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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO ESPRITO SANTO

CENTRO DE CINCIAS HUMANAS E NATURAIS


DEPARTAMENTO DE LNGUAS E LETRAS

ANA LUSA DE CASTRO SOARES

IDIOMS AND MUSIC:


Can the teaching of idioms through songs
enhance EFL learners comprehension?

VITRIA
2014

ANA LUSA DE CASTRO SOARES

IDIOMS AND MUSIC:


Can the teaching of idioms through songs
enhance EFL learners comprehension?

Trabalho apresentado ao Curso de Licenciatura


Plena em Lngua Inglesa e Literaturas de Lngua
Inglesa do Departamento de Lnguas e Letras do
Centro de Cincias Humanas e Naturais da
Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, como
requisito para aprovao na disciplina Projeto de
Ensino em Lngua Inglesa IV.
Orientador: Prof. Dr. Aurlia Leal Lima Lyrio

VITRIA
2014

ABSTRACT

There are many studies that evidence the benefits of the use of music in learning.
Music is memorable and motivating. Songs may constitute a powerful tool through which a
huge number of classroom contents may be approached. This paper studies the use of music
in the classroom as a means to teach idioms to EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners.
Idioms many times may constitute barriers for EFL students since it is not simple to discover
their meanings from looking up the words, separately, in the dictionary, for example. In this
paper, we conducted a research in order to determine whether songs in which idioms appear
embedded in significant contexts can enhance the comprehension of idioms to learners of
EFL.

Key words: Teaching/learning idioms through context. Use of music in the classroom.
Teaching/ learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL).

RESUMO

H muitos estudos que comprovam os benefcios do uso da msica na aprendizagem.


A msica memorvel e motivadora. Portanto, a msica pode constituir uma poderosa
ferramenta atravs da qual um grande nmero de contedos de sala de aula pode ser
abordado. Este trabalho estuda a utilizao da msica em sala de aula como uma abordagem
para ensinar expresses idiomticas para alunos de Ingls como Lngua Estrangeira (ILE).
Expresses idiomticas muitas vezes podem constituir barreiras para os estudantes de ILE,
uma vez que no simples descobrir o seu significado olhando as palavras que constituem a
expresso separadamente no dicionrio, por exemplo. Neste trabalho, ns conduzimos uma
pesquisa a fim de determinar se msicas nas quais expresses idiomticas aparecem inseridas
em contextos significativos podem melhorar a compreenso de expresses idiomticas para
aprendizes de ILE.

Palavras-chave: Ensino/aprendizagem de expresses idiomticas atravs do contexto.


Use da msica na sala de aula; Ensino/aprendizagem de Ingls como Lngua Estrangeira
(ILE).

CONTENTS

....06

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW OF LITERATURE .......07

2.1

The rationale behind using music in classrooms .......07

2.2

Musical intelligence .....08

2.3

Problems concerning idioms comprehension......09

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..........10

3.1

Confection of the questionnaires ..

3.2
Songs which can provide meaningful contexts for the learning
idioms........11
3.2.1 Right as rain ..11
3.2.2 Fit as a fiddle ....11
3.2.3

To bite the dust.....11

3.2.4. Out of the blue ..12


3.2.5

How time flies! .12

3.3

Analysis of the data of the questionnaires ..12

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS.....14

REFERENCES15

APPENDIXES ...17

ANNEXES ........24

of

1. INTRODUCTION

How little is required for pleasure! The sound of a


bagpipe. Without music, life would be an error

(FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE)

Many studies have shown the benefits of the use of music in learning. Maley (in
MURPHEY, 1992, p. 3) argues that music is highly memorable, motivating and that its
message can be extremely emotional to some listeners. Therefore, songs constitute a
powerful tool to be worked with in the classroom. And the best part is that the number
of contents which can be explored through songs is enormous, if one knows how to
make the correct approach.
McCarthy & ODell (2002) define idioms as fixed expressions whose meaning
is not immediately obvious from looking at the individual words in the idiom
(MCCARTHY & ODELL, 2002, p. 6). Many times, an idiom may constitute a barrier
to EFL students, since it is not simple to discover its meaning by looking it up on the
dictionary, for example. In the book English Idioms in Use (Cambridge University
Press, 2002), McCarthy and ODell list an average of 1,000 idioms selected from two
important corpora: the CANCODE corpus of spoken language, from the University of
Nottingham, and the Cambridge International corpus of written English. The analysis of
the corpora show that such idioms are largely used by native speakers of English,
appearing in everyday conversations, and also in authentic materials, such as
newspapers articles, novels and other contexts. Therefore, it is significant that EFL
learners get acquainted with these expressions.
With this in mind, we conducted a research in order to determine whether songs
in which idioms appear embedded in significant contexts can enhance the
comprehension of idioms to learners of EFL.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 THE RATIONALE BEHIND USING MUSIC IN CLASSROOMS


There is a lot of research regarding the use of music in the EFL classrooms. One
of the most influential researchers in this area is Tim Murphey, professor of Nanzan
University, in Japan, who wrote his PhD thesis on Songs and music in language
learning: an analysis of pop song lyrics and the use of song and music in teaching
English as foreign language (1989). In 1992, Murphey published Music & Song, a
resource book for teachers, which works as a guide on how to work using music and
songs in the classroom. Alan Maley, editor of the book, wrote these words for the
Foreword:
In relation to language learning, the use of music and song offers two major
advantages:
1
Music is highly memorable. Whether this is because it creates a state
of relaxed receptivity, or because its rhythms correspond in some way with
basic body rhythms, or because its messages touch deep-seated emotional or
aesthetic chords, or because its repetitive patterning reinforces learning
without loss of motivation whatever the reason, songs and music stick in
the head.
2
It is highly motivating, especially for children, adolescents, and
young adult learners. Popular music in its many forms constitutes a powerful
subculture with its own mythology, its own rituals, and its own priesthood.
As such it is a part of students lives in a way that so much else we use is not.
If we can tap into it, we release unsuspected positive energy.
But the appeal of music and song is not confined to the young, or to popular
music alone. Folk music, opera, classical music, ethnic music all have their
devotees. The emotional appeal is present to many types of learners.

(MALEY in MURPHEY, 1992, p. 3)

On the same token, Jon Weatherford Stansell, from the University of Illinois,
who did an extensive review of literature on the use of music in the classroom,
discusses the important role songs can play in what concerns motivation, satisfaction,
and also importance for memory:
Music positively affects language accent, memory, and grammar as well as
mood, enjoyment, and motivation. Language teachers and music therapists
alike should encourage the conjoined study of these natural partners, because
communicating through a musical medium benefits everyone.

(STANSELL, 2005, p.3)

Schoepp (2001) highlights the importance of using songs in the classroom for
developing what he calls automacity. In 2001, he wrote an article for the Internet TESL
Journal named Reasons for Using Songs in the ESL/EFL Classroom, in which he
discusses theoretical rationale, affective, cognitive and linguistical reasons for the use of
songs in the ESL classroom. According to him:
Songs also present opportunities for developing automaticity which is the
main cognitive reason for using songs in the classroom. Gatbonton and
Segalowitz (1988, p.473) define automaticity as "a component of language
fluency which involves both knowing what to say and producing language
rapidly without pauses." Using songs can help automatize the language
development process. (SCHOEPP, 2001)

2.2 MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE


The Multiple Intelligences Theory was established by dr. Howard Gardner in the
book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, published in 1983.
Gardner, in his work, proposed the replacement of the traditional Intelligence Quotient
(IQ) test by the Multiple Intelligence (MI). Multiple intelligences comprehends eight
distinct domains of intelligence, which are: verbal-linguistic, mathematical-logical,
visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and
naturalistic.
According to Gardners theory, people with musical intelligence are sensible to
rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody, timbre, and may use songs or rhythms to learn.
Therefore, musically intelligent people can benefit from the use of music in the EFL
classroom. The teacher may work both linguistic and musical abilities by using a song
to present an idioms meaning. Stansell (2005) affirms: The linguistic and musical
intelligences are separate, [] but the two work together and the outcome is stronger
because of the cooperation. (STANSELL, 2005). In Teaching and Learning through
Multiple Intelligences, Campbell et al. provides knowledge to bring Gardners MI
theory into the classroom practice. According to them, people with musical intelligence
can organize sounds into meaningful patterns, and they also respond to a variety of
sounds with interest. Campell et al. also argue that because of the strong connection
between music and the emotions, music in the classroom can help create a positive
emotional environment conductive to learning, which is another strong reason why all
students, and not only the ones with musical intelligence, may benefit from the use of
songs in the EFL classroom.

2.3 PROBLEMS CONCERNING IDIOMS COMPREHENSION


What is an idiom? McCarthy & ODell (2002) define them as fixed expressions
whose meaning is not immediately obvious from looking at the individual words in the
idiom (MCCARTHY & ODELL, 2002, p. 6). Likewise, Mahmouds (2002) words
about idioms reiterate this idea of whole, of fixedness:
An idiom is a group of words which, as a whole, has a different meaning
from the meaning of the individual words it contains. Hence, the meaning of
the idiomatic expression is not the sum total of the words taken individually.
Accordingly, an idiom is learned and used as a single unit of language; it
should not be analyzed into its constituent elements. (MAHMOUD,

2002)
Many times, an idiom may constitute a barrier to EFL students and non-native
speakers, since it is not simple to discover its meaning by looking it up on the
dictionary, for example.
In the book From Corpus to Classroom, O'Keeffe, McCarthy and Carter
(2007) present recent work in corpus research, based on the analysis of corpora such as
CANCODE (The Cambridge and Nottingham Corpus of Discourse in English) and
Cambridge Internacional Corpus. Their work discusses how corpora can be used to
improve teaching. In chapter four, Idioms in everyday use and in language teaching,
there is a brief review of literature concerning some problems students may have when
dealing with idioms. According to them:
[] many studies have shown under-use of idioms amongst learners and
other non-native users in comparison with native-speaker data, or avoidance
of idioms in favour of single-word or other more literal alternatives, or errors
in form and function [..].
Several problems seem to lie at the root of the apparent deficit (a term used
guardedly here) in idiom-learning and use []. Firstly, because of their
varying degrees of syntactic and lexical flexibility, and because of their often
specialised pragmatic attributes, idioms are, simply, difficult to get.
Secondly, as Irujo (1986) pointed out, idioms, even when correctly produced,
can sound strange on the lips of non-native users. (O'Keeffe, McCarthy

and Carter, 2007, p. 94)

10

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this section, we describe the research methodology used in our study. We describe
the geographical area where the study was administrated, the study design chosen, the
population and samples. We also detail the instrument used to collect the data.
A quantitative approach was followed. A descriptive survey design was used. A survey
is used to collect original data for describing a population too large to observe directly
(MOUTON, 1996, p. 232). The questionnaires of the surveys were distributed by the
researcher and then self-administered by the participants.
The research was conducted in a private languages school in the city of Vitria, Esprito
Santo, Brazil. The population of interest consisted of students of EFL. The samples
consisted of 12 students of two different classes of English 5 level (equivalent to A2
level in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) and 20
students of two different classes of English 7 (equivalente to B1 level in the Common
European Framework of Reference for Languages).
The subjects should follow the following criteria: be a student of EFL, be at least 15
years old, be either sex or any race, be willing to participate, obtain the consent of
parents/guardians to participate if they are less than 18 years of age.

3.1 CONFECTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES


The first step in our research was the choice of songs in which idioms appear embedded
in meaningful contexts. Asl (2013) discusses the importance of context for the learning
of idioms in an article for the MEXTESOL (Asociacin Mexicana de Maestros de
Ingls) Journal.
According to Mondria and Wit-De Boer (1991), the best way of learning
words is with the aid of context. In other words, a wide range of vocabulary
can be learned as a result of having words in a specific context, from which
we can infer the meaning (Sternberg, 1987, cited in Mondria & Wit-De Boer,
1991). Since the learner performs a mental action of the word-form, making
connections between the context and his/her own prior knowledge, s/he will
establish a cognitive foothold (Mondria & Wit-De Boer, 1991). []
Widdowson (1983) mentions that schemata can allow for the organization of
information in long-term memory, namely the learner makes associations
between the idiomatic expressions included in a context and his/her personal
knowledge. In other words, the meanings of words that are learned from
context have a clearly positive effect on retention. (ASL, 2013)

11

With that in mind, we selected some songs which could constitute significant means of
learning and help EFL students better associate each idiom with its meaning.

3.1.2 Songs which can provide meaningful contexts for the learning of idioms
3.1.2.1 Right as Rain
According to English Idioms in Use, p. 10, the meaning of as right as rain is
perfectly well. Adeles Right as Rain (Adele Adkins, Leon Michels, Jeff Silverman,
Nick Movshon, Clay Holley, 2007) may provide a substantial background to the
teaching of such idiom, as it can be seen in the song lyrics (Annex A)
The verses Who wants to be right as rain / It's better / When something is
wrong / You get excitement in your bones (ADKINS, Adele. et al., 2007) may provide
the understanding of the idiom right as rain by making as opposition between right
as rain (perfectly well) and when something is wrong: Who wants to be perfectly
well? Its better when something is wrong, you get excitement in your bones.
3.1.2.2 Fit as a fiddle
Another idiom that has the meaning of perfectly well is fit as a fiddle
(McCarthy and ODell, 2002, p. 10). In one of the most famous and acclaimed movies
of all times, Singin in the Rain (Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen, 1952), there is a
scene featuring the song Fit as a Fiddle (Al Hoffman and Al Goodhart, 1932)
(ANNEX B).
In the specific case of this song, the whole lyrics convey the meaning of the idiom, and
even the atmosphere of the song contributes to express the meaning of perfectly well;
The verses Fit as a fiddle and ready for love / I can jump over the moon and above
(HOFFMAN, GOODHART, 1932) or I havent a worry, I havent a care / I feel like a
feather thats floating on air (HOFFMAN, GOODHART, 1932), sung in a happy and
enthusiastic manner will most likely help students guess what the idiom means.
3.1.2.3 To bite the dust
McCarthy and ODell (2002) list, p. 10, to bite the dust as one of the informal
expressions for dying. The lyrics for Queens Another one bites the dust (John
Deacon, 1980) (ANNEX C) may provide a significant context for one to guess the

12

meaning of such idiom, as we can see on the following excerpt: Another one bites the
dust (2x) / And another one gone and another one gone / Another one bites the dust /
Hey, I'm gonna get you too / Another one bites the dust (DEACON, John. 1980).

3.1.2.4 Out of the blue / 3.1.5 How time flies!


Adeles hit Someone like you (Adele Adkins, Dan Wilson, 2007) (ANNEX D) to
illustrate the idioms out of the blue and how time flies!.
The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (2004, p. 31) defines out of the blue as
without warning; very unexpected. This meaning is illustrated in the following
strophe: I hate to turn up out of the blue, uninvited / But I couldnt stay away, I
couldnt fught it / I had hoped youd see my face and that youd be reminded / That for
me, it isnt over (ADKINS, WILSON, 2007).
Teachers can use these other verses to illustrate the meaning of the idiom how
time flies!, defined by McCarthy and ODell, 2002, p. 30, as you are surprised at how
quickly time has passed: You know how time flies / Only yesterday was the time of
our lives (ADKINS, WILSON, 2007).

3.2. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES


In order to test our hypothesis, we produced two types of questionnaires: one in
which we asked about idioms without providing any context and one in which the same
question was asked, but taking in consideration the context of a certain song. The
comparison of these two types of survey would tell us if teaching idioms through the
context of songs can enhance students comprehension.
After the analysis of the songs, we selected two of them to produce
questionnaires: Right as rain, by Adele, and Another one bites the dust, by Queen.
The idioms that appear in the songs are, respectively, right as rain and to bite the
dust.
We selected four classes of students that agreed to participate in the research.
Each one signed a consent term (APPENDIX A), through which they gave permission
for their answers on the questionnaires to be used in our research, without receiving any

13

money for it. In the term, we made it explicit that every data used in our study would
follow the ethic guidelines of research and the anonymity of the participants would be
preserved.
The first questionnaire for right as rain simply asked what would you say
right as rain means? (APPENDIX B). We applied the questionnaire to 6 students of
an English 5 (A2 level in the Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages) class, i.e., a class of elementary EFL learners. Of the 6 total participants, 2
answered I dont know or similar answers; 2 tried to translate the expression literally;
and the other 2 participators assumed that it may be a slang, but did not get the
meaning correctly. (ANNEX E)
The second questionnaire for right as rain (APPENDIX C) consisted of the
lyrics for Adeles Right as Rain and the question Based on the context of the lyrics
of the song, what would you say right as rain means?. To apply the questionnaire, we
distributed the questionnaire sheets to 6 students of another English 5 class, explained
that they would listen to a song and then they would answer the question proposed. Of
the 6 total participants, 2 answered I dont know or similar answers; 2 tried to
translate the expression literally; and the other 2 participators tried to figure out the
meaning without literally translating, but did not get the meaning correctly. (ANNEX E)
The first questionnaire for to bite the dust simply asked what would you say
to bite the dust means? (APPENDIX D). We applied the questionnaire to 10 students
of an English 7 (B1 level in the European Framework of Reference for Languages)
class, i.e., a class of intermediate EFL learners. All the 10 participants answered I dont
know or similar answers. (ANNEX E)
The second questionnaire for to bite the dust (APPENDIX E) consisted of the
lyrics for Queens Another one bites the dust and the question Based on the context
of the lyrics of the song, what would you say to bite the dust means?. To apply the
questionnaire, we distributed the questionnaire sheets to 10 students of another English
7 class, explained that they would listen to a song and then they would answer the
question proposed. Of the 10 total participants, 8 answered I have no idea; and the
other 2 tried to figure out the meaning without literally translating, but did not get the
meaning correct. (ANNEX E)

14

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

After analyzing the data collected for our research, we unfortunately realized
that the songs could not, by themselves, make students comprehend the meaning of
idioms. It was evident that, even with activities in which idioms appeared embedded in
meaningful contexts, such expressions would still constitute a barrier for the EFL
learners who participated in our research.
However, despite the fact that song-based activities cannot isolatedly make EFL
learners apprehend the meaning of idioms, according to Campell et al., because of the
strong connection between music and the emotions, music in the classroom can help
create a positive emotional environment conductive to learning. Therefore, the use of
songs in classroom constitute more motivated, memorable and enjoyable activities, and
teachers can use songs in which idioms appear as an useful auxiliary resource for the
teaching of idioms.

15

5. REFERENCES

ADKINS, Adele. et al. Right as Rain. Available at: <


http://encartespop.blogspot.com.br/2011/04/faixa-bonus-encarte-adele-19.html>.
Access on 08/10/2013.
ADKINS, Adele; WILSON, Dan. Someone Like You. Available at: <
http://encartes.blogspot.com.br/2011/04/encarteadele-21paginas-extras.html>. Access
on 08/10/2013.
ASL, Fatemeh Mohamadi. The Impact of Context on Learning Idioms in EFL Classes.
In: MEXTESOL Journal, v. 37, n. 1, 2013. Available at
<http://www.mextesol.net/journal/index.php?page=journal&id_article=194>. Access on
08/23/2013.
DEACON, John. Another one bites the dust. Available at: <
http://www.queenonline.com/en/the-band/discography/live-magic/#lyrics>.
GARDNER, Howard: Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New
York: Basic Books, 1983
HEAR SOMETHING THROUGH THE GRAPEVINE. In: The Free Dictionary.
Available at <http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/hear+through+the+grapevine>.
Access on 08/22/2013.
HOFFMAN, Al; GOODHART, Al. Fit as a fiddle. Available at: <
http://www.allmusicals.com/lyrics/singinintherain/fitasafiddle.htm>. Access on
08/11/2013 .
MAHMOUD, Abdulmoneim. Interlingual Transfer of Idioms by Arab Learners of
English. In: The Internet TESL Journal, v. 8, n. 12, 2002. Available at <
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Mahmoud-Idioms.html>. Access on 08/23/2013.
MALEY, Alan. Foreword. In: MURPHEY, Tim: Music & Song. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1992.
MCCARTHY, Michael; ODELL, Felicity: English Idioms in Use. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2002

16

MOUTON, Johan. Understanding Social Research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers,


1996.
NIETZSCHE, Friedrich. The Twilight of the Idols and The Anti-Christ: or How to
Philosophize with a Hammer. London: Penguin Classics, 1990. p. 3.
O'KEEFFE, Anne; MCCARTHY, Michael; CARTER, Ronald: From Corpus to
Classroom: Language Use and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge Language
Teaching Library, 2007.
SCHOEPP, Kevin. Reasons for Using Songs in the ESL/EFL Classroom. In: The
Internet TESL Journal, v. 7, n. 2, 2001. Available at < http://iteslj.org/Articles/SchoeppSongs.html>. Access on 08/10/2013.
STANSELL, Jon Weatherford. The Use of Music for Learning Languages: A Review of
the Literature. 2005. Available at <
http://mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci407su02/students/stansell/Literature%20Review%201.
htm>. Access on 08/20/2013.
WHITFIELD, Norman; STRONG, Barret. I heard it through the grapevine. Available
at: < http://letras.mus.br/marvin-gaye/15942/>. Access on 08/20/2013.

17

APPENDIX A: MODEL OF THE CONSENT TERM

TERMO DE CONSENTIMENTO
Concordo em participar, como voluntrio, do projeto de pesquisa intitulado
TEACHING IDIOMS THROUGH SONGS: A research with EFL learners, que tem
como pesquisadora responsvel Ana Lusa de Castro Soares do curso de
Letras Ingls da Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, orientada por Gabriel
Brito Amorim e Aurlia Leal Lima Lyrio, que podem ser contatados pelos emails gabrielbamorim@gmail.com e aurelialyrio@hotmail.com.
O presente trabalho tem por objetivos: testar a eficcia de se utilizar msica na
sala de aula de Ingls como Lngua Estrangeira (ILE) com a finalidade de
fornecer o contexto adequado para o ensino de expresses idiomticas, e
minha participao consistir em responder um questionrio para fins de
anlise e estudo por parte da pesquisadora.
Compreendo que este estudo possui finalidade de pesquisa, que os dados
obtidos sero divulgados seguindo as diretrizes ticas da pesquisa, com a
preservao do anonimato dos participantes, assegurando, assim minha
privacidade. Sei que posso abandonar a minha participao na pesquisa
quando quiser e que no receberei nenhum pagamento por esta participao.

_______________________________________________________________
Nome e Assinatura

Vitria, _____ de fevereiro de 2014. .

18

APPENDIX B: MODEL OF QUESTIONNAIRE 1 FOR RIGHT AS RAIN


What would you say right as rain means?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

19

APPENDIX C: MODEL OF QUESTIONNAIRE 2 FOR RIGHT AS RAIN


Listen to the song and answer the question below:

Right as rain (Adele)

I've cried my heart out


And now
I've had enough of love

Who wants to be right as rain


It's better
When something is wrong
You get excitement in your bones
And everything you do's a game
When night comes
And your all on your own
You can say I chose to be alone
Who want to be right as rain
It's harder when your on top

Go ahead and still my heart


To make me cry again
Cause it will never hurt
as much as it did then
When we were both right
And no one had blame
But now I give up
On this endless game

Cause when hard work


Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There aint no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up
I've cried my heart out
And now
I've had enough of love
Who wants to be riding high
When you'll just crumble
Back on down
You give up everything you are
And even then you don't get far
They make believe that everything
Is exactly what it seems
But at least
When your at your worst
You know how to feel things
See when hard work
Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There ain't no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up

Cause who wants


To be right as rain
It's better
When something is wrong
I get excitement
In your bones
Even thought
Everything's a strain
When night comes
And I'm all on my own
You should know
I chose to be alone
So who want to be
Right as rain
It's harder
When your on top
Cause when hard work
Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There ain't no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up
I've cried my heart out
And now
I've had enough of Love

20

Based on the context of the lyrics of the song, what would you say right as rain
means?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

21

APPENDIX D: MODEL OF QUESTIONNAIRE 1 FOR TO BITE THE DUST


What would you say to bite the dust means?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

22

APPENDIX E: MODEL OF QUESTIONNAIRE 2 FOR TO BITE THE DUST


Listen to the song and answer the question below:
Another One Bites The Dust - Queen
Uh, let's go
Steve walks warily down the street
With his brim pulled way down low
Ain't no sound but the sound of his feet
Machine guns ready to go
Are you ready, hey are you ready for
this?
Are you hanging on the edge of your
seat?
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
To the sound of the beat yeah
Another one bites the dust (2x)
And another one gone and another one
gone
Another one bites the dust
Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust
How do you think I'm going to get
along
Without you when you're gone
You took me for everything that I had
And kicked me out on my own
Are you happy, are you satisfied?
How long can you stand the heat
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
To the sound of the beat look out
Another one bites the dust (2x)
And another one gone and another one
gone
Another one bites the dust
Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust
Hey
Oh take it, bite the dust, bite the dust

Hey, another one bites the dust


Another one bites the dust, ow
Another one bites the dust, hey, hey
Another one bites the dust, hah
Oh, shoot out
There are plenty of ways that you can
hurt a man
And bring him to the ground
You can beat him, you can cheat him
You can treat him bad and leave him
When he's down
But I'm ready yes I'm ready for you
I'm standing on my own two feet
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
Repeating to the sound of the beat
Another one bites the dust (2x)
And another one gone and another one
gone
Another one bites the dust yeah
Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust
Shoot out
Yeah, alright

23

Based on the context of the lyrics of the song, what would you say to bite the dust means?
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24

ANNEX A RIGHT AS RAIN LYRICS


Right As Rain

Who wants to be right as rain


It's better
When something is wrong
You get excitement in your bones
And everything you do's a game
When night comes
And your all on your own
You can say I chose to be alone
Who want to be right as rain
It's harder when your on top

Cause when hard work


Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There aint no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up
I've cried my heart out
And now
I've had enough of love

Who wants to be riding high


When you'll just crumble
Back on down
You give up everything you are
And even then you don't get far
They make believe that everything

25

Is exactly what it seems


But at least
When your at your worst
You know how to feel things

See when hard work


Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There ain't no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up
I've cried my heart out
And now
I've had enough of love

Go ahead and still my heart


To make me cry again
Cause it will never hurt
as much as it did then
When we were both right
And no one had blame
But now I give up
On this endless game

Cause who wants


To be right as rain
It's better
When something is wrong
I get excitement
In your bones
Even thought

26

Everything's a strain
When night comes
And I'm all on my own
You should know
I chose to be alone
So who want to be
Right as rain
It's harder
When your on top

Cause when hard work


Don't pay off
And I'm tired
There ain't no room in my bed
As far as I'm concerned
So wipe that dirty smile off
We won't be making up
I've cried my heart out
And now
I've had enough of Love (ADKINS, MICHELS, SILVERMAN, MOVSHON, HOLLEY,
2007)

27

ANNEX B - FIT AS A FIDDLE LYRICS

Fit as a fiddle
Fit as a fiddle and ready for love.
I can jump over the moon up above.
Fit as a fiddle and ready for love!

I haven't a worry, I haven't a care,


I feel like a feather that's floating on air,
Fit as a fiddle and ready for love!

Soon all the church bells will be ringing


And I'll march with Ma and Pa.
All the church bells will be ringing,
With a hey naughty-knotty and a hotcha-cha darling.

Hi, diddle-diddle, my baby's OK,


Ask me a riddle, I'm waiting to say
Fit as a fiddle and ready for love!

Soon all the church bells will be ringing


And I'll march with Ma and Pa.
All the church bells will be ringing,
With a hey naughty-knotty and a hotcha-cha darling.

Hi, diddle-diddle, my baby's OK,


Ask me a riddle, I'm waiting to say
Fit as a fiddle and ready for love! (Hoffman, Goodhart, 1932)

28

ANNEX C: ANOTHER ONE BITES THE DUST LYRICS

Another One Bites The Dust


Uh, let's go
Steve walks warily down the street
With his brim pulled way down low
Ain't no sound but the sound of his feet
Machine guns ready to go

Are you ready, hey are you ready for this?


Are you hanging on the edge of your seat?
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
To the sound of the beat yeah

Another one bites the dust (2x)


And another one gone and another one gone
Another one bites the dust
Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust

How do you think I'm going to get along


Without you when you're gone
You took me for everything that I had
And kicked me out on my own

Are you happy, are you satisfied?


How long can you stand the heat
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
To the sound of the beat look out

And another one gone and another one gone

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Another one bites the dust


Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust

Hey

Oh take it, bite the dust, bite the dust


Hey, another one bites the dust
Another one bites the dust, ow
Another one bites the dust, hey, hey
Another one bites the dust, hah
Oh, shoot out

There are plenty of ways that you can hurt a man


And bring him to the ground
You can beat him, you can cheat him
You can treat him bad and leave him
When he's down

But I'm ready yes I'm ready for you


I'm standing on my own two feet
Out of the doorway the bullets rip
Repeating to the sound of the beat

Another one bites the dust (2x)


And another one gone and another one gone
Another one bites the dust yeah
Hey, I'm gonna get you too
Another one bites the dust
Shoot out

Yeah, alright (DEACON, 1980)

30

ANNEX D: SOMEONE LIKE YOU LYRICS


Someone like you
I heard that you settled down
That you found a girl and you're married now
I heard that your dreams came true
Guess she gave you things I didn't give to you
Old friend, why are you so shy?
Ain't like you to hold back or hide from the light
I hate to turn up out of the blue, uninvited
But I couldn't stay away, I couldn't fight it
I had hoped you'd see my face and that you'd be reminded
That for me, it isn't over
Never mind, I'll find someone like you
I wish nothing but the best for you, too
Don't forget me, I beg, I remember you said
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead
You know how time flies
Only yesterday was the time of our lives
We were born and raised in a summer haze
Bound by the surprise of our glory days
I hate to turn up out of the blue, uninvited
But I couldn't stay away, I couldn't fight it
I had hoped you'd see my face and that you'd be reminded
That for me, it isn't over yet
Never mind, I'll find someone like you
I wish nothing but the best for you, too
Don't forget me, I beg, I remember you said
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead, yeah
Nothing compares, no worries or cares
Regrets and mistakes, they're memories made
Who would have known how bittersweet this would taste?
Never mind, I'll find someone like you
I wish nothing but the best for you
Don't forget me, I beg, I remember you said
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead
Never mind, I'll find someone like you
I wish nothing but the best for you, too
Don't forget me, I beg, I remember you said
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead
Sometimes it lasts in love, but sometimes it hurts instead (ADKINS, WILSON, 2007)

31

ANNEX E: TRANSCRIPTIONS OF QUESTIONNAIRES ANSWERS

Questionaire 1: What would you say right as rain means?


Transcription of the answers:
No sei. (I dont know)
Sei l. (I dont know)
I think is chove como certo (I think is it rains as right)
Est chovendo certo. (Its raining correctly)
Acho que pode ser algo que no esteja relacionado com a chuva em si, mas como uma
expresso com alguma caracterstica da chuva (I think it may be something that is not
related to the rain intself, but with an expression with some feature of the rain)
Seria tipo uma gria pancada certo no tem erro (I think it is some kind of slang,
pancada[brazilian slang], right, there is no mistake)
Questionnaire 2: Based on the context of the lyrics of the song, what would you say
right as rain means?
Transcription of the answers:
I dont know!!!
I havent ideia (sic)
Correto como a chuva (Right as rain)
Is the same (sic) of the expression right as rain, certo como a chuva (Is the same (sic) of
the expression right as rain, right as rain)
I don t know. Maybe, she want say (sic) clear like a rain, or transparent.
I dont understand the song, but I think that right as rain is like to like trying to be happy,
when your life is bad. (sic)

Questionnaire 3: What would you say to bite the dust means?

32

Transcription of the answers:


No idea
No!
I dont know
I dont know
Sorry, no idea!
No
I dont know
I have no idea.
I have no idea
I dont know!
Questionnaire 4: Based on the context of the lyrics of the song, what would you say to
bite the dust means?
Transcription of the answers:
I have no idea
I have no idea!!!
I have no idea
I have no idea
I have no idea
I have no idea!
I have no idea
I have no idea
I think he is crazy
Stay in a bad postion