provides us with:
26 gpm inflow
3" outflow outlet pipe
Air gap "Y" dimension of: 1 1/2"
Air gap and surcharge dimension 1 1/2 "Y" of: 2.25"
Surcharge water height above the outlet pipe 1/2 "Y" of: .75" which will establish the "spill level".

Table B and C may be used;


to find any pipe size and their corresponding air gap (lowest portion of the inlet pipe to the water spill level
"Y" dimension),
to find any pipe size and their corresponding air gap and surcharge (total distance from the lowest portion
of the inlet pipe to the top of the overflow outlet 1 1/2 "Y" dimension),
to find any pipe size and their corresponding surcharge (distance from the top of the overflow pipe to the
maximum water spill level height allowed 1/2 "Y").

Department of Commerce
Water Supply Air Gap CREW
Based on ASME A112.1.2-2004
Comm 8101(5), "Air gap", water supply system, means the unobstructed
vertical distance through the free atmoshere between the lowest opening
from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank or plumbing fixture and
the flood level rim or spill level of the receptacle.
A pipe / spout which terminates with its outlet above the flood level
rim of the receptacle / fixture the following requirements of minimum
air gaps shall apply to plumbing fixtures in general use. Actual water level in a
receptor may rise higher than the flood-level rim which requires a safety factor
in the air gap to compensate for this higher level.
(a) The minimum required air gap shall be twice the diameter of the
effective opening, but in no case less than the minimum air gaps
specified in Table 1.
(b) When a receptor receives water from two or more outlets of different
sizes, air gaps for all water supply openings shall be at least equal to
that required for the largest opening.
(c.) As an alternative to (a), the minimim air gap shall be in conformance
with the performance requirements of paras. 2.4 and 2.5.
(d) For additonal standards relating to backflow and backflow prevention,
which are not specifically mentioned, see Nonmandatory Appendix B.
Figure 1.
Table 1 Minimum Air Gaps for Generally Used Plumbing Fixtures
Fixtures
Minimum Air Gaps
Near walls
Lavatories w/ effective openings < 1/2 in. (12mm) in dia.
1.0 in.
1.5 in.
Sinks, laundry tubs, bath faucets w/ e.o. < 3/4 in. (19 mm) in dia.

1.5 in.

2.25 in.

Over rim bath fillers w / e.o. < 1 in. (25 mm) in dia.

2.0 in.

3.0 in.

Effective Openings greater than 1 in (26mm) in dia.

2 X e.o.

3 X e.o.

NOTES:
(1.) Side walls, ribs, or similar obstructions do not affect the air gaps when spaced from the inside edge
of the spout opening (c of Fig.2) a distance greater than 3 times the diameter of the E.O. for a single wall
or a distance greater than 4 times the diameter of the E.O. for two intersecting walls.
(2.) Vertical walls, ribs, or similar obstructions extending from the water surface to or above the horizontal
plane of the spout opening require greater air gaps when spaced closer to the nearest inside edge of the
spout opening than specified in Note (1.). The effect of three or more such vertical walls or ribs has not
been determined. In such cases, the air gap shall be measured from the top of the walls.

A pipe/ spout(s) which terminate with its outlet(s) completely below the flood
level rim of a receptacle / fixture / tank (Figure 3)
For most cases where it is not practicable to provide a minimum required air gap above
the flood-level rim (top edge) of a tank or vat, the following is a substitute procedure. When
water is entering the tank at the maximum rate with all the inlets open and all the outlets closed,
the size and capacity of overflow pipe shall be sufficient to keep the water level from rising to
more than half of the minimum required air gap as shown in Table 1. This distance shall be
measured above the top of the overflow. The minimum air gap, as measured from the lowest
point of any supply oulet to the top of the overflow opening, shall be one and a half times the
minimum air gap specified in Table 1 (Figure 1.).
This "internal" air gap is described in the ASME A112.1.2 Standard under the heading:
Nonmandatory Appendix A; Method Of Providing An Air Gap For Tanks Or Vats With Water
Inlets Below The Flood-Level Rim.
1. Must have an opening (outlet) in the receptacle / fixture / tank which discharges to the
atmosphere through an air gap,
2. This air gap must be located as close as possible to the receptacle / fixture,
3. The rate of discharge through this opening as compared to the rate of water
entering the receptacle / fixture establishes a "spill level", which is the level at which
the water entering the receptacle / fixture seeks a balance and does not raise any
higher ( a level is established where the flow of water entering equals the flow of
water exiting).
4. The distance then, between this established "spill level" and the end of the lowest
water supply pipe / spouts is the air gap,
5. The minimum air gap ( "Y" ) is the distance between the supply pipe / spouts
and the "spill level" established in the receptacle fixture,
6. The "spill level" shall be a distance no greater than one half of the distance
measured as "Y" (1/2 "Y") above the discharge opening in the receptacle / fixture,
therefore, the air gap between the supply pipe / spouts and the highest portion of
the outlet opening which discharges to the atmosphere shall be a distance no
less than one and one half "Y" (1 1/2 "Y").

Figure 2.
Side wall
Flood level rim of fixture

C
A

Near walls
Near walls can effect the air gap sizing either above or below the flood level rim of a receptacle
or fixture.
The distance of a near wall is a relationship to the diameter of the pipe / spout and the
measurement from the wall to the closest side of the pipe / spout.
One near wall, and the closest edge of the pipe / spout is less than 3 times the diameter of the
pipe / spout, then the minimum air gap is three times the diameter of the inlet or supply pipe /spout.
Two near walls, and the closest edge of the pipe / spout is less than 4 times the
diameter of the pipe / spout, then the minimum air gap is three times the diameter of the inlet or
supply pipe / spout.

Figure 3.

Formulas:
Formula for Gallons Per Minute Inlet Piping:
gpm = 20d squared X square root of P
d = pipe inlet diameter
P = water flow pressure
Formula for Pipe Outlet Sizing:
gpm = (cA x square root of 2 x g x h) x 448.86
A = area in square feet
c = coefficient for a sharp edge orifice (.61)
g = gravity (32.2 sec. squared)
h = height of water above the outlet pipe
Effective Opening (e.o.) The smallest cross-sectional area in a faucet, device, valve, or supply pipe
through which water flows to an outlet. If two or more lines supply one outlet, the effective opening
shall be the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual pipes, valves, or faucets or the area
of the outlet, whichever is smaller.